CECM
E K S
Design Manual
for Composite Slabs
FIRST EDITION
1995
N87
'I
ECCS
CECM
E K S
InI
EUROPEANCONVENTIONFOR CONSTRUCTIONALSTEELWORK
CONVENTIONEUROPEENNE DE LA CONSTRUCTIONMETALLIQUE
Design Manual
FIRST EDITION
1995
N87
ISBN: 9291470008
Copyright 1995 by the European Convention forConstructional Siceiwork
All rights reserved.No part ofthis publicationmay be reproduced, storedin a retrieval system,or transmitted in any
form or by any means,electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording,or otherwise, without the prior permission of
theCopyrightowner:
ECCS
CECM
EKS
General Secretariat
Avenuedes Ombrages, 32/36bte 20
81200 BRUSSEL (Belgium)
Tel. 32/2762 04 29
Fax 32/27620935
ECCS assumesnoliabilitywith respectto the use forany application ofthe material and information contained in this
publication.
ECCS N 87
SUMMARY
This design manual has been produced for engineers as well as project managers in design offices, for
engineers in steel construction companies and for engineersconcernedwith the manufactureof profiled
steel sheets for composite construction. It containsa collection of the current knowledge for the design,
calculation and construction of composite slabs with profiled steel sheeting.
The manual is based on Eurocode 4, part 1.1, chapters7, 10 and Annexe E which deals with composite
construction, as well as Eurocode 3, part 1.3 which considers the design of profiled steel sheeting.It also
contains complementaryinformation on certain aspects of composite construction not covered in the
Eurocodes.
After a general introduction to composite slabs, in Chapter 1, the manual presents Chapter 2 of the
complementary document "Good Construction Practice for Composite Slabs" making the link between
construction and design. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the conception, the predesign and the detailing of
structures using compositeslabs.
The main part of the manual (Chapters 59) is devoted to the design approaches for profiled steel
sheeting and composite slabs, giving, in particular, data relating to materials, to loads and to the
verification of the limit states. Finally, Chapter 10 presents a series of numericalexamples covering the
predesign, the design of the profile at the construction stage, the design of composite slabs and designs
for special situations.
RESUME
Le presentmanuelde dimensionnement a t rdig pour les ingnieurs en tant qu'auteurs de projet
dans les bureauxd'tudes, les ingnieurs des entreprises de construction mtallique et les ingnieurs des
unites de production des tles profiles pour dalles mixtes. Ii constitue l'ensemble des connaissances
actuelles dans le domaine de Ia conception, du calcul et de la construction des planchers mixtes avec
tles profiles.
Le manuel est base sur l'Eurocode 4, partie 1.1, chapitres 7, 10 et annexe E, pour ce qui concerne La
construction mixte, ainsi que sur l'Eurocode 3, partie 1.3, pour ce qui concerne la tle profile. Ii
contientgalementdes informations complmentaires sur les sujets non traits dans ces Eurocodes.
Aprs une introduction gnerale sur les dalles mixtes (chapitre 1), le manuel reprend intgralementle
chapitre 2 du documentparallle "Good Construction Practice for Composite Slabs', faisant le lien entre
construction et dimensionnement. Les chapitres 3 et 4 constituent une base de conception, de
prdimensionnement et d'tude des details des structures comportantdes planchersmixtes.
La partie principale (chapitres 5 a 9) est consacre au calcul des tles profiles et dalles mixtes,
comprenanten particulier les donnes relatives aux matriaux, aux chargeset aux verifications des tats
limites. Finalement le chapitre 10 prsente des exemples numriques couvrant le prdimensionnement,
le dimensionnement de la tle au stade de btonnage, le dimensionnement des dalles mixtes et des
dimensionnements particuliers.
ECCSN 87
ZUSAMMENFASSUNG
Dieser Leitfaden zur Bemessung von Verbunddecken wendet sich an Lngenieure und Projektleiter, die
sowohi in IngenieurbUros und Stahibaufirmenals auch in der Herstellung von Profilbiechen fr den
Verbundbau tAtig sind. Er enthAlt eine Zusammenstdllung des aktuellen Wissensstandes Uber Entwurf,
Berechnung und Konstruktion von Verbunddecken mit Profilbiechen.
Der Leitfaden basiert auf den Regelungen des Eurocode 4 "Bemessung und Konstruktion von
Verbundtragweitenaus Stahl und Beton", Teil 1.1, Kapitel 7, 10 und Anhang E sowie Eun)code3, Tell
1.3, der sich mit der Bemessung von Profliblechen befaBt. Weiterhin sind erganzende Informationen
enthalten.die nichtin den Eurocodes behandelt wenlen.
Nach einer ailgemeinenEinftthrung in die Verbunddeckenbauweise (Kapitel 1), steilt der vorliegende
Leitfaden das Kapitel 2 der ergnzendenBroschre "Good Constniction Practice for Composite Slabs"
vor und vethindetdaxnit Konstniktionund Bemessung. Die Kapitel 3 und 4 beinhaltenden Entwurf, die
Vorbemessung sowie die Betrachtung verschiedener Konstruktionsdetails bei der Anwendung von
Verbunddecken.
Der Hauptteil dieses Leitfadens (Kapitel 59) ist den Nachweisverfahren fUr Profilbieche und
Verbunddecken gewidmet. Dazu werden insbesondere Angaben zu Werkstoffen, Lastannabmen und
dem Nachweis von Grenzzustnden gemacht. SchlieBlich steilt Kapitel 10 eine Reihe von
Rechenbeispielenvor, die die Vorbemessung, den Nachweis der Proffibleche im Bauzustand, die
Bemessung der Verbunddecke und sogar Nachweisverfahren fr verschiedene Sondeffitile beinhalten.
ECCSN 87
Preface
Preface
The first edition of the EUROPEAN RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE DESIGN OF COMPOSITE
FLOORS WiTH PROFILED STEEL SHEET was published in September1974 by the ECCS Committee
11 "MultiStorey Buildings". This ECCS document No. 14 was subsequently used as a reference
publication for Section 15 of the "Model Code for Composite Structures" prepared by the Joint
Committee on Composite Structures (CEBECCSFIPIABSE) and published under the title
COMPOSITE STRUCTURES by the ConstructionPress, London, in 1981. The Model Code was finally
used as a draft format for the preparation of Eurocode 4 "Design of Composite Steel and Concrete
Structures", 1985.
In 1987
a technical group TWO 7.6 "Composite Slabs" was created within the ECCS Technical
Committee TC 7 (Coldformed thinwalled sheet steel in building), with the following tasks:
The working group TWO 7.6 is at present composed of the following members:
BEGUIN
BLAFFART
BODE
CRISINEL
KOUKKARI
VELJKOVIC
OLEARY
SCHUSTER
STARK
TSCHEMMERNEGG
Henri
France
Belgium
Helmut
Germany
Michel (Chairman)
Switzerland
Hell
Milan
Finland
GreatBntain
Reinhold
Jan
Ferdinand
Canada
Netherlands
Austria
Philippe
Sweden
Roif
Jan
Byron
Germany
Pierre
France
Jos
Georges
Belgium
France
Michele
Italy
France
Gerard
Mark
Max
Ingeborg
Netherlands
Netherlands
Australia
USA
Germany
ECCS N 87
SOKOL
WOELFEL
WRIGHT
France
Germany
GreatBritain
Leopold
Eilhard
Howard
Thanks are also due to many more colleagues who took part in working group meetings or offered
suggestions.
Michel CRISINEL
SwissFederal Institute of Technology (EPFL)
Institute for Steel Structures (ICOM)
Lausanne, Switzerland
Chainnan of TC7
University of Salford,
Salford, Great Britain
Figures
The figures havebeen graciously placedat our disposal by the following companies andinstitutions:
 Ecolepolytechnique
f&Irslede Lausanne (EPFL), Construction mtallique (ICOM), Lausanne(CR):
+
+

1.1 1.3/3.1 3.4 7.1 8.1 / 8.4 8.6 / 8.9 8.11 /8.12/10.4.1 ' 10.4.4.
Schweizerische Arbeitsgemeinschaft frHolzftrschung(SAH), Lignuxn,ZUrich(CR):
3.20
UmversittKaiserslautern,Bauingenieurwesen,
FachgebietStahlbau,Kaiserslautern(D):
8.13 + 8.15 10.3.1 + 10.3.10 10.5.1 + 10.5.5.
ProduilsBtimentde Sollac (PABSollac),Nanteire(F):
3.15 + 3.19 3.21 + 3.25 3.29 4.7 7.2 /7.3 9.1 9.5 + 9.24 /10.1.1 10.2.1.
Centre Technique Industriel dela Construction M&allique(CTICM), SaintRmylsChevreuse(F):
/ / /
 4.14.6/4.8+4.11/4.13/8.3.
SteelConstructionInstitute(SC!),Ascot(UK):
+
2.1
4.12 (b)
8.2
/ /
The manuscript of this document has been prepared at the Swiss Federal Institute
(EPFL), Institute for Steel Structures (ICOM), Lausanne, Switzerland.
ECCS N 87
of Technology
Conteius
CONTENTS
Page
NOTATION
10
1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Stateoftheart
1.2 Behaviour
1.3 Design requirements
13
20
2 LIST
23
2.1
2.2
General
Deckingbundle identification
2.3 Information for steel subcontractors
2.4 Information for concrete subcontractors
2.5. Constructionloads
3.6
Predesign
4 DETAILING REQUIREMENTS
4.1
4.2
4.3
17
23
23
24
25
25
29
29
29
31
39
43
45
49
49
Composite stage
54
PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS
PrOfiledsteel sheeting
5.2 Concrete
5.3 Reinforcingsteel
5.4 Structural steel
5.5 Partial safety factors for resistanceandmaterial properties
5.1
General
6.2
6.3
13
50
59
59
60
61
61
62
63
63
63
64
ECCSN 87
7 BASIS
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
8 BASIS
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
Diaphragm effect
Fire design
Openings and penetrationholes
Concentrated loads
Sound insulation
Corrosionprotection
10 DESIGN EXAMPLES
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.7
Preliminarydesign example
Verification of the sheeting as shuttering
First typical design example
Second typical design example
Special design example
Design example for moving concentrated load
Design of composite slab with additional reinforcement carrying moving concentrated
load
BIBLIOGRAPHY
ECCS N 87
.67
67
69
71
74
77
77
83
89
91
97
97
100
105
114
116
119
121
121
123
131
143
152
158
162
167
stages:
the temporarystage  when the profiled steel sheeting (hereafter referred to as decking), acting as a
oneway spanningelement,carries the weight of the wetconcrete and associated construction loads,
the permanent stage  when the oneway spanning composite slab carries the imposed loads and a
percentage of the dead load dependent on the mode of construction.
The publication is intended to complement Eurocode 4 "Design of Composite Steel and Concrete
Structures" (particulary Chapters 7, 9, 10 and Annex E) and has been produced by the ECCS Technical
Committee 7, Working Group 7.6 "Composite Slabs".
In addition to the presentation of the normal design criteria for the ultimate and serviceability limit
states, attentionis given to the special design considerations of fire resistance,the treatment of openings,
inplane bracing and the effects of concentrated loads. Further information particular to the
implementation of good site practice for composite slabs is available in the ECCS document "Good
Construction Practice for Composite Slabs" which lists amongst other things the information which
should be passed on from the designer/architect to site personnel.
Another reference is the ECCS publication No 72 "Composite Beams and Columns to Eurocode 4"
produced by the ECCS Technical Committee 11 "Composite Structures".
ECCS N 87
10
NOTATION
Notation is presented in detail, including subscripts to symbols. Reference should also be made to
B
b
C
c
D
d
E
e
F
0
g
h
I
k
L
: Crosssectional area
: width
: width
: perimeter, coefficient
: coefficient
: orthogonal bending stiffeness
: pitch of corrugation
: modulus of elasticity (Youngs modulus)
distance
strength of fastener
: ultimate strength of a material
: self weight, permanentaction
:
selfweight,permanent action
:
axial force
number, ratio
point load, concentrated load
pitch of fasteners, unifonn distributedload
imposed load, variable action
imposedload, variableaction, uniformload
resistance, supportreaction
radius
action effect
constructionload
sheetthickness
vertical shear, shear resistance, shear bucklingstrength
section modulus
1,1,
M
P
p
q
R
S
s
t
V
w
x,y,z
beam spacing
coordinates
ECCS N 87
Notation
Greek letters
coefficient
coefficient
T
6
Ti
rotation
slenderness
factor, density,reinforcementratio
normal stress
web inclination
shear stress
buckling coefficient
o
sp
Subscripts
1,2,3
a
number
adm
ap
b
c
corn
:
:
bottom
concrete,compression
compressive
critical
d
:
design value
e
elastic,effective
eff : effective
end
end support
:
cr
h
i
mt
characteristic
: longitudinal,local
: material
m
mean, effective,constnictionstage
max
maximum
1,
mm
o
p
Q
q
R
minimum
reference value, ovethang
plastic, profiled sheeting, plane element,point load, punching
variableaction
variableaction
resistance
reduced,relative
12
s
ser
span
sup
test
u
alt
w
x,y,z
coordinates
yieldofsteel
normal stress
ECCSN 87
13
Introduction
INTRODUCTION
1.1
STATEOFTHEART
secondary beam
ECCSN 87
14
Composite floors are employed in a great variety of applications.The overall depth of composite slabs
generally varies between 80 mm and 250 mm with a bare metal thickness of steel sheet between0.7 and
1.5 mm (Fig. 1.2). The robustness of composite floors identifies them for the construction of thin slabs
(80 rum to 120 mm) with moderateloading or medium span requirements. Other regular types of slabs
(130 mm to 250 mm) with heavy loading or long span requirements axe also possible.
4
4 z 183
150 = 600
4x
150
A
B
L1_J
55
1373
38.1
600
___
89
5x200=1000
I
___'
L'.I
4 x 150 95
732
L_.J
x
750
4x183= 732
150
600
l
t.2.J
3x190570
_1122WT'
5xl76=880
3x1O4312
J\J'UEjkJfl1
Decking used in combinationwith concrete (composite slabs) have been designed especially for this
purpose. It is thus not advisable to use cladding or roofing profiles as composite slab decking. Most
decking manufacturershave produced table or charts with all the necessary crosssectionalproperties.
This simplifies the designerstask as decking geometries can be quite complicated.
Standard protection against corrosion of decking is normally a thin layer of galvanizing. This
protection is generally sufficient for the most common use of composite floors (dry interior
atmosphere). For more severe applications,other types of protection are available and an adequate layer
must be provided.
ECCS N 87
!nLroduction
15
Composite slab design is normally both simple and straight forward. Minimum slab thicknesses have
been established to ensure that significant twoway load distribution can occur. Nonstandard bay
geometries and large openings represent cases for which special considerationmust be given. Lastly,
heavy concentrated loads, cyclical and dynamic loads must be treated with caution. Some examples of
the widespread use of composite slabs in various branches of the construction industry are now
described.
b) Renovation schemes
Renovation schemes often require irregularly shaped slabs and access to the constructionsite is difficult.
Often the low carryingcapacity of the existing foundationrequiresa severe limitationof the dead load.
Composite floors are lighter in weight than conventionalreinforced concrete slabs by up to 1.0 kN/m2
and are therefore very economicalfor these applications.
C)
are many examples of family houses, housing schemes, schools, hospitals and other community
buildings whose construction is based on the use of composite flooring.
There
The satisfactory performance of compositeslab systems in terms of fire resistance, acoustic and thermal
insulationpropertiesprovide the high performancecriteria required for such premises.
16
efficient form of bracing to static and dynamic loading. The stiffness of composite slabs is also
beneficialfor testinglaboratorieswhere deflections and vibrationsmust be as small as possible.
Working platform
Before concreting, the decking provides an excellent safe working platform which speeds the
construction process for other trades.
Permanent shuttering
The steel deck spans from beam to beam, forming permanent formwork to the concrete, the need for
temporary props is often not necessary. The decking constitutes a good vapour barrier. The soffit
remains clean after concreting and the use of colourcoated steel sheets can give an attractive aesthetical
aspectto the ceiling.
Steel reinforcement
The steel reinforcement provided by the crosssection of the deck is usually sufficient to resist positive
moments. Additional fabric reinforcement may be provided in the slab to resist shrinkage or
temperature movements or to provide continuity over intermediate supports (hogging moments).
Composite action is obtained by the profile shape or by mechanical means provided by indentation or
embossment of the steel proffle.
of strict quality procedures and less random work on the construction site. This results in a greater
accuracy of construction, assisting the following trades.
!ntrodziction
17
Recent developments and changes in communications, information and computing technology have
shown the importance of being able to modify quickly the building services arrangement. Because of
the present rate of change, it is not possible to predict precisely what further developments may occur at
the time the building is constructed.
The two last solutions are limited to specific servicesand they may cause a loss of space or result in poor
appearance. Composite floors are rarely used without a false ceiling beneath the beams usually for
aesthetical reasons. The gap betweenthe soffit and the bottom flange constitutesan ideal zone in which
services may be hidden. Many "dovetailed" decks have slots or preformed tags to connect hanger
wires. It is therefore possible to suspend new cable networksand piping without undertaking costly and
noisy drilling attachments during buildingmaintenance.
Temporary bracing of the steel structures
The fasteningof the steel deck to the structure prior to concreting provides a stiff and reliable floor
bracing. Diaphragm action, which is produced by the capacityof the steel deck to resist distorsionin its
own plan readily obviates the need for temporaiyhorizontal bracing during construction.
1.2
BEHAVIOUR
18
such as reinforced concrete and composite beams of steel and concrete. In reinforced concrete,
composite action is achieved as a result of the bond resistanceof the reinforcementdue generally to the
cross section of the deformedbars used. This bond resistance,verified by tests, is equal to the ultimate
tensile resistance of the reinforcementwhich ensures that the slab may always develop the full flexural
resistance. In composite beams, composite action is achieved by connectorsfixed to the top flange of
the steel beam. The design of such connections is based on the assumptionthat the beam attains ultimate
bending resistance (full connection). If the number of connectors is smaller that required for full
connection then the connection is partial. In this case the ultimate resistance to bending depends
essentially on the number of connectors, the span of the beam and the method of construction.
The composite slab with decking has elements of both systems. On one hand decking with
embossments or anchorages compares to reinforcement, whereas on the other hand decking is an
element with bending rigidity similar to steel beams. The difference results from the fact that decking,
and similary the embossments,can be deformed. Also, unlike reinforcement,decking does not benefit
from being totally embedded in concrete. Such deformation behaviour depends on numerous
parameters, which makes the analysis of the actual behaviourofcomposite slabs more complicated.
A composite slab behaves in normal loading conditions usually as a cracked structure bent in the
longitudinal direction of the sheet.
1) When the loads are small, the slab might be uncracked. The compositeaction between the parts is
full, and the stressesof the sheet and concreteare linearly dependenton the strains.
2) The cracking in the concrete in tension reduces the stiffiess of the structure and increase of loads
causes greater deflectionsof the slab than in uncracked state. The adhesionbetween the sheet and
the concreteis capableof transferring the shear force between the cracks. It may happen that in the
ends of the slab the adhesionfails.
3) When a composite slab is experimentallyor accidentally loaded by higher loads than the design
loads, its behaviour greatly depends on the type of the steel sheet. In all composite slabs some
relative slip may take place between the elements when the shear stresses between them is greater
4)
For the case when the slab has been propped during construction, the slab will deflect instantly after the
removal of the props. This initial loading can cause cracking in concrete. Permanent and transient
moving loads on the slab cause instant changes in deflection. The concrete will also creep for several
years which will gradually increase the deflections of the slab.
The manner in which a compositeslab behaves during a loading test enables the basic informationfor
the design of a particular type of the sheet to be developped. Because there are a great variety of the
sheet types and there are no common design formula, all sheet types must be subjected to tests. Two
modes of behaviour can be identifiedusing Figure 1.3 from a loading test where the load was gradually
increased by displacement controlledjacks; At firstthe loaddeflection curve is approximatelylinear for
all types of slabs which corresponds to the behaviourof a compositeelement bonded at the interfaceby
chemical adhesionand/or friction.
ECCS N 87
19
Introduction
Load
P
(kN)
50
Slip at
firstend
P
40
30
Slip at
second
end
20
10
20
30
40
Deflection 6 [mm]
Figure 1.3  Two typical behaviourmodes ofcomposite slabs
Mode
2 ductile behaviour
The mechanical connection is capable of transferring the shear force until failure occurs. Failure is
produced either by bending, corresponding to total connection, or by longitudinal shear, corresponding
to partial connection.
Acconlingto the Eurocode4, the behaviouris classified as ductile if the failure load exceeds the load
causingfirst recordedend slip by more than 10%. The load causing first recordedend slip is the load at
which the slip at any end of the slab is greater than 0.5 mm.
Otherwise, the behaviour is classified brittle (or nonductile). Eurocode 4 takes into account of the
ductile or nonductile behaviourof a composite slab by means of different partial safety factors applied
to the failure load.
ECCS N 87
20
1.3
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
A distinctive characteristic ofcompositeslabs is the two structuralstates that exist: firstly, the temporary
stage of constructionwhen only the decking resists the applied loads and secondly, the permanent stage
when the concreteis bonded to the steel allowingcomposite action.
For the both structural stages, it shall be verified that no relevantlimit states are exceeded:
Profiledsheetingas shuttering
Verifications at the ultimate limit state and the serviceability limit state are required for the safety and
the serviceability of the proffled sheeting acting as formwork for the wet concrete. The effects of props
(if used) shall be taken into account in this design situation.
Composite slabs
Verifications at the ultimate limit state and the serviceability limit state are required for the safety and
the serviceabilityof the composite slab after composite behaviourhas commenced and any props have
been removed.
:
:
Combination
of actions
For each load case, design values for the effects of actions shall be determinedfrom combination rules
involvingdesign values of actions, as identifiedby Table 1.1. The most unfavourable combinationsare
considered at each critical location of the structure,for example, at the points of maximum negative or
positive moment, In Table 1.1 a combinationfactor of 0.9 is taken into account. Eurocodespermit the
use of other combination factors, if reliableload data is available.
ECCS N 87
introduction
21
YGGk+YQQkmaX
1.
2.
(*)
1.35
Qk
Gk+0.9.'yQ.Qk (*)
G + 0.9
(*)
1.35Gk+l.5OQk,max
1G
= permanent actions,
1.50
= 1.00
actions
If a
YQ
of actions
For each load case, design values for the effects of actions shall be determined fmm combination rules
involving design values of actions as identifiedby Table 1.2.
GkQk,max
2.
Gk + O.9Ql
ECCS N 87
Page blank
in original
Consiruction siteinformation
23
2.
2.1
GENERAL
This chapter contains the minimum amount of information that the designer and/or architect should
supply to construction site personnel. Most of the informationcontained in this chapter is used by the
designer and/or architect when calculating decking and composite slab resistances. Ignorance of this
information by field personnel can lead to situations that the designer and/or architect has not forseen.
Any variations from the conditionsspecified by the designerand/or architect should be brought to their
attention.
2.2
An identification tag should be attached to each decking bundle delivered to the job site. An example
tag is shown in Figure 2.1. Tags may look somewhat different but should contain the following
information:
Total bundle
weight
Deck
type, surface condition,thickness
Bundle identificationcode
The number, length and thickness of each panel
The bundle identificationcode will also appear on the decking layout plan, and can thus be used to
identify the bay(s) for which the bundle is designated. A product description including the following
should be available on site or from the decking manufacturer's technical informationservice:
Rib height
Embossmentdepths
The yield strengthof the core material
The type of coatings (if any) and coating thickness
Location
Job No.
o
o
o
o
id1eidentification
Galvanised
Deck type
XYPD 01
43000
1.00 mm
MARK: AZI
0
0
" 0
lOx 10075.0
Bundle weight
0
4x7295.0
3x3335.0
0.967 tonnes
V
No. of sheets
Thickness (mm)
Length (mm)
24
2.3
given. This includes both permanent and temporary edges. Such information should be indicated in
boxes identifiedby the words "Edge trim", see Figure 2.2. There may be more than one reference box
for each edge. The followinginformationshould be contained in each reference box:
A reference letter (or number) for details which appears elsewhere
The decking rib height
The distance between the edge of the decking and the centrelineof the nearest permanentsupport.
Details should be available for all exterior edges and edges next to openings. Details may also be
necessaryfor temporary edges. Temporary edges include changesin the orientation of the decking ribs
and edges betweenconcretings. Examplesof support and edge details are given in the document "Good
Construction Practice for Composite Slabs" (Figures 17 and 19 of Chapter 6, and in Figures 24 and 25
of Chapter 8).
Panel fastening
Panels may be fastenedonly to permanent supports and to adjacent panels (seam fasteners). Fastening
should be undertaken immediately after each panel or bay has being laid out. For each bay special
fastener informationmay be given. Fastener information is indicated on the decking layout drawing
using infonnation boxes identified by the word "Fasteners", as shown in Figure 2.3. Each information
box should contain the following:
ECCS N 87
25
Fastenertype
Number of fasteners needed to fix each panel to each support, or the minimum number of seam
fasteners per metre length.
indicated.
The minimum distance between the centreline of the shear connector and the edge of the decking
should be given. Installation and quality control procedure information from the shear connector
suppliershould be available on site.
INFORMATION FOR CONCRETE SUBCONTRACTORS
A reinforcementlayout drawing should be made available to the appropriatecontractorfor each bay of
eachfloor. The location,length, minimum overlap and minimumconcrete cover of all reinforcementin
the composite slab should be indicated. The specified grade of all reinforcement should also be
indicated on this drawing. This grade should be checked against the identification tag for each
reinforcement bundle. Important reinforcement details (such as near supports, openings and edges)
should be referenced and placed on this drawing or on the decking layout drawing. Any special
preparationneeded to ensure that excessiveleakagedoes not occur during concreteshould be indicated.
2.4
The concreting work should be started above the permanentsupports of the slab and proceed towards
the middle areas of the sheets. The height from which concrete falls should be as low as possible. The
order of the work should be clearly shown in the drawingsfor the building site.
Information concerning the concrete mix should be provided in the same manner as for other
reinforced concrete components. Minimum necessary concreting informationincludes the following:
The minimum concretecompressivestrength
Maximum aggregatesize
Types of admixtures : it is necessaryto check if the admixturesused are compatible with the coating
of the profiled sheets. For example, the use of antifreezetype admixtures is prohibitedbecause they
are definitelynot compatible with zinc coatings.
2.5
CONSTRUCTION LOADS
The design load that may be carried by the decking as a temporary workingplatform, as shutteringand
by the composite slab should be clearly indicated on the decking layout drawings and on appropriate
concreting drawings (in kN/m2). Special loading limitationsshould be clearly indicatedfor each bay. In
addition the following values may be necessary:
The minimum concrete compressive strength at which temporary supports may be removed (can be
given in terms of days after concreting)
The minimum concrete
compressivestrength at which temporary constructionload may be applied
(can be given in terms of days after concerting)
The maximum allowable vehicularaxle weight.
ECCSN 87
00
z0
(.
til
Reference for
edge detail
drawings
lndicator start point for
laying of panels
height
nb
Deck
Temporary propline
supports. No mporsry
prop.lo.dsallowedprior to
concreting.
Bundle identification
I
I
27
UVC
03
z.g&
1..
U
C
(1
Id
.
C
U
4)
1.,
>..
.C
U
<Ill
Page blank
in original
Prelijninary considerationsandpredesign
29
3.1
INTRODUCTION
This chapterhasbeenwrittenfor architectsand engineers and more generallyfor all those who have to
produce a quick but sound predesign for a composite floor. This might be required for either a
preliminary project or a costestimationexercise.
Experience often shows that the architectsmust be given a realistic estimationof the floor system depth
including slabs, suppoiting beams and ceiling. This is necessary because the overall depth of the floor
has a direct influence on the total building height. This parameter which is usually fixed by urban
planners may be restricted for a specific area.
The building height depends directly on the floor arrangementand therefore it is not an exageration to
state that the simple predesignestimate of the composite slab thickness is meaningless for a project if
the designerdoes not considerthe beam spacing,the beam span, the total acceptable depth of the floor
system (beam + slab) and also the column layout.
3.2
The use of composite beams follows naturally from the use of composite slabs in the transverse
direction. Shear connectors are generally used to provide shear connection between the underlyingsteel
beam and the concrete slab. The resultinginspan behaviourof these components is an optimum use of
the two materials where the concrete works in compression and the steel beam mainly in tension (see
Figure 3.1). In a composite beani the resultingcentroid of the composite section is usually positioned in
the vincinityof the top flange of the steel beam. The area of the steel beam in compressionis therefore
significantly reduced,and may even be zero.
This so called 'composite beam' arrangement increases considerably the strength of the element. The
beam height but also the weight of the steel beam is effectivelyreduced by 15% to 30% (see also Figure
3.2). Recent fire tests carried out in France and the U.K. have shown that it is possible to obtain a fire
stabilityof 30 minutes for unprotectedcomposite steel beams.
Composite beam arrangements also make the structure stiffer and more ductile. Finally this type of
structure has a improved resistance to seismic forces. The numerous beam solutions applicable to the
composite slabs are outhned in section 3.3.2a).
does not affect the performance of the system. However the number and the capacity of this type of
connector to resist the shear forces is limited compared to the welded headed studs. Nailed shear
connectors (Figure 3.4) are mainly used for small and medium size contracts or when the access to site
for a generator is difficult.
ECCS N 87
30
I
Without connection :
= Mp,a
fy Za
iE74
IY
With connection: M = fy Z
+92
: g = 1 kN/m2
: q = 4 kN/m2
Weightoffloor finishes
Variable imposed load
I
I
Jh
2500
With connection
Withoutconnection
Plastic design
Elastic design
Plastic design
Connection:40% Connection:100%
::
440
Depth h[mm]
Section
7500
:500 J_
410
IPE 400
IPE 360
IPE 300
66.3
57.1
42.2
36.1
13019
12019
25019
10
12
24
33
10
IPE
270
Weight of profile
[kg/m]
Number ofstuds
&g[mmj
shnnk (mm)
q[mmJ
Preliminary consideralionsandpredesign
*+
111
31
..
:j
+
.i_
i
.i
3.3
ECCS N 87
32
The depth of the long span beams will clearly increase in order to achieveeconomy but now the beams
are of sufficient depth for the primary service ducts to be accomodated readily within their depth, so
that the overall floor depth does not necessarily increase significantly.The ducts may be accomodatecj
by providing holes in the beam webs, or, by tapering the beams near theirends.
Modem buildings are generallydesigned to have a life of not less than 50 years. Recent developments
and changes in communications, informationtechnology and manufacturingmethods have already had
a profound influence on commercial and industrial practice and consequently on various type of
building arrangements. Therefore it is not possible to predict precisely what further developements may
occur during the life of a building that is designedcurrently. Today there is no evidencethat the rate of
change of office and industrial technology or social habits will slacken and developers must expect
profoundchanges in requirementsfor modern building during their life. While many of these changes
will influenceservicesrequirements, others will primarily affect the partitionlayout.
The best way to maximiseflexibility of internal planningis to minimise the numberof columns. Figure
3.6 shows typical examples of ways in which "long span" primary beams can reduce or eliminate the
numberof internal columns. The cost of the floor will increase but this can be partly offset by saving
from the reductionin the number of foundations and some savings in speed and costof erection. In any
case the net increase in the structural cost may well be no more than 10 % and this representsa much
smaller proportion of the total developmentcost. This is a very small premium to pay if proper account
is taken of the potentialfuture benefits because the structureis less likely to become obsolete.
ECCS N 87
Preliminary considerationsandpredesign
33
Reinforcern1nt
Stiffener
Opening
for services
db'6boo
Figure3.8  Castellated floor beams
Composite tnisses
Trussesare frequentlyused in multistoity building in North America and are best suited for very long
spans, where the truss is designed to occupy the full depth of the floor zone (see Figure 3.9). The cost
of fabrication can be high in relation with the material cost. Little benefit is gained for composite action
apart improvingthe stiffness of the truss. The modified Warren truss is the most common form as it
offers the maximum zone for service betweenbracingmembers.
ECCSN 87
34
____
___
secordary beam
the secondary and primary beams. The secondary beams are designed to act compositely with the
concrete slab, and are made continuous by passing over the primary beams. The primary beams are
arrangedin pairs and pass on either side of the columns to which they are attached by shear resisting
brackets. These primary beams are noncomposite. The method of construction is illustrated in Figure
3.11. Dual beam systems are ideally suited to accomodated large service ducts in orthogonaldirections.
r,
Shear connectors
7.Trr,r
C(mposite secondary bea"ms
Preliminary considerationsandpredesign
35
shows the fabricated beams acting as the primary beams, supporting light hotrolled, composite,
secondary beams between 2 and 5 m centres, which depends on whether the sheet is supported or not
during concreting.In Figure 3.13b the fabricatedsectionsare themselvesplaced at 2.4 to 3.6 m centres
andare supporteddirectly by the columnsor by compositehaunched beams.In multibays schemes the
haunched internal beams would be replaced by primary beams or internal columnslines. Figure 3.13c
is only applicable to onebaystructures, with beams on the centerlines of the mullion columns.
Choice of arrangement will depend on the overall structural form. Type Cc) would only be used if
mullioncolumnswere requiredat centres of between2.4 and 3.6 in to supportthebuildingenvelope.
Where the column spacing is greater than 3.6 in along the building, some form of grillage is requiredif
conventionalcomposite decking is used. Propping of the steel decking may also be used in this case.
The choice between a) and b) is not clear cut. For conventional construction, b) would be generally
favoured. However, layout b) does have a greater number of fabricated sections, which inherently more
expensive per tonne than rolled sections. In addition the lightly loaded fabricated sections of b) are
likely to be less efficientthan the heavier fabricated sections of a). For examplethe webs of the former
may be governed by minimum thicknesscriteria. Even if that is not the case their greater slenderness
will reduce strength. Conversely, the number of connections in a) are greater than b) thus increasing
erectionand fabrication costs for the former.
a)
Reinforced
The use of composite slabs in conjunction with reinforcedconcrete beams appeared in the mid 1980's.
A large vanety of buildings ranging from an underground car park (a typical detail is given in Figure
3.15) to a tail building with a tubular core (a typical detail is given in Figure 3.16) were built using
composite slab flooring. Single span sheets are used at each support, the slab and the beams may be
linked using mesh reinforcement to ensure longitudinal shear connection. There are several possible
ways to use these techniques, one ofwhich is shownin Figure 3.17.
Steel decks are easily adapted to the concrete support providing the minimum edge distances can be
satisfied. The stability of the steel sheet must be assured during construction. The fastening of the steel
deck may be carried out by various ways as shown in Figure 3.18. For prestressed concretebeams the
deck is locked/clamped or fixed using shot fired fasteners. A minimumedge distance must be respected
in order to avoid splittingor a steel plate should be inserted in order to provide a fastenerbase.
The Fdration internationalede la prcontrainte (FIP) is preparing a Guide to good practice Precast
composite floor structures, which gives general rules and recommendations for constructioncomposite
structures with prefabricated elements.
ECCS N 87
36
6mhotrolled
secondary
beam
fabricated
primary
beam
(a) Type A
fabricated
beam
composite
haunched
beam
(b) Type B
mullion
column
(C) Type C
Lj111111111111
(a) Straight taper
(b) Semitaper
ECCSN 87
Preliminaryconsiderationsandpredthgn
____________________________________
37
/.
5cm
temporary prop
ECCS N 87
38
steel mesh
shear bars
steel decking
L
L
HI
' P
length 150 mm
e=5h
Figure3.18  Various way to connect the deck on concrete
b) Timber structures
The timber beam option for flooring can be either a structural or an architecturalchoice. Floors made
with composite slabs are well suited to this type of structure because of the reduced slab weight The
fasteningof the sheets onto the beams is carried out by mean ofnails or screws (see Figure 3.19). When
adequatelyfasten, the deck can be used to improve the structural stability for both the temporary and
permanent stages. Typical construction details for timber structures are given in Figure 3.20.
ECCS N 87
39
Pre1iminay considerazwnsandpredesign
I
Figure3.19  Fctenersfor timber structures
3.4
Composite slabs are versatile and can very often be used for renovationof existing structures. The use
of composite slabs in this particular context is not very different from current applications but the
uniqueness of such projects may lead to problems compared with conventional design. This section
outlines briefly the various possibilities in these situations. Depending with the nature and/or the
importance of the renovation scheme composite floors can be placed on various type of beams
including
steel beams (Figure 3.21)
40
concreteslab
tile
steeljoist
/1
composite __/'
slab with NWC
Connected
steel joist
5000 to 8000mm
composite I'
slab with LWC
5000 to 8000mm
ECCS N 87
Preliminary considerationsandpredesign
41
Renovated floor
Existing floor
timber floor
composite slab
tire bar
grout
SLA4O
p.
shutter
unsawntimber beam
prestressed
concrete beam
composite
slab
existing
wall
ECCSN 87
42
flooi avoid the setting of costly and voluminuous formworkwhich slows down construction
progress. Generally the low or unknown carrying capacity of the existing foundationsplaces a severe
limitationon the dead load. Lightweightcomposite slabs are beneficialbecause they are easy to handle
and up to 1.0 1rN/m2 lighter than conventionalreinforced concreteflooring.
The installation of composite floor panels for renovation schemes does not require the use of a
procedure which is different to new construction. Steel decking available on the market offers a large
variety ofsolutions to tacklethe problems of partial or total renovation.
Renovation schemes are often characterised by the irregular shape of the slabs. The use of the
conventional slab techniques (i.e.: castin place, precast or hollow core slabs) is often difficult.
Composite floors are generally useful in these situations, the precut panel elements are cut on site to the
exact shape of the building using simple tools such as grinders and nibblers. The flexibility and the
lightness of the panels allows quick but efficient installationof the elements. The steel sheets may be
manually positioned by 2 or 3 men. When the access to the construction site is difficult with the
conventional lifting equipment the passage of the panels through the door or existing windows is
possible withoutthe need to dismantle the roof.
ECCS N 87
PreliminaryconsideraJionsandpredesgn
3.5
43
Shallow floor construction incorporates light gauge steel decking as part of a compositeslab (see Figure
3.26). The system has the benefits of slim floor construction but possesses additional advantages over
the traditional concreteoption (i.e. lighter weight of the slab, ease and speed of erection). Shallow floors
made of composite slabs usuallyspan between5 to 9 metres, the total thicknessof the slab is usuallyset
between 180 and 350 mm. All types of steel deck can be used providing they can achieved the required
deflectionand strengthcriteria. However, deep steel decking presents another advantage, the size of the
corrugations allows light services to run within the floor depth parallel to the corrugation and through
the beams webs (see Figure 327).
B = span/4
Transverse reinforcement
DI'
= 210
A4JL
Crosssection throughcomposite'Slimfior' beam  Type B
Section A  A
600
600
flange of the beam. The deck openings are closed by stop end accessories which prevent concrete
leakage. The top flange of the beam is covered by a concrete topping(70 to 100mm) which houses the
steel fabric for hogging moments and the shear connectors when the beam is designed for composite
action. This topping constitutes the compression part of the slab within the current span. The fire
stability of the beam is brought up to 1 hour and the use of lightweightconcrete allows to span up to 6
metres withoutprops.
ECCSN 87
Insitu concrete
Services
In this arrangementthe slab rests on brackets or packingswhose purpose are to maintain the steel sheet
during the constructionstage. All or part of the slab is containedwithin the beam depth as is shown in
Figure 3.28. Any conventionalsteel decking can be use for this arrangement,providingthat the design
and propping requirements are met. The fire stabilityof the beams varies with the way they have been
integrated within the slab.
ECCS N 87
45
Preliminary consideradnsandpredesign
3.6
PREDESIGN
The minimum slab depth for this fire resistance is a direct consequence of this choice. For a fire rating
of two hours the steel reinforcement solution is efficient and cost effective. The first solution is
generally preferredwhen the fire rating has been set above two hours.
b) Limiting slenderness ratio for slab
The slendernessratio is given by the span length (L) divided by the effective depth of the slab (dp).
This number usually lies between 20 (heavy loads) and 40 (light loads). For typical structures this
slenderness ratio may be taken as not greater than 32 to comply the serviceability requirement.Such
limitation of the slenderness ratio also influences the dynamic responseof the slab.
C)
The acousticperformanceof composite slabs is describedby the "mass law" equation. The performance
of slabs are normally given in manufacturer's brochures.
In certain circumstancesthe composite slab is not sufficiant for sound insulation and in this case a
system involvingan additionallayer of insulation must be used. It is importantto estimate the minimum
thickness of the concrete slab in conjunction with the technique of insulation chosen for the
construction as describedin Section 8.6.
on site
The use of props may either depend on the method of construction and/or the conditionson site. Their
use always induces extracostfor the setting and removal of these devices. However one or two lines of
props enables larger spans to be achieved.
ECCSN 87
46
In the first case the designer has little freedom only the spacing of the secondary members requires
determination.
The early decision whetherconstiuctionis with or without propping is critical because the criterion "no
props" limits the choice of the deck type or forces the designer to use shorter spans. Therefore the
mmiinum required thickness of the slab will be dictatedby the spanninglimits of the deck.
In the second case the designerhas more design choices. A good way to stait the predesignis to use the
minimum slab thickness as explain before and then estimatethe maximumspan with or withoutprops.
The spacingof the secondary beams is then known and therefore their section depth can be estimated.
f) Total dead and Imposed load applied on the floor
The majority of design charts given by manufacturers gives permissible loads for maximum spans (or
vice versa).
For a typical range of buildings imposed loading varries between 2 kN/m2 and 5 kN/m2 for lightloads
and up to 10 kN/m2 for heavy loads.
simplified by the
manufacturers design charts. Recently these charts are sometimes accompagned by software packages
whose level of refinement is variable. These packages may provide safe load tables or more refined
analyses. Their use is particularto each manufacturer and therefore will not be considered here since the
design charts are universal.
Most brochures produced by the manufactures have a double entry system considering both the
construction stage (number of props) and the loading stage (total slab depth, steel reinforcement for
hogging and sagging). These two stages will be considered separately.
In many cases the site layout decision influences the choice of profile and also the form of the slab
construction.
ECCSN 87
47
Preliminary considerationsaizdpredesign
A crude stereotyped approach for a typical office building slab would be::
deck with rib height of 40 mm spans up to 2.70 m
deck with rib height of 60 mm spans up to 3.30 m
deckwithribheightoflOmmand+spansupto3.70m
specific decking for large span up to 6.5 m (no prop)
The possible span depends of course of the finished slab depth but also with the type of concrete
(normal or light weight).
b) Permanent or service stage
As a guide the minimum depth of the slab is given:
the
limiting slenderness ratio L/dp 32 (see also 3.6.1 b)
the minimum depth for fire rating and/or sound insulation.
The decking shape and propertiescan be obtained once this minimum slab depth has been set together
with the possible span layout (single or multispan, numberof props accepted).
All the data are normally computed using conventionnal hypothesis such as the average concrete
strength, the deflectionat service and other current parameters.These values are always given with the
data and should be specified for the final design.
Special calculations for the fire reinforcement or other special loading condition are usually not relevant
to this stage ofthe project. They are carried outlater by the design office.
3.6.3 Summary
Table 3.1 gives an overview of the different alternatives for the choice of a compositefloor system.
Alternatives
Structural system
6 to 20 m.
Floorbeam centresor spacing 1.80 to 5.0 m.
Floor beam length
(slab span length)
of indentations
Steel decking
or
Fire protection
Shear connection
Degreeofshear
connection (beam)
Concreting (slab)
ECCS N 87
Page blank
in original
49
Detailing requirementr
DETAILING REQUIREMENTS
The following detailing requirements should be respected whatever conditions of design are considered
as a minimum. More informationmay be found in the ECCS document No 73: "Good Construction
Practice for Composite Slabs".
4.1
SLABS
4.1.1 Decking and slab
It is recommended that the nominal thickness of the steel decking should not be less than 0.75 mm.
Zinc coating should be provided on each face with a minimum of 0.02 mm per face. This rule is for
corrosion protection. The depth of the steel sheetingt'p should not be less than 35 mm and the depth of
the composite slab not be less than 80 mm. This is a minimum condition for fire resistance and sound
insulation.
The span to effective depth ratio of the slab should be less than or equal to 32 for simple supported
slabs and 36 for continuous slabs. This is a condition for slab rigidity and comfort (see EC 2).
The thickness hc of concreteabove the ribs of the decking shall be greater than 40 mm.
If the slab acts compositely with a beam or is used as a diaphragm, the minimumtotal slab depth h is 90
mm and the minimumconcretethicknesshc above the decking is 50 mm.
;:
______ ___f
bb
rerentranttrough profile
'
4hp h
jh
bh
opentroughprofile
4.1.2 Concrete
The minimum characteristic resistance in compression of the concrete is 20 N/mm2 (Class C20).
Concrete may be Normal Weight Concrete (NWC)or Light WeightConcrete (LWC).
The nominal size of agregatedepends on the smallest dimensionon the structural element within which
concreteis poured, and shall not exceed the least of:
0.4
where is the depth ofconcrete above the ribs
b>/3 where b0 is the mean width of the rib (minimum width for reentrant profiles)
31.5 mm.
ECCSN 87
50
4.2
CONSTRUCTION STAGE
The stage during the erection of the structure is one of the most critical. Specific details must be
complied at this design stage.
4.2.1 Bearing
During construction,the steel sheeting is acting as shuttering. It is placed on permanent supports and
sometimes, on specific temporary supports, the props. Figure 4.2 shows the minimum values for bearing
lengths on permanent supports.
1
(c)
jj
.,
 .0
(b)
bearing on steelorconcrete
(d)
iooj.
beanng onothermaterials suchasbrickorblock
of EC 3. Figure 4.3
gives the
All interior panel ends shall be centered over permanent supports. During constructioncantilevers shall
be temporary supported.
Note: EC 4 allows reduction of minimumbearing lengths given above if special care is considered in
the design (see EC 4 for more information).
4.2.2 Fasteners
at least twice at each end to the permanent supports and the decking
shall be butted to each other or overlapped. The longitudinal overlapping depends of the shape of
decking. Generallyprofiles overlap on one or half of one rib.
When used, the minimum transversal overlapping on supports are 50 mm on steel supports and 70 mm
on supports made of others materials (see Figure 4.2)
Each panel should be connected
ECCS N 87
51
Detailing requirements
MINIMUMTIMBER
SLAB DEPTH
mm
SPAN
m
120
130
150
3.25
3.75
200
4.25
4.75
225
225
200
BLOCKSIZE
mm
HEIGHT
WIDTH
50
50
50
75
175
If the decking is acting as a diaphragm, the numberand the placement o;f the fastenersmust meet the
relevantdesign specification. A 600 mm interval betweenfastenersis considered as a minimum.
Figure 4.4 shows typical arrangement for fastening, overlapping and seaming.
In any case, during construction, cantilevers shall be temporarely supported. Figure 4.5 shows typical
cantileversituations.
Edge trims or angles shall be fixed to edges to contain the fresh concrete. The thickness of the trim
depends on the expected slab thicknesses and are not specifically designed. Table 4.1 gives good
practice values for trim thicknesses. Lateral edges trim deflectionmay be reduced by ties backs. Ties
back spacing are typicallybetween250 mm and 1.0 metre.
Table 4.1  Trim thicknesses
h
[mm]
<110
140
160
200
>200
[mm]
[pjJ
<100
<140
<160
1.2
1.5
2.0
<200
3.0
<300
2.0+ anchorage
ECCSN 87
52
fe
Sean,
L.
M secUon
r
Figure4.5  Cantilever situations
ECCS N 87
53
Detailing requirements
a)
if unpropped.
b) Wall edges
Theseedgesare fixed on to or along already existing wall structures. Figure 4.6 shows typical
details. Classificationof the support may be considered as pinned or continuous,dependingof the
connection arrangement. During construction, the decking shall be supported along its edges by
steel angle or wooden lattices. This supportshall be designed with regard to the temporary support
width and constructionload transmission.Wall edge details should include reinforcing, expansion
joints, etc., whenneeded.
:':
i;:;;;
I
''0
'
0,, 0
0'
,,
,,
''II,
1..
4
4
'Q,
Fo
.
,,
c) Internaledges
Internal edges are necessary due to a change in the orientation of ribs, temporary edges between
concretingor expansionjoints. Internal edges are situated on permanent supports.Figure 4.7 gives
typical examples of internal edges. During construction, the steel decking is not continuous on the
internaledge and all internaledges must be consideredas simply supported.
ECCSN 87
54
Large openings are holes exceeding one decking rib in width andmust be specificallydesignedfor (see
section 9.3).
4.3
COMPOSITE STAGE
The details for the slab are covered at the compositestage while the support specifications are referred
to at the construction stage. At the composite stage the specification for the reinforcement and shear
connectors are outlined.
is considered.
4.3.2 Reinforcement
Due to shrinkage and in order to minimisecracks, minimumreinforcementshall be placed over the
whole area in a longitudinal and transversedirection.
This reinforcement must be added to the designed reinforcement. The minimum area of the
reinforcement is 0.2 % of the concrete section in the two directions. Usually steel mesh
reinforcementis used.
Note : This rule differs from 7.6.2.1 (2) of EC4.
Tensile reinforcementin the hogging moment area.
If the slab is considered as continuous, the minimum section of reinforcement in the hogging
moment area shall be determinedby design (see chapter 8), and must extend at least 30% into each
of adjacent spans. The use of high bond bars is advisable, If smooth bars are used, special care must
be taken to correctly anchor the bars into the slab.
When continuousslabs are designed as simply supported, the cross sectional area of the anticrack
reinforcement shall be not less than 0.2 % of the cross sectional area of the concrete above steel
ECCS N 87
55
Detailing requirements
decking for unpropped construction and 0.4 % of the cross sectional area of the concrete above the
ribs for propped construction.
Transverse reinforcement
When designing a composite beam in combination with a composite slab (see ECCS publication
N 72), the longitudinal shear strength of the composite slab should be checked in order to ensure
transfer of forces front the connectors into the slab without splitting the concrete. This may require
provision of reinforcementtransverse to the beam, (longitudinal or transversal to the ribs). These
forces shall be combinedin the design of the reinforcement Figure 4.8 shows specific situations.
Figure4.8  TraMversereUorcing
Reinforcement for load distribution.
To ensure the distribution of line or point loads over the width consideredto be effective,transverse
reinforcement shall be placed on or above the sheeting. If the characteristicimposed loads do not
exceed 7.5 kN for concentrated load and 5.0 kN/m2 for distributed load, a nominal transverse
reinforcementwith a 0.2% cross sectional area of the structural concrete above the ribs may be
considered as sufficient. Reinforcementprovided for others purpose may fulfill all or part of this
requirement. Figure 4.9 shows the situation.
reinforcement
Conditions on reinforcement.
A minimum concrete cover of 20 mm (15 mm in EC2) shall be provided over the bars. Minimum
diameterof the bars is 3.5 mm for high strengthbars.
ECCSN 87
56
The maximum spacingof the bars should be in accordance with clause 5.4.3.2.1 of EC2 based on the
overall depth ht of the composite slab, unless a smaller spacingis requiredfor the control of cracking:
 for the principal reinforcement : 1.5 ht 350 mm;
 for the secondary reinforcement : 2.5 ht 500 mm.
Bars are placed within the halfupper part of the concrete cover above the steel sheeting unless otherwise
specified.
4.3.3 Anchorages
End anchoragesare used to improve the shear resistance of the slab for longitudinaldesign and limit
longitudinal shear slip betweenthe steel decking and the concrete slab. This is needed when mechanical
interlockbetweenthe decking and the concreteis not sufficient(see chapter 8).
Typically anchorage devices are studs or cold formed angles. They may act as shear connectors
betweenthe compositeslab and the steel beam in a compositebeam situation.
In that specific case the shear connector (stud or angle) shall be designed adding each shear force
induced from the composite slab and the composite beam. Shear force in the slab transverse to the
beam direction,Fslab, and shear force in the beam direction, Fbeam. The design of the connector shall
be made considering both these forces. Figure 4.10 shows this typical situation (CfEC4 6.3.3).
A2
0
F be m
7fFr
b9 .jF
slab
Figure4.10  Combinationofforces
Normal studs connectors range between 12 and 22 mm in diameter. The connector is considered as
ductile if the height exceeds 4 times the diameter. The height of the shank of the connector shall be
greaterthan three times its diameter.
When studs are used for composite beam with the connection considered as ductile (the normal case in
this document)the following rules apply.
The studs should have an overall length after weldingnot less than 76 mm and a shank diameter not
less than 19 mm and not exceeding20 mm;
The steel sectionis a rolled I or H with equal flanges;
ECCS N 87
57
Detailingrequirements
The concreteslab is composite with profiled steel sheeting that spans perpendicularto the beam and
is continuous across it
There is at leastone stud per rib of decking, placed centrallywithinthe rib;
For the decking,
b0/hp> 2 and 1i < 60 mm, where the notation is shown in Figure 4.11.
The force is calculated by the method of 6.2.1.2 (3) of EC4.
Designof compositebeam is not part of this documentbut special requirements as above may affect the
design of the compositeslab (see 6.1.2.4 of EC4).
______
0
centroidal axisofsheet
__________________
:::.,o
b0
dp
If concrete cover is required for corrosion protectionpurposes, it should be not less than 20 mm or the
minimum cover for reinforcing bars less 5 mm whichever is the greatest.
If cover is not required, the top of the connector may be flush with the upper surface of the concrete
slab.
Placementofconnectors
Connectors may be fixed (welded or nailed) on the steel beam through no more than one thickness of
steel decking or alternatively directly into the beam beyond the edge of the steel decking (see
Figure 4.12).
The detailingof studsis as follows:
spacingis limited to 6 times the total slab thickness or 800 mm (6.4.1.5 (3) of EC4).
In the directiontransverse to the beam: minimum spacingis four times the diameterof the stud
(6.4.2.3 of EC4).
For slabs with ribs transverse to the beam, connectors are placed, one or two, per rib and the
requirements are largely met.
The diameter of the stud must not be greater than 2.5 times the thicknessof the flange except if the
stud is weldeddirectlyon the web of the beam.
With regards to the beam geometry, a connector shall be placed at a minimum of 20 mm from the
flange edge (6.4.1.4 of EC 4) and 50 mm from a concreteedge.
Where the ribs of the composite slab run parallel to the beam, specific requirementsshown in figure
4.13 shall be met.
Special consideration
not part of this documentand can be found in EC 4, Sections 6.4.1.5 and 6.6.5.
ECCSN 87

58
general:
u > 0 mm noncorrosiveconditions
u> 20mm
corrosive conditions
t67h(forwTh..ct8)
_________ _lbearn
LbooJ
< 4h
<600
50
Ribs perpendicular
50
100
Ribs parallel
per rib
100
<600
I h0>h+35mm
a) Headedstuds
0_'D 0
0
000
000
' a; 00
T1r450
20
Figure4.13 Ribsparallel to the beam
ECCS N 87
ov
the
web or alternately
facing left and
right
50
h0 > 4d
I Hitti connector
?5O?53
Propertiesofmaterials
5.
59
PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS
The materialproperties given in this Section are those required for design purposes.
5.1
It is recommended that the nominal metal thicknessshould not be less than 0.75 mm except where the
steel sheetingis used only as permanentshuttering. The use of thinner sheets is not precluded, provided
that adequate theoretical evidenceand test data are available.
in calculations.
f,
Grade
fyi,
[N/mm2I
EN 10 025
S235
S275
S355
235
275
355
EN 10 113
Part 2
S275N
S355N
S460N
275
355
460
EN 10 113
Part 3
S275TM
S355TM
275
355
420
460
S42OTM
S46OTM
ISO 4997
EN 10 147
CR220
CR250
CR320
220
SE2200D
220
250
280
320
350
SE25OGD
SE2800D
SE32OGD
SE3500D
250
320
ECCS N 87
old
in 5.5 for hot rolled structural steel are applicable to profiled steel
5.1.4 Coating
The exposed surfaces of the steel sheeting shall be adequately protected to resist the particular
atmosphericconditions.
Zinc coating should be in accordancewith EN 10 147  1992 : "Continuously hotdipped zinc coated
structural steel sheet and strip" and with EN 10 143  1992 : "Continuously hotdipped zinc coated
structural steel sheet and strip  tolerances on dimensions and shape".
A zinc coating of total mass 275 g/m2 (includingboth sides) is normally sufficient for internalfloors in
a nonagressive environment, but the specificationmay be varied dependingon service conditions (see
7.8).
Organic coating should be in accordance with EN 10 1691
products".
5.2
CONCRETE
Normal and lightweight concrete may be used. In this section, data for normal weight concrete are
given. For lightweightconcrete, see EC4 section 3.1.4.1(3). Highperformance concrete has also been
used in composite slabs, but it is not withinthe scope of thisManual.
Class ofconcrete
C20t25
C25/30
C30/37
C35/45
C40/50
C45/55
C50/60
strength)
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
1cm (tensile
strength)
2.2
2.6
2.9
3.2
3.5
3.8
4.1
fck (compressive
The strength class (i.e. C20) refers to cylinder strengthof concrete, ck. The cube strength is given as
the second figure (i.e. /25).
Shrinkage (longterm free shrinkagestrain Ecs) for normal weight concrete:
in dry environment
in other environments
325 x 106
200 x 106
The secant modulus ofelasticity for short term loading is given in Table 5.3 below.
Table 5.3  Secant modulus ofelasticity for concreteEcm for shortterm loading
ECCS N 87
Properties ofmaterials
Modular
61
For long term (pennanent) loads, the modulus of elasticity for concrete is reduced due to creep and is
taken as Ecm/3, leading to an increase in n by a factor of 3. In most cases of imposed loading the
representative value of modulus of elasticity is taken as EcmT2 (3.1.4.2(4)).
Although not generally required for general design:
Coefficient of linear thermal expansion,
5.3
= 10 x 106 / C
REINFORCING STEEL
Steel grades
B500 : characteristicyield strength fsk = 500 N/mm2
The modulus of elasticity of reinforcing steel is taken as for structural steel.
5.4
STRUCTURAL STEEL
Nominal values of material strength are as given below. The nominal values may be adapted as
characteristic values in calculations.
Nominalsteel
grade
t [nmi]
40mmzt100
t4Omm
S235
S275
S355
t :
fy
fu
fy
235
275
430
360
215
255
510
335
fu
340
410
490
No values
of material strengthare given for highstrength steel. For this steel, clause 3.2.1(2) of EC3 is
applicable.
ECCS N 87
62
Properties
Modulusof elasticity
Shear modulus
Coefficient of linear thermal expansion
E0
G0
ar
p
Numencal value
Unit
210000
81000
10 x 106
7850
N/mm2
N/mm2
jC
kg/rn3
5.5
Structural
Steel
Concrete
Steel
Profiled
Reinforcement
Steel
Decking
Shear connectors
(studs, angles,
Ta
Ic
Is
Tap
and longitudinal
shear in slabs
?vWs
Fundamental
1.10
1.50
1.15
1.10
1.25
Accidental
1.00
1.30
1.00
1.00
1.00
Valuesfor bolts, rivets, pins, welds and slip resistanceof bolted connections are as given in EC3 clause
6.1.1(2).
Where the member resistance is influenced by the buckling of the structural steel section, a specific
safety factor IRd = 1.10 is recommended (2.2.3.2(2)), (4.6.3), (4.8.3.2).
When the design value Lj is determined by tests, refer to Eurocode 4.
ECCS N 87
liadsandactions
63
6.
6.1
GENERAL
The loads to consider for the ultimate limit state and the serviceability limit state are given in the
relevant national codes of practice or Eurocodes.For infonnation purposes, table 6.1 gives a summary
of typical building imposedloads and table 6.2 gives a summaryof partial safety factors for actions on
building structures and for resistances and material properties used in EuropeanNational Codes.
6.2
For the situation where the profiled sheeting acts as formwork, the following loads should be considered
in the calculations taking into account any support (fig. 6.1):
selfweight of the steel decking
weight of the wet concrete
"ponding" effect (increased depth of concrete dueto deflectionof the sheeting)
construction loads
temporarystorage load, if applicable.
Self weight of the steel decking, weight of the wet concrete and ponding effect are considered as
permanent loads.
The construction loads represent the weight of operatives and concreting plant and take into account
any impact or vibration which may occur during construction. In any area of 3 m by 3 m (or the span
length, if less), in addition to the weight of the concrete, the characteristicconstructionload and weight
of surplus concrete should together be taken as 1.5 kN/m2. Over the remaining area a characteristic
loading of 0.75 kN/m2 should be added to the weight of concrete. These loads should be placed to
cause the maximum bendingmoment andfor shear.
(a)
concentration of
construction load
1.5
(b)
distributed
construction load
(c)
moment in midspan
loading. Without the concrete the sheet should be shown by tests or calculationto be able to resist a
characteristicload of 1 kM on a square area of side 300 mm in the most unfavourable place, at any
locationexcept a rib adjacentto a free edge.
If the central deflection 6 of the sheeting under its own weightplus that of the wet concrete,calculated
for serviceability, is less than 1/250 and less than 20 mm, the ponding effect may be ignored in the
design of the steel sheeting. If either of these limits is exceeded, this effect should be allowed for, for
example, by assuming in design that the nominal thickness of the concrete is increased over the whole
span by 0.78.
ECCS N 87
6.3
For the situation where the steel and the concrete act compositely,the loads acting on the slab should
comply with Eurocode I "Basis of design and actions on structures" (in preparation):
selfweight of the slab (profiledsheeting and concrete), when propping is used.
weight of floor finishes
live loads
For the servicelimit state, long durationvalues of the loads are given for the calculationof defomiations
taking into account creep and shrinkageof the concrete.
The loads shall be applied in whatever realistic combination is most unfavourablefor the effect under
consideration.
According to Eurocode4, Section 2.2.5, followingload arrangements and load cases are defined:
A load arrangement identifies the position, magnitude and direction of a free action. A load case
identifies compatible load arrangements, sets of deformations and imperfections considered for a
particularverification. For the relevant combinationsof actions (see section 1.4), sufficient load cases
shall be considered to enable the critical design conditions to be established.
Simplified load cases may be used, if based on a reasonable interpretation of the structural response.
For continuous slabs in buildings without cantilevers subjected to predominantlyuniformly distributed
loads, it will generally be sufficient to consideronly the followingload arrangements:
otherspans
a) alternate spans carrying the design variable and permanent loads (IQ Qk +
b)
ECCS N 87
Gk), all
65
actions
and
Load
C'
<
I!
liii
II
j
I
ill
1111
I.
'd '0
00
F
N
'00 V
'0
'0
IrF
F '0 ' VN
av
:.
'0
'0
'0
+0
0
'
0.'
0
0
Cfl
UZv
0.
0 't
0V
0 '0
'0
C.
'
"'
0.
0.
0C
'0
: ."
0
0 N
Cfl
O0
'
'0
z. '0 c
z'0N
.V
.
.'
0.
0.
V
w'
'6
0.
C)
00
'0
'0
.
O0O
rn
'0
'0
0.tn
'
0N
o0v
oN
o N
'0
'000
0 '0
'0
'0
0.
'0
cfl
'
'0
0 fl
'0
go
o fl
o0.rv
oa
00 w
o ''0
'0
C. ..
'0 0'0
'0
'0
'0
'0j
0 N
0 N
'0
0
0N
'0
'0
N'0
0N
'0
0N
'0 N'0
'0
0N
0N
0'0
NN
'
N'0'0
SS
0 n
cn
0'0e$
0N
0v
'0'0
mv
'0'0V
Ew
0r
Qv N
0 fl
0m
a.
'0
'S
'S
87
ECCS
1,7 (1)
1,5 (2)
1,5 (1)
1,35 (2)
1,6
1,5
(1)
1,5 (2)
1,35
1.4
1,0
1,5
1,7
1,7 (1)
1,5 (2)
1,35
1,4
1,0
1,5
1,7
1,2
Netherland
Norway
Portugal
1,3
1,3
1,5
1.0
1,0
1.0
PSbO,5
1,OXPSI
Swlcrland
1.0
1.0
1,3 (1)
1,3
1,0
Sweden
1,0
1,0
1,5
1,33
1.33
1,5
1,2
1.1
1,2
1,15 (2)
(2)
1,05 (2)
1,15
1,5
1,15
1,15
1.15
1,5
Spain
1,0(2)
1,5(1)
1,5
(1,35)
1,5
1,25
1,25
1,4
1,0
1,0
1,0
1,6
1,6
1,0
0,85
0,85
1,0
1,15
1.0
1,2
1,15
1,0
1,6
1,1
or (2)
1.15
0.85
1,0
1,15
1.0 (1)
1.12 (2)
1,0
1,7
______
1,075
1.5
0.8
1,0
1.0
(3)
1,1
1,0
1.0
1,0
1,0
1,0
1,0
1,0
1,0
1,1
1,1
1,0
1,0
Italy
1.35
or (2)
1,5
1,5
1,0
1.0
1,0
1.05
1,5
1,0
1,0
1,0
Great BrItain
Germany
1,7
1,5
1,35
0,9
0,9
1,6 (1)
1,35
1,2
1,3 (3)
1,0 (4)
1,0
1,2
1.5
1,5
Finland
1.35
1.0 (1)
1,3 (2)
France
RESISTANCESAND MATERIALPRCPER'IlES
1,2
1,2
1.2
1.0
1.3
1,0
1.15
1,1
(3)
1,1
1.0
1,1
1,0
1,0
1,2
1,1
(2) plastIc
1,0 (l)incaseoffire
Rak MX
SIA 160
BKR94
RSA 83
RESAP 8
RSBV 1990
NEN 5950
NEN 3880
TUB 1972
DH 14.2.92
PART.4
PART.8
3S5950
DIN 18800
codes
all other
701(l)
BAEL83,91
Dill .l'92
BI. 34
DS409
CODES
(2) concrete
(3) constructIon stage
(4) compositestage
1='yS'.1 for normal security and control class
shear debonding strength s=y1x2x3xy4x5=1.8
(1)steel deck
COMMETI'S
1.0
AccidentaleCondhlons
Normal Conditions
Accldent*l Conditions
Normal Conditions
SteelBars
Steel Sheet Steel Bars Concrete Steel
Dead load Permanent Live Load DeadLoad Permanent LiveLoad Concrete
Sheet
Load
load
1,2
1,2
1,2
1,2
1,2
1,2
1,0
1,0
1,0
1,4
1,4
1,4
Denmark
BelgIum
Austria
COUNTRIES
ACTIONSONBUilDING STRUCTURES
Table 6.2
Partial Safety Factors used in European National Codes.
7.1
DESIGN PROCEDURE
67
7.1.1 General
The aim of the design procedure is to proportion steel decking, to satisfy the basic requirements for the
ultimate limit states and the serviceability limit states for the construction stage of a composite slab,
given in Eurocode 4 and Eurocode3, Part 1.3. In Figure 7.1 a flowchartillustrating major steps for the
design of suitable steel decking is given. In most cases, the design is made in conjunctionwith the
design of the composite slab (see Chapter 8), using tables from the manufacturer of the profiled
sheeting. This simple design procedureusually follows the left hand side flow of the chart (figure 7.1).
If manufacturertables are not available, a detailed steel decking design procedure should be conducted
according to the right hand side portion of the flowchart. Both procedures are explained in the
following Sections.
In the tables and charts, the informationdoes not usually specify which limit state defines the value of
the maximun span length or concrete depth. For instance, when the value of the total deflection is
required, the designer must carry out calculations.
Detailed calculations are also necessary if design tables are not available or if the required load cases,
decking dimensions,support conditions or span length are not covered by the manufacturer'sdesign
charts or tables. In such cases, the following procedure, in agreementwith the Eurocode3, Part 1.3, and
shown in figure 7.1, should be used.
7.1.3 Loads
Loads acting on the steel decking
Loads assumed for the preparation of design tables, are generally selfweight loads plus construction
loads uniformlydistributed over equal spans in the most unfavorable situation. Special loads such as
storageloads are not considered. If present, they have to be considered as imposedvariableloads.
When decking is assumed to provide lateral bracing to supporting beams or temporary wind bracing
(diaphragm action), the appropriaterules in Part 1.3 of Eurocode 3 apply. It may be assumed that the
effectiveness of the lateral restraint is not impaired when the decking carries wet concrete.
ECCS N 87

68
Assume:
 Span length
orcontinuous)
(simple
 Slab
thickness
Choice ofdecking:
 Type
 Sheetthickness
 Propping
tthknesLJ
Are load tables
for construction condit
precalculated by
the manufacturer?
KIII1IIII0 r
yes
Is the decking
4
Crosssectional design
strength by calculation
or by testing
I
yes
Check other
considerations:
 Special loads
before concreting
 Non equal
spans
 Etc.
(Chapter8)
69
7.1.5 Analysis
Accordingto Eurocode4, elastic analysis for internal forces and moments shall be used. When sheeting
is considered as continuous, the flexural stiffness may be determined without consideration of the
variation of stiffness due to parts of the crosssection in compressionnot being fully effective.
For continuous decking, it is also possible to use a plastic analysis taking account of the reduction of
stiffness and allowing for redistribution of moments from the supports to the midspan. A partial
strength bending capacity must be considered over the support, determined by tests or founded on
theory. Variation in stiffnessdue to yielding of the steel decking over the supports must be considered
for the evaluationof deflections.
7.2
7.2.1 General
The crosssectionalpropertiesand resistancesshall be defined accordingto Part 1.3 of Eurocode 3, by
calculation, by tests or by calculation, completed by tests. Due considerationshall be given to the effect
of embossments or indentationson the design resistance.
Effective width
The effects of local bucklingshall be taken into account in the detenninationof the design strength and
stiffness of section. This can be accomplished by using effectivecross sectional properties,calculated on
the basis of the effectivewidths of individual elements, which are prone to local buckling:
b=pb
(7.1)
70
when
1.0
(7.2)
= (1.00.22/?)/?
when Xp>0.673
= 1.052.(bt)sI(acomI(Ek&J
(7.3)
where:
com
ka
t
:
:
actualmaximum compressivestress
buckling factor dependingon stress distribution
thickness of element
).
= 1J(1'y/ acr,s)
(7.4)
oc
=X
(75)
where:
acr,s
Aseff = X As
(7.6)
b)
Bending properties
Loadbearing capacity
The effectivecrosssection is assumed to consist oftwo strips adjacentto the webs of width befft2, with
beff as above, and the effectivearea As,effof stiffeners.
Deflections
Aseff = A5
(7.7)
MRd=fy
ECCSN 87
Weff/'YMl
(7.8)
where
Weff
71
effectivesection modulus
1.1 for ultimatelimit state
1.0 for serviceability limit state
C)
/90)2)/yMl (7.9)
where:
r
:
inner radius
:
La
bearing length
for end support La = 10 flhlfl
for intermediate support La depends on difference of the shear force at both sides of the
support:
if the shear force differs less then 20% : 1a = length of the support
if the shear force differs between20% and 30% : should be determined by interpolation
cxj
coefficient:
for end support, where d < 1.5 hw:
= 0.075
= 0.15
For this reason the decking manufacturersoften prefer first evaluate the characteristic by calculation
and after verify them by tests.
The testing shall be made accordingto Eurocode3, Part 1.3:
clause 9.4.1.2 for positive moment and bendingstiffness
clause 9.4.1.3 and 9.6.2 for intermediatesupport resistance (moment, reaction, rotation
capacity)
clause 9.4.1.5 for end support resistance (reaction).
7.3
72
In the other cases (two or more spans withoutprops), plastic design may be used.
Bending:
MSd,sup MRd,sup
(7.10)
(7.11)
MSd,span MRd,span
Support reaction:
RSd,ezvj RRd,end
(7.12)
RSgJ,jntRRd,int
(7.13)
if RSdjntI RRd,int
if 0.25
0.25
(7.14)
RSd,intIRRd,int 1 (7.15)
where:
MSd,span1MSd,sup
RSd,end RSCI,uIt
MRd,span, MRd,sup
RRd,end, RRcj,jnt
:
:
:
:
In the plastic design, it has to be verified that the ultimate design loads, do not exceed the failure loads
calculated from an analysis of the collaps mechanism. The ultimate design loads are obtained using
partial safety factors 'yQ = 1.5 (for variable actions = constructionloads) and 'Yo = 1.35 (for permanent
actions = nominal dead weight of the slab which comprises the sheeting and the concrete together with
any ponding effect if appropriate).
ECCS N 87
Basisofdesign  Constructioncondition
4.50
73
______
350 1
I. 3.a.j
z 2.50
C
V
E
o.so4
0
10
15
20
25
30
36
reaction (kN/m)
(7.16)
(7.17)
MsupMres
(7.18)
(7.19)
eores
where:
MSd,span
MRd,span
RSd,end
RRd,end
Msup
Mres
0res
The momentrotation behaviourcan be illustratedby the MO diagram given in figure 7.3.
For each test, a relation MO is obtained. Figure 7.3 represents the curves for different spans. The design
curve M8 is taken as the mean of the values M multipliedby 0.9.
Note that usually, plastic design leads to iterative calculation,the plastic support moment Msup being
adjusted in function of the calculated plastic rotation 0. The final values of the moment Msup and the
rotation 0 shall not exceed the extremevalues determined by tests.
ECCSN 87
74 
The iteration can be avoided by a simplified calculation with an assumed final value of the remaining
moment Mres, and verifyingthat the obtained rotation 0 does not exceed 0res corresponding to Mres
on the M0 diagram.
4
3.5
3
E 2.5
E
zx
C
E 1.5
0
E
0.5
0
0
0.01
0.02
0.
0.04
O.C
0.06
0.07
0.06
0.06
0.1
rotation (red)
7.4
If the central deflection of the decking under its own weight plus that of the wet concrete is less than
L/250 and less than 20 mm, the ponding effect may be ignored in the design of the steel decking. If
either ofthese limits is exceeded, thiseffect shouldbe allowed for.
The two limits L1180 and 20 mm do not have the same restrictive meaning : the deflectionL/180 should
be considered as an allowable limit value while the 20 mm deflection should be considered as a
maximum value for neglecting the pondingeffect in the weight of the slab.
Where soffit deflection is considered important (e.g. for service requirements or aesthetics)
necessary to reduce these limits.
ECCS N 87
it may be
75
7.4.2 Verification
Venflcation of the serviceability limit states are the following:
deflectionat midspan
and, in the case of continuous decking withoutprops:
acceptable load at intermediatesupport : for the characteristiccombinationof bending moment and
support reaction, no plastic deformationshall appear.
Deflection
The central deflectionof the side span of a continuous decking
6ser=
jm = L/ 180 or 20 mm
(7.20)
where:
MSer
0.9 MRd
Rr
0.9 RRd
Odr
(7.21)
1
125
0.25)
(7.22)
(7.23)
if
(7.24)
0.25
0.9 RRd
where:
Mr, RSer:
MRd, RRd:
ECCSN 87
Page blank
in original
8.
8.1
DESIGN PROCEDURE
77
8.1.1 General
The aim of the design procedureis to consider suitable steel decking, concrete cover and reinforcement
to satisfy the basic requirements for the ultimate limit states and the serviceabilitylimit states given in
Eurocode 4. In Figure 8.1, a flowchart illustrating major steps for the design of a composite slab is
given. In most cases, the design is made using tables from the manufacturerof the profiled sheeting.
This simple design procedure follows usually the left hand side of the flowchart, Figure 8.1. If
manufacturertables are not available, a detailed composite slab design procedureshould be conducted
according to the right hand side portion of the flowchart. Both procedures are explained in the
following Sections.
In thetablesandchartstheinformationdoesnot usually specify the limit state which defined the value
of the design load. In the cases where the value of the total deflection is required, the designer must
carry out calculations.
Detailed calculations are also necessary if design tables are not available or if the required load cases,
slab dimensions, support conditions or span length are not covered by the manufacturer's design charts
or tables. In such cases, the followingprocedure, in agreementwith the Eurocode4 and shown in figure
8,1, should be used.
8.1.3 Loads
Realistic estimationsof load arrangements and load cases should be used. Load arrangements may be
due to fixed interior partitions, machines etc. The most common load arrangement, however, is
uniformly distributedover all spans. Two load arrangements are normally checked:
Dead load on all spans with live loads appliedto alternate spans
Dead load on all spans with live load applied to two adjacentspans.
In all cases, loads shouldbe applied in whateverrealistic combination is most unfavourable for the effect
under consideration. Special load cases include seismic loads, moving concentratedloads, cyclical and
dynamic loads.
8.1.4 Analysis
Elastic, elastoplasticor plastic analyses may be used to determine internal moments and shear forces
acting upon the composite slab at the ultimate limit state. The design procedure for each method
proceeds as follows:
Elastic analysis. This analysis is greatly simplified as the effects of longitudinal debonding(slip),
concrete cracking, buckling of the decking, decking plastification,etc. are ignored. Crosssectional
properties are considered to be constant and uniformin both positive and negative moment regions.
If the uncrackedcrosssectionalstiffness is used, moment redistributionmay be assumed (maximum
of 30% moment redistribution).
ECCS N 87
78
Define a uniform
working load
Assume:
(ifnot made at construction
condition)
type
 Decking
Span length
(simple orcontinuous)
 Stabthickness
no
 Calculate effective
slab widthsin case of
concentrated or tine loads
 Assume support
reinforcement
\\\
no
Choosemethod ofanalysis:
 Elastic linearwith or
withoutredistribution
Define imposed
 Permanent toads
loading:)____
Live toads
,,,/
yes
Checkother
considerations:
 Specialtoads
 Non equalspans
 Openings
 Sound insulation
 Thermalinsulation
 Fire resistance
 Inplane bracing
no
 Bending
 Shear
yes
yes
\
/
Prepare working
drawings according
to Chapter 2

79
Permissiblespans (metres)
Support
Condition
000 075 150 200 250 300 350 400 500 600 750 1000 1250 1500 2000 2500
KN/m KN/m kN/m kNfm KN/& KN/m KN/m kN/m KN/m KN/m KN/a KN/m2 KN/in KN/m KN/m KN/m
SimplySupported
Semicontinuous
Multispan
AT
AT TA
199 199
199
199
199 199
199
199
199
199
199
199
178
149
111
089
239
239
239
239
239
239
239
239
239
239
239
223
178
149
111
089
239
239
239
239
239
239
239
239
239
239
239
223
178
149
111
089
470
420
386
368
353
341
329
320
298
279
256
200 163
138
105
085
470
420
386
368
353
341
329
320
301
283
252
197
136
104
085
161
Slabthickness H =110mm
IMPOSED LOADING
Support
Condition
000
075
KN/in kN/m
150
200
250
300
350
400
500
600
750
1000 125O
KM/rn2 KM/ni2 KM/rn2 KM/rn2 KM/ni2 KN/ni2 KN/rn2 KM/rn2 KM/ni2 Kt4/m2 KN/ni2 KM/rn2 KM/rn2 KN/rn
192
192
192
192
192
192
192
192
192
192 192
192
192
164
123
231
231
231
231
231
231
231
231
231
231
231
231
196
164
123 098
231
231
231
231
231
231
231
231
231
231
231
231
196
164
123
098
462
444
410
393
378
365
354
340
316
296
272
217
178
151
115
093
rA
Two Temp. Prop.
492
444
410
393
378
327
305
272
213 175
149
114
093
SimplySupported
A
A A
Semicontinuous
A A A
Multispan
AT
098
000
075
150
200
250
SimplySupported
A
Semi.continuous
Multi.span
A A
1A
Ar TA
KN/m
/2
300 350 400 500 600 750 1000 1250 1500 2000 2500
186
186
186
186
186
186
186
186
186
186
178
133
107
224
224
224 224
224
224
224
224
224
224
213
178
133
107
224
224
224
224
224
224 224
178
133 107
447
447
434
417
402
386
370
3.55
331
311
286
233 191
162
125
101
513
467
434
417
402
389
377
367
343
321
290
228
160
123
100
224
224
188
ECCS N 87
80
Elastoplastic analysis. In order to perform a plastic analysisthe rotation at hinges must be checked
except if class 'H' reinforcement is used and the span length is less than 3.0 metres. The simplest way
to meet the rotationalrequirements is to add reinforcement in negativemoments regions. If possible,
low yield reinforcement should be specified (with a yield stress between350 and 450 N/mm2).
reinforcement requirements are specified for all loading cases to ensure that the slab acts
homogeneously in the transverse direction. In general only a minimum amount of mesh reinforcement
(0.2%) is needed unless the following limits are exceeded:
Concentrated point loads are greater than 7.5 kN.
Concentrated line loads are greaterthan 5.0 kN/m.
When concentrated point or line loads parallel to the span of the slab are to by supportedby the slab,
the following formulais used to calculate effectiveslab widths:
(8.1)
bmbp+2(hc+hf)
where:
bm
hf
effectiveslab width.
width of the concentrated load perpendicularto the span of the slab. If the concentratedline
load is perpendicular to the span of the slab,
should be taken as the length of the
concentrated load.
thicknessof the concrete slab above the steel sheeting
thicknessof the finishes (if any).
reinforcement
ECCS N 87
(8.2)
81
(8.3)
(b)
bev = bm +
L [1(L/L)J
slab width
(8.4)
where:
L
L
:
:
ultimatelimit state is reached, based on one of the followingmodes of failure (Figure 8.4):
Flexure (Sections 1 andII): These sections can be critical ifthere is complete shear connection at the
interfacebetween the sheet and the concreteBendingresistancemay be checked accordingto plastic
theory. Several restrictions to the use of plastic theory are given.
Longitudinalshear (Section IV): The maximum load on the slab is detennined by the resistance of
the shear connection. The ultimate moment of resistance at section I cannot be reached. This is
defined as partial shear connectionTwo design methods may be used to check the longitudinal shear
resistancebetween the concrete slab and decking. These are referred to as the 'm&k' design method
and the design method.
Vertical shear (Section 111): .This section (at support reaction) will be critical only in special cases,
for example in deep slabs of short span with loads of relatively large magnitude. Vertical shear
resistancedue to a line load or punchingshear resistancedue to a point load must also be checked.
Section 8.2
of the present manual gives guidance on for the calculation of design crosssectional
resistances.
III
U;IIl
IV
Iv
Figure8.4  Criticalsections
Concrete cracking. Normally cracking occurs at or near internal supports. Minimum reinforcement
is required.
Midspan deflections. This refers to the maximum deflectionin sagging moment regions.
Endslip.This refers to the slipbetweenthe concreteslab and the decking at the end of the slab.
ECCS N 87
82
Vibrations. Generally only induced by heavy machinery or forklift trucks. In the case of office
buildings, vibrations may only be induced by pedestrians.
must be clearly indicated. Serviceabilitycriterion for each bay may be different thus care should be
taken during the design process and when drafting workingplans (see Chapter 2).
Section 8.3 of this manual gives guidance for the calculationof deflections.
Openings. Openingsmay be classified as small or large. Small openings require no special design
considerations. Large openings, however, require additional design work.
Sound insulation. No provisions for sound insulation are presently given in the Eurocodes for
composite slabs. Practice suggests, however, that the sound insulationprovided by a compositeslab is
directlyproportionalto its mass. As a general rule a combination slab will providethe same phonic
insulation as a homogeneous slab with a thickness equal to (the distance from the top of the slab
to the centroid of the decking).
Thermal insulation. No
provisions for thermal insulation are presently given in the Eurocodes for
composite slabs. Practice suggests, however, that the thermal resistanceof a compositeslabis directly
proportional to its thickness. Thermal resistance can be substantially improved using suspended
ceilings and lightweight concrete in place of normal weight concrete.
Fire resistance. Design provisions are available for calculating the crosssectional temperature
distribution of composite slabs in the Eurocodes. These values are somewhat conservative and in
practicetest values are often used. In general, however, the basic fire resistanceof a composite slab is
at least 30 minutes. The resistancecan be substantially improved by three different methods. First, a
suspended ceiling may be used. This is normally expensive since the ceiling must be carefully
detailed. Second, fire insulationmay be sprayed directly on the exposed face of the decking. Third,
additionalpositive moment reinforcementmay be placed in the slab. Steel decking with reentrant
ribs may not require additional reinforcement (rib is protected by the surrounding concrete). For
continuous slabs with such decking, the fire resistance can reach 120 minutes.
Seismic considerations. No provisions for seismic forces are presently given in the Eurocodesfor
compositeslabs. Experience suggests, however, that seismic forces generatedduring an earthquake in
the composite slab are developeddue to the following. First, vertical forces in the slab are directly
proportionalto its mass and live load. Secondly, all composite slabs act as inplacebracing, whether
or not they are designed as such. Significant forces may thus be developed due to building
movements. A minimum of 2 connectors per panel per support is suggested for composite slabs in
light seismic areas.
Inplane bracing. No provisions for inplane bracing are presently given in the Eurocodes for
compositeslabs. It is suggested, however, to includethe effects of the length to width ratio of the slab
and any openings. ECCS recommendations do exist for inplane bracing [ECCS publication No 19
"European Recommendations for the stressed skin Design of Steel Structures",under revision].
Section 8.4 of the present manual gives guidance for some of these special designs.
ECCS N 87
8.2
CROSSSECTIONAL
83
RESISTANCES
8.2.1 BendIng
For flexural calculations, the plastic crosssectionalresistanceMPRd. can be calculatedin both positive
(sagging) and negative (hogging) moment regions. When calculating this value the following
restrictions should be observed:
The effectivearea of the steel sheeting should be calculated ignoring the width of embossments and
indentations, unless it is shownby tests that a larger area is effective.
The effectivewidth of compressedparts of the sheeting should not exceed twice the effective width
normally calculated for class I steel webs.
a)
If the neutral axis of the composite slab is above the sheeting (the most common situation, see Figure
8.5), the crosssectional resistance, MPRd is equal to the following:
+
=
MPRd Ncf
(d  0.5 x)
(8.5)
Ncf= Ap gyp/Yap
(8.6)
where:
f
?ap
dx
:
:
:
:
:
fck
Ncf
(8.7)
b 0.85 fck/Yc
0.85
1'
L J,
yp/Yap
Figure8.5  Cross section in positive moment region
If the neutral axis ofthe composite slab is in the sheeting (not a commonsituation), the crosssectional
ECCS N 87
In negative (hogging) moment regions the steel sheeting should be ignored unless it is continuous.If
continuous sheeting is considered, the effective width of compressed parts of the profile should be
calculated.
The design sectionand the distributionof stresses at the ultimate limit state are shown in Figure 8.6.
The design negative bendingresistanceis given by yielding of the reinforcementat the support (underreinforced slab):
Mp.Rd = Asfysz7ys
(8.8)
where:
As
area of reinforcement
yield strengthof the reinforcement
partial safety factor for the reinforcement
leverarm of the internal forces Nc and Nt.
Nc
0.85 ck/Yc
= As ys/Ys = Nt
(8.9)
As f5fy5
bc0.85fck/yc
(8.10)
ds/2
(8.11)
where:
bc
ds
width of the concrete in compression, taken as the average width of the concrete ribs over
metre for simplicity (b =
: effectivedepth
:
h
hp
085ck IYc
2
ECCSN 87
_____________________________________________
85
VtRd = b
(8.12)
where:
m,k
A
L5
mm
normally taken as 1.25
The factorsm and k are obtained from at least 6 fullscale slab tests with simply supported slabs loaded
by two symmetrically placed concentrated line loads. Usually two groups of 3 identical tests are carried
out, one group with short and the other with long shear spans but still providing failure in longitudinal
shear. From each group the characteristic value is deemed to be the one obtained by reducing the
minimum value by 10%. The design relationship is formed by the straight line through these
characteristic values of both groups (see figure 8.7).
Note: Check must be made that these factors have been determined withoutthe influenceofthe
concretestrength(fck).
design relationship
A/bL
86
b) The t method
Slab tests have to be carried out in order to determine the design value of the horizontalshear strength
tu,Rd. Figure 8.8 shows the partial interaction diagram which is determined using the measured
dimensions and strengths of the concrete and the steel sheet for each particulartest specimen.
0,85 cm
if
j. N
i4
f yp
1)
1.0
test
'
,t'2
Mtest
MNcZ+Mpr
z=ht0.5xep+(epe)
(8.14)
Ap ypTYap
X=b.0fCmhC
(8.15)
where:
Nc
ht
e
cm
hc
Mpr
:
:
:
:
crosssectionalmoment at N
axial force in the concrete. This value can vary from 0.0 (no interaction) to Ncf (full
and Ncf are calculatedas given in clause 7.6.1.2 of EC4
interaction).
total depth of the slab
distance of the plasticneutral axis of the effectivearea of the sheetingto its underside (soffit)
distance from the centroidof the effective area of the steel sheet to its underside(soffit)
mean value of the compressivestrengthof the concrete
height of the concreteslab above the steel sheeting
reduced plastic moment of resistance of the steel sheetingcrosssection.
ECCS N 87
Mp
87
The maximum bending moment Mtest is evaluated from the test at the critical cross section(Dbeneath
the concentratedline load and thus, the degree of shear connection can be determined. If only partial
connection can be developed,i.e. < 1.0, the full bending resistanceMp.Rd cannot be attaired and only
a reduced value MRd can be achieved. The horizontal shear strength at the steelconcrete interface can
be calculated as follows:
Ncf
Ub.,+J)
(8.16)
where:
Ti
Ncf
b
Ls
L0
At the end of each test series the derived tuvalues providethe basis to determinethe characteristic shear
strength tu,pJ as the minimum value obtained from all tests reduced by 10%. The design shear strength
u,Rd is the characteristic value dividedby 'y = 1.25.
The vertical shear resistance, VvRd, of a composite slab subjected to a concentrated line load (this
includes support reactions)is calculated according to the following:
VVRd=bo dlRdkv(1.2+40p)
(8.17)
: mean width of open trapezoidal concrete ribs, or the minimum width of reentrant concrete
ribs
d
: positive bending region : d =
(distance from the top of the slab to the centroid of the
effectivearea ofthe steel sheeting,
negative bending region: d = d5 (distance from the bottom of the slab to the centroid of the
area of the reinforcement)
'rRd : basic shear strength of unreinforced concrete. This is equal tO 0.25 fctktlc
ctk =
0.05' defined in EC4, chapter 3
:
partial safety factor for concrete
Yc
:
p
A/b0d, but less than or equal to 0.02. This is a factor increasingthe basic shear strengthof the
concrete slab due to the presenceof sheetingor reinforcement
A
:
positive bending region : A = Ap (areaof the cross section of the sheet, see note in section
8.2.1)
(area of reinforcement)
negativebendingregion: A =
ti
ECCSN 87
88
(1.6  d), but greaterthan or equal to 1.0, with d in metres. This is a factor decreasingthe basic
shear strengthof the concrete slab due to increasing slab thickness. For composite slabs this
factor is between 1.3 and 1.5.
''p.Rd= Cp
(8.18)
where:
:
________
critical perimeter
loaded area
dpj
\)
Ta
t
h*d4
section aa
ECCSN 87
8.3
89
DEFLECTIONS
8.3.1 General
Deflections
of composite slabs are very difficultto calculate precisely. This is due to their complicated
crosssectional geometry and the possibility of longitudinal slip between the decking and concrete slab.
For internalspans, and externalspans with anchorages, longitudinal debondingnormally does not occur
at service load levels. The averagevalue of the cracked and uncracked momentsof inertia is thus used.
For externalspans without anchorages, this same moment of inertia may be used if fullscaletest results
indicate that slip does not exceed 0.5 mm at 1.2 times the design load. This information should be
obtained directly from the steel sheeting supplier.
8.3.2 Calculation
of deflections
Construction stage
An exampleof the statical system and loading case is given in Figure 8.11(a). For this example, the
deflection at constructionstage is:
(2.65 gap + 3.4 gc)14
6ser
(8.19)
384 Elap
where
Selfweight
gap
gc
lap
of the decking
g IJtII1JJJJI
a)
apfl Ill
LIEJJJJJJ LII
i 111111
if! i
LI I
iii
J i_i_I
11111 1
i I I
Minimum reinforcement
b)
Composite stage
An exampleof the statical system and loading case is given in Figure 8.11(b). The composite slab is
analysed at the ultimatestateas a series of simplysupported beams, but for the calculation of deflection,
we assume that the slab is continuous. For an end span, the deflectionunder the weightof floor finishes
has the value:
2.65
g$
(8.20)
&v,g=384 Elv,m
where:
g2
'v,m
The deflection of the composite slab under variable loading of long duration, for the case of only an
end span loaded, has the value:
&v,q
3.4g14
(8.21)
384 EIv,m
where:
:
Variable loading of long duration
q
a) Cracked section
The second moment of area 'vc of the cracked section can be obtained from:
'vc =
bx3 +
3n
 2
Ap (dp x) + lap
(8.22)
n.Ap( I
b
2bdp nAp
n = E /Ec
1)
(8.23)
b) Uncracked section
The second moment of area 'vu of the uncrackedsection can be obtained from:
'vu =
h )2 + bch + bchp (h  xu 
+ Ap(dpxu)2+Iap
where:
ECCS N 87
(8.24)
91
: average width ofthe concrete in the ribs over a slab with of 1 metre
positionof the elastic neutral axis:
b
Xii
8.4
hT+ bc h dp + flA d
bhc+bchp+nAp
(8.25)
VERIFICATION
MSd
MPRd
Md
MRd
(8.26)
M
MSd
MpRd
(8.27)
MPRd
C) Vertical
This check is rarely critical, however it may be in the case of deep slabs with loads of relatively large
magnitudes. This will occur at end supports where the bending moment is zero, or at intermediate
supports. In the lattercase, no interactionbetweenM and V is assumed. The condition is expressedas:
VSd
VSd
VVRd
(8.28)
92
Vvjd
(8.29)
where:
design value of the vertical shear (equivalent span, see figure 8.12)
VIRd: design value of the shear resistance (equivalent span, see figure 8.12)
VSd
IIILIIJ JUl
II11LIII1IL1IJiiiiJIi(I11JJJJJJ((t
Li
UJUw
flJiJjJjJllupy
Ii_I I I I I I I
11111
Liii II
IL],
L3
L2
A&
1fftuJ
LI_LI 111
J,LJ,
t  method
The design partial interactiondiagram  now calculatedwith designvaluesof material and geometrical
properties  represents the boundarycurve for the bending moment resistance MRd ofthe slab, i.e. MRd
of a crosssectionat a distance Lx from the nearer support is plotted against Lx. The scale is given by
the length Lsf where full shear connection (TI = 1.0) can be reached
= Ncf
L5 btu.Rd
(8.30)
It has to be shown for any cross section along the span that the design bending moment MSd does not
exceed the design resistance MRd. The corresponding verfication procedure is illustrated in Figure
8.13.
Verification of compositeslabs with end anchorage
In many cases throughweldedheaded studs are providedfor composite beam action and for economic
reasons they should also be considered as end anchorage means for composite slabs. Composite slabs
with additionalend anchoragecan only be verified using the partial connection method.
ECCS N 87
93
LL
LAj
LB
L4
02
0.14
0.6
Lsf LB
0.8
1.0
Figure8.13 Very'icationprocedure
Annex E requires 3 additional slab tests to determinethe horizontal shear strength of an end anchorage
in combination with a certain profile. Thus, it is possible to check if the composite action provided by
the sheeting and the resistance of the end anchorage can be summed up. The resistance of the end
anchorage
ye follows from:
Vt =
T Ncf turn
b (Ls + L0)
(8.31)
N =b
Lx
tuRd + Vld
(8.32)
This results in a shift of the basic partial interaction diagram in the Ldirection over a distance
representing the share of the end anchorage in the total horizontal shear resistance (see figure 8.14).
Finally, it has again to be checked if the existing bending moment MSd is not higher than the bending
resistance MRd for each cross section along the span length.
MRd
V1d
_____
 
NC
Lx
'A
LMP
Ncf bTURd
btuRd
MRd=Npz1+Mpr+Nasz2
(8.33)
where:
Np
bLxtu.Rd
= Asfsk/ys
Mpr = reduced plastic moment resistanceof the sheeting
Nas
085
f
=
)M
method.
a) Deflections
Vertical deflectionsmust not exceed the limiting values.
Construction stage (seeChapter 7):
6seradm=4 or20 mm
(8.34)
Composite stage
If the slenderness (span/effective depth) of the slab does not exceed the limiting values given in
Eurocode 2, this deflection check is not essential. For one way continuous slabs, concrete lightly
stressed, the limit is:
(8.35)
&v,q
(8.36)
(8.37)
ECCS N 87
95
where:
span of the composite slab
6max : total deflectionofthe slab, including any precamberand any variation in the deflectiondue to
the permanentloads immediately after loading, and including 82
deflectionunder the weight of floor finishes
6v,q : deflectionof the compositeslabunder variable loading of long duration,
: variation of the deflectiondue to variable loading acting on the slab plus any timedependent
82
deformations due to the permanent loads.
The limiting values axe recommended by Eurocode 3 for floors and roofs in buildings. If the composite
slab supports brittle elements (cement floor finishes, nonflexiblepartitions, ect., 82 must be limited to
11350.
b) Crack width
Given that there is a profiled sheet on the lower surface of the concrete slab, only concrete cracking at
the supports must be verified. Such verification should be made according to the established rules for
reinforced concrete, for example Eurocode 2.
In normal circumstances, minimum reinforcement placed at the supports is sufficient. Normal
circumstances axe : no exposure to aggressive physicalor chemical environments; no damage other than
cracking; no requirements regarding waterproofing of the slab; cracking can be tolerated with regards
to appearance. Such reinforcement is necessary when the slab is designed as a series of simply
supported beams.
The amount of minimum reinforcementis given by the following:
for slabs propped at the time ofconcreting:
Pmin = b hc = 0.4 %
(8.38)
Pmin=O2 %
C)
(8.39)
The tendency for a floor to vibrate in a perceptible manner depends on the mass of the floor, its
dynamic characteristics andthe nature of the disturbancecausing the loading. The latter may be caused
by movement of occupants,by machinery,wind or by externaleffects transmitted through the building
structure (traffic or adjacent construction).
In the case of composite floors one of its structural benefits, its reduced mass may lead to a more
"lively" response in similar conditions when compared to conventional twoway spanning reinforced
concrete slabs. Additionally the composite floor is essentially a oneway spanning element which may
further increase the problem.
Design methods for assessing the acceptability of floor vibrations are generally based on simplified
empirical approaches due to the complexity of modellingthe loading and the structural response of the
flooring.
These methods are all based on some form of oneway spanning action and take into account the whole
floor structure including the supportingbeams.
ECCS N 87
The equivalentbeam method is often used for compositeconstruction. In this technique the steel beam
and an appropriate width of composite floor is used to calculate the section properties from which the
fundamental frequencyf0 is obtained
El
2 y me
it
(8.40)
Where I is the second moment of area for the transformed section, m is the mass per unit length of the
section which has a simply supported span 1. In a simplified approachthis natural frequency should be
greater than a threshold frequency but more correctly should be related to the degree of damping and
the building usage.
The other techniques for the assessment of acceptability include the heeldrop approach, the response
factor method and the minimum frequency approach. All these techniques do not produce reliable
results when compared to the limited field measurementinformationavailable. The use of increasingly
slenderfloorsmeans that vibration should be considered at the design stage, there is a need, however, for
more sophisticated analysis to predict frequency response.
ECCSN 87
97
9.
9.1
DIAPHRAGM EFFECT
A sheetingspanning betweenthe beam top flangesand fastened with screwsor pins acts as a diaphragm
and provides a stabilisingaction.
When using this stabilising action, the sheeting should meet the general requirements formulated in
Eurocode 3 Part 1.3, and special requirements given in Section 9.1.1.
See also "European Recommendations for the application of metal sheeting a diaphragm (in progress;
previous ECCS publicationNo. 19).
The shutteringcan be assumed to provide lateral bracing if the inplane stresses in the sheeting due to
diaphragm action do not exceed 25% of the normal resistancestresses.
b) Strength and stiffness control of a shear panel
Definition : the shear panel is the part of the sheeting contained between two adjacentbeams.
The stabilising action of the diaphragm is the most efficient if the unstiffened flange of beam is in
tension.
In case of doubly or monosymmetrical flexural members such as I beams (Figure 9.1), the stabiising
action of the sheeting may be calculated as follows.
(shear panel)
Ho
q=
kr
L
62.5  c
(9.1)
where:
N=M/H0
(9.2)
ECCS N 87
98
M,H0
seeFigure9.1
coefficientdependingon the number
kr
kr
=
(O.2+)0.5
= n+
1
of members to stabilise:
(9.3)
L, n, w
c+ c
cl.
The maximum shear force generatedin the shear panel by a beam to be stabilised is:
Vmax=J
(9.4)
(9.5)
which is, taking into account the above equation, equivalent to:
max
0.5
(9.6)
where:
p
:
:
sheeting
(bracing)
______
n w
Figure9.2  Shearpanels to stabilise beams
ECCSN 87
99
VVult
(9.7)
where:
Vult
Vult=flsFs+Fp
number of seam fasteners per side lap (excludingthose which pass through both sheets and
beam,
Furthermore, to prevent nonpermissible modes, the following conditions are required:
a) sheet/beam fastenerstrength:
(9.9)
0.6Fp
(9.10)
0,3tL5Wf I d5
(9.11)
Vult
where:
d
: pitch of corrugation
:
thickness of the core material of the sheeting(excludinggalvanisingand coatings)
: design yield strength of the sheet material
c) shear buckling
VredtVu&
(9.12)
where:
Yred
reduced shear buckling strength under combined local and global buckling:
VgVt
(9.13)
Vredvg+v,
V = 4.83E (t/t)2 wt
Vg
(9.14)
(9.15)
where
ioo
The forces in the connections may be calculated assuming the composite diaphragm is rigid with the
failure criteria being the shear strength of the fastenersor shear connectors. The shear capacity of the
fasteners may be taken as that applied at the temporary stage. In cases where welded shear connectors
are employed, the current evidence suggests the mode of failure is similar to that for the pushoff
strengthcapacity.
For seismic design it is recommended that weldedshear connectors should be employed with steel bar
reinforcement looped around connectors to ensure continuity.
The following rules which are contained in the European Recommendationsfor Steel Structures in
Seismic Zones (ECCS publication No 54) should be considered for diaphragms and horizontal bracing.
the horizontaldiaphragm and bracing should be able to transmit, to the various antiseismic elements
to which they are attached,the forces derived from an analysisof the whole building multipliedby a
magnification factor = 1.5.
the horizontal diaphgrams in reinforced concrete should be reinforced in two
orthogonal directions
and the reinforcementanchoredto the perimeterbeams.
diaphragms which consist of parallelribbed elements should have an additional layer of
reinforcementplaced perpendicularyto the ribs in the upper layer of concrete. This reinforcement
should have an area of not less than 200 mm2 per metre. This reinforcement may be located in
special transverse ribs located at not more than 2.5 m centres.
for prefabricated plates or slabs, the reinforcement should be in two orthogonal directions. They
should be connected to the supporting beams on all four faces in such a way that the connected
structure acts as a truss system in a horizontal plane.
9.2
FIRE DESIGN
9.2.1 Definitions
The standard fire resistance is the ability of a structure or of the structural component to fulfil its
required functions (load bearing function and/or separatingfunction) for a stated period of time in the
standardfire exposure.
The load bearing function is the abilityof a structureto sustain all relevantactionsduring fire (criterion
R).
The thermal insulation criterion defines the ability of a separating member to prevent excessive
transmission of heat (criterion I).
The integrity criterion defines the ability of a separating member to prevent passage of flames and hot
gases (criterionE).
only "R"
101
:
:
Where load bearing functionin the case of fire is required,structures shall be designed and constructed
in such a way that they maintaintheir load bearing functionduring the relevant fire exposure  criterion
When a separating function is required, the respective members shall be designed and constructed in
such a way, that they maintaintheir separatingfunctionduring the fire exposure, i.e.:
 no integrity failure due to cracks, holes or other openings which are large enough to cause fire
penetration by hot gases or flames  criterion "E";
 no insulation failure due to temperatures of the nonexposed surface exceedingpermissible limits criterion "I".
The permissible average temperature rise of the nonexposed surface is limited to 140C and the
maximum temperature rise to 180C.
9.2.4.1
a) General
(1) Thefollowing rules apply to the calculation of the standardfire resistance of both simply supported
and continuous composite concrete slabs with profiled steel sheets and additional reinforcement,
when heated from below by the standardfire.
(2) This method is only applicableto directly heated steel sheets not protected by any insulation and to
compositeslabs not insulated on top side.
(3) The possible effect of axial restraint on the fire resistanceis not taken into account in the subsequent
rules.
(4) For a design complyingwith Part 1.1, of Eumcode 4, the fire resistanceof compositeconcreteslabs
with proffledsteel sheet withoutadditionalreinforcement is at least30 minutes, when assessedunder
the load bearing criterion "R". For means of verifyingwhetherthe thermal insulationcriterion "I" is
fulfilled. see below.
b) Insulation
with respectto the thermalinsulationcriterion "I" depends only on the effective
(1) Thefire resistance
thickness of the slab.
(2) The effective thickness hoffis given by the formula:
1e1_+_t2\
heffh1+O.5h2(i+i3J
r
,ti_+_2\1
heffhl [l+0.75+.3)]
forh2/h1l.5andhl>SOmm
(9.16)
forh2/hl>1.5andhl>5Omm
(9.17)
The cross sectionaldimensions of the slab hi, h2, Li, 2, 3, are given in Figure 9.3.
ECCS N 87
102
(3) 1113 > 21l, the effectivethickness should be taken equal to hi.
hefftbi
_____________________E 1)3
__________
1
13
h3
"'74E
e'ct
.l3j
screed
12
240
(5) The thickness 113
calculation of
hf.
Mininuimeffectivethickness
heff (mm)
80h3
90h3
105h3
125  h3
150h3
170 h3
of the screed layer should not be larger than 20 mm for the purpose of the
(6) Where lightweight concrete defined in 1.2.2.2. (EC4, Part 1.2) is used, the minimum effective
thickness of table 9.1 and the concrete temperature of table 9.5 may be reduced to 90 % of the
valuesgiven.
C) Load bearing resistance
Basis of calculation
(1) The fire resistance with respect to failure (2.1, P(2), EC4, Part 1.2) is assumed to be reached if the
design load bearing resistance in the fire situation Rf,d of the slab decreasesto a level equal to the
design effect of actions in the fire situation Ef,d (4.1, P(6), EC4, Part 1.2).
(2) The design load bearing resistance in the fire situation Rf,d shall be calculated on basis of the
elementaryplastic theory, using the rules specified hereafter.
(3) For the various statical systems the failure conditionsmay be formulated on basis of the elementary
plastic theory, when plastic moments and slab geometry are known. In table 9.2, some examples are
given.
4) On basis of the detailed calculation rules (8) to (12) of this section, a plastic bending moment
distributionmay be establishedleading to the ultimate bendingmoment resistance.
(5) In order to guarantee sufficient deformationcapacity for continuous slabs, rules (1), (2) and (3) of
4.2.7.3 of Part 1.6 of EC2, Draft August 1992, should be fulfilled.
(6) The effect of both, the tensile strength of the concrete and the strength of the steel sheet may be
ignored.
ECCS N 87
103
(7) The fire resistance with respect to the thermal insulation should be fulfilled according to
"Insulation".
Note:
Rules (4) and (5) of 9.2.4.1 b) "Insulation" are necessary to ensure low temperaturesin the upper
part of the concreteslab in onler to allow the assumptions of (8) and (12).
Table 9.2  Failureconditions
for slabs
\L
c)
2
C
or
''
u,eqxL2i8
q8x,eiL2
Mu,e
'
\p)O
a
O
E
C
>
Failure condition
or
8 , 3.2I
+
,e
/ L2
c_,
C.?
t.
M,e\
I
,.'
E
E'
oE
5
g.
'
or
q Sx
'
or
+JM,6j qxL2i8
, j,e /
+
J)
J,eqxL2/8
q8xM,eJ,L2
Mu,e
M,9
(8) The compressivestrength for concrete should be taken at room temperature (20C).
(9) The relationship betweenthe temperature 8, of the reinforcing steel and the standardfire durationis
given in table 9.3 accordingto the geometricalpositionof the reinforcing bar in Figure 9.4.
Calculationofthe negativeplastic bendingmoment M9
(10) The negativeplastic bending moment of the composite slab may be calculated by taking account
of the reduced compressive strength of the concrete in the ribs and integrating over the
depth of
the ribs. As a conservative simplificationthe composite slab may be replaced by a slab with a
uniform thickness equal to the effectivethickness heff accordingto (2) of 9.2.4.1 b) "Insulation".
ECCS N 87
(11) Temperature fields 0c in the concrete slab may be taken from table 9.5 for various standard fire
durations.
(12) The maximum stress level of the reinforcing steel situated in the tensile zone of the slab should be
taken at room temperature, 0max (0) = fsy(20C).
240
1
Os=ll753SOy
Os=128535OY
0s= 1370350y
Os = 1490 350. y 1000C(y
os=
4,0)
/;i+
(9.18)
distances [mm] of the reinforcing bar to the profiled steel sheet, as specified in Figure
9.4 with:
Ul,u2,u3
U[, U2 50 mm,
U3 35 mm
ISLAB
.I_
to:
(3) The thermal insulation criterion "I" is assessed accordingto (1) to (6) of 9.2.4.1 b) "Insulation",by
deducing from the minimum effective thickness (beff) given in table 9.1, the equivalent concrete
105
mm
3O
535
705
10
470
642
738
15
415
681
20
25
350
581
525
469
571
30
300
250
421
35
210
374
40
180
327
50
55
140
289
250
200
519
473
428
387
60
110
80
80
60
45
100
9.3
6 9
140
100
627
I2l
754
697
642
591
542
493
345
454
415
294
369
271
220
160
180'1240'
h
738
689
740
635
590
549
700
670
645
508
550
520
342
469
430
270
210
330
260
395
495
305
150mm
a group of small openings can also be assumed to be equivalentto a larger opening when the
ratio of openingin a given area is greater than 50%.
However,
b) Trimmer beams
Usually, slab openings and service holes are framed with a trimmer beam arrangement. Trimmer beams
are continuous membersusually employed to secure flexural continuityand stability of the slab. In the
case where the trimmer is interrupted by a penetration hole, it is necessary to consider different
construction arrangements. This may include one or more trimmer beams depending on the position
and the size of the hole (see Figure 9.6). Main trimmer beams are positioned along the slab opening
(parallelto the rib) and in the transversedirection, secondary trimmer beams are placed perpendicular
to the corrugationof the steel sheeting.
The purpose of such trimmer beams is to support the strip of composite floor which is interrupted by
the slap penetration.
The loads taken by the trimmer beams are then transmitted to the main or secondary members
depending on the complexity of the beam network.
ECCS N 87
iot
m
I

small
holes
This technique should also be used in the case of holes interferrmg with areas subjected to large line
load loads or when the hole is in the neighbourhood of masonry walls or partitions sensitive to
differentialdisplacement.
There is also the case where the local deflections might exceed the permissiblelimits though previously
they were not. Finally, this type of framing is requiredwhen it is proposed that the floor will be subject
to lifting equipmenton the edge of the slab opening (e.g. forklift trucks)
ECCS N 87
..

107
secondary
trimmers
beam
L..
main trimmers
rib direction

span
Figure9.6  Main andsecondaiy trimmer beams
Crosssection AA
main
trimmer
secondary
trimmer
main beam
or floor beam
Crosssection AA
1'
BL/6
main trimmer
B is at least 2 corrugations
1
I
In all these cases the designeris requiredto accountfor the dead and live loads which act in the vicinity
of the openings.
109
a) Flexural strength
The flexural capacity may be increased using steel reinforcementplaced in trough of the profile (see
also Figure 9.9). In that case, the reinforcementbars are positionnedequally in each trough within the
openingtrimmer area.
w/2
Figure9.9 Additional longitudinal reinforcement
In the hogging (negative bending moment) area the layout of the steel reinforcement does not
necessarily need to be alterated when the reinforcement is offset from the opening.
When this is not the case, the negative steel bars must be placed in the area close to the trimmer or wider
when this is necessary (seeFigure 9.10).
of the negative
The maximum area of the negative reinforcement in the trimmer area is limited by the permitted
percentage of steel reinforcement. This ratio produces the maximum possible negative bending moment
for the slab thickness (total depth of the slab excludingthe steel sheet).
The length of the additional reinforcementis designed in order to ensure an adequate bond length to
transmit the bending moment interrupted by the opening. The transmission of the tensile forces by
these bars to the rest of the slab is considered to be achieved by a 45 distribution.
b) Shear strength
should be given to the load path from the trimmers to the main frame to determine the
shear force diagram for the main trimmer.
Consideration
In this analysis, the true layout of the opening must be considered in order to assess as precisely as
possible the actual reaction for the troughs at the trimmer and more particulary in the vicinity of the
supports.
The design is satisfactory when the shear force is within the permissible shear capacity of the troughs,
which can be reinforcedwhen necessary.
For other cases, the loads transmitted by the trimmers are taken using reinforcementcages as shown on
Figure 9.11 and designed according to the concrete code.
The shear stress limitationin the troughs is checked by comparing the permissible stress associated with
the shear reinforcement system and the shear force at the specific point. The shear force safety criterion
ECCS N 87
110
consists of checking that the stress introduced in the corrugation by the total shear force point is less
than or equal to the permissible shear stress capacityof the reinforcement.
w/2
1

w/2

y :.lTIr:c
"1
111
Case
hi this situation, the composite action betweenthe concreteand the profile is neglected,the strip [Xa] is
considered as a plainreinforcedconcrete slab whose thickness is equal to the depth of the slab above the
proffle.The main directionof bendingis perpendicularto the proffle ribs. Reinforcementis required in
the lower part of the strip [Xa] perpendicularto the decking corrugations, 10 mm above the top of a
trapezoidal profile.
Depending on the choice of the designer, the reinforcementcan be uniformly distributed between the
opening and the supporting beam or concentrated in a quarter of this width towards the opening in
order to reduce the load applied to the main trimmers.
In this case the profile is consideredas a formwoit for the strip [Xa] (see Figure 9.13). The device used
to fasten the forinwork to the sides is simply designed to avoid a possible separationof the proffle from
the concretewithoutany allowance for local forces.
The most frequentsolution consists of placing a steel angle to which the steel sheet is fixed by mean of
the usual fastening devices (rivets,selftappingscrews,etc...)
A width less than a quarter (mentioned above) is possible providingthe bonding betweenthe proffle and
the slab, which are assumed to work in composite manner, is satisfactory.
The support of the proffle must be then set on a positive support as explainedlater for case B.
ECCS N 87
112
b/a 0.5
strip
EXa]
strip
EXb}
b/a
1.5
ribs of decking
concrete slab
Figure 9.13  Main bendingdirectionfor stripsIXa] and (XbJ
B
F
:1
/1
1/
7;'
/1'
trapezoidal ribs e = 10 mm
II
reentrant shape e = 0
113
Case B
In this situation, supportingbeams must be placed around the opening.The beam takes half the load of
the sthp [Xb] or a lower percentageif the flexural reinforcement bars are positionedas indicatedabove.
Checking of the supporting conditions for the deck.
The end of the profile should rest on a support (generally steel), whose form fixed by a steel angle
provides the formworkfor the opening (see Figures 9.15 & 9.16).
When the steel decking cannot be designed as above, it is necessary to have an edge section which
ensures the proffle can transmit forces to the reinforcement of the beam (see Figure 9.17).
A satisfactory solution (see Figure 9.18) generallyconsists in placing steel bars in the troughs of the
proffle. This reinforcement are designed to carry the shear forces. They must have a sufficient length
for anchorage and support the profile.
The end sectiontransmits forces to the upper part of the trimmer.
Reinforcement
The lower steel reinforcement is designed according to the concrete code. The span of the secondary
trimmeris similar to the span mentioned above. The lower reinforcementis bent up in order to transmit
the shear in the secondary trimmerto the upper part of the main trimmer(see Figure 9.18).
i.
4J
Figure9.16  Supported endof theprofile using afoldedplate
ECCS N 87
114
.
.6
I
1:I. T;
shear reinforcement(45)
9.4
CONCENTRATED LOADS
ECCS N 87
115
Concentrated load
Any loadwhich
a) isappliedoveranareaoflessthat45Ommx45Ommormthecaseofalineloadlessthan300mm
wide
and/or
b) causes, in the positive moment region, a freemomentor shear of more than 10% of the positive
moment or shear bond capacity of the compositesection
Repeated loading
Any loadingon a composite structure which is applied for more than 50'OOO cycles and causes a
positive moment or shear of more than 10% of the positive moment or shear bond capacity of the
composite section.
This loading includes the considerationof vertical and horizontalloads associatedwith the braking and
general movement of rolling loads.
Fatigue loading
that may be consideredto have an effect on the serviceability or ultimate
Any cyclic loadingsequence
limit state capacity of the composite slab. For the purposes of design and testing the number of
repetitions appropriate for fatigue loading shall be 2 million cycles. For cases of repeated loading
(comprising vertical and horizontal loads) defined below, the overall assessment of fatigue life shall be
carriedout by consideringthe spectrum of loads and cycles to which the slab subjected.
The bending resistance of the composite slab which may be adequate for the equivalent uniformly
distributed load case may be inadequate for the heavy point load case. l'his could arise for the flexural,
vertical shear or longitudinal shear capacity (especially close to supports). In these cases additional bar
reinforcement should be introduced either over the supports or as positive reinforcementin the troughs
of the profile.
The following detailed recommendations proposed by the Steel Construction Institute (New Steel
Construction, December 1993, p 37) reflect current good practice for the design of composite floors
subjected to heavy local wheel loads:
The load carrying capacity of the simplysupported slab should exceed the factored uniformly
distributedload on the floor.
The flexural capacityof the slab with the moveable loads in their worstpositions should be adequate.
If not additional bar reinforcement should be included over all supports. The bar reinforcement
should have a cover of 30 to 40 mm from the top of the slab and extend into the span by at least one
quarter of the span length. Additional steel may also be placed in the troughs of the profile in the
positive moment region.
The additional bar reinforcement should have a minimum percentage of 0.5% (of gross concrete
area) over supportsand 0.2% eLsewhere.
The vertical shear and punching shear capacity of the slab with the moveable load in its worst
position should be checked. A minimum overall slab depth of 140 mm with not less than 80 mm of
concreteabove the top of the deck is recommended.
The deflection of the slab should be limited by using slab
span/depth ratios of less than 25.
ECCS N 87
116
The use of through deck welded shear connectors or other means of providing end
anchorage is
recommended to increase the shear bond capacityof the slab.
The above recommendations should be followed for all cases of repeated or fatigue loading ensuring
that normally the limiting ultimate limit state criteria is flexural capacity. In cases where this is not
possible and the moment capacity of the slab is inadequate the slab may be designed as a continuous
reinforced concrete slab ignoring the contributionof the steel deck and including additionalreinforcing
bars in the deck troughs. This may be considered appropriate for heavy imposed loads of over 10
kN/m2 or long term usage by heavy movingloads.
9.5
SOUND INSULATION
The acousticalinsulation of a compositefloor may be determinedusing one of the two methods which
axe outlined below.
to its mass
D
V
vi
d = Dvi
where:
D : total thickness
d : average thickness
V1 : centroId coordinate
SlabDepth[cm] 10 11
12
13 14 15
40mmdecking
47 48 50 51 52 54
70 mm decking
45 47 49 50 52
Figure 9.19  Examples ofcomposite slab average depth and their acousticalpeiformance
ECCS N 87
117
S
S
S
S
Efficient
Efficient
Inefficient
Acoustic
Performance
MassDumperMass
[RdB(A)J
GAIN
Law
125
Lhi
Frequency [Hz]
ECCS N 87
118
Airborne Sound
The acousticalinsulationto airborne sound of a system made up from a composite slab and a
suspended ceiling is acceptable if the vibration frequency is less than 60 Hz. This frequency can be
approched using the following fonnula:
f0=
1
/1
where:
: vibration frequency
mi : slabgross weight in kgfm2
m2 : ceiling weight in kg/rn2
K : dynamic stiffnesscoefficientexpressedin NewtonMietre
f0
Impact Sound
Slab weight influences only slightly the acoustic at reaction of composite slabs to impact sounds. It is
therefore necessary to use one of the three following methods in order to acheive efficient sound
insulation to this type of noise:
The use of shock absorbingfloor cover such as deep carpeting (see Figure 9.22).
The use of a flexible filler betweenthe composite slab and the mortar finish for the tiling (see Figure
9.23).
The use in the false ceiling of a layer of mineralglass wool (see Figure 9.24).
.._._ Topping
Flexible
material
Slab
119
(1) Steelsheet
(2) Concrete slab
(3) & (4) Suspension
(6) Suspended ceiling
(5) Insulation
(6) Suspended ceiling
Flexible filler
floor
inserted
Acoustic
ceiling
Airborne noise
R dB (A)
47
52
62
Impact noise
72
67
65
LndB(A)
Note that for:
airbornenoise
impact noise : the lower values are better for the floor
9.6
CORROSION PROTECTION
9.6.1 Introduction
Composite floors are generally used in interior environments. Special attention to corrosion protection
should be paid in places, where penetration of water or corrosive substances into the slab may take
place. Corrosive compoundsin the air or condensationmay effect the surface of the sheet. The correct
selectionof the surface treatmentoffered by the manufacturerensures that the protectionis satisfactory
for the particularenvironment.
From the infinite range of environments, only four categories are defined in this document for reasons
of simplicity. Coating performance may be greater or less than quoted, depending on the precise
conditions experienced. The classification is not exactly the same as that specified in ENV 199211:1991 (Eurocode 2). Where possible, the equivalent category is given into brackets.
ECCS N 87
120
A : Normal
b) Prepainted steel
The most commoncoating materials used for organic coated flat sheet production together with their
normal coating thicknesses are given in table 1 of PrEN 101691:1993. In this table, there are two
coatings which are especiallyrelevant for the compositefloor applications:
Nominal thickness (primer included) = 25 p.
1) Polyester (symbol = SP)
2) Polyvinylidene fluoride (symbol = PVDF)
(also called aluzinc)is an alternative coating to the galvanizedcoating. This coating is not
compatible with wet concrete. Therefore, this coating may not be used for the composite floor
Galvalume
application.
Mechanical bending
Mechanical
9.6.5 Recommendations
In general, the followingcoatings are recommended:
Class
A:
Normal
Coating recommended
galvanized steel (Z 275)
Occasional condensation
Frequent condensation
Frequent condensation
with corrosiveatmosphere
ECCS N 87
Designexamples
10
121
DESIGN EXAMPLES
10.1
Problem
10.1.1
An architectwantsto predesign a compositefloor located in a small two storey building with a storage
area on the ground floor and an office area on the first floor. The design requirements given by the
client area:
Live load of 3.0
Permanentload of 0.5 kN/m2
Composite slab cast withoutprops because of the high ceiling level needed (6 metres)
Fire resistanceof one hour
Acousticalperformanceof 52 dB(A) to airbornenoise (the storage area includes a noisy
workshop)
The architect can determinethe minimum thicknessof the slab and the maximum beam spacing to cast
the slab withoutpropping as follows:
10.1.2
Predesign information
epaisseur d (Cm)
paisseur
Ia lle
(mm
100
075
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
22
25
30
279 270
307 297
262
288
255
280
248
273
242
267
237
261
232
256
228
223
246
216
238
206
228
193
214
370 359
407 394
349
383
339
374
330
364
323
316
348
309
341
303 298
288
256
203
335
318
304
286
11
0 75
A:
A
flche /300
100
12
356
LAL
183
732
251
329
350 daN/rn2
L
jusque 2,90
de 2,90 a 3,30
de3,303,55
de 3,55 a 3,70
de3,703,80
de3,80 3,95
de 3,95 a 4,30
de 4,30 a 4,50
de4,504,65
de4,655,00
de 5,00 a 5,40
de 5,40 a 5,60
de 5,60 a 5,85
de 5,85 a 6,00
de6,006,10
de6,106,30
de6,306,50
de 6,50 a 6,65
de 6,65 a 6,90
de6,907,10
de7,10 a 7,20
de7,207,40
de7,407,50
=0,75mm
,,
,,,, 11
11
,,, 11
11
11
11
12
13 __
,,
, 18
19
14,,
15
7700
16 P700
17
18
, 20
21
7003
__
"
222P600
23 '600 7700
122
Slab depth
COFRASTRA 40
COFRASTRA 70
Fire rating
COFRASTRA
[cm]
COFRASTRA
required
40
70
60'
90'
11
120'
10
13
14
180'
14
17
Solution
The minimum thickness of the slab is given by the higher thickness necessary to achieve the fire or the
10.1.3
acousticalperformance required.
The second criteriongives a 15 cm slab overall thickness,the minimum thickness for a fire rating of 1
hour is just 11 cm. The minimum thicknessfor this case is therefore 15 cm.
The maximum span of the slab is then given by the load carrying capacity. The maximum value is 2.48
metres for 15 cm deep slab with a 0.75 mm thick steel sheet. The second part of the table shows that a
total loading of 3.5 kN/m2 can be achieved using a 11 cm thickslab.
it may be seen that the design of the composite slab is governed by both the propping
and the acoustical requirements. It should be noted that the use of an appropriateacoustic solution as
given in Chapter 8 can allow the reductionof the slab to 11 cm (i.e. a saving in selfweight of 1 kN/m2)
and permit a span up to 3.7 metres withoutpropping.
In conclusion,
ECCS N 87
123
Designexamples
10.2
10.2.1
Data
a) Actions
weight of the wet concrete (ht = 120 mm)
G = 0.09 kN/m2
G = 2.04 kN/m2
distributedconstruction load
s=
S2
selfweight of sheeting
0.75 kN/m2
1.50 kNfm2
actions:
YQ
= 1.50 (constructionload)
material:
(depth of profile)
hh5 == 60 mm
mm (depth of slab)
120
I = 47.660
A
.,.511 
I
50 4
0(1
4.__
I
E 3.C..
2.50
lii
2.c:
1.50j
1.00
0.50
I

0.00 'uIIII
0.00
_______________ ______________
.
5.00
..
_______________
10.00
15.00
reactIon (kNim
______________
20.00
25.00
Figure 10.2.1 Relation betweenmoment and support reaction (Lsupport = 100 nUn)
ECCS N 87
124
Span resistance:
Mr,max
=
Mser,max Ys 3.64 kN*m/m (negative service allowable moment)
Mrrnin
Mu,min
Mres
Rn,ser
Rmin
20.26
max
intermediatereaction)
Rmax
Rax
qi = g + s1 = 2.88
q2=g+s1s2=3.63kM/rn2
125
Designexanp1es
Q2=yGg+YQS1 +)'Q S2
== 1208
ZM=m
M
3.35
ser,mm
Zr =
Rmt
ser,max
= 20.26 = 1878
10.79
Rmt
ser,mm
ZfZJ1 _L2O8L878_l_L196
1208(18781)
ZM (ZR 1)
R
ZMZR1 _L208L8781_3243
ZR (zM 1)
10.2.3
1878 (12081)
SingJe span
L = 2.50 m
S2
till11111111
.u..iuu.uii..u.uuu.i.u,u.
____________________
Si
uIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIuIIIIIJIIIIIItI.#" g=Gp.+.G
II1IIII1IIII1IIII11IIIIIIt11111111 IIIIIIlIIIIIIIlIIIIIIII/utV
L
1,
A
M=
4.34 kNm/m
Rend
u,max
= 1545 kN/m
central deflection
6_5gL4
384E1
384 210 47.66 i04
> L1250
ECCS N 87
126
Q2P = 5.13 +
span moment
Mspan=
(Q2 +P) L2
5.38
 2.502
8
= 4.20 kNrn/in
M = 4.34 kNni/m
R1
= 1545 kN/m
central deflection
85(gp)L4
384 El
,S2
IIuuiuu,I.iI,.iuuuuuu..uI.iuI
______
Si
I.IuIIuuII.IuI.IIuIuh.IuI.III
UIIIIIIIIIIIIlIIIIIIIIIIIIIII,,.1#r
.!11111111111111111111t11111111!#1r
L
#1
I,
/1
moment at intermediatesupport
Msup =
ECCS N 87
M=
3.64 kNm/m
127
Design examples
reaction at intermediatesupport
Rsup=
q2
2
adm,ser
= l&23kNin/m
interaction
Msup
Rsup
184
Rrnt
adm,ser
11963.64
3.24318.23
= 0.532 < 10
DIIIlIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIlIIIIIIJl"
moment at intermediatesupport
Q2 L2
Msup
5.13
16
2.852
=2.6OkNm/m<M u,m=a68kNm/m
16
reactionat intermediatesupport
Rsup
2.85
=18.41 kN/m
interaction
Msup
+ Rsup
2.60
aM u,max Rmt
u,max
9.13
1196a68324318.41
= o.7w < 10
end reaction
Rend _Q22
2.60
_=6.39kN/mRm=17.OkN/m
span moment
Rend2
Mspan =
2Q2
6.392
25.13
3.98kNm/m
M= 4.34kNm/m
ECCS N 87
128
DesignMapusal
for Composite Slabs

3,Om
1
11111
IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII'
J,LJ,LJF
Serviceability limit state
,L1.5m
3.OOm
q1
11111 ItItIIIIlIIIIIIIIIIIItIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
11111 lIlt"
JL
moment at intermediatesupport
Msup=1L+(2L
32L2
= 3.38 kNmfm<
4Z882.85 9.0.75(2.2.85_1,5)2
= 3.64 kNm/m
32.2.852
reaction at intermediatesupport
Rsup
+
13
RU
3.38
12.24
+
1196 . 3.64 3.243 1&23
= 0.983 <10
= 4.75 kNm/m>
ECCS N 87
32 L2
32 2.852
129
Design examples
plastic binge at the intermediate support, with the remaining plastic moment:
,1
3.OOm
.5m,
4'
IIIJt1 II
111111111111111111111111
J,L J,L
Note:
the plastic hinge occurs if one or more of following 3 conditionsis not fulfilled:
Msup=
+ 9S (2L 1,5)2
4Q1
32L2
RsupQlL+
Msup
_M
Rsup
13 Rint
LOO
3El
MJ=
)
Note: the above used fomiula is a simplified (conservative) one, it implies that total load Q2=Q1+S is
distributed among all length of both spans.
end reaction
Rend
=Qi L + 9S
8L
Msup
4.00 2.85
2
9 L125
2.63
8 2.85 2.85
522kN/m
Rend
u,max
= 15.45kN/m
span moment
Rend
Qi
4
Mspan =
Rend2
5.222
2Qi
24.00
2.85L50 = L35 m
M= 4.34 kNm lm
ECCS N 87
130
k
= cL4 =
192 El
;;
<
11250
ECCS N 87
Design exanzples
131
Data
a) Decking
(from manufacturer's information)
610
C.
= 0.86 mm
= 350 N/mm2
= 1562 mm2/m
A =62 i04
mm4/m
'p
construction stage:
+
MPRd
RPRd
= 6.1 kNm/m
= 6.3 kNm/m
= 37.0 kN/m
Mpa
MRd
composite stage:
ECCS N 87
132
b) Composite slab
depth:
ht
ck
= 140 mm
= 25 N/mm2
= 1.8 N/mm2
= 30500N/mm2
ctkO. 05
Ecm
C)
Statical system
tempo
2,40
if
J,
i
II
2,40
4,80
2,40
,,j,
2,40
2,40
J,
2,40
6,80
4,80
construction stage
temporalyprops at midspan
composite stage
Alternative 1:
The composite slab is designed as a series of simplysupported slabs with L = 4.80m. Nevertheless,the
sheetingis continuous over 3 spans.
Alternative 2:
The composite slab is designed as continuous using linear analysis with 30% redistribution of the
beding moment
d) Actions
constructionstage (see EC4, 7.3.2.1)
selfweight of sheeting
weightof the wetconcrete(lit = 140 mm)
distributed construction load
concentration of construction load
ECCS N 87
= 0.13 s/m2
G = 3.37 4/m2
Qi = 0.75
Q2
= 1.50
133
Design examples
composite stage
selfweight of compositeslab
G1
= 3.3 kN/m2
= 1.2 kN/m2
= 5.0 kN/m2
floor finishes
live load
YG
YQ
concrete:
resistances:
sheeting:
= 1.35
= 1.50
1.50
1.10
Yap
reinforcement:
1.15
longitudinalshear:
1.25
10.3.2
10.3.2.1
02c
LL
MSd
Md
+
+
= YcrMG+YQMQ
= 1.35 . 0.078 0.13 2.42 + 1.35 0.094 3.37 . 2.42
+ 1.50 0.094 1.5 2.42 = 3.76 kNm/m
ECCS N 87
134
_____________
3,00
Md
RSd
b)
=
YG.MG+YQMQ
=  4.47 kNm/m
=
TGRG+TQRQ
= 19.51 kN/m
Design check
(see EC3, Part 1.3,4.9)
Md
Md
= 6.1 kNm/m
RSd
Md
RSd
4.47 19.51
=+
6.3 37.0 =1.241.25
Rp.Rd
10.3.2.2
ServiceabilIty limit state
MRd
ECCS N 87
135
Designexamples
0com=
Mser
ZCOR1
= 1 88
106
(51
62 10 4
103.1
= 1.053 38
= 1.053
= 0.515 < 0.673
p = 1.0
4.0
is fully effective
b) Calculation of deflections
ser=
C) Check
+ 3.4
(2.65 .
0) . L =
(2.65
384.E.I
. 0.13 + 3.4
3842100006210
of deflections
6p7.81Bfl1< 20mm
10.3.3
10.3.3.1
10.3.3.1.1
a) Flexure
(see EC4, 7.6.1.2)
Msd
Q] .
39.1 kNm/m
ECCS N 87
136
Ncf
1562
i3 = 497 kN/m
Yap
Ncf
497 io3
=35.1mm
1ooo.(o.85.1)
b.(0.85.)
= ht  e = 140  17 = 123 mm
= Ncf (d 0.5 x) = 497 (1230.5 35.i)
Mp.Rd
i0
= 52.4 kNm/m
Designcheck
b)
Longitudinal shear by m + k
 method
VSd=
m=166
k=0.150
L = L/4 = 4800 =
shear span:
1mA
1200 mm
VtRdbdpLbL" kj /y5
VeRd = 1000 123
ECCSN 87
[2
.
o.150]
=32.6kN/m
Design examples
137
Design check
Design shearstrength
from manufacturer'sinformation:
'u.Rd = 280
Ncf
497
LSf=b 'u.Rd = 1.0280 = 1.775 m
moment MSd does not exceed the design bending resistance MRd. The scale for plotting the design
bending moment into the design partial interaction diagramm is given by the length LSI where ftll
shear connection (r] = 1.0) could be reached.
I kNm/m]
MRd
MPRd
52,4
1
M=
[YG
(c + G2)+ .ia a]
L2
LT
L]
= 6,1
Ti
0,5
1,0
1,5
Lsf
1.775 2,0
L Em]
138
d)
Vertical shear
(see EC4, 7.6.1.5)
Design shearforce
tRd
kv
Ap
VVRd
VYRd
0.25 .
ct1c005 =
18 = 0.3
0.25
N/mm2
1.6
b0
t = 750
645
b0d
750123
= b0.d.tR.k.(1.2+4O.p)
= 750 123 . 0.3. 1.48 . (1.2 + 40 0.007).
= 60.6 kN/m
Designcheck
ECCSN 87
i0
139
Designexamples
G1G2
Md
MSd
Md
=
=
=
YG.M+?Q.M +
1.35 (0.10) (3.3
34.21 kNm/m
5.0 4.82
Md
34.21
choice of reinforcement:
50 l2perm width
A5
es
fsk
=
=
bc
565 mm2/m
20mm
500 N/mm2
= 870 mm/rn
Nf
x
Nf
245.7 i03
ck
bc(0.85.)
Mj = 23.95 kNm/m
M=
= 19.9 mm
870.(0.85)
27.03 kNm/m
ECCSN 87
140
b)
Deflection
(see EC4, 7.6.2.2)
General
Manufacturer'sinformation gives evidence that end slip does not occur before maximum service load
leveL
The second moment of area is taken as the average of the values for the cracked and uncracked section.
An average value of the modular ratio for both long and shortterm effects is used (see EC4, 3.1.4.2(4)).
Ea
n==
'cm
= 210000 =10.3
Ea
'Ecm
) 305O0
crackedsection
XC
= EA1z1 =
Xc
= 10.3 1562 ( I 1 + 2
1000
ECCS N 87
ZA
bx+nAp
= n.Ap
1000W 123
10.3 1562
1)
,t
2bdp l
\4nAp
= 48.8 mm
Designexamples
'C.C
141
'c.c =
bx
12n
1000
fXc 2
bxc)
+Ap(dpxc)2+Ip=
b'x
+Ap(dpXc)2+lp
uncrackedsection
XU
'C.U
'C.U
= ZAzj =
b+bmhp(ht)+flApdp
bhc+bnhp+flAp
bh
bhc
12n + n
Ap(dpx)2+Ip
100089+ 100089
12 10.3
+ 1562
xuT)
10.3
73.2
1htx 2 )
T)
12 10.3
10.3
140  73.2 
51\,2
i = 2525 i nlm4/m
'c.m =
4 = 1912 hr mm4/m
hr
A
CalculationofDeflections
removal of props
G1_
142
Gj
cGf
=G1=3.3=7.92kN/m
= mm
2.5
1
Figure103.9  Weightoffloorfinishes
1248O0
210000
i9l2
= 1.1 mm
variableloading
_____1
_____
1
__
0.
c.Q = 0.0099 E
Check ofdeflection
I_ =
0.0099
ECCS N 87
210000
i04
= 6.5 mm
0.
143
Design examples
10.4.1
A 120 mm thick slab with HiBond 55/1.00 profiled decking has three equal spans of 2.80 m (Figure
10.4.1). A reinforcing steel mesh is placed in the concrete slab, with 25 mm top cover, providing 188
mm2/in of reinforcement (0 6 mm, a = 150 mm). The steel decking is Grade 320, the concrete Grade
C30/37 and the reinforcementis Grade 550. Considerthe following loads:
 selfweightof the slab
 weight of floor finishes
 live load
gi
2.3
g2 =
1.2
5.0
Verify the ultimate limit states and the serviceability limit states of the profiled sheeting and of the
composite slab.
rr
I
f
2oo
zeoo
joj
So
2o
GC
120
.511
ISO
1'85
4
Figure 10.4.1 
10.4.2.
G1.5
Loads
Selfweight of the decking
Weightof the wetconcrete
Constniction load
m2 =
0.75 kN/m2
ECCS N 87
q, Li 111111 iii i
lii L1ILIJJJJJJIIIIIHjJJJJJI(L(iLjfll
Md
S...
Mser
M=TG
Mg+YQ Mqm
M = 1.98 + 1.66
= 3.64 kNm/m
Mdy0
Mg +YQ Mqm
1.5
. 0.167
ECCS N 87
0.75 2.82 =
12
Design examples
145
= 1.35
1.1
=9.73+5.51 =
1.75
0.75 2.8
15.24kM/rn
Crosssectionresistances
=  7.48 kNrn/in
RR = 68.1 kN/m
Verifications
Md
MRd Ta
Rd
RRd I Ta
0.58 + 0.25
0.83
<
1.25
Mr
1.71 kN/m
ECCSN 87
* no reduction
Manufacture?s
inhonnation
Deflection
6ser
(2.65
83
Deflectionlimit
adm =
= 2800
= 15.6 mm <20 mm
180
Check
10.4.3
________________
I
II
./
It
10.4.3.1
a) Designload
Pd=[YG(gl +g2)+lQq]b
147
Designexamples
b) Bending
Design bending moment
+
Md
Pd1
12.2
b0.85fck/yc
1482320/1.1
10000.853011.5
254mm
1482
= 34.4 kNm/m
Check
MM;d
*
12.0
<
34.4
OK
VSd =
PCI'
rn=86
k=0.069
Designshear resistance:
Vl,Rdbdp[rn+kJ/)\r
= 1000 92.5 [ 86
10O02800/
+ 0.069
148
DesignManualfor ConzpositeSlabs
Check
Vd Vl,Rd
17.1
<
18.6
OK
d) Partialinteractionmethod
Thedesignshearstrengthtu,Rd, determined with the same tests results as for the m and k values given
in 10.3.3a). is
Apfyp =
Ncf
Lsf
1482
Yap
Nf
b 'uRd
320
431kN/m
J' [km/rn]
Ls6.3m
Figure10.4.4  Partial interactiondiagram
Figure 10.4.4 shows that MSd <MRd for all cross sections.
ECCSN 87
149
Design examples
e) Vertical shear
Calculation ofdesign verticalshear resistance
2.0
1.505
pAs/bod5= 188/50095.0=O.004
Vv,RdbodstRdkv(1.2+4Op)
= 500
95.0 0.33
Check
Vd V,Rd +
17.1
<32.1 OK
10.4.3.2
a) Deflectioncalculations
For the calculation of the deflectionof the composite slab, we assume that the slab is continuous.For a
side span, the deflection under the weight of floor finishes has the value:
2.65 g2
&v,g =384 EIv,m
2.65 1.2 .
1012 =
0.31 mm
384 210'0007.78
The deflectionof the compositeslab under variableloadingof long duration,for the case of only a side
span loaded, has the value:
3.4 p14
6"P384EIv,m
3.4
5.0
1012
= 1.67mm
Iv,m is the second moment of area taken as the average of the values for the cracked and the uncracked
section, calculated with an average value of the modular ratio (n = Ea/Ec = 15) for both long and short
term effects:
ECCSN 87
150
Crackedsection
Positionof the elasticneutral axis:
nA
b
2bd
flAp
15. 1482( I
1000
t%s1
'vc=
200092.5 \
151482 l)=45.6mm
L ofthe crackedsection:
bx3 +
= 1000
b
XU
100066+50054151482
Second moment of area
Iy ofthe uncrackedsection:
3
bhc
bhc
h1 2+ b0 hap + b0 hap
1VU12n + n (Xv12n
n
100066
1215
l00066
15
(12058.4
= 58.4mm
66 2
584T
542 + 1482
1tXJ
2
2
5.543
1215
(92.5 58.4)2
+ 0.72 106
J5j
Design examples
Checks
max=v,g+v,p=O.3l+
6max = 1.98 mm <
1.67
1.98mm
= 11.2 mm
OK
= 1.67 mm
62=1.67mm <
= 9.3mm
OK
d=
2800 92.5
b) Cracking of concrete
The slab is designed as simplysupported and unpropped. The amount of reinforcementat intermediate
supports is:
_____
b hc
188
1000
650.29
This percentage is greater than the minimum recommended by EC 4 for unproppedslabs (0.2 %).
ECCS N 87
152
10.5
10.5.1
Data
l 4 .:
620
.
150
150
36
150
150
12
f,
=0.84mm
= 280 N/mm2
= 1562 mm4/m
=62 i04 mm4/m
composite stage:
Mpa
= 6.3 kNflh/Ifl
b) Composite slab
depth:
ht = 160 mm
concrete:
C) Statical system
3,60
3,60
N 87
I.
153
Designexanples
composite
d) Actions
composite stage
G1 = 3.55 kN/m2
= 1.2 kM/rn2
= 5.0 kM/rn2
YG
YQ
resistances:
concrete:
Ye
sheeting:
Yap
1.10
= 1.15
reinforcement:
Ys = 1.25
longitudinal sheai
10.5.2
= 1.35
= 1.50
= 1.50
General
The plain profiled sheeting (without embossrnents) provides only weak mechanical interlock. Thus, the
load carrying capacityof the composite slab is governed by the longitudinal shear resistance.
The load carrying capacitycan be enhanced by taking into account end anchoragedevices or additional
reinforcement. Both effects can be determined by the partial connection method.
10.5.3
profile
(see EC4, Annex E.3)
Ncf
AP .Y1
Yap
1562 . 280
1000 34
=11.7m
ECCS N 87
DesignManualfor ConzpositeSlabs
154
C)
Design
Ncf=
= 1562280
= 397.6 kN/m
1.1
'Yap
Ncf
=
b
397.6
1000
85
Yc)
(o.
(0.85
d=hte= 16017=143mm
=
=
Mp.Rd Ncf (d O.5 x) 397.6
I
= 28.1
25
(143  0.5
mm
kNm/m]
MRd
MPRd
mu MSd
22,5
2
LL
6,3
075
0
1,0
10
Lsf=l13
3,6Orn
10.5.4
Verification
type:
number:
=0.84mm
ddo
=1.119=20.9mm
=2dd0
ECCS N 87
155
Design examples
pb.Rd
= 1 + Wdj = 3
kddOt yp'Yap
0.84 280 j3 / 1.1 = 13.4 kN
pb.Rd = 3. 20.9
= 89.4 =2.63m
bcuRd 1.034
btuRd
1.034
kNm/m I
MSd
MPRd
mcix
MSd
= 22,5
Mpci
0,75
2,63
= _______
b tURd
2
3.60
Ti
9,07
NcfVId
Lsf =
L[m]
b TURd
11,7
DesignManualfor ConposireSlabs
156
105.5
0 6 mm per trough
= 188 mni2/m
sk = 500 N/mm2
= 130mm
ds
As
= 0 and Lx
= 81.7 kN/m
x= ____________
81.7 i03
=5.8mm
b.(0.85.) 1ooo.(o.8s.1_)
Mpr=Mpa
= 6.3
/B
1000
(0.85
Z2 = ds 0.5 x
z1 = ht  0.5
Mpr= 0
MRd (11
(0.85
=33.8mm
1.0) =
Zi Mpr + Nas Z2
59.4 kNm/m
ECCSN 87
i03
Design examples
157
kNm/irl
MRd
MSd
Mppd
max MSd
22,5
16,7
0,5
0
3 60 m
0,75
1,0
10
L5f 11,7
11
ECCS N 87
158
10.6
Using data from example in Section 10.3 with simply supported span of 3 m  values of resistancesare
given in Section 10.3.3. Find the maximum movingconcentratedload that the slab will carry.
Section 9.4.2 recommends the minimum overall depth of slab should be 140
mm with a minimum of 80 mm of concrete above sheeting.
Cross section of
slab
....
...'
____ ____
Gi = 3.3 kN/m2
4.5 kN/m2
G2 = 1.2 kN/m2
Q = 5.0 kN/m2
y=l.50
YG= 1.35
Yap=l.lO
Yvs=125
Vj
For3m span
M=39.1 x
=15.3kNm/mwidth
V = 32.6 x
_____
1100
Flexure
Effective width of slab for bending and longitudinal shear section 8.1.5
ECCS N 87
159
Design exanzples
bm
bp = 300 mm
= 89 mm
=
hf 0, strength of finish not known
bp+2(hc+hf)
= 100 + 2 (89 + 0)
= 278 mm
bern = bm + 2Lp
atLp
200 mm
200
(i
3()()())651
mm
bern = 1111 mm
bern = 1611 mm
bern = 1778mm
at Lp = 500 mm
at Lp = 1000mm
at Lp = 1500 mm
54
=(1.35x4.5+1.5x5.0)!(_)
fl
at x = 1500 mm
'I
'
e.Z a'S
lo
"7
.
.g
Mj = 15.3 kNm/m
1.75
Permissibleconcentrated load
At midspan:
Bending resistance available for concrete load
MpLRd = MpRd
53.7 x
4=
53.7x=
= 53.7kNm
IN
71.6kN
GPL= 26=4UkN
ECCS N 87
Wx1x
= 31.4 kN m
thereforeW=x GpL=31.4x3/2
GpL=31.4x3/2 j.=31.4 kN
At 500 mm from support:
MpLRd=20.68.5
MpLeff= 12.1 x 1.111
2.5
MSIjPL=WXO.5X
=12.1 kNm/m
= 13.4x3 =32.2kN
0.5x2.5
YGXGPLW
GpL=322/1.5= 2L.4kN
b)
04 05
0.2X 2.8
At support
= 278 + 0
ECCS N 87
Lp/
,'s
+!n T 1
At200mmfromsupport
1.5
477
=13.4kNm
L2"
161
Design examples
YGGPL
GpL
15.8/1.5= 1O.5kN
(i
)=
464 mm
1.5
= 18.OkN
GPL=
MINIMUM
VALUE
Punching Shear section 8.2.5
C)
k (1.2 + 40
p)
=2x200+2x100+4x34+2it89=1227mm
r___
/
d
tiF'4
GPL =
Jj!=60.7kN
Deflection
Iavg cr
uncr
80
5WL3
= +
384
El
WL3
48E,I
steel units
is.4,
cg14s
W
1
5
18x103x33x109
(9.5x3)x33 x109x103 +
=x
384 210,000x1912x104 48x210,000x1912x104
s""
= 5.02mm
ECCS N 87
DesignManualfor Conzposi:eStabs
162
10.7
Loading
2v1f.
"
$I
= 4.8 kN/m2
= 1.2 kNlm2
= 5.0 kN/m2
=
.
2w'17
M (self wt + finishes)
(y.G+y0Q)! = (1.35x(4.81.2)+1.5x5.O).
(y.Gj.
M&J + M&jpi
1.5x6Ox
= 67.SkNm
Additional Reinforcement
Using 2 No. 8 mm diameter bars in each trough,
Area=
f= 500
N/mm2 Ys
x12=603mm2/m
1.15
d=20025=175mm
Design bending resistance
= 603x500x103 = 262kN/n,width
Nas =
1.15
At support = 0, L, = 0
Nas
x=
b(0.85
L
Z2
262x103
=18.49mm
1000(0.85x 25 1.5)
Y)
d50.5x1750.5x18.49166.7mm
ECCS N 87
iO
Design exwnples
163
(Note: this bending resistance wou'd only be provided when additional bars
have adequate anchorage)
Shearspan for full shear connection
LSt
A
y,
b;
1562x280
1.Oxl.1x280
= 1.42m
L = L1
= At = 1562
At midspan = 1.0
N
= NC
Yap
x= (N +Nas)
b(0.85f0,
/y)
= 397.6kN/mwidth
10
1.1
397.6+ 262
= 46.56mm
1000(0.85x25/1.5)
Z2d50.5x = 1750.5x46.56=151.72mm
Zi = h1 0.5x  e = 200  0.5 x 46.56  17 = 159.72 mm
= N.Z1 +N.Z2
= 300+2(149+0)
= 598 mm
bp = 300 mm
h == 0149mm
hf
_J
(weak finishes)
b =bm+2L(1_J
at Lp = 1500mm
at Lp= 200 mm
bem=S98+2x200
at Lp = 500 mm
(i )
2980mm
(1_)=971mm
(i
_)=
1431mm
L = 200 mm)
40 x diameter of bar
= 40x8=320mm
ECCSN 87
DesignManualfor ConzpositeSlabs
164
M,4
M=
O20 .S
L2(L(L\2
. cr))
=(YGG+YQQ) L
YGGPt.
Mj curve values
At 200 mm:
M =(1.35(6.O)l.5x5.O) (0.2
3
M1 = 1.5x60x0.2x_
3
(0.22
3)
= 4.37 kNm
= 16.80
21.17
At 500 mm:
M =(15.6)_(2.)J
21
= 9.75
2.5
M1 = 1.5x60x0.5x
3
= 37.50
47.25
At 1000 mm:
M =(15.6).(!_()]
2 13
2
MpL = 1.Sx6OxIx
3
= 15.60
= 60.00
75.60
ECCS N 87
165
Design exanzples
v,
(YG(G,
G2)y0Q)y0Q1
1.2)+ 1.5(5.0))+1.5x60
(1.35(4.8+
113.4kN/mwidth
b0drRdk(1.2+40p)
+
750x179x0.3x1.421(1.2
=
4Ox2165
1x103
750x 179)
1183
105.6kN/mwidth
b0
750mm
i
179,(175to183)
dp
=
0.25
f0.05 =1.8N/mm2
(1.6d)=1.6o.179=1.421,(1)
___  1562+603
750x179
b0d
0016 (<002)
Design check
1.3
2.8
ECCS N 87
166
1.5
V <V .. slabissatisfactory
Punching Shear
Vertical punching shear resistance
= CphctRd k(1.240p)
= 20051 = 149mm
VVRd
IJ4 6o4J4$
dp = 179 mm
Cp =
3cc
Cfr
2x300+2x260+4(179 149)ax2x149
= 2176 mm
ir = 0.25f
= 0.25x1. = 0.3N/mm2
"C
k=
1.6dp =1.60.179=1.421
b0d
VVRd
1562+6030016
750x 179
Vj
= 0.348 (1.35(4.8+1.2)+1.5x5.0)1.5x60
= 95.4 kN
Check
< VVR
95.4 < 254, therefore, slab satisfactory
ECCS N 87
iO
167
Bibliography
BIBLIOGRAPHY
American Society of Civil Engineers
ASCE Standards, 345 East 47th Street, New York 100172398, USA.
ANSI/ASCE 391 Standard for the structural design of composite slabs
ANSI/ASCE 991 Standard practice for construction and inspectionof composite slabs
ECCS N 87
168
Other references
H. and Sauerbom, I : Modern design concept for composite slabs with ductile behaviour.
Composite construction in steeland concrete II, ASCE,New York. USA, 1993, pp.125141.
Bode,
Crisinel,Michel : Composite slabs. IABSE Reports, Vol. 61,ZUrich, 1990, pp. 6987.
Daniels, B. : Comportement et capacit portame des dalles mixtes, modlisation mathmatiqueet tude
exprimentale. These EPFL n 895, Ecole polytechnique f6drale de lausanne, 1990.
B. and Crisinel M. : Composite slab behavior and strength analysis. Journal of Structural
Engineering,New York.
Part 1 Calculation Procedure, VoL 119, N 1, January 1993, pp 1635.
Part II Comparisons with Tests Results and Parametric Analysis, VoL 119, N 1, January 1993, pp. 3649.
Daniels,
Patrick, M. : A new partial shear connection strength model for composite slabs. The Broken Hill
Proprietary Company Limited, Melbourne Research Laboratories,Report MRL/PS64/90/016,Muigrave,
Victoria, Australia, March 1990.
M.L. and Ekberg, C.E. Jr. : Compendium of ISU Research Conducted on ColdFormed SteelDeckReinforced Slab Systems. Iowa State ResearchInstitute, Ames, Iowa, 1978.
Porter,
Schuster, R.M. and Ling, W.C. : Mechanical Interlocking Capacity of Composite Slabs. In : Fifth
International Specialty Conference on ColdFormedSteel Structures. University of MissouriRolla, St.
Louis, 1982, pp. 511513.
Stark, J.W.B. and Brekelmans, J.W.P.M. : Plastic design
constructional steel research, 15 (1990) pp. 2347.
ECCS N 87