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ECCS

CECM
E K S

EUROPEANCONVENTION FOR CONSTRUCTIONALSTEELWORK


CONVENTION EUROPEENNE DE LA CONSTRUCTION METALLIQUE

EUROPAISCHE KONVENTION FR STAHLBAU

ECCS - Technical Committee 7 - Cold Formed Thin Walled Sheet Steel


Technical Working Group 7.6 - CompositeSlabs

Design Manual
for Composite Slabs

FIRST EDITION

1995

N87

'I
ECCS

CECM
E K S

InI

EUROPEANCONVENTIONFOR CONSTRUCTIONALSTEELWORK
CONVENTIONEUROPEENNE DE LA CONSTRUCTIONMETALLIQUE

EUROPAISCHE KONVENTION FR STAHLBAU

ECCS - Technical Committee 7 - Cold Formed Thin Walled Sheet Steel


Technical Working Group 7.6 - Composite Slabs

Design Manual

for Composite Slabs

FIRST EDITION

1995

N87

DesignManualfor Composite Slabs

ISBN: 92-9147-000-8
Copyright 1995 by the European Convention forConstructional Siceiwork

All rights reserved.No part ofthis publicationmay be reproduced, storedin a retrieval system,or transmitted in any
form or by any means,electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording,or otherwise, without the prior permission of
theCopyrightowner:
ECCS
CECM
EKS

General Secretariat
Avenuedes Ombrages, 32/36bte 20
8-1200 BRUSSEL (Belgium)
Tel. 32/2-762 04 29

Fax 32/2-7620935
ECCS assumesnoliabilitywith respectto the use forany application ofthe material and information contained in this
publication.

ECCS N 87

Summary - Rsum - Zusammenfassung

SUMMARY
This design manual has been produced for engineers as well as project managers in design offices, for
engineers in steel construction companies and for engineersconcernedwith the manufactureof profiled
steel sheets for composite construction. It containsa collection of the current knowledge for the design,
calculation and construction of composite slabs with profiled steel sheeting.

The manual is based on Eurocode 4, part 1.1, chapters7, 10 and Annexe E which deals with composite
construction, as well as Eurocode 3, part 1.3 which considers the design of profiled steel sheeting.It also
contains complementaryinformation on certain aspects of composite construction not covered in the
Eurocodes.
After a general introduction to composite slabs, in Chapter 1, the manual presents Chapter 2 of the
complementary document "Good Construction Practice for Composite Slabs" making the link between
construction and design. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the conception, the predesign and the detailing of
structures using compositeslabs.
The main part of the manual (Chapters 5-9) is devoted to the design approaches for profiled steel
sheeting and composite slabs, giving, in particular, data relating to materials, to loads and to the
verification of the limit states. Finally, Chapter 10 presents a series of numericalexamples covering the
predesign, the design of the profile at the construction stage, the design of composite slabs and designs
for special situations.

RESUME
Le presentmanuelde dimensionnement a t rdig pour les ingnieurs en tant qu'auteurs de projet
dans les bureauxd'tudes, les ingnieurs des entreprises de construction mtallique et les ingnieurs des
unites de production des tles profiles pour dalles mixtes. Ii constitue l'ensemble des connaissances
actuelles dans le domaine de Ia conception, du calcul et de la construction des planchers mixtes avec
tles profiles.
Le manuel est base sur l'Eurocode 4, partie 1.1, chapitres 7, 10 et annexe E, pour ce qui concerne La
construction mixte, ainsi que sur l'Eurocode 3, partie 1.3, pour ce qui concerne la tle profile. Ii
contientgalementdes informations complmentaires sur les sujets non traits dans ces Eurocodes.
Aprs une introduction gnerale sur les dalles mixtes (chapitre 1), le manuel reprend intgralementle
chapitre 2 du documentparallle "Good Construction Practice for Composite Slabs', faisant le lien entre
construction et dimensionnement. Les chapitres 3 et 4 constituent une base de conception, de
prdimensionnement et d'tude des details des structures comportantdes planchersmixtes.

La partie principale (chapitres 5 a 9) est consacre au calcul des tles profiles et dalles mixtes,
comprenanten particulier les donnes relatives aux matriaux, aux chargeset aux verifications des tats
limites. Finalement le chapitre 10 prsente des exemples numriques couvrant le prdimensionnement,
le dimensionnement de la tle au stade de btonnage, le dimensionnement des dalles mixtes et des
dimensionnements particuliers.

ECCSN 87

Design Maiusalfor Composite Slabs

ZUSAMMENFASSUNG
Dieser Leitfaden zur Bemessung von Verbunddecken wendet sich an Lngenieure und Projektleiter, die
sowohi in IngenieurbUros und Stahibaufirmenals auch in der Herstellung von Profilbiechen fr den
Verbundbau tAtig sind. Er enthAlt eine Zusammenstdllung des aktuellen Wissensstandes Uber Entwurf,
Berechnung und Konstruktion von Verbunddecken mit Profilbiechen.

Der Leitfaden basiert auf den Regelungen des Eurocode 4 "Bemessung und Konstruktion von
Verbundtragweitenaus Stahl und Beton", Teil 1.1, Kapitel 7, 10 und Anhang E sowie Eun)code3, Tell
1.3, der sich mit der Bemessung von Profliblechen befaBt. Weiterhin sind erganzende Informationen
enthalten.die nichtin den Eurocodes behandelt wenlen.
Nach einer ailgemeinenEinftthrung in die Verbunddeckenbauweise (Kapitel 1), steilt der vorliegende
Leitfaden das Kapitel 2 der ergnzendenBroschre "Good Constniction Practice for Composite Slabs"
vor und vethindetdaxnit Konstniktionund Bemessung. Die Kapitel 3 und 4 beinhaltenden Entwurf, die
Vorbemessung sowie die Betrachtung verschiedener Konstruktionsdetails bei der Anwendung von
Verbunddecken.

Der Hauptteil dieses Leitfadens (Kapitel 5-9) ist den Nachweisverfahren fUr Profilbieche und
Verbunddecken gewidmet. Dazu werden insbesondere Angaben zu Werkstoffen, Lastannabmen und
dem Nachweis von Grenzzustnden gemacht. SchlieBlich steilt Kapitel 10 eine Reihe von
Rechenbeispielenvor, die die Vorbemessung, den Nachweis der Proffibleche im Bauzustand, die
Bemessung der Verbunddecke und sogar Nachweisverfahren fr verschiedene Sondeffitile beinhalten.

ECCSN 87

Preface

Preface
The first edition of the EUROPEAN RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE DESIGN OF COMPOSITE
FLOORS WiTH PROFILED STEEL SHEET was published in September1974 by the ECCS Committee
11 "Multi-Storey Buildings". This ECCS document No. 14 was subsequently used as a reference
publication for Section 15 of the "Model Code for Composite Structures" prepared by the Joint
Committee on Composite Structures (CEB-ECCS-FIP-IABSE) and published under the title
COMPOSITE STRUCTURES by the ConstructionPress, London, in 1981. The Model Code was finally
used as a draft format for the preparation of Eurocode 4 "Design of Composite Steel and Concrete
Structures", 1985.

In 1987

a technical group TWO 7.6 "Composite Slabs" was created within the ECCS Technical

Committee TC 7 (Cold-formed thin-walled sheet steel in building), with the following tasks:

- To proposecomments to Eurocode4 (1985).


- To revise the documentECCS No. 14 (1974).
- To coordinate researchefforts in the field of compositeslabs.
The firstpart of the revisionhas been publishedas ECCS documentNo 73, entitled "Good Construction
Practicefor Composite Slabs". It containspractical informationfor constructionsite personnel.
The present documentrepresents the second part of the revisionof ECCS document No. 14, concerning
the design of composite slabs. It will be completed by a separate documentconcerningthe way how to
present load tables and diagrams for practical design and will be entitled "Standard ECCS Product
Presentation for Composite Slabs".

The working group TWO 7.6 is at present composed of the following members:
BEGUIN
BLAFFART
BODE
CRISINEL
KOUKKARI
VELJKOVIC
OLEARY
SCHUSTER
STARK
TSCHEMMERNEGG

Henri

France
Belgium

Helmut

Germany

Michel (Chairman)

Switzerland

Hell
Milan

Finland

David (Tech. Sec.)

GreatBntain

Reinhold
Jan
Ferdinand

Canada
Netherlands
Austria

Philippe

Sweden

Corresponding members are:


BAEHRE
BREKELMANS
DANIELS
ENGEL
JANSS
MAGNIEZ
MELE
MOREAU
PATRICK
PORTER
SAUERBORN

Roif
Jan
Byron

Germany

Pierre

France

Jos
Georges

Belgium
France

Michele

Italy
France

Gerard
Mark
Max
Ingeborg

Netherlands
Netherlands

Australia
USA

Germany
ECCS N 87

DesignManualfor Composite Slabs

SOKOL
WOELFEL
WRIGHT

France
Germany
GreatBritain

Leopold
Eilhard
Howard

Principal contributions were provided by the following members:


Philippe BEGUIN,CI1CM,St-Rezny-les-Chevreuse,France
Henri BLAFFART, MetalPmfil Belgium, Liege, Belgium
Dr ByronJ. DANIELS, TNO Buildingand Construction Research, Deift, Netherlands
DrPierreENGEL,PAB-Sollac, Nanterre, France
Mrs Hell KOUKKARI, VTF Finland
David OLEARY,Civil EngineeringDepartment, University of Salford, Great Britain
DrLeopoldSOKOL,PAB-Sollac, Nanteire, France
Mrs Ingeborg SAUERBORN, University of Kaiserslautem, Germany.

Thanks are also due to many more colleagues who took part in working group meetings or offered
suggestions.
Michel CRISINEL
SwissFederal Institute of Technology (EPFL)
Institute for Steel Structures (ICOM)
Lausanne, Switzerland

Prof. Michael DAVIES


Civil EngineeringDepartment

Chairman of TWG 7.6

Chainnan of TC7

University of Salford,
Salford, Great Britain

Lausanne and Salford, November 1995.

Figures
The figures havebeen graciously placedat our disposal by the following companies andinstitutions:

- Ecolepolytechnique
f&Irslede Lausanne (EPFL), Construction mtallique (ICOM), Lausanne(CR):
+
+
-

1.1 1.3/3.1 3.4 7.1 8.1 / 8.4 8.6 / 8.9 8.11 /8.12/10.4.1 -'- 10.4.4.
Schweizerische Arbeitsgemeinschaft frHolzftrschung(SAH), Lignuxn,ZUrich(CR):

3.20

UmversittKaiserslautern,Bauingenieurwesen,
FachgebietStahlbau,Kaiserslautern(D):
8.13 + 8.15 10.3.1 + 10.3.10 10.5.1 + 10.5.5.
ProduilsBtimentde Sollac (PAB-Sollac),Nanteire(F):
3.15 + 3.19 3.21 + 3.25 3.29 4.7 7.2 /7.3 9.1 9.5 + 9.24 /10.1.1 10.2.1.
Centre Technique Industriel dela Construction M&allique(CTICM), Saint-Rmy-ls-Chevreuse(F):

/ / /

- 4.14.6/4.8+4.11/4.13/8.3.
SteelConstructionInstitute(SC!),Ascot(UK):

+
2.1

/22/ 2.3 / 3.5

3.14 3.26 3.28 4.12(a).

Schweizerische Zentralstelle fr Stahlbau (SZS),ZUrich (CR):

4.12 (b)

HiBond by Metecno, London (UK):

8.2

ComitEumpeendeNonnalisation (CEN), Bruxelles (B):


6.1 8.7 8.8 8.10.

/ /

The manuscript of this document has been prepared at the Swiss Federal Institute
(EPFL), Institute for Steel Structures (ICOM), Lausanne, Switzerland.
ECCS N 87

of Technology

Conteius

CONTENTS
Page

SCOPE OF THE PUBLICATION

NOTATION

10

1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 State-of-the-art
1.2 Behaviour
1.3 Design requirements

13

20

2 LIST

23

2.1
2.2

OF ESSENTIAL CONSTRUCTION SITE INFORMATION

General

Deckingbundle identification
2.3 Information for steel sub-contractors
2.4 Information for concrete sub-contractors
2.5. Constructionloads

3 PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS AND PRE-DESIGN


3.1 Introduction
3.2 Possible composite action with beams
3.3 Column layout and the various beam arrangements
3.4 Renovation and refurbishment schemes
3.5 Shallow floor construction

3.6

Pre-design

4 DETAILING REQUIREMENTS
4.1

4.2
4.3

17

23
23
24
25
25
29

29
29
31

39

43
45
49

General conditions for steel sheeting and composite slab


Construction stage

49

Composite stage

54

PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS
PrOfiledsteel sheeting
5.2 Concrete
5.3 Reinforcingsteel
5.4 Structural steel
5.5 Partial safety factors for resistanceandmaterial properties
5.1

6 LOADS AND ACTIONS


6.1

General

6.2

Loads for the construction stage


Loads for the compositestage

6.3

13

50
59

59
60
61
61

62
63

63
63
64

ECCSN 87

DesignManualfor Composite Slabs

OF DESIGN - CONSTRUCTION CONDITION


Design procedure
Cross-sectional design resistances
Ultimatelimitstate
Serviceabilitylimitstates

7 BASIS
7.1

7.2
7.3
7.4

OF DESIGN - COMPOSITE CONDITION


8.1 Design procedure
8.2 Cross-sectional resistances
8.3 Deflections
8.4 Verification.

8 BASIS

9 SPECIAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS


9.1

9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6

Diaphragm effect
Fire design
Openings and penetrationholes
Concentrated loads

Sound insulation
Corrosionprotection

10 DESIGN EXAMPLES
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.7

Preliminarydesign example
Verification of the sheeting as shuttering
First typical design example
Second typical design example
Special design example
Design example for moving concentrated load
Design of composite slab with additional reinforcement carrying moving concentrated
load

BIBLIOGRAPHY

ECCS N 87

.67
67
69
71

74
77

77
83

89
91
97

97
100
105
114
116

119
121

121
123
131
143
152
158
162

167

Scope ofthe publication

SCOPE OF THE PUBLICATION


The purposeof this publication is to present informationon the design of compositeslabs carried Out in
accordance with Eurocode 4. The design and construction process for these slabs involves basically two

stages:
the temporarystage - when the profiled steel sheeting (hereafter referred to as decking), acting as a
one-way spanningelement,carries the weight of the wetconcrete and associated construction loads,
the permanent stage - when the one-way spanning composite slab carries the imposed loads and a
percentage of the dead load dependent on the mode of construction.
The publication is intended to complement Eurocode 4 "Design of Composite Steel and Concrete
Structures" (particulary Chapters 7, 9, 10 and Annex E) and has been produced by the ECCS Technical
Committee 7, Working Group 7.6 "Composite Slabs".
In addition to the presentation of the normal design criteria for the ultimate and serviceability limit
states, attentionis given to the special design considerations of fire resistance,the treatment of openings,
in-plane bracing and the effects of concentrated loads. Further information particular to the
implementation of good site practice for composite slabs is available in the ECCS document "Good
Construction Practice for Composite Slabs" which lists amongst other things the information which
should be passed on from the designer/architect to site personnel.
Another reference is the ECCS publication No 72 "Composite Beams and Columns to Eurocode 4"
produced by the ECCS Technical Committee 11 "Composite Structures".

ECCS N 87

DesignManualfor Composite Slabs

10

NOTATION
Notation is presented in detail, including subscripts to symbols. Reference should also be made to

Eurocode4 Part 1.1.


Symbols
Latin letters
A

B
b
C

c
D

d
E

e
F

0
g
h
I

k
L

: Cross-sectional area
: width
: width
: perimeter, coefficient
: coefficient
: orthogonal bending stiffeness
: pitch of corrugation
: modulus of elasticity (Youngs modulus)

distance
strength of fastener
: ultimate strength of a material
: self weight, permanentaction
:
selfweight,permanent action
:

: thickness, depth, height


:

moment of inertia, second moment of area

: factor, constant, coefficient


: span length, length

span length, length, horizontaldistance


internal bending moment, bending resistance
coefficient

axial force

number, ratio
point load, concentrated load
pitch of fasteners, unifonn distributedload
imposed load, variable action
imposedload, variableaction, uniformload
resistance, supportreaction
radius
action effect
constructionload
sheetthickness
vertical shear, shear resistance, shear bucklingstrength
section modulus

1,1,
M

P
p

q
R

S
s

t
V

w
x,y,z

beam spacing
coordinates

positionof neutral axis


leverarm

ECCS N 87

Notation

Greek letters

coefficient

coefficient

T
6

partial safety factor


deflection
strain
degree of shear connection

Ti

rotation
slenderness

factor, density,reinforcementratio
normal stress
web inclination
shear stress
buckling coefficient

o
sp

Subscripts
1,2,3
a

number

adm
ap
b

structural steel, bearing


admissible, allowable
decking steel

c
corn

:
:

bottom
concrete,compression

compressive
critical
d
:
design value
e
elastic,effective
eff : effective
end
end support
:

cr

h
i
mt

full shear connection,floor finishes


permanent action
: permanent action, global
haunch
number
intermediate

characteristic

: longitudinal,local
: material
m
mean, effective,constnictionstage
max
maximum

1,

mm

o
p
Q

q
R

minimum
reference value, ovethang
plastic, profiled sheeting, plane element,point load, punching
variableaction
variableaction

resistance
reduced,relative

internal forces or moments


ECCSN 87

12

s
ser
span
sup

reinforcement,shear, shrinkage, stiffener


service internal forces or moments
span
superior, upper, suppoit
thermal
tensile,total, top

test
u

alt

w
x,y,z

experimental, test value


ultimate, uncracked
ultimate
vertical, steel - concrete connection, shear
web

coordinates

yieldofsteel

normal stress

ECCSN 87

DesignManualfor Composite Slabs

13

Introduction

INTRODUCTION

1.1

STATE-OF-THE-ART

1.1.1 The development of composite slabs


A composite slab comprises steel decking, reinforcement and cast-in situ concrete (Figure 1.1). The
combination of the different elements is such that both structural and economic advantages are
achieved. Initially the decking acts as both a platform for construction and as shuttering for the wet
concrete. Secondly, when the concrete has hardenedthe decking carries some or all of the tensile forces
in the slab caused by a load which is subsequently imposed.The concrete carries the compressiveand
shear forces in the compositeslab and provides the sound insulationandfire resistancefor the structure.
The surface and shape of the decking is formed in such a way that at the interface between the decking
and concrete horizontalshear forces can be transmitted. This is necessaryto ensure the compositeaction
between steel andconcrete.

secondary beam

Figure 1.1 - Composite slab


Composite slab systems were firstdevelopedin the late 1930's for tall building applications. At that tune
the techniquebrought a considerabledead-loadreduction and it was essentiallyseen as a substitute for
traditional reinforcedconcrete slabs. Because of their efficiency and advantages, composite slabs were
soon used for a wide range of constructionprojects invariably based on structural steel framing (high
rise, low rise and industrial buildings).
During the late 1980's the introductionof fastrack constructionmethods brought a new interest in steel
design and consequently a logical use of compositeflooring. This change in mentality, coupled with the
search by the manufacturers to use compositeslabs with other framing materials,marked a new period
of expansion for the technique. Steel decking is now used in conjunctionwith steel frames butalso with
concrete, prestressed concrete and timber structures.

ECCSN 87

DesignManualfor Composite Slabs

14

Composite floors are employed in a great variety of applications.The overall depth of composite slabs
generally varies between 80 mm and 250 mm with a bare metal thickness of steel sheet between0.7 and
1.5 mm (Fig. 1.2). The robustness of composite floors identifies them for the construction of thin slabs
(80 rum to 120 mm) with moderateloading or medium span requirements. Other regular types of slabs
(130 mm to 250 mm) with heavy loading or long span requirements axe also possible.
4

4 z 183

150 = 600

4x

150

A
B
L1_J

55

1373

38.1

600

___

89

5x200=1000

I-

___'
L'.-I

4 x 150 95

732

L_.J
x

750

4x183= 732

150

600

-l

t.2.J

3x190570

_1122WT'
5xl76=880

3x1O4312

J\J'UEjkJfl1

Figure 1.2- Examples ofdecking usedin composite slabs

1.1.2 The use of composite slabs


Deckingand compositeslabs predominantly carry imposed vertical loads in bending and shear. Because
both the decking and the composite slab do not have the same geometry in each direction (nonisotropic) a two-way design is complicated. To simplify this situation, design procedures consider only
the bendingand shear resistances alongthe longitudinal axis (in the directionofthe ribs). This results in
conservative estimates of actual load carryingcapacity.

Decking used in combinationwith concrete (composite slabs) have been designed especially for this
purpose. It is thus not advisable to use cladding or roofing profiles as composite slab decking. Most
decking manufacturershave produced table or charts with all the necessary cross-sectionalproperties.
This simplifies the designerstask as decking geometries can be quite complicated.
Standard protection against corrosion of decking is normally a thin layer of galvanizing. This
protection is generally sufficient for the most common use of composite floors (dry interior
atmosphere). For more severe applications,other types of protection are available and an adequate layer
must be provided.
ECCS N 87

!nLroduction

15

Composite slab design is normally both simple and straight forward. Minimum slab thicknesses have

been established to ensure that significant two-way load distribution can occur. Non-standard bay
geometries and large openings represent cases for which special considerationmust be given. Lastly,
heavy concentrated loads, cyclical and dynamic loads must be treated with caution. Some examples of
the widespread use of composite slabs in various branches of the construction industry are now
described.

a) Office and administrative buildings


Long span steel structures associated with compositeslabs offer architects and their clients a greater free
space for offices, administrativeand commercialbuildings. The beams are usually of sufficient depth
for the primary service ducts to be accommodated by providing holes in the beam webs. The services
may be directly suspended, with possibly a false ceiling, from the deck which is generally provided with
a convenient suspension system.

b) Renovation schemes
Renovation schemes often require irregularly shaped slabs and access to the constructionsite is difficult.

Often the low carryingcapacity of the existing foundationrequiresa severe limitationof the dead load.
Composite floors are lighter in weight than conventionalreinforced concrete slabs by up to 1.0 kN/m2
and are therefore very economicalfor these applications.
C)

Housing and community service buildings

are many examples of family houses, housing schemes, schools, hospitals and other community
buildings whose construction is based on the use of composite flooring.
There

The satisfactory performance of compositeslab systems in terms of fire resistance, acoustic and thermal
insulationpropertiesprovide the high performancecriteria required for such premises.

d) Car park units


Composite floors may be used for car park construction built either as underground structures
(diaphragm walling)or as multi-storeyaerial platforms (framed structures). In both cases the speed and
ease of erection coupled with the good span/strengthcapacity and reliable composite action offered by
these floors lead to very competitive solutions.

e) Warehouse and storage buildings


Warehouse and storage facilities are essentially buildings which are purpose designed to store various
types of goods. Generallythe layout is made as open as possible to allow flexibility of use. They are
invariably characterised by heavy loads applied to the floors. The distributed and point-loads
transmitted to the floor by pallet racks and/or fork-lift trucks may require special design attention.
Nevertheless, composite slabs may provide a solution.There is also the advantage that the sprinkler fire
devices and other piping networksmay be suspended.
f) Industrial buildings and processing plants
Composite floors may be designed to carry loadings met in industrial buildings. High uniformly
distributed loads, in conjunction with punching forces and/or fork-lift trucks axles up to 30 kN, can be
accommodated. For these buildings the steel deck is most often associated with steel framed structures.
The panels are quickly and easily fastened onto the steel beams with shot-fired pins. Slabs may be
attachedto the beams by mean of shear connectorsin order to transmit the in-plane forces providing an
ECCS N 87

16

DesignManualfor Composite Slabs

efficient form of bracing to static and dynamic loading. The stiffness of composite slabs is also
beneficialfor testinglaboratorieswhere deflections and vibrationsmust be as small as possible.

1.1.3 The main advantages of composite slabs


floors are now the popular choice for a wide range of structures, offering the designer and
his clientthe following advantages:
Composite

Working platform
Before concreting, the decking provides an excellent safe working platform which speeds the
construction process for other trades.

Permanent shuttering
The steel deck spans from beam to beam, forming permanent formwork to the concrete, the need for
temporary props is often not necessary. The decking constitutes a good vapour barrier. The soffit
remains clean after concreting and the use of colour-coated steel sheets can give an attractive aesthetical
aspectto the ceiling.

Steel reinforcement
The steel reinforcement provided by the cross-section of the deck is usually sufficient to resist positive

moments. Additional fabric reinforcement may be provided in the slab to resist shrinkage or
temperature movements or to provide continuity over intermediate supports (hogging moments).
Composite action is obtained by the profile shape or by mechanical means provided by indentation or
embossment of the steel proffle.

Concrete and steel saving


The hollow shape of the proffle steel decking produces a saving of concrete which is variable with the
deck type (up to 40 litres/rn2). This reductionin of the slab self-weight produces a significantreduction
of the dead load (up to 1.0 kN/m2) carried by the structure and the foundations. Composite slabs are
usually thinner than conventionalreinforcedconcrete slabs because the relatively high steel area in the
deck (between 1000 to 1500 mm2/metre width) is workingat lower stresses.

Speed and simplicity of construction


Theuniquepropertiesof the steel deck combining high rigidity and low weight, ease considerablythe
transportation and the storage of the material on site. Often one lorry is capable of carrying up to
1500 rn2 of flooring. A team of four men can set up to 400 m2 of decking per day. Panels are light,
pre-fabricated elementsthat are easily transportated and set in place by two or three men.
Quality controlled products
Steel deck proffles are manufactured under factory controlled conditions. This allows the establishment

of strict quality procedures and less random work on the construction site. This results in a greater
accuracy of construction, assisting the following trades.

Service and building flexibility


Composite floors are adaptable. They may readily be modified during the life of the building. This is
especiallytrue when the slab is used with framed structures. It is then always possible to create a new
staircase betweentwo floors by just simply adding the necessary trimmer beams.
ECCS N 87

!ntrodziction

17

Recent developments and changes in communications, information and computing technology have
shown the importance of being able to modify quickly the building services arrangement. Because of
the present rate of change, it is not possible to predict precisely what further developments may occur at
the time the building is constructed.

in commercially let buildings or in multi-shared properties it must be possible to modify


the services without violating the privacy of the other occupants. In order to solve this problem,
engineers have to choose betweenseveral solutions. There are generally three:
Accommodationin the ceiling
Accommodation within a false floor
Accommodation in coffer box running along the walls
Furthermore,

The two last solutions are limited to specific servicesand they may cause a loss of space or result in poor
appearance. Composite floors are rarely used without a false ceiling beneath the beams usually for
aesthetical reasons. The gap betweenthe soffit and the bottom flange constitutesan ideal zone in which
services may be hidden. Many "dove-tailed" decks have slots or pre-formed tags to connect hanger
wires. It is therefore possible to suspend new cable networksand piping without undertaking costly and
noisy drilling attachments during buildingmaintenance.
Temporary bracing of the steel structures
The fasteningof the steel deck to the structure prior to concreting provides a stiff and reliable floor
bracing. Diaphragm action, which is produced by the capacityof the steel deck to resist distorsionin its
own plan readily obviates the need for temporaiyhorizontal bracing during construction.

Composite beam construction


Shear connectors are generally used to provide connection between the underlying steel beam and the
composite slab. This compositebeam configuration increases considerably the strength of the structure,
using the same beams or more efficiently smaller beams. The beam height but also the weight of the
steel beam (between 15 and 30%) are effectively reduced (see also ECCS publication No 72).

1.2

BEHAVIOUR

1.2.1 BehavIour of the steel decking (construction stage)


At the construction stage, when the concrete is wet, the decking alone resists the external loads. The
behaviouris then comparable to the behaviourof the profiles for roofing.
The decking is subjected mainly to bending and shear. Compression due to bending of the profile may
arise in either the flanges and in parts of the webs. Shear occurs essentially near the supports. The thin
component plate elements which make up the decking may buckle prior to yield under these
compressive and shear stresses, thereby reducingits load can-ying capacity and stiffness.
The current design procedures rely on the concept of effective width to provide a method for the
calculationof this type of thin walled members. Clearly, the effective width of the compression flange
depends upon the maximum stress imposedon the flange, which in turn depends on the location of the
neutral axis of the cross-section. As the effectivearea of the flange decreasesunder increasing bending
moment, the neutral axis of the proffle is lowered and the extreme fibre stresses will change accordingly.
Iterativedesign becomesnecessary for strength and serviceability calculations.
It is also possible to determine design characteristics and methodsby tests.
ECCS N 87

18

DesignManualfor Composite Slabs

1.2.2 BehavIour of composite slabs (permanent stage)


The behaviourof composite slabs is different to that of other similar fonns of composite construction,

such as reinforced concrete and composite beams of steel and concrete. In reinforced concrete,
composite action is achieved as a result of the bond resistanceof the reinforcementdue generally to the
cross section of the deformedbars used. This bond resistance,verified by tests, is equal to the ultimate
tensile resistance of the reinforcementwhich ensures that the slab may always develop the full flexural
resistance. In composite beams, composite action is achieved by connectorsfixed to the top flange of
the steel beam. The design of such connections is based on the assumptionthat the beam attains ultimate
bending resistance (full connection). If the number of connectors is smaller that required for full
connection then the connection is partial. In this case the ultimate resistance to bending depends
essentially on the number of connectors, the span of the beam and the method of construction.
The composite slab with decking has elements of both systems. On one hand decking with
embossments or anchorages compares to reinforcement, whereas on the other hand decking is an
element with bending rigidity similar to steel beams. The difference results from the fact that decking,
and similary the embossments,can be deformed. Also, unlike reinforcement,decking does not benefit
from being totally embedded in concrete. Such deformation behaviour depends on numerous
parameters, which makes the analysis of the actual behaviourofcomposite slabs more complicated.
A composite slab behaves in normal loading conditions usually as a cracked structure bent in the
longitudinal direction of the sheet.
1) When the loads are small, the slab might be uncracked. The compositeaction between the parts is
full, and the stressesof the sheet and concreteare linearly dependenton the strains.
2) The cracking in the concrete in tension reduces the stiffiess of the structure and increase of loads
causes greater deflectionsof the slab than in uncracked state. The adhesionbetween the sheet and
the concreteis capableof transferring the shear force between the cracks. It may happen that in the
ends of the slab the adhesionfails.
3) When a composite slab is experimentallyor accidentally loaded by higher loads than the design
loads, its behaviour greatly depends on the type of the steel sheet. In all composite slabs some
relative slip may take place between the elements when the shear stresses between them is greater

4)

than the strengthof the joint.


Composite slabs have different failure modes dependingnot only on the sheet type but also on the
dimensions of the structure. There are types of proffle which fail quickly if the load is larger than
the first slip load (brittle or non-ductile behaviour). Some types of sheet can undergo great
deflections before failure when the loads are gradually increased, although the relative slip
increases at the same time (ductile behaviour). The failure of a composite slab may occur at the
interfacebetween the steel sheet and the concrete as a shear bond failure or as material failure in
one element.

For the case when the slab has been propped during construction, the slab will deflect instantly after the
removal of the props. This initial loading can cause cracking in concrete. Permanent and transient
moving loads on the slab cause instant changes in deflection. The concrete will also creep for several
years which will gradually increase the deflections of the slab.
The manner in which a compositeslab behaves during a loading test enables the basic informationfor
the design of a particular type of the sheet to be developped. Because there are a great variety of the
sheet types and there are no common design formula, all sheet types must be subjected to tests. Two
modes of behaviour can be identifiedusing Figure 1.3 from a loading test where the load was gradually
increased by displacement controlledjacks; At firstthe load-deflection curve is approximatelylinear for
all types of slabs which corresponds to the behaviourof a compositeelement bonded at the interfaceby
chemical adhesionand/or friction.
ECCS N 87

19

Introduction

Mode 1 - brittle behaviour


The load suddenly decreases at a certain point where the relative slip is such that the surface bond is
broken. All the shear force must be taken up by friction and embossments. The decrease in load
depends on the quality of the mechanicalembossments. With further deformation of the slab the load
increases again slightly without ever reaching the level of the initial phase. None of the mechanical
connections in the slab are capable of assuring a composite effect superior to that of simple surface
adhesion. It should be noted that the decrease of the load is not due to the sudden opening of tension
cracks in the concrete, because this is preventedby the decking, but by relative slip betweenthe concrete
and the decking.

Load
P

(kN)

50

Slip at

firstend
P

40
30

Slip at

second
end

20
10

20

30

40

Deflection 6 [mm]
Figure 1.3 - Two typical behaviourmodes ofcomposite slabs
Mode

2- ductile behaviour

The mechanical connection is capable of transferring the shear force until failure occurs. Failure is
produced either by bending, corresponding to total connection, or by longitudinal shear, corresponding
to partial connection.
Acconlingto the Eurocode4, the behaviouris classified as ductile if the failure load exceeds the load
causingfirst recordedend slip by more than 10%. The load causing first recordedend slip is the load at
which the slip at any end of the slab is greater than 0.5 mm.
Otherwise, the behaviour is classified brittle (or non-ductile). Eurocode 4 takes into account of the
ductile or non-ductile behaviourof a composite slab by means of different partial safety factors applied
to the failure load.

ECCS N 87

20

DesignManualfor Composite Slabs

1.3

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

1.3.1 Structural stages

A distinctive characteristic ofcompositeslabs is the two structuralstates that exist: firstly, the temporary

stage of constructionwhen only the decking resists the applied loads and secondly, the permanent stage
when the concreteis bonded to the steel allowingcomposite action.
For the both structural stages, it shall be verified that no relevantlimit states are exceeded:
Profiledsheetingas shuttering
Verifications at the ultimate limit state and the serviceability limit state are required for the safety and
the serviceability of the proffled sheeting acting as formwork for the wet concrete. The effects of props
(if used) shall be taken into account in this design situation.
Composite slabs
Verifications at the ultimate limit state and the serviceability limit state are required for the safety and
the serviceabilityof the composite slab after composite behaviourhas commenced and any props have
been removed.

1.3.2 Verification conditions for the ultimate limit states


The resistanceof the decking (temporarystage of construction) or the composite slab (pemianentstage)
must be sufficient to resist the external actions. Each section or membermust be capable ofresistingthe
internalforces determined by the analysisof the structure.

Whenconsidering a limit state of ruptureor excessive deformation, it shall be verified that:


Sd Rd
Sd
Rd

:
:

design value of action effects


design value ofthe resistance

Combination

of actions

For each load case, design values for the effects of actions shall be determinedfrom combination rules
involvingdesign values of actions, as identifiedby Table 1.1. The most unfavourable combinationsare
considered at each critical location of the structure,for example, at the points of maximum negative or
positive moment, In Table 1.1 a combinationfactor of 0.9 is taken into account. Eurocodespermit the
use of other combination factors, if reliableload data is available.

1.3.3 VerIfication conditions for the serviceability limit states


The behaviourof the decking under its self-weight and the weight of the wet concrete must fall within
acceptedlimits.

The following verificationsshall be made:


deflection is within the admissible limit,
marks on the sheet due to the props should be avoided.
The behaviourof the compositeslab under permanent loads and variable service loads must fall within
acceptedlimits.

ECCS N 87

introduction

21

Table 1.1 - Combinations ofactionsfor the ultimate limit state


Load combinations to be considered:

YGGk+YQQkmaX
1.

2.

(*)

1.35

Qk

Gk+0.9.'yQ.Qk (*)

G + 0.9

eg. self weight

(*)

1.35Gk+l.5OQk,max
1G

= permanent actions,

variable actions,eg. imposedloads


on floors, snow loads, wind loads

= the variable action which causes


the largest effect at a given
location

1.50

If the dead load G counteracts the


variable action Q:

= partial safety factor for permanent

= 1.00

actions

If a

variable load Q counteracts the


dominant loading:

YQ

= partial safety factor for variable


actions

The following verifications shall be made:


Concrete cracking in hogging moment regions is within a limited width.
Deflection, or variation ofdeflection,auairiing the admissible limit.
Vibrations above a limitingvalue.
Combination

of actions

For each load case, design values for the effects of actions shall be determined fmm combination rules
involving design values of actions as identifiedby Table 1.2.

TabLe 1.2 - Combinations of actionsfor the serviceabilitylimit state

Load combinations to be considered:


1.

GkQk,max

2.

Gk + O.9Ql

Parametersdefined in Table 1.1

ECCS N 87

Page blank
in original

Consiruction siteinformation

23

2.

LIST OF ESSENTIAL CONSTRUCTION SITE INFORMATION

2.1

GENERAL

This chapter contains the minimum amount of information that the designer and/or architect should
supply to construction site personnel. Most of the informationcontained in this chapter is used by the
designer and/or architect when calculating decking and composite slab resistances. Ignorance of this
information by field personnel can lead to situations that the designer and/or architect has not forseen.
Any variations from the conditionsspecified by the designerand/or architect should be brought to their
attention.

2.2

DECKING BUNDLE IDENTIFICATION

An identification tag should be attached to each decking bundle delivered to the job site. An example
tag is shown in Figure 2.1. Tags may look somewhat different but should contain the following
information:
Total bundle
weight
Deck
type, surface condition,thickness
Bundle identificationcode
The number, length and thickness of each panel
The bundle identificationcode will also appear on the decking layout plan, and can thus be used to
identify the bay(s) for which the bundle is designated. A product description including the following
should be available on site or from the decking manufacturer's technical informationservice:
Rib height
Embossmentdepths
The yield strengthof the core material
The type of coatings (if any) and coating thickness

Location

Job No.

o
o
o
o

id1eidentification

Galvanised

Deck type

XYPD 01

GRD FLR LVL

43000
1.00 mm

MARK: AZI

0
0
" 0

lOx 10075.0
Bundle weight

-0

4x7295.0
3x3335.0

0.967 tonnes

V
No. of sheets

Thickness (mm)

Length (mm)

Figure 2.1 - Example decking bundle identification


ECCS N 87

24

DesignManualfor Composite Slabs

INFORMATION FOR STEEL SUB-CONTRACTORS


The steel sub-contractorshould be provided with a decking layout drawing which divides the floor into
bays. A bay consists of panels from the same decking bundle that are to be laid Out and fixed to the
underlyingframe as one unit. Each bay of each floor with composite slabs should be containedin this
drawing. Information not included in this chapter may also be specified in this drawing. Such
information may be necessary because of variations from standard practices. All such variations should
be clearly indicated (highlighted) by the designerand/or architect.

2.3

2.3.1 Decking layout drawing


Bay definition
Bays may be defined using dashed lines and a diagonal solid line, such as are shown in Figure 2.2. A
reference number may be placed in a circle on the diagonal line to indicate that special bay instructions
are given elsewhereon the drawing. The approximatelocationof the firstpanel to be placed in each bay
and the direction in which layout should continue is indicated. Other informationgiven for each bay is:
Decking rib orientation
The number of panels
The bundle identificationcode

The panel length

Columns and supports


Thelocationandorientationof each column should be indicated as shown in Figure 2.2. All supports
(permanent or temporary) should be included. Permanent supports are drawn using a solid line,
temporary supports are drawn using a dashed line and the letters TP (Temporary Prop-line). The
minimum width of the temporary support in contact with the decking should be given (the minimum
bearing width) together with the line load reaction [kN/m] on the props.

Openings and edges


The location and orientation of all openings and edges with respect to permanent supports should be

given. This includes both permanent and temporary edges. Such information should be indicated in
boxes identifiedby the words "Edge trim", see Figure 2.2. There may be more than one reference box
for each edge. The followinginformationshould be contained in each reference box:
A reference letter (or number) for details which appears elsewhere
The decking rib height
The distance between the edge of the decking and the centrelineof the nearest permanentsupport.
Details should be available for all exterior edges and edges next to openings. Details may also be
necessaryfor temporary edges. Temporary edges include changesin the orientation of the decking ribs
and edges betweenconcretings. Examplesof support and edge details are given in the document "Good
Construction Practice for Composite Slabs" (Figures 17 and 19 of Chapter 6, and in Figures 24 and 25

of Chapter 8).
Panel fastening
Panels may be fastenedonly to permanent supports and to adjacent panels (seam fasteners). Fastening
should be undertaken immediately after each panel or bay has being laid out. For each bay special
fastener informationmay be given. Fastener information is indicated on the decking layout drawing
using infonnation boxes identified by the word "Fasteners", as shown in Figure 2.3. Each information
box should contain the following:
ECCS N 87

Construction site information

25

Fastenertype
Number of fasteners needed to fix each panel to each support, or the minimum number of seam
fasteners per metre length.

2.3.2 Shear connectors


connectors are normally shown on structural drawings for composite beams. This information
need only be included in the decking layout drawing if holes must be cut in the decking, or if shear
connectors are to be installed using through deck welding or through deck shot-firing. In these cases
the location, type and length of each shear connector should be indicated on the decking layout
drawing. The orientation and location of the shear connector relative to decking ribs should be clearly
Shear

indicated.

The minimum distance between the centreline of the shear connector and the edge of the decking
should be given. Installation and quality control procedure information from the shear connector
suppliershould be available on site.
INFORMATION FOR CONCRETE SUB-CONTRACTORS
A reinforcementlayout drawing should be made available to the appropriatecontractorfor each bay of
eachfloor. The location,length, minimum overlap and minimumconcrete cover of all reinforcementin
the composite slab should be indicated. The specified grade of all reinforcement should also be
indicated on this drawing. This grade should be checked against the identification tag for each
reinforcement bundle. Important reinforcement details (such as near supports, openings and edges)
should be referenced and placed on this drawing or on the decking layout drawing. Any special
preparationneeded to ensure that excessiveleakagedoes not occur during concreteshould be indicated.

2.4

The concreting work should be started above the permanentsupports of the slab and proceed towards
the middle areas of the sheets. The height from which concrete falls should be as low as possible. The
order of the work should be clearly shown in the drawingsfor the building site.
Information concerning the concrete mix should be provided in the same manner as for other
reinforced concrete components. Minimum necessary concreting informationincludes the following:
The minimum concretecompressivestrength
Maximum aggregatesize
Types of admixtures : it is necessaryto check if the admixturesused are compatible with the coating
of the profiled sheets. For example, the use of antifreeze-type admixtures is prohibitedbecause they
are definitelynot compatible with zinc coatings.

2.5

CONSTRUCTION LOADS

The design load that may be carried by the decking as a temporary workingplatform, as shutteringand
by the composite slab should be clearly indicated on the decking layout drawings and on appropriate
concreting drawings (in kN/m2). Special loading limitationsshould be clearly indicatedfor each bay. In
addition the following values may be necessary:
The minimum concrete compressive strength at which temporary supports may be removed (can be
given in terms of days after concreting)
The minimum concrete
compressivestrength at which temporary constructionload may be applied
(can be given in terms of days after concerting)
The maximum allowable vehicularaxle weight.

ECCSN 87

00

z0

(.

til

Reference for
edge detail
drawings
lndicator start point for
laying of panels

height

nb

Deck

Temporary propline

supports. No mporsry
prop.lo.dsallowedprior to
concreting.

No mere than (4) workmen


allowed ondecking.
Anchoragesprovided at

Bundle identification

Tape joints between


Bays (1) and (2).
No special load
restrictions.

I
I

Construction site information

27

UVC

03

z.g&

1..

U
C

(1

Id
.

C
U

4)
1.,

>..

.C
U

<Ill

Figure 2.3 - Exa,nple decking layoutdrawing (Fasteners details only)


ECCSN 87

Page blank
in original

Prelijninary considerationsandpre-design

29

PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS AND PRE-DESIGN

3.1

INTRODUCTION

This chapterhasbeenwrittenfor architectsand engineers and more generallyfor all those who have to
produce a quick but sound pre-design for a composite floor. This might be required for either a
preliminary project or a costestimationexercise.
Experience often shows that the architectsmust be given a realistic estimationof the floor system depth
including slabs, suppoiting beams and ceiling. This is necessary because the overall depth of the floor
has a direct influence on the total building height. This parameter which is usually fixed by urban
planners may be restricted for a specific area.
The building height depends directly on the floor arrangementand therefore it is not an exageration to
state that the simple pre-designestimate of the composite slab thickness is meaningless for a project if
the designerdoes not considerthe beam spacing,the beam span, the total acceptable depth of the floor
system (beam + slab) and also the column layout.

3.2

POSSIBLE COMPOSITE ACTION WITH BEAMS

The use of composite beams follows naturally from the use of composite slabs in the transverse
direction. Shear connectors are generally used to provide shear connection between the underlyingsteel
beam and the concrete slab. The resultingin-span behaviourof these components is an optimum use of
the two materials where the concrete works in compression and the steel beam mainly in tension (see
Figure 3.1). In a composite beani the resultingcentroid of the composite section is usually positioned in
the vincinityof the top flange of the steel beam. The area of the steel beam in compressionis therefore
significantly reduced,and may even be zero.

This so called 'composite beam' arrangement increases considerably the strength of the element. The
beam height but also the weight of the steel beam is effectivelyreduced by 15% to 30% (see also Figure
3.2). Recent fire tests carried out in France and the U.K. have shown that it is possible to obtain a fire
stabilityof 30 minutes for unprotectedcomposite steel beams.
Composite beam arrangements also make the structure stiffer and more ductile. Finally this type of
structure has a improved resistance to seismic forces. The numerous beam solutions applicable to the
composite slabs are outhned in section 3.3.2a).

3.2.1 Composite beams with welded shear connectors


shear connectors can be attachedon site or in the workshop. The studs are welded directlyonto
the beam (welded in the shop) or directly through the steel deck (welded on site). Welded stud
connectors were initially used for compositebridges. These connectorshave various diameters between
12 and 22 mm (see Figure 3.3).
Welded

3.2.2 Composite beams with nailed shear connectors


Cold formed angle connectors made of light-gauge steel are connected to the beam through the deck
by using shot fired nails. This technique is very practical on site because the tools are light and easy to
use. The top flange can be painted and the presence of moisture between the deck and the beam flange

does not affect the performance of the system. However the number and the capacity of this type of
connector to resist the shear forces is limited compared to the welded headed studs. Nailed shear
connectors (Figure 3.4) are mainly used for small and medium size contracts or when the access to site
for a generator is difficult.
ECCS N 87

Design Manualfor Compose Slabs

30

I
Without connection :

= Mp,a

fy Za

iE74

IY

With connection: M = fy Z

Figure3.1 - The principle of composite beams


Self-weight (slab and profile) : 91

+92

: g = 1 kN/m2
: q = 4 kN/m2

Weightoffloor finishes
Variable imposed load

140 t999WW 9299

I
I

Jh

2500

With connection

Withoutconnection
Plastic design

Elastic design

Plastic design
Connection:40% Connection:100%

::

440

Depth h[mm]

Section

7500

:500 J_

410

IPE 400

IPE 360

IPE 300

66.3

57.1

42.2

36.1

13019

12019

25019

10

12

24

33

10

IPE

270

Weight of profile

[kg/m]
Number ofstuds

&g[mmj

shnnk (mm)
q[mmJ

Figure3.2 - Possible weightsaving with composite beams


ECCS N 87

Preliminary consideralionsandpre-design

*+
111

31

..
:j

+
-.i_

Figure3.3 - Welded shear studs

i
.i

Figure 3.4 - Nailed shear connectors

3.3

COLUMN LAYOUT AND THE VARIOUS BEAM ARRANGEMENTS


The pattern of the column layout is certainly the first parameter to consider when designing a building
structure. The distance between the columns and the beam/column arrangement define directly the
beam spans and consequently the depth of the floor members.

3.3.1 Short to medium span structures


span structural arrangements are used when the building flexibility is not critical and/or
when the beam depth is limited. These structures do not always use the composite beam approach as
discussedearlier in this chapter. The decision whether a beam should or should not be composite (i.e
connected to the slab) depends of national practice and can result in savings in beam weight in regards
with the cost of connection between the slab and the beam. These siructures are usually based on
"square grid" have a higher number of columns. Figure 3.5 shows a possible option.
Short/medium

Figure 3.5 - First typeofcolumn layoutstructure

3.3.2 Long span structures using composite beams


The initial developmentof the use of composite construction was as a substitution for the traditional
reinforced concrete frame. Thus grids are square or nearly square with column spacing in the range of
6 to 9 metres. Such span layout does not take full advantage of some of the composite beam's inherent
benefits. In particular it does not recognize that a composite floor is essentially an overlay of one way
structural elements. The floor spans between the secondary beams, which span transversely on to the
primary beams; the latter in turn span to the columns. This set of loads paths lends itselfto rectangular
grids and it becomes feasible to increase the span in at least one directionto 12, 15 or even 20 metres
and more.

ECCS N 87

DesignManualfor Conzposue Slabs

32

The depth of the long span beams will clearly increase in order to achieveeconomy but now the beams
are of sufficient depth for the primary service ducts to be accomodated readily within their depth, so
that the overall floor depth does not necessarily increase significantly.The ducts may be accomodatecj
by providing holes in the beam webs, or, by tapering the beams near theirends.
Modem buildings are generallydesigned to have a life of not less than 50 years. Recent developments
and changes in communications, informationtechnology and manufacturingmethods have already had
a profound influence on commercial and industrial practice and consequently on various type of
building arrangements. Therefore it is not possible to predict precisely what further developements may
occur during the life of a building that is designedcurrently. Today there is no evidencethat the rate of
change of office and industrial technology or social habits will slacken and developers must expect
profoundchanges in requirementsfor modern building during their life. While many of these changes
will influenceservicesrequirements, others will primarily affect the partitionlayout.
The best way to maximiseflexibility of internal planningis to minimise the numberof columns. Figure
3.6 shows typical examples of ways in which "long span" primary beams can reduce or eliminate the
numberof internal columns. The cost of the floor will increase but this can be partly offset by saving
from the reductionin the number of foundations and some savings in speed and costof erection. In any
case the net increase in the structural cost may well be no more than 10 % and this representsa much
smaller proportion of the total developmentcost. This is a very small premium to pay if proper account
is taken of the potentialfuture benefits because the structureis less likely to become obsolete.

Figure3.6 - Long spanprimary beams

a) Structural options for long span beams


This sectiondescribesthe various options for achieving the twin aims of long spans and ready
incorporation of services within normal floor zones.

Beams with web openings


In this method of construction, the beam depth is selected so that sufficientlylarge, usuallyrectangularshaped openings can be cut into the web (see Figure 3.7). For general guidance, it is suggested that the
openings should form no more than 70% ofthe depth of the web, wherehorizontal sliffeners are welded
above and below the opening. Typically, the length of the openings should be no more than twice the
beam depth. The best locationfor the openings is in the low shear zone of the beams.
A modified form of construction is the notched beam where the lower part of the web and flange of the
section is cut away over a short distance from the support. This method is not usually practical unless
the cut web is stiffened.

ECCS N 87

Preliminary considerationsandpre-design

33

Reinforcern1nt

Stiffener

Opening

for services

Figure 3.7 - Web openings infloor beams


Castellated beams
Casteflated beams can be used effectively for lightly serviced buildings or for aesthetic reasons where
the structure is exposed (see Figure 3.8). Composite action does not significantly increase the strength
ofthe beam butdoes increase their stiffness significantly. Castellatedbeams have limited shear capacity
and ate best used as secondary beams.

db'6boo
Figure3.8 - Castellated floor beams
Composite tnisses
Trussesare frequentlyused in multi-stoity building in North America and are best suited for very long
spans, where the truss is designed to occupy the full depth of the floor zone (see Figure 3.9). The cost
of fabrication can be high in relation with the material cost. Little benefit is gained for composite action
apart improvingthe stiffness of the truss. The modified Warren truss is the most common form as it
offers the maximum zone for service betweenbracingmembers.

Figure3.9 - Composite trusses with composite floors


Stub girders
Architectural demand for square column-gridswith spacings of 10 to 12 metres led to the development
of stub girder constructionin North America. The stub girder comprises a bottom chord which acts in
tension and a series of short beam sections (or stubs) which connect the bottom chord to the concrete
slab. Secondary beams span across the bottom chord and can be designed as continuous members.
Voids are created adjacentto the stubs for services. This is illustratedin Figure 3.10.

ECCSN 87

34

____

___

Design Manualfor Composite Slabs

secordary beam

Figure3.10 - Stubgirdersystem with compositeslab


Parallel beam grillage systems
This system is different from the other previoulydescribed in that continuitycan be developed in both

the secondary and primary beams. The secondary beams are designed to act compositely with the
concrete slab, and are made continuous by passing over the primary beams. The primary beams are
arrangedin pairs and pass on either side of the columns to which they are attached by shear resisting
brackets. These primary beams are non-composite. The method of construction is illustrated in Figure
3.11. Dual beam systems are ideally suited to accomodated large service ducts in orthogonaldirections.

Figure3.11 - Composite slab andparallel beam grillage systems


Haunched beams
Haunchedbeams are designedby forminga rigid moment connection betweenthe beams and columns.
The depth of the haunch is selected primarilyto providean economicmethod of transferringmoment
into the column; the length of the haunch is selected to reduce the depth of the beam to a practical
minimum. The extra service zone created beneath the beam between the haunches offers flexibility in
service layout. At edge columns, it would be normal to develop additional continuitythrough the slab
reinforcement, but this is only an option at internal columns. This form of constructioncan be used for
sway frames, i.e. where vertical bracing or concrete shear walls or cores are not provided. This is
practical for buildingsup to 5 storeys in height. An example of a haunchedcompositebeam is shown in
Figure 3.12.
4-

r,

Shear connectors

7-.Tr-r,---r
C(mposite secondary bea"ms

Figure3.12- Composite floor with haunchedbeams


ECCS N 87

Preliminary considerationsandpre-design

35

b) Structural arrangements with built-up sections


Figure 3.13 shows three typical floor arrangements for a one-bay long-span structure. Wider, multi-bay
buildings would simply be repetitions of these single-bay arrangements, although the 6 in column
spacingthat is shown along the building would be likely to increase for internal columns. Figure 3.13a

shows the fabricated beams acting as the primary beams, supporting light hot-rolled, composite,
secondary beams between 2 and 5 m centres, which depends on whether the sheet is supported or not
during concreting.In Figure 3.13b the fabricatedsectionsare themselvesplaced at 2.4 to 3.6 m centres
andare supporteddirectly by the columnsor by compositehaunched beams.In multi-bays schemes the
haunched internal beams would be replaced by primary beams or internal columnslines. Figure 3.13c
is only applicable to one-baystructures, with beams on the center-lines of the mullion columns.
Choice of arrangement will depend on the overall structural form. Type Cc) would only be used if
mullioncolumnswere requiredat centres of between2.4 and 3.6 in to supportthebuildingenvelope.
Where the column spacing is greater than 3.6 in along the building, some form of grillage is requiredif
conventionalcomposite decking is used. Propping of the steel decking may also be used in this case.
The choice between a) and b) is not clear cut. For conventional construction, b) would be generally
favoured. However, layout b) does have a greater number of fabricated sections, which inherently more
expensive per tonne than rolled sections. In addition the lightly loaded fabricated sections of b) are
likely to be less efficientthan the heavier fabricated sections of a). For examplethe webs of the former
may be governed by minimum thicknesscriteria. Even if that is not the case their greater slenderness
will reduce strength. Conversely, the number of connections in a) are greater than b) thus increasing
erectionand fabrication costs for the former.

Figure 14 shows a range of profiles for tapered beams.

3.3.3 Structural options with other materials


slabs are now widely used with reinforced, prestressedconcrete and timber structures. They
lead
to
material saving and increased speed of erection. These applications are now discussed.
may
Composite

a)

Reinforced

and prestressed concrete structures

The use of composite slabs in conjunction with reinforcedconcrete beams appeared in the mid 1980's.
A large vanety of buildings ranging from an underground car park (a typical detail is given in Figure

3.15) to a tail building with a tubular core (a typical detail is given in Figure 3.16) were built using
composite slab flooring. Single span sheets are used at each support, the slab and the beams may be
linked using mesh reinforcement to ensure longitudinal shear connection. There are several possible
ways to use these techniques, one ofwhich is shownin Figure 3.17.
Steel decks are easily adapted to the concrete support providing the minimum edge distances can be
satisfied. The stability of the steel sheet must be assured during construction. The fastening of the steel
deck may be carried out by various ways as shown in Figure 3.18. For prestressed concretebeams the
deck is locked/clamped or fixed using shot fired fasteners. A minimumedge distance must be respected
in order to avoid splittingor a steel plate should be inserted in order to provide a fastenerbase.
The Fdration internationalede la prcontrainte (FIP) is preparing a Guide to good practice Precast
composite floor structures, which gives general rules and recommendations for constructioncomposite
structures with prefabricated elements.

ECCS N 87

Design Manualfor Composite Slabs

36

-6m-hot-rolled
secondary

beam

fabricated
primary
beam
(a) Type A

fabricated

beam
composite

haunched
beam
(b) Type B

mullion
column

(C) Type C

Figure 3.13 - Structural arrangementswith built-up sectio

Lj111111111111
(a) Straight taper

(b) Semi-taper

(C) Cranked taper

Figure3.14- Fabricated beams alternative shapes

ECCSN 87

Preliminaryconsiderationsandpre-dthgn

____________________________________

37

/.

5cm

Figure3.15- Composite slab and reinforced concretebeams

temporary prop

Figure3.16- Europe'stallest building has composite floor


(Messeturm in Franlfurt/Main, Germany)

ECCS N 87

DesignManualfor Composite Slabs

38

steel mesh

shear bars

steel decking

Figure3.17- Other constructiondetails for concreteframes

L
L

HI
' P

length 150 mm

e=5h
Figure3.18 - Various way to connect the deck on concrete
b) Timber structures
The timber beam option for flooring can be either a structural or an architecturalchoice. Floors made
with composite slabs are well suited to this type of structure because of the reduced slab weight The
fasteningof the sheets onto the beams is carried out by mean ofnails or screws (see Figure 3.19). When
adequatelyfasten, the deck can be used to improve the structural stability for both the temporary and
permanent stages. Typical construction details for timber structures are given in Figure 3.20.

ECCS N 87

39

Pre1iminay considerazwnsandpre-design

I
Figure3.19 - Fctenersfor timber structures

Figure3.20 - Typical constructiondetails on timber structures

3.4

RENOVATION AND REFURBISHMENT SCHEMES

Composite slabs are versatile and can very often be used for renovationof existing structures. The use
of composite slabs in this particular context is not very different from current applications but the
uniqueness of such projects may lead to problems compared with conventional design. This section

outlines briefly the various possibilities in these situations. Depending with the nature and/or the
importance of the renovation scheme composite floors can be placed on various type of beams
including
steel beams (Figure 3.21)

reinforced concretebeams (Figure 3.22)


wooden or timber beams (Figure 3.23)
prestressedconcretebeams (Figure 3.24)
reinforced concrete walls (Figure 3.25)
ECCS N 87

DesignManualfor Composite Slabs

40

concreteslab
tile

steeljoist

/1

composite __/'
slab with NWC

Connected
steel joist

5000 to 8000mm

composite I'
slab with LWC

5000 to 8000mm

Fi2ure3.21 - Renovationand refurbishmentschemessteel beams

Figure3.22 - Renovation and refurbishment schemes reinforcedconcrete beams

ECCS N 87

Preliminary considerationsandpredesign

41

Renovated floor

Existing floor

100 - 140 mm thick slab


I h stable to fire

timber floor

composite slab

tire bar
grout
SLA4O

p.

timber beam level

shutter
unsawntimber beam

Figure3.23 - Renovation and refurbishmentschemeson wooden or timber beams

prestressed
concrete beam
composite
slab

existing
wall

Figure324 - Renovation and refurbishmentschemes on prestressed concrete beams

ECCSN 87

DesignManualfor Composite Slabs

42

Figure 3.25 - Exampleoffloor construction


The number of renovationprojects where composite slabs can be used is very large. Examples range
from very simple projects with a new slab cast onto the existing steel beams to major refurbishment
schemes where only the facade of the building has been retained. It is difficult to produce here a
complete list of these multi-purposeapplications but they include the following:
Re-modelling
Strengthening
Extension
Composite

flooi avoid the setting of costly and voluminuous formworkwhich slows down construction

progress. Generally the low or unknown carrying capacity of the existing foundationsplaces a severe
limitationon the dead load. Lightweightcomposite slabs are beneficialbecause they are easy to handle
and up to 1.0 1rN/m2 lighter than conventionalreinforced concreteflooring.
The installation of composite floor panels for renovation schemes does not require the use of a
procedure which is different to new construction. Steel decking available on the market offers a large
variety ofsolutions to tacklethe problems of partial or total renovation.
Renovation schemes are often characterised by the irregular shape of the slabs. The use of the
conventional slab techniques (i.e.: cast-in place, pre-cast or hollow core slabs) is often difficult.
Composite floors are generally useful in these situations, the pre-cut panel elements are cut on site to the
exact shape of the building using simple tools such as grinders and nibblers. The flexibility and the
lightness of the panels allows quick but efficient installationof the elements. The steel sheets may be
manually positioned by 2 or 3 men. When the access to the construction site is difficult with the
conventional lifting equipment the passage of the panels through the door or existing windows is
possible withoutthe need to dismantle the roof.

ECCS N 87

PreliminaryconsideraJionsandpre-desgn

3.5

43

SHALLOW FLOOR CONSTRUCTION

Shallow floor construction incorporates light gauge steel decking as part of a compositeslab (see Figure
3.26). The system has the benefits of slim floor construction but possesses additional advantages over
the traditional concreteoption (i.e. lighter weight of the slab, ease and speed of erection). Shallow floors
made of composite slabs usuallyspan between5 to 9 metres, the total thicknessof the slab is usuallyset
between 180 and 350 mm. All types of steel deck can be used providing they can achieved the required
deflectionand strengthcriteria. However, deep steel decking presents another advantage, the size of the
corrugations allows light services to run within the floor depth parallel to the corrugation and through
the beams webs (see Figure 327).

B = span/4
Transverse reinforcement
DI'

= 210

210 deep deck x 1.25 thk.

A4JL
Cross-section throughcomposite'Slimfior' beam - Type B

Section A - A

600

600

Figure3.26- Shallowfloor arrangementwith composite slab

3.5.1 Shallow floor with deep steel decking


The slab is hidden within the beam height which is generally a compactsection. The use of deep steel
decking is therefore an efficientsolution,because the deck rests directly on a plate welded to the bottom

flange of the beam. The deck openings are closed by stop end accessories which prevent concrete
leakage. The top flange of the beam is covered by a concrete topping(70 to 100mm) which houses the
steel fabric for hogging moments and the shear connectors when the beam is designed for composite
action. This topping constitutes the compression part of the slab within the current span. The fire
stability of the beam is brought up to 1 hour and the use of lightweightconcrete allows to span up to 6
metres withoutprops.
ECCSN 87

DesignManualfor Composite Slabs

In-situ concrete

Services

Figure3.27 - Floor servicewith shallowfloor

3.5.2 Shallow floor for long-span beams


The steel beams for longer spans are rarely made of compact sections. The beam depth is clearly
increased in order to achieve economy and the slab is not supported on the bottom flange of the beam.
However it is still advantageous to use the shallow floor technique in order to reduce the total floor
height and improve the fire stability of the beams.

In this arrangementthe slab rests on brackets or packingswhose purpose are to maintain the steel sheet
during the constructionstage. All or part of the slab is containedwithin the beam depth as is shown in
Figure 3.28. Any conventionalsteel decking can be use for this arrangement,providingthat the design
and propping requirements are met. The fire stabilityof the beams varies with the way they have been
integrated within the slab.

Figure3.28- Shallowfloor arrangementfor long span structures

ECCS N 87

45

Preliminary consideradnsandpre-design

3.6

PRE-DESIGN

3.6.1 Major information


In orderto carry out a realistic pre-design exercise it is necessary for the designerto gather a minimum
amount of informationabout the project. This vital pre-design information will include all or a number
of the following:

Slab depth compatible with the fire rating


Limitingslenderness ratio for slab
Slab depth compatiblewith the sound insulation
Accepted propping conditions on site
The possible span of the slaband the beams
Permanentor short temi imposed load applied to the floor.

a) Slab depth compatible with the fire rating


This criterion fixes the minimum slab thickness necessary to achieve satisfactorily the required fire
rating. The minimum slab thickness is variable and depends on the type of decking and the technique
used to solve the fire problem. Two main techniques are available:
Fire protection of the soffit using either applied or screenedmaterial (no minimum slab thickness
imposedby the fire design)
The use of steel bar reinforcementfor fire resistance(a minimum slab thickness is compulsory, see
also Section 8.2)

The minimum slab depth for this fire resistance is a direct consequence of this choice. For a fire rating
of two hours the steel reinforcement solution is efficient and cost effective. The first solution is
generally preferredwhen the fire rating has been set above two hours.
b) Limiting slenderness ratio for slab
The slendernessratio is given by the span length (L) divided by the effective depth of the slab (dp).
This number usually lies between 20 (heavy loads) and 40 (light loads). For typical structures this
slenderness ratio may be taken as not greater than 32 to comply the serviceability requirement.Such
limitation of the slenderness ratio also influences the dynamic responseof the slab.
C)

Slab depth compatible with the sound insulation

The acousticperformanceof composite slabs is describedby the "mass law" equation. The performance
of slabs are normally given in manufacturer's brochures.

In certain circumstancesthe composite slab is not sufficiant for sound insulation and in this case a
system involvingan additionallayer of insulation must be used. It is importantto estimate the minimum
thickness of the concrete slab in conjunction with the technique of insulation chosen for the
construction as describedin Section 8.6.

d) Accepted propping conditions

on site

The use of props may either depend on the method of construction and/or the conditionson site. Their
use always induces extra-costfor the setting and removal of these devices. However one or two lines of
props enables larger spans to be achieved.

ECCSN 87

DesignManualfor Composite Slabs

46

e) The possible span of the slab and the beams


The beam spacing in a floor using composite slab is a critical decision.There are two cases:

Beam spacing and column layout are imposed


Beam spacing and column layout are free

In the first case the designer has little freedom only the spacing of the secondary members requires
determination.

The early decision whetherconstiuctionis with or without propping is critical because the criterion "no
props" limits the choice of the deck type or forces the designer to use shorter spans. Therefore the
mmiinum required thickness of the slab will be dictatedby the spanninglimits of the deck.

In the second case the designerhas more design choices. A good way to stait the pre-designis to use the
minimum slab thickness as explain before and then estimatethe maximumspan with or withoutprops.
The spacingof the secondary beams is then known and therefore their section depth can be estimated.
f) Total dead and Imposed load applied on the floor
The majority of design charts given by manufacturers gives permissible loads for maximum spans (or
vice versa).

For a typical range of buildings imposed loading varries between 2 kN/m2 and 5 kN/m2 for lightloads
and up to 10 kN/m2 for heavy loads.

3.6.2 Pre-design procedure


Pre-design

of floors using composite slabs by architects or engineers is greatly

simplified by the

manufacturers design charts. Recently these charts are sometimes accompagned by software packages
whose level of refinement is variable. These packages may provide safe load tables or more refined
analyses. Their use is particularto each manufacturer and therefore will not be considered here since the
design charts are universal.

Most brochures produced by the manufactures have a double entry system considering both the
construction stage (number of props) and the loading stage (total slab depth, steel reinforcement for
hogging and sagging). These two stages will be considered separately.

a) Temporary or construction stage


The designer must first consider the construction stage and select a deck type compatible with the site
requirement (props or no props).

In many cases the site layout decision influences the choice of profile and also the form of the slab
construction.

Clearly the allowable deck span is influenced by:


The support conditions
Sheet lengths can be used to span one or more spans (single or multi span). When investigatinglarger

unpropped span the designer is advised to arrange a multi-span layout


economical for both the unpropped span length and the site layout.

of the deck. This is more

The decking strength


The deck carrying capacity is mainly influenced by the inertia which is in turn directly linked to the rib
depth of the profile and the thickness of the metal sheet (smaller influence).

ECCSN 87

47

Preliminary considerationsaizdpre-design

A crude stereotyped approach for a typical office building slab would be::
deck with rib height of 40 mm spans up to 2.70 m
deck with rib height of 60 mm spans up to 3.30 m
deckwithribheightoflOmmand+spansupto3.70m
specific decking for large span up to 6.5 m (no prop)
The possible span depends of course of the finished slab depth but also with the type of concrete
(normal or light weight).
b) Permanent or service stage
As a guide the minimum depth of the slab is given:
the
limiting slenderness ratio L/dp 32 (see also 3.6.1 b)
the minimum depth for fire rating and/or sound insulation.
The decking shape and propertiescan be obtained once this minimum slab depth has been set together
with the possible span layout (single or multi-span, numberof props accepted).
All the data are normally computed using conventionnal hypothesis such as the average concrete
strength, the deflectionat service and other current parameters.These values are always given with the
data and should be specified for the final design.
Special calculations for the fire reinforcement or other special loading condition are usually not relevant
to this stage ofthe project. They are carried outlater by the design office.

3.6.3 Summary
Table 3.1 gives an overview of the different alternatives for the choice of a compositefloor system.

Table 3.1 - Different alternativesfor the choice of a compositefloor system


Feature

Alternatives

Structural system

Single or continuous span beam.

6 to 20 m.
Floorbeam centresor spacing 1.80 to 5.0 m.
Floor beam length
(slab span length)

of indentations

Steel decking

Trapezoidal profiles, re-entrant profiles,, types

or

Fire protection
Shear connection

Thickness of the slab, additional reinforcement, protection system


(suspended ceilings, sprayed material).
Stud connectors, weldedthrough the sheet
or weldedto the beam with holed sheet.
Nailed shear connectors.

Degreeofshear

Partial to full (40 to 100%)

embossments end anchorage.

connection (beam)
Concreting (slab)

Unpropped or propped slab.

ECCS N 87

Page blank
in original

49

Detailing requirementr

DETAILING REQUIREMENTS

The following detailing requirements should be respected whatever conditions of design are considered
as a minimum. More informationmay be found in the ECCS document No 73: "Good Construction
Practice for Composite Slabs".

Two specific design situationsmust be considered:


Constructionstage
Composite stage

4.1

GENERAL CONDITIONS ON STEEL DECKING AND COMPOSITE

SLABS
4.1.1 Decking and slab
It is recommended that the nominal thickness of the steel decking should not be less than 0.75 mm.
Zinc coating should be provided on each face with a minimum of 0.02 mm per face. This rule is for
corrosion protection. The depth of the steel sheetingt'p should not be less than 35 mm and the depth of
the composite slab not be less than 80 mm. This is a minimum condition for fire resistance and sound
insulation.

The span to effective depth ratio of the slab should be less than or equal to 32 for simple supported
slabs and 36 for continuous slabs. This is a condition for slab rigidity and comfort (see EC 2).
The thickness hc of concreteabove the ribs of the decking shall be greater than 40 mm.
If the slab acts compositely with a beam or is used as a diaphragm, the minimumtotal slab depth h is 90
mm and the minimumconcretethicknesshc above the decking is 50 mm.

;:

______ ___f
bb
re-rentranttrough profile

'

4hp h

jh
bh
opentroughprofile

Figure 4.1 - Minimum conditions : decking and composite slab

4.1.2 Concrete
The minimum characteristic resistance in compression of the concrete is 20 N/mm2 (Class C20).
Concrete may be Normal Weight Concrete (NWC)or Light WeightConcrete (LWC).

The nominal size of agregatedepends on the smallest dimensionon the structural element within which
concreteis poured, and shall not exceed the least of:
0.4
where is the depth ofconcrete above the ribs

b>/3 where b0 is the mean width of the rib (minimum width for re-entrant profiles)
31.5 mm.

ECCSN 87

50

Design Manualfor Composite Slabs

4.2

CONSTRUCTION STAGE

The stage during the erection of the structure is one of the most critical. Specific details must be
complied at this design stage.

4.2.1 Bearing
During construction,the steel sheeting is acting as shuttering. It is placed on permanent supports and
sometimes, on specific temporary supports, the props. Figure 4.2 shows the minimum values for bearing
lengths on permanent supports.
1

(c)

jj

.,

- .0

(b)

bearing on steelorconcrete

(d)

iooj.
beanng onothermaterials suchasbrickorblock

Figure4.2 - Minimum bearing lengthsfor permanent supports (7.3 ofEC4)


For design calculations, it is convenient to considerthat the decking is supported on the centre line of
the bearing.
Temporary supports shall be checked in accordance with part 1.3
minimum values for the temporarybearing lengths (props).

of EC 3. Figure 4.3

gives the

All interior panel ends shall be centered over permanent supports. During constructioncantilevers shall
be temporary supported.
Note: EC 4 allows reduction of minimumbearing lengths given above if special care is considered in
the design (see EC 4 for more information).

4.2.2 Fasteners
at least twice at each end to the permanent supports and the decking
shall be butted to each other or overlapped. The longitudinal overlapping depends of the shape of
decking. Generallyprofiles overlap on one or half of one rib.
When used, the minimum transversal overlapping on supports are 50 mm on steel supports and 70 mm
on supports made of others materials (see Figure 4.2)
Each panel should be connected

ECCS N 87

51

Detailing requirements

MINIMUMTIMBER

SLAB DEPTH
mm

SPAN
m

120
130
150

3.25
3.75

200

4.25
4.75

225
225

200

BLOCKSIZE
mm
HEIGHT
WIDTH

50
50
50
75

175

Figure 4.3 - Minimum bearing lengthsof temporarysupports


Panels shall be seamed together. Minimum distance between seams is 500 mm for single spans and
1000 mm for continuous decking. Seam fasteners between panels are particulary important if heavy
construction loads are expectedor if the decking spans more than 3 metres.

If the decking is acting as a diaphragm, the numberand the placement o;f the fastenersmust meet the
relevantdesign specification. A 600 mm interval betweenfastenersis considered as a minimum.
Figure 4.4 shows typical arrangement for fastening, overlapping and seaming.

In any case, during construction, cantilevers shall be temporarely supported. Figure 4.5 shows typical
cantileversituations.
Edge trims or angles shall be fixed to edges to contain the fresh concrete. The thickness of the trim
depends on the expected slab thicknesses and are not specifically designed. Table 4.1 gives good
practice values for trim thicknesses. Lateral edges trim deflectionmay be reduced by ties backs. Ties
back spacing are typicallybetween250 mm and 1.0 metre.
Table 4.1 - Trim thicknesses
h
[mm]

<110
140
160

200
>200

[mm]

[pjJ

<100
<140
<160

1.2
1.5
2.0

<200

3.0

<300

2.0+ anchorage

ECCSN 87

Design Manualfor Composite Slabs

52

fe
Sean,

Figure4.4 - Fastening, overlapping and seaming

L.

M secUon

r
Figure4.5 - Cantilever situations

ECCS N 87

53

Detailing requirements

4.2.3 Edges treatment


in three groups:
Free edges with no overhang or with an overhang (cantilever)
If decking ribs are transverseto the support, exterior edges may be cantileveredwith an overhang
up to 600 mm without special consideration. The steel sheeting and the compositeslab will be stiff
enough giving relatively small deflection. Cantilevergreater than 600 mm are rarely used.
If decking ribs are parallel to the support, the cantilever is limited to 160 mm and is flexible

Edges are classified

a)

resultingin large deflections

if unpropped.

b) Wall edges

Theseedgesare fixed on to or along already existing wall structures. Figure 4.6 shows typical
details. Classificationof the support may be considered as pinned or continuous,dependingof the
connection arrangement. During construction, the decking shall be supported along its edges by
steel angle or wooden lattices. This supportshall be designed with regard to the temporary support
width and constructionload transmission.Wall edge details should include reinforcing, expansion
joints, etc., whenneeded.

:':

i;:;;;

I
''0

'

0,, 0

0'

,,

,,

''II,

1..
4-

4-

'Q,

Fo

-.

,,

Figure 4.6 - Typical wall edges

c) Internaledges

Internal edges are necessary due to a change in the orientation of ribs, temporary edges between
concretingor expansionjoints. Internal edges are situated on permanent supports.Figure 4.7 gives
typical examples of internal edges. During construction, the steel decking is not continuous on the
internaledge and all internaledges must be consideredas simply supported.
ECCSN 87

54

Design Manualfor Composite Slabs

Figure 4.7 - Typical internal edges


Openings may be considered as unsupported internal edges. They are nonnally planned before
concreting and the opening area is boxed out using metal trims or filler blocks. The sheeting shall be
burned out after concreting because openings in construction significantly increase the sheeting
flexibility and reduce the load carrying capacity.
Small openings are defined as holes not exceeding one decking rib in width (200 mm x 200 mm) and
require no special attention.

Large openings are holes exceeding one decking rib in width andmust be specificallydesignedfor (see
section 9.3).

4.3

COMPOSITE STAGE

The details for the slab are covered at the compositestage while the support specifications are referred
to at the construction stage. At the composite stage the specification for the reinforcement and shear
connectors are outlined.

4.3.1 Continuity of the steel decking


In design, the steel decking is not normally considered as continuousover supports due to the strength
reduction due to buckling. For hogging moments, only bar reinforcementin tension and concrete in
compression

is considered.

4.3.2 Reinforcement
Due to shrinkage and in order to minimisecracks, minimumreinforcementshall be placed over the
whole area in a longitudinal and transversedirection.

This reinforcement must be added to the designed reinforcement. The minimum area of the
reinforcement is 0.2 % of the concrete section in the two directions. Usually steel mesh
reinforcementis used.
Note : This rule differs from 7.6.2.1 (2) of EC4.
Tensile reinforcementin the hogging moment area.
If the slab is considered as continuous, the minimum section of reinforcement in the hogging
moment area shall be determinedby design (see chapter 8), and must extend at least 30% into each
of adjacent spans. The use of high bond bars is advisable, If smooth bars are used, special care must
be taken to correctly anchor the bars into the slab.
When continuousslabs are designed as simply supported, the cross sectional area of the anticrack
reinforcement shall be not less than 0.2 % of the cross sectional area of the concrete above steel
ECCS N 87

55

Detailing requirements

decking for unpropped construction and 0.4 % of the cross sectional area of the concrete above the
ribs for propped construction.
Transverse reinforcement

When designing a composite beam in combination with a composite slab (see ECCS publication
N 72), the longitudinal shear strength of the composite slab should be checked in order to ensure
transfer of forces front the connectors into the slab without splitting the concrete. This may require
provision of reinforcementtransverse to the beam, (longitudinal or transversal to the ribs). These
forces shall be combinedin the design of the reinforcement Figure 4.8 shows specific situations.

Figure4.8 - TraMversereUorcing
Reinforcement for load distribution.

To ensure the distribution of line or point loads over the width consideredto be effective,transverse
reinforcement shall be placed on or above the sheeting. If the characteristicimposed loads do not

exceed 7.5 kN for concentrated load and 5.0 kN/m2 for distributed load, a nominal transverse
reinforcementwith a 0.2% cross sectional area of the structural concrete above the ribs may be
considered as sufficient. Reinforcementprovided for others purpose may fulfill all or part of this
requirement. Figure 4.9 shows the situation.

reinforcement

Figure4.9 - Distribwionof concentratedloads

Conditions on reinforcement.
A minimum concrete cover of 20 mm (15 mm in EC2) shall be provided over the bars. Minimum
diameterof the bars is 3.5 mm for high strengthbars.

ECCSN 87

56

Design ManualforComposite Slabs

The maximum spacingof the bars should be in accordance with clause 5.4.3.2.1 of EC2 based on the
overall depth ht of the composite slab, unless a smaller spacingis requiredfor the control of cracking:
- for the principal reinforcement : 1.5 ht 350 mm;
- for the secondary reinforcement : 2.5 ht 500 mm.
Bars are placed within the halfupper part of the concrete cover above the steel sheeting unless otherwise
specified.

4.3.3 Anchorages
End anchoragesare used to improve the shear resistance of the slab for longitudinaldesign and limit
longitudinal shear slip betweenthe steel decking and the concrete slab. This is needed when mechanical
interlockbetweenthe decking and the concreteis not sufficient(see chapter 8).

Typically anchorage devices are studs or cold formed angles. They may act as shear connectors
betweenthe compositeslab and the steel beam in a compositebeam situation.

In that specific case the shear connector (stud or angle) shall be designed adding each shear force
induced from the composite slab and the composite beam. Shear force in the slab transverse to the
beam direction,Fslab, and shear force in the beam direction, Fbeam. The design of the connector shall
be made considering both these forces. Figure 4.10 shows this typical situation (CfEC4 6.3.3).

A2
0

F be m

7fFr
b9 .jF

slab

Figure4.10 - Combinationofforces

4.3.4 Shear connectors


Typical connectors are studs and cold fonined angles. In composite beams, they provide the shear
connection between the compositeslab and the beam. In slabs, they act as anchoragesfor the composite
slab (see 3.2 and4.3.3).

Normal studs connectors range between 12 and 22 mm in diameter. The connector is considered as
ductile if the height exceeds 4 times the diameter. The height of the shank of the connector shall be
greaterthan three times its diameter.
When studs are used for composite beam with the connection considered as ductile (the normal case in
this document)the following rules apply.

The studs should have an overall length after weldingnot less than 76 mm and a shank diameter not
less than 19 mm and not exceeding20 mm;
The steel sectionis a rolled I or H with equal flanges;
ECCS N 87

57

Detailingrequirements

The concreteslab is composite with profiled steel sheeting that spans perpendicularto the beam and
is continuous across it
There is at leastone stud per rib of decking, placed centrallywithinthe rib;
For the decking,
b0/hp> 2 and 1i < 60 mm, where the notation is shown in Figure 4.11.
The force is calculated by the method of 6.2.1.2 (3) of EC4.

Designof compositebeam is not part of this documentbut special requirements as above may affect the
design of the compositeslab (see 6.1.2.4 of EC4).

______
0

centroidal axisofsheet
__________________

:::.,o

b0

dp

\centroidal axis of sheet

Figure 4.11- Stud arrangement in the slab


After installationthe connectorshall extend not less than 2d above the top of the steel deck, where d is
the diameterof the shank. The minimum width of the troughs that are to be filled with concreteshould
+ 35 mm. Maximum height of a
be not less than 50 mm. Minimum height of the connector is
is
+
75
mm
as
shown
on
4.12.
connector
figure

If concrete cover is required for corrosion protectionpurposes, it should be not less than 20 mm or the
minimum cover for reinforcing bars less 5 mm whichever is the greatest.

If cover is not required, the top of the connector may be flush with the upper surface of the concrete
slab.

Placementofconnectors
Connectors may be fixed (welded or nailed) on the steel beam through no more than one thickness of
steel decking or alternatively directly into the beam beyond the edge of the steel decking (see

Figure 4.12).
The detailingof studsis as follows:

For slabs with ribs parallel to the beam:

- In the directionof the beam:minimumspacingis5 times the diameterofthe stud, maximum

spacingis limited to 6 times the total slab thickness or 800 mm (6.4.1.5 (3) of EC4).
In the directiontransverse to the beam: minimum spacingis four times the diameterof the stud
(6.4.2.3 of EC4).

For slabs with ribs transverse to the beam, connectors are placed, one or two, per rib and the
requirements are largely met.

The diameter of the stud must not be greater than 2.5 times the thicknessof the flange except if the
stud is weldeddirectlyon the web of the beam.
With regards to the beam geometry, a connector shall be placed at a minimum of 20 mm from the
flange edge (6.4.1.4 of EC 4) and 50 mm from a concreteedge.
Where the ribs of the composite slab run parallel to the beam, specific requirementsshown in figure
4.13 shall be met.
Special consideration

of spacingof connectors may be considered with composite beam design. This is

not part of this documentand can be found in EC 4, Sections 6.4.1.5 and 6.6.5.

ECCSN 87

--

58

Design Manualfor Composite Slabs

general:

> 0 mm non corrosive conditions


u > 20 mm corrosive conditions
U

Compositebeams with solid slabs

Sheet thicknessmax. t25 mm or 2 tO mm


Flange thickness mm. 8 mm
Connector height mitt h0 h1+ 35 mm(In general)

u > 0 mm non-corrosiveconditions

u> 20mm

corrosive conditions

t67h(forwTh..ct8)

Ribs parallel to the beam(or solid slab)

Ito 3 HiltI connectors


? positioned symmetrically
about the axis of the

_________ _lbearn

Compositebeams with composite slabs

LbooJ
< 4h
<600

50

Ribs perpendicular

50

100

Ribs perpendicular to the beam

Ribs parallel

per rib

100

<600

I h0>h+35mm

2 or 3 connectors per rib


b) Cold-formedangles

a) Headedstuds

Figure 4.12 - Recommendedconnectorplacement


>50

0_'D 0

0-

000

000

' a; 00

T1r450

20
Figure4.13- Ribsparallel to the beam
ECCS N 87

ov

the
web or alternately
facing left and
right

50

h0 > 4d

I Hitti connector

?5O?53

Propertiesofmaterials

5.

59

PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS

The materialproperties given in this Section are those required for design purposes.

5.1

PROFILED STEEL SHEETING

5.1.1 General and scope


This documentrefersto Part 1 of Eurocode4 which covers the design of compositeslabs with profiled
steel sheets manufactured from mild steel in accordance with EN 10 025, high strength steel in
accordance with EN 10 113, cold-reduced steel sheet in accordancewith ISO 4997 or galvanizedsteel
sheet in accordance with EN 10 147.

It is recommended that the nominal metal thicknessshould not be less than 0.75 mm except where the
steel sheetingis used only as permanentshuttering. The use of thinner sheets is not precluded, provided
that adequate theoretical evidenceand test data are available.

5.1.2 Yield strength


The nominal values of the yield strength of the basic material 1yb are given in Table 5.1. for the steel
grades given in the standards referred to in 5.1.1.

The nominal values of yb in Table 5.1. may be adopted as characteristic values

in calculations.

f,

Table 5.1 - Yield strengthofbasic material


Standard

Grade

fyi,

[N/mm2I

EN 10 025

S235
S275
S355

235
275
355

EN 10 113
Part 2

S275N
S355N
S460N

275
355
460

EN 10 113
Part 3

S275TM
S355TM

275
355
420
460

S42OTM
S46OTM

ISO 4997

EN 10 147

CR220
CR250
CR320

220

SE2200D

220
250
280
320
350

SE25OGD

SE2800D
SE32OGD

SE3500D

250
320

ECCS N 87

Design Manualfor Composite Slabs

old

5.1.3 Nominal values of other material coefficients


The material coefficients given
sheets.

in 5.5 for hot rolled structural steel are applicable to profiled steel

5.1.4 Coating
The exposed surfaces of the steel sheeting shall be adequately protected to resist the particular
atmosphericconditions.

Zinc coating should be in accordancewith EN 10 147 - 1992 : "Continuously hot-dipped zinc coated
structural steel sheet and strip" and with EN 10 143 - 1992 : "Continuously hot-dipped zinc coated
structural steel sheet and strip - tolerances on dimensions and shape".
A zinc coating of total mass 275 g/m2 (includingboth sides) is normally sufficient for internalfloors in
a non-agressive environment, but the specificationmay be varied dependingon service conditions (see
7.8).
Organic coating should be in accordance with EN 10 169-1

"Continuously organic coated steel flat

products".

5.2

CONCRETE

Normal and lightweight concrete may be used. In this section, data for normal weight concrete are
given. For lightweightconcrete, see EC4 section 3.1.4.1(3). High-performance concrete has also been
used in composite slabs, but it is not withinthe scope of thisManual.

Table 5.2 - Strength of concrete (in NInim2)


Strength

Class ofconcrete

C20t25

C25/30

C30/37

C35/45

C40/50

C45/55

C50/60

strength)

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

1cm (tensile
strength)

2.2

2.6

2.9

3.2

3.5

3.8

4.1

fck (compressive

The strength class (i.e. C20) refers to cylinder strengthof concrete, ck. The cube strength is given as
the second figure (i.e. /25).
Shrinkage (long-term free shrinkagestrain Ecs) for normal weight concrete:

in dry environment
in other environments

325 x 10-6
200 x 10-6

The secant modulus ofelasticity for short term loading is given in Table 5.3 below.
Table 5.3 - Secant modulus ofelasticity for concreteEcm for short-term loading

ECCS N 87

Properties ofmaterials

Modular

61

ratio, n = Ea/Ecm using Ea as in Table 5.5.

For long term (pennanent) loads, the modulus of elasticity for concrete is reduced due to creep and is
taken as Ecm/3, leading to an increase in n by a factor of 3. In most cases of imposed loading the
representative value of modulus of elasticity is taken as EcmT2 (3.1.4.2(4)).
Although not generally required for general design:
Coefficient of linear thermal expansion,

5.3

= 10 x 10-6 / C

REINFORCING STEEL

Referto EN 10 080, which is the product standard for reinforcement.


Types of steel:

accordingto ductility characteristics : high (class H) or normal (class N)


according to surface characteristics : plain smooth or ribbed bars

Steel grades
B500 : characteristicyield strength fsk = 500 N/mm2
The modulus of elasticity of reinforcing steel is taken as for structural steel.

5.4

STRUCTURAL STEEL

Nominal values of material strength are as given below. The nominal values may be adapted as
characteristic values in calculations.

Table 5.4 - Nominal valuesofstrengthofstructural steels to EN 10025 (in N/mm2)


Thickness

Nominalsteel
grade

t [nmi]
40mmzt100

t4Omm
S235
S275
S355

t :

fy

fu

fy

235
275

430

360

215
255

510

335

fu
340

410
490

nominal thickness of the element


of the flange of rolled sections

of the particularelementsof weldedsections


fy : yield strength

ultimate tensile strength

No values

of material strengthare given for high-strength steel. For this steel, clause 3.2.1(2) of EC3 is

applicable.
ECCS N 87

Design Manualfor Composite Slabs

62

Table 5.5 - Design valuesofotherproperties ofsteel


Symbol

Properties

Modulusof elasticity
Shear modulus
Coefficient of linear thermal expansion

E0
G0

ar
p

Numencal value

Unit

210000
81000
10 x 10-6
7850

N/mm2
N/mm2
jC
kg/rn3

PARTIAL SAFETY FACTORS FOR RESISTANCE AND MATERIAL


PROPERTIES
In general,resistanceis determined by using design values of strength for the different materials or
components as given in the individual chapters of EC4 or in this publication. Recommendedvalues for
fundamental and accidental combinations are given in Table 5.6. These values may be modified by the
various National Authorities (see Table 6.2) and are given as boxed values' in EC4.

5.5

Table 5.6 - Partial safety factorsfor resistanceand material properties


Combination

Structural
Steel

Concrete

Steel

Profiled

Reinforcement

Steel

Decking

Shear connectors
(studs, angles,

friction grip bolts)

Ta

Ic

Is

Tap

and longitudinal
shear in slabs
?vWs

Fundamental

1.10

1.50

1.15

1.10

1.25

Accidental

1.00

1.30

1.00

1.00

1.00

Valuesfor bolts, rivets, pins, welds and slip resistanceof bolted connections are as given in EC3 clause
6.1.1(2).
Where the member resistance is influenced by the buckling of the structural steel section, a specific
safety factor IRd = 1.10 is recommended (2.2.3.2(2)), (4.6.3), (4.8.3.2).
When the design value Lj is determined by tests, refer to Eurocode 4.

ECCS N 87

liadsandactions

63

6.

LOADS AND ACTIONS

6.1

GENERAL

The loads to consider for the ultimate limit state and the serviceability limit state are given in the
relevant national codes of practice or Eurocodes.For infonnation purposes, table 6.1 gives a summary
of typical building imposedloads and table 6.2 gives a summaryof partial safety factors for actions on
building structures and for resistances and material properties used in EuropeanNational Codes.

6.2

LOADS FOR THE CONSTRUCTION STAGE

For the situation where the profiled sheeting acts as formwork, the following loads should be considered
in the calculations taking into account any support (fig. 6.1):
self-weight of the steel decking
weight of the wet concrete
"ponding" effect (increased depth of concrete dueto deflectionof the sheeting)
construction loads
temporarystorage load, if applicable.

Self weight of the steel decking, weight of the wet concrete and ponding effect are considered as
permanent loads.

The construction loads represent the weight of operatives and concreting plant and take into account
any impact or vibration which may occur during construction. In any area of 3 m by 3 m (or the span
length, if less), in addition to the weight of the concrete, the characteristicconstructionload and weight
of surplus concrete should together be taken as 1.5 kN/m2. Over the remaining area a characteristic
loading of 0.75 kN/m2 should be added to the weight of concrete. These loads should be placed to
cause the maximum bendingmoment andfor shear.
(a)

concentration of
construction load
1.5

(b)

distributed

construction load
(c)

moment in midspan

moment over support

self weight of the


structure

Figure 6.1 - Loads on profiled sheetingaccording to EC4


values are not necessarily sufficient for excessive impact or heaping of concrete, or
or
pumping loads. If appropriate, provision should be made in design for the additional
pipeline
These minimum

loading. Without the concrete the sheet should be shown by tests or calculationto be able to resist a
characteristicload of 1 kM on a square area of side 300 mm in the most unfavourable place, at any
locationexcept a rib adjacentto a free edge.

If the central deflection 6 of the sheeting under its own weightplus that of the wet concrete,calculated

for serviceability, is less than 1/250 and less than 20 mm, the ponding effect may be ignored in the
design of the steel sheeting. If either of these limits is exceeded, this effect should be allowed for, for
example, by assuming in design that the nominal thickness of the concrete is increased over the whole
span by 0.78.
ECCS N 87

Design Manualfor Composite Slabs

6.3

LOADS FOR THE COMPOSITE STAGE

For the situation where the steel and the concrete act compositely,the loads acting on the slab should
comply with Eurocode I "Basis of design and actions on structures" (in preparation):
self-weight of the slab (profiledsheeting and concrete), when propping is used.
weight of floor finishes
live loads
For the servicelimit state, long durationvalues of the loads are given for the calculationof defomiations
taking into account creep and shrinkageof the concrete.
The loads shall be applied in whatever realistic combination is most unfavourablefor the effect under
consideration.
According to Eurocode4, Section 2.2.5, followingload arrangements and load cases are defined:

A load arrangement identifies the position, magnitude and direction of a free action. A load case
identifies compatible load arrangements, sets of deformations and imperfections considered for a
particularverification. For the relevant combinationsof actions (see section 1.4), sufficient load cases
shall be considered to enable the critical design conditions to be established.
Simplified load cases may be used, if based on a reasonable interpretation of the structural response.
For continuous slabs in buildings without cantilevers subjected to predominantlyuniformly distributed
loads, it will generally be sufficient to consideronly the followingload arrangements:
otherspans
a) alternate spans carrying the design variable and permanent loads (IQ Qk +

b)

carryingonly the design permanentload y0 . Ok.


any two adjacentspans carryingthe design variable and permanentloads (YQ . Qj +
other spans carrying only the design permanent load y0 Gk.

ECCS N 87

Gk), all

65

actions

and

Load

C'

<

I!

liii

II

j
I
ill

1111

I.

'd '0

00

F-

N-

'00 V

'0

'0

IrF-

F '0 ' VN

av

:.

'0

'0

'0

+0
0

'

0.'

0
0

Cfl

UZv

0.

0 't

0V

0 '0

'0

C.

'

"'

0.
0.

0C
'0

: ."
0

0 N

Cfl

O0

'

'0

z. '0 c

z'0N

.V

.
.-'

0.

0.

V-

w'

'6

0.

C)

00

'0

'0

.-

O0O

rn

'0

'0

0.tn

'

0N

o0v

oN

o N

'0

'000

0 '0

'0

'0

0.

'0

cfl

'

'0

0 fl

'0

go

o fl

o0.rv

oa

00 w-

o ''0

'0

C. ..

'0 0'0

'0

'0

'0

'0j

0 N

0 N

'0

0
0N

'0

'0

N'0

0N

'0

0N

'0 N'0

'0

0N

0N

0'0

NN

'

N'0'0

-S-S

0 n

cn

0'0e$

0N

0v

'0'0

mv

'0'0V

Ew

0r

Qv N

0 fl

0m

a.

'0

'S

'S

87

ECCS

1,7 (1)
1,5 (2)

1,5 (1)
1,35 (2)

1,6

1,5

(1)
1,5 (2)

1,35

1.4

1,0
1,5

1,7

1,7 (1)
1,5 (2)

1,35

1,4

1,0
1,5

1,7

1,2

Netherland

Norway

Portugal

1,3

1,3

1,5

1.0

1,0
1.0

PSbO,5

1,OXPSI

Swlcrland

1.0

1.0

1,3 (1)

1,3

1,0

Sweden

1,0

1,0

1,5

1,33

1.33
1,5

1,2

1.1

1,2

1,15 (2)

(2)

1,05 (2)

1,15

1,5

1,15

1,15

1.15

1,5

Spain

1,0(2)

1,5(1)

1,5

(1,35)
1,5

1,25

1,25

1,4

1,0

1,0

1,0

1,6

1,6

1,0

0,85

0,85

1,0

1,15

1.0

1,2
1,15

1,0

1,6

1,1
or (2)

1.15

0.85

1,0

1,15

1.0 (1)
1.12 (2)

1,0

1,7

______

1,075

1.5

0.8

1,0

1.0

(3)

1,1

1,0

1.0

1,0

1,0

1,0

1,0

1,0

1,0

1,1

1,1

1,0

1,0

Italy

1.35
or (2)

1,5
1,5

1,0

1.0

1,0

1.05

1,BxYlxY5 l,4xYlxYS l,4xYIxY5

1,5

1,0

1,0

1,0

Great BrItain

Germany

1,7

1,5

1,35

0,9

0,9

1,6 (1)

1,35

1,2

1,3 (3)
1,0 (4)

1,0

1,2

1.5

1,5

Finland

1.35

1.0 (1)
1,3 (2)

France

RESISTANCESAND MATERIALPRCPER'IlES

1,2

1,2

1.2

1.0

1.3

1,0

1.15

1,1

(1)one live load


(3) only to constructional steel

(3)

1,1

1.0

1,1

1,0

1.0 (1)formain loads


(2) for main+ additional loads

1,0

(1) multIplied by the reduction factor


(2) multiplied by the reduction factor

(2) several live loads

1,2

1,0 (l)foronellveload+ lips4 for other live load


(2) multIplied by a safety factor (1; 1.1; or 1.2) accordingly

1,1

(2) plastIc

1,0 (1) elastic

1,0 (l)incaseoffire

Rak MX

Three differentdesign classes


Accideetal loads are given separately

SIA 160

BKR94

RSA 83
RESAP 8

RSBV 1990
NEN 5950
NEN 3880
TUB 1972

DH 14.2.92

PART.4
PART.8

3S5950

DIN 18800

codes

all other

701(l)

BAEL83,91
Dill .l'92-

BI. 34

DS409

CODES

(2) concrete
(3) constructIon stage
(4) compositestage
1='yS'.1 for normal security and control class
shear debonding strength s=y1x2x3xy4x5=1.8

(1)steel deck

COMMETI'S

1.0

AccidentaleCondhlons
Normal Conditions
Accldent*l Conditions
Normal Conditions
SteelBars
Steel Sheet Steel Bars Concrete Steel
Dead load Permanent Live Load DeadLoad Permanent LiveLoad Concrete
Sheet
Load
load
1,2
1,2
1,2
1,2
1,2
1,2
1,0
1,0
1,0
1,4
1,4
1,4

Denmark

BelgIum

Austria

COUNTRIES

ACTIONSONBUilDING STRUCTURES

Table 6.2
Partial Safety Factors used in European National Codes.

Basisofdesign - Construction condition

BASIS OF DESIGN - CONSTRUCTION CONDITION

7.1

DESIGN PROCEDURE

67

7.1.1 General
The aim of the design procedure is to proportion steel decking, to satisfy the basic requirements for the
ultimate limit states and the serviceability limit states for the construction stage of a composite slab,
given in Eurocode 4 and Eurocode3, Part 1.3. In Figure 7.1 a flowchartillustrating major steps for the
design of suitable steel decking is given. In most cases, the design is made in conjunctionwith the

design of the composite slab (see Chapter 8), using tables from the manufacturer of the profiled
sheeting. This simple design procedureusually follows the left hand side flow of the chart (figure 7.1).
If manufacturertables are not available, a detailed steel decking design procedure should be conducted
according to the right hand side portion of the flowchart. Both procedures are explained in the
following Sections.

7.1.2 Design charts and tables


of uniformlydistributedlive loads
as a function of decking type, concrete depth, span length, static system and number of temporary
supports (see figure 8.2). Proper use of these tables is shown in an example in Chapter 10.

Most manufacturersprovide tables or charts indicating design values

In the tables and charts, the informationdoes not usually specify which limit state defines the value of
the maximun span length or concrete depth. For instance, when the value of the total deflection is
required, the designer must carry out calculations.
Detailed calculations are also necessary if design tables are not available or if the required load cases,
decking dimensions,support conditions or span length are not covered by the manufacturer'sdesign
charts or tables. In such cases, the following procedure, in agreementwith the Eurocode3, Part 1.3, and
shown in figure 7.1, should be used.

7.1.3 Loads
Loads acting on the steel decking

at the construction stage are definedin Section 6.2 of this Manual.

Loads assumed for the preparation of design tables, are generally self-weight loads plus construction
loads uniformlydistributed over equal spans in the most unfavorable situation. Special loads such as
storageloads are not considered. If present, they have to be considered as imposedvariableloads.
When decking is assumed to provide lateral bracing to supporting beams or temporary wind bracing
(diaphragm action), the appropriaterules in Part 1.3 of Eurocode 3 apply. It may be assumed that the
effectiveness of the lateral restraint is not impaired when the decking carries wet concrete.

7.1.4 Choice of decking


The selection of a suitable decking is made using manufacturer's design charts or tables by considering
the site requirements such as beam arrangement, number of props, thickness of slab, etc. (see Section
3.6).

ECCS N 87

Design Manualfor Composite Slabs

--

68

Assume:

- Span length

orcontinuous)

(simple
- Slab
thickness

Choice ofdecking:

- Type
- Sheetthickness
- Propping

Define load cases:


- Self weight of sheet
- Weight of the wet concrete
- Construction loads
Define the design parameters
- Span length
- Slab thickness
- Deckingtype

tthknesLJ
Are load tables
for construction condit
precalculated by

the manufacturer?

KIII1IIII0 r

Choose design method:


- Simpleor continuous with
props: Elastic
- Continuous spans without
props: Plastic

yes

Is the decking

satisfactory for fore


assumptions
and choices?

Analysisfor internal force1


and moments under factored
loads

-4

Cross-sectional design
strength by calculation
or by testing
I

yes
Check other
considerations:
- Special loads
before concreting
- Non equal
spans

the ultimate limit


ZArestates
satisfied?

Are the serviceability


limit states satisfied?

- Etc.

Design process for


compositecondition

(Chapter8)

Figure 7.1 - Designflowchartfor decking as shuttering


ECCS N 87

Basisofdesign - Construction condition

69

7.1.5 Analysis
Accordingto Eurocode4, elastic analysis for internal forces and moments shall be used. When sheeting

is considered as continuous, the flexural stiffness may be determined without consideration of the
variation of stiffness due to parts of the cross-section in compressionnot being fully effective.
For continuous decking, it is also possible to use a plastic analysis taking account of the reduction of
stiffness and allowing for redistribution of moments from the supports to the mid-span. A partial
strength bending capacity must be considered over the support, determined by tests or founded on
theory. Variation in stiffnessdue to yielding of the steel decking over the supports must be considered
for the evaluationof deflections.

7.2

CROSS-SECTIONAL DESIGN RESISTANCES

7.2.1 General
The cross-sectionalpropertiesand resistancesshall be defined accordingto Part 1.3 of Eurocode 3, by
calculation, by tests or by calculation, completed by tests. Due considerationshall be given to the effect
of embossments or indentationson the design resistance.

The followingcharacteristics are needed:


corematerial yield stress
unit weight
positive and negativeresistance moments
end support reaction resistance
intermediatesupport resistance
moment-reaction interaction
moment - rotation capacity (remaining plastic moment as function of rotation), needed if the plastic
calculation is used
resistanceunder concentrated load
bendingstiffness (average equivalentmoment of inertia)
effective area and position of the neutral axis of the section under compression, needed if the
contributionof the sheeting is taken into account in calculation of the hogging bending moment.
All these characteristics may be obtained by calculation or by tests, except the moment-rotation
behaviour which has to be determined by tests.

7.2.2 Design strength by calculation


a)

Effective width

The effects of local bucklingshall be taken into account in the detenninationof the design strength and
stiffness of section. This can be accomplished by using effectivecross sectional properties,calculated on
the basis of the effectivewidths of individual elements, which are prone to local buckling:

b=pb

(7.1)

width of the plane element

Doubly supported plate elements without stiffeners


The reductionfactor p for the determination of the effectivewidths is defined by:
ECCS N 87

Design Manualfor Composite Slabs

70

when

1.0

(7.2)

= (1.0-0.22/?)/?
when Xp>0.673
= 1.052.(bt)-sI(acomI(Ek&J

(7.3)

where:

com

ka
t

:
:

actualmaximum compressivestress
buckling factor dependingon stress distribution
thickness of element

Elementswith edgeorintermediate stiffeners


Design of stiffened elements is based on the assumptionthat the stiffener itself works as a beam on
elastic foundation.
The ultimateload-bearingcapacity of the stiffeneris given by the buckling stress ac, representedby xvalues andthe relative slenderness

).

= 1J(1'y/ acr,s)

(7.4)

The bucklingstress is:

oc

=X

(75)

where:

acr,s

yield strengthof base material


bucklingcoefficientdetermined as a functionof the relative slenderness
ideal bucklingstress of the stiffener

The effectiveareaofthe stiffenerunder compression is:

Aseff = X As

(7.6)

which can be represented by reducingthe thickness to teff.

b)

Bending properties

Calculation of cross-section properties such as section modulus Weff


section:

is based on the followingcross

Loadbearing capacity
The effectivecross-section is assumed to consist oftwo strips adjacentto the webs of width befft2, with
beff as above, and the effectivearea As,effof stiffeners.
Deflections

The effective cross-section is to be made up of the effective portions of sub-elements (between


stiffeners) plus stiffeners. The area of the stiffeners is not to be reduced:

Aseff = A5

(7.7)

Bending moment resistance of the section is given by:

MRd=fy

ECCSN 87

Weff/'YMl

(7.8)

Basisofdesign- Construction condition

where
Weff

71

effectivesection modulus
1.1 for ultimatelimit state
1.0 for serviceability limit state

Support reaction (web crippling resistance)

C)

resistanceis given by:


E) (1-0.1 (rIt) (0.5 +\/(0,02 La It) (2.4 +
R,pjj = aj t2 .

Design web crippling

/90)2)/yMl (7.9)

where:
r
:
inner radius
:
La
bearing length
for end support La = 10 flhlfl
for intermediate support La depends on difference of the shear force at both sides of the
support:
if the shear force differs less then 20% : 1a = length of the support
if the shear force differs between20% and 30% : should be determined by interpolation
cxj

coefficient:
for end support, where d < 1.5 hw:

= 0.075

for end support, where d 1.5


and for intermediatesupport :
distance between inside support edge and the end of sheeting
height of the profile
web inclination 45 p 90

= 0.15

7.2.3 Design strength by testing


The calculation of the cross-section characteristics can be tedious due to complicated cross-section
geometry. For example, embossments in flange generally reduce the moment resistanceand some types
of embossment in web reducethe momentresistanceand increase the web crippling resistance.

For this reason the decking manufacturersoften prefer first evaluate the characteristic by calculation
and after verify them by tests.
The testing shall be made accordingto Eurocode3, Part 1.3:
clause 9.4.1.2 for positive moment and bendingstiffness
clause 9.4.1.3 and 9.6.2 for intermediatesupport resistance (moment, reaction, rotation
capacity)
clause 9.4.1.5 for end support resistance (reaction).

7.3

ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE

7.3.1 Analysis and verifications


Verification of the profiled steel sheetingfor the ultimate limit state shall be in accordancewith Part 1.3
of Eurocode 3. Due consideration shall be given to the effect of embossmentsor indentationson the
design resistances.

In the case of:

single span (with or withoutprops)


two or more spans where the props are used
ECCS N 87

72

Design Manualfor Composite Slabs

an elastic design shall be used.

In the other cases (two or more spans withoutprops), plastic design may be used.

7.3.2 Elastic design


In theelastic design, it should be verified that under the ultimate load, determined with partial load
= 1.50 (for variable actions = constructionloads) and 'YQ = 1.35 (for permanentactions =
factors
nominal dead weight of the slab comprising sheeting and concrete with ponding effect if any), no
plastic deformation will appear in any section of the sheeting The following conditions should be
respected at midspan and at the end support:

Bending:

MSd,sup MRd,sup

(7.10)
(7.11)

MSd,span MRd,span
Support reaction:
RSd,ezvj RRd,end

(7.12)

RSgJ,jntRRd,int

(7.13)

Combinedbending moment and support reaction:


MSd,sup'MRd,sup 1
[MSd,sup/(MRd,supl2 + [RSJ,iifl I RRd,inhJ2 1.25

if RSdjntI RRd,int

if 0.25

0.25

(7.14)

RSd,intIRRd,int 1 (7.15)

where:
MSd,span1MSd,sup
RSd,end RSCI,uIt
MRd,span, MRd,sup
RRd,end, RRcj,jnt

:
:
:
:

span and support moments due to design loads


end and intermediatesupport reactions due to design loads
design bendingmoment resistances (span and support)
design end andintermediatesupport reactionresistances(web crippling
resistance)

The two last equationscan be illustratedby a "interactionmoment-reaction diagram" (Figure 7.2).


In this diagram, the upper horizontallimit is defined by the MRd value and the right hand side vertical
limit by the Ra,Rd value. At the ultimate limit state, the point defined by the couple of values
MRd,sup
and Rsd,int shall be situated on or inside the interactionline. Values behond the interactionline
are not
acceptable.

7.3.3 Plastic design


of Eurocode 3, if test results for the moment-rotation behaviour over the
intermediatesupport are available, the ultimate limit state is defined by appearance of a mechanism
(plastic hinge on the intermediatesupport and ultimate moment in the span). In the other case, the use
of the plastic design is not allowed.
According to Part 1.3

In the plastic design, it has to be verified that the ultimate design loads, do not exceed the failure loads
calculated from an analysis of the collaps mechanism. The ultimate design loads are obtained using
partial safety factors 'yQ = 1.5 (for variable actions = constructionloads) and 'Yo = 1.35 (for permanent
actions = nominal dead weight of the slab which comprises the sheeting and the concrete together with
any ponding effect if appropriate).

ECCS N 87

Basisofdesign - Constructioncondition

4.50

73

-______-

350 1

I. 3.a.j

z 2.50

C
V
E

o.so4
0

10

15

20

25

30

36

reaction (kN/m)

Figure 7.2 - Interaction moment- reaction diagram


This leads to the verification of the followingconditions which should be respected at span and at end
support:
MSd,span MRd,span
RSd,end RRd,end

(7.16)
(7.17)

MsupMres

(7.18)
(7.19)

eores
where:
MSd,span
MRd,span
RSd,end
RRd,end

Msup
Mres

0res

span bendingmoment due to design loads


design span bendingmoment resistance
end support reaction due to design loads
design end support reactionresistance (web crippling resistance)
support moment corresponding to plastic hinge
limit remainingplastic moment (detenninedby test)
limit plastic rotation corresponding to the remaining moment Mres
plastic rotation over intennediatesupport, corresponding to the support moment
MSd,sup

The moment-rotation behaviourcan be illustratedby the M-O diagram given in figure 7.3.
For each test, a relation M-O is obtained. Figure 7.3 represents the curves for different spans. The design
curve M-8 is taken as the mean of the values M multipliedby 0.9.
Note that usually, plastic design leads to iterative calculation,the plastic support moment Msup being
adjusted in function of the calculated plastic rotation 0. The final values of the moment Msup and the
rotation 0 shall not exceed the extremevalues determined by tests.

ECCSN 87

Design Manualfor Compose Slabs

74 -

The iteration can be avoided by a simplified calculation with an assumed final value of the remaining
moment Mres, and verifyingthat the obtained rotation 0 does not exceed 0res corresponding to Mres
on the M-0 diagram.

4
3.5

3
E 2.5
E

zx

C
E 1.5

0
E

0.5

0
0

0.01

0.02

0.

0.04

O.C

0.06

0.07

0.06

0.06

0.1

rotation (red)

Figure 73 - Moment- rotation (M-8) diagram

7.4

SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATES

7.4.1 Deflection limits


The deflectionof the sheetingunder its own weight plus the weight of wet concrete,but excluding the
construction load, should not exceed L/180 or 20 mm, where L is the effective span between supports
(props being supports in this context).
These limits may be varied where:

greater deflectionwifi not impair the strengthor efficiencyof the floor


additional weight of concrete due to ponding is taken into account in the design of the floor and
supporting structure.

If the central deflection of the decking under its own weight plus that of the wet concrete is less than
L/250 and less than 20 mm, the ponding effect may be ignored in the design of the steel decking. If
either ofthese limits is exceeded, thiseffect shouldbe allowed for.
The two limits L1180 and 20 mm do not have the same restrictive meaning : the deflectionL/180 should
be considered as an allowable limit value while the 20 mm deflection should be considered as a
maximum value for neglecting the pondingeffect in the weight of the slab.
Where soffit deflection is considered important (e.g. for service requirements or aesthetics)
necessary to reduce these limits.

ECCS N 87

it may be

Basisofdesign - Construction condition

75

7.4.2 Verification
Venflcation of the serviceability limit states are the following:
deflectionat midspan
and, in the case of continuous decking withoutprops:
acceptable load at intermediatesupport : for the characteristiccombinationof bending moment and
support reaction, no plastic deformationshall appear.

Deflection
The central deflectionof the side span of a continuous decking

6ser=

2.65 (gap +gc)14

is given by the following formula:

jm = L/ 180 or 20 mm

(7.20)

where:

8ap : self-weightof the decking


gc : weightofthe wetconcrete
Acceptable load
The acceptable moment or reaction at intermediate support is defined by combination of allowable
moment and support reaction:

MSer

0.9 MRd

Rr

0.9 RRd

MSer /(0.9 MRd)

Odr

(7.21)
1

125

if Rsup /(0.9 RRd

0.25)

(7.22)
(7.23)

if

(7.24)

0.25

0.9 RRd

where:

Mr, RSer:
MRd, RRd:

bendingmoment and support reactiondue to construction loads, without partial


= 1.0)
load factors (i.e. To=
design bendingmoment and support reactionresistance (for the serviceability
limit State YM = 1.0)

ECCSN 87

Page blank
in original

B'iris ofdesign- Composite condition

8.

BASIS OF DESIGN - COMPOSITE CONDITION

8.1

DESIGN PROCEDURE

77

8.1.1 General
The aim of the design procedureis to consider suitable steel decking, concrete cover and reinforcement
to satisfy the basic requirements for the ultimate limit states and the serviceabilitylimit states given in
Eurocode 4. In Figure 8.1, a flowchart illustrating major steps for the design of a composite slab is
given. In most cases, the design is made using tables from the manufacturerof the profiled sheeting.
This simple design procedure follows usually the left hand side of the flowchart, Figure 8.1. If
manufacturertables are not available, a detailed composite slab design procedureshould be conducted

according to the right hand side portion of the flowchart. Both procedures are explained in the
following Sections.

8.1.2 Design charts and table


Most manufacturersprovide tables or charts indicating design values of uniformlydistributed live loads
as a function of decking type, slab depth, span length, the static system and the number of temporary
supports (see figure 8.2). Proper use of these tables is shown in an example in Chapter 10.

In thetablesandchartstheinformationdoesnot usually specify the limit state which defined the value
of the design load. In the cases where the value of the total deflection is required, the designer must
carry out calculations.
Detailed calculations are also necessary if design tables are not available or if the required load cases,
slab dimensions, support conditions or span length are not covered by the manufacturer's design charts
or tables. In such cases, the followingprocedure, in agreementwith the Eurocode4 and shown in figure
8,1, should be used.

8.1.3 Loads
Realistic estimationsof load arrangements and load cases should be used. Load arrangements may be

due to fixed interior partitions, machines etc. The most common load arrangement, however, is
uniformly distributedover all spans. Two load arrangements are normally checked:
Dead load on all spans with live loads appliedto alternate spans
Dead load on all spans with live load applied to two adjacentspans.

In all cases, loads shouldbe applied in whateverrealistic combination is most unfavourable for the effect
under consideration. Special load cases include seismic loads, moving concentratedloads, cyclical and
dynamic loads.

8.1.4 Analysis
Elastic, elasto-plasticor plastic analyses may be used to determine internal moments and shear forces
acting upon the composite slab at the ultimate limit state. The design procedure for each method
proceeds as follows:
Elastic analysis. This analysis is greatly simplified as the effects of longitudinal debonding(slip),
concrete cracking, buckling of the decking, decking plastification,etc. are ignored. Cross-sectional
properties are considered to be constant and uniformin both positive and negative moment regions.
If the uncrackedcross-sectionalstiffness is used, moment redistributionmay be assumed (maximum
of 30% moment redistribution).

ECCS N 87

DesignManualfor Composite Slabs

78

Define a uniform
working load
Assume:
(ifnot made at construction
condition)

type
- Decking
Span length

(simple orcontinuous)

- Stabthickness

Are the design


loads precalculated by
the manufa:turer?

no

- Calculate effective
slab widthsin case of
concentrated or tine loads
- Assume support
reinforcement

for foreseen assumptions and>

\\\
no

Choosemethod ofanalysis:
- Elastic linearwith or
withoutredistribution

- Rigid -plastic (global)


- Elastic-plastic non-linear

no ''the decking satisfactN


choices?

Define imposed
- Permanent toads
loading:)____
-Live toads

,,,/

Calculate design crosssectional resistances:


- Bending, Mp,Rd
- Longitudinal shear, VIRd
- Vertical shear, VYRd

Are the span length and slab


thickness satisfactory?

- Punching shear, VPRd

yes

Are the ultimate limit


statessatisfied?

Checkother
considerations:
- Specialtoads
- Non equalspans
- Openings
- Sound insulation
- Thermalinsulation
- Fire resistance
- In-plane bracing

no

- Bending
- Shear

yes

yes

Are the serviceabitity\


limitstates satisfied?
- Concretecracking
- Deflection
- End-slip
- Vibration

\
/

Prepare working
drawings according
to Chapter 2

Figure 8.1 - Flowchartofthe designprocessfor composite slabs


ECCSN 87

Basisofdesign - Composite condition

--

79

Permissiblespans (metres)

c/c of supports for:

Slab thickness H =100mm


IMPOSED LOADING

Support
Condition

0-00 0-75 150 2-00 2-50 3-00 3-50 400 5-00 600 750 10-00 12-50 1500 2000 2500
KN/m KN/m kN/m kNfm KN/& KN/m KN/m kN/m KN/m KN/m KN/a KN/m2 KN/in KN/m KN/m KN/m

SimplySupported

Semi-continuous

Multi-span

AT

One Temp. Prop.

AT TA

iwo Temp. Prop.

199 199

199

1-99

199 199

199

1-99

199

1-99

1-99

1-99

1-78

1-49

111

089

239

2-39

2-39

2-39

2-39

2-39

2-39

2-39

2-39

239

2-39

223

1-78

1-49

111

089

2-39

2-39

2-39

2-39

239

2-39

2-39

2-39

2-39

2-39

2-39

223

1-78

1-49

1-11

089

4-70

4-20

3-86

3-68

3-53

3-41

329

3-20

298

2-79

2-56

200 163

1-38

1-05

085

4-70

420

386

3-68

353

3-41

329

320

3-01

283

2-52

1-97

136

104

085

1-61

Slabthickness H =110mm
IMPOSED LOADING
Support
Condition

0-00

0-75

KN/in kN/m

1-50

2-00

2-50

300

3-50

4-00

5-00

600

7-50

10-00 125O

1500 2000 2500

KM/rn2 KM/ni2 KM/rn2 KM/rn2 KM/ni2 KN/ni2 KN/rn2 KM/rn2 KM/ni2 Kt4/m2 KN/ni2 KM/rn2 KM/rn2 KN/rn

1-92

1-92

1-92

1-92

1-92

1-92

192

1-92

1-92

192 192

1-92

1-92

1-64

1-23

2-31

231

231

2-31

2-31

2-31

231

2-31

231

2-31

2-31

2-31

1-96

1-64

123 098

2-31

231

2-31

2-31

2-31

2-31

231

2-31

231

2-31

2-31

2-31

1-96

164

1-23

098

One Temp. Prop.

4-62

444

410

3-93

3-78

3-65

3-54

3-40

3-16

2-96

2-72

217

1-78

1-51

1-15

093

rA
Two Temp. Prop.

492

4-44

410

3-93

378

365 354 344

3-27

305

2-72

213 175

1-49

114

093

SimplySupported
A

A A

Semi-continuous

A A A

Multi-span

AT

0-98

Slab thickness H 120mm


IMPOSED LOADING
Support
Condition

0-00

0-75

150

200

2-50

SimplySupported
A

Semi.continuous

Multi.span

A A

1A

One Temp. Prop.

Ar TA

Two Temp. Prop.

KN/m

/2

300 350 400 500 600 750 1000 1250 1500 2000 2500

KM/rn2 KM/rn2 KM/rn2 KM/rn2 KM/rn2 KM/rn

KM/rn2 KM/rn2 KM/in2 KM/rn3 KM/rn3 KM/rn2 KM/rn3 KM/rn3

186

1-86

186

1-86

1-86

186

1-86

186 186 186

1-86

186

1-86

178

1-33

107

224

224

224 224

2-24

2-24

224

224

224

2-24

2-13

1-78

1-33

107

2-24

224

2-24

224

224

224 224

224 224 224 224 224 213

1-78

133 107

447

447

434

4-17

4-02

386

3-70

3.55

3-31

3-11

2-86

233 191

1-62

1-25

101

513

4-67

434

4-17

4-02

389

377

3-67

343

3-21

2-90

228

1-60

1-23

100

2-24

2-24

1-88

Figure8.2 - Typical manufacturerpresentation ofallowablespansfor concreting and composite slab


design capacity

ECCS N 87

DesignManualfor Composite Slabs

80

Elasto-plastic analysis. In order to perform a plastic analysisthe rotation at hinges must be checked
except if class 'H' reinforcement is used and the span length is less than 3.0 metres. The simplest way
to meet the rotationalrequirements is to add reinforcement in negativemoments regions. If possible,
low yield reinforcement should be specified (with a yield stress between350 and 450 N/mm2).

8.1.5 Effective slab width


The effective slab width must be determined for each concentrated point and line load. For uniformly
distributedloads, the effectiveslabwidth is not important (a unit width is assumed). Minimumtransverse

reinforcement requirements are specified for all loading cases to ensure that the slab acts
homogeneously in the transverse direction. In general only a minimum amount of mesh reinforcement
(0.2%) is needed unless the following limits are exceeded:
Concentrated point loads are greater than 7.5 kN.
Concentrated line loads are greaterthan 5.0 kN/m.
When concentrated point or line loads parallel to the span of the slab are to by supportedby the slab,
the following formulais used to calculate effectiveslab widths:

(8.1)

bmbp+2(hc+hf)
where:
bm

hf

effectiveslab width.
width of the concentrated load perpendicularto the span of the slab. If the concentratedline
load is perpendicular to the span of the slab,
should be taken as the length of the
concentrated load.
thicknessof the concrete slab above the steel sheeting
thicknessof the finishes (if any).

reinforcement

Figure 8.3 - Distribution of concentrated load


For concentrated line loads perpendicularto the span of the slab, the preceding formula for bm may be
used, with b,, taken as the length of the concentrated line load.
The width of the slab considered to be effective for the global analysis and for resistance and for
resistanceshould not exceed the following:
(a)

for bending and longitudinalshear:


- for simple spans and exterior spans of continuous slabs
bern = b, + 2L[1 - (L1,/L)] slab width

ECCS N 87

(8.2)

Basisofdesign - Co,nposiie condition

81

- for interior spans of continuous slabs


bern bm + l.33L[l - (L/L)] slab width

(8.3)

for vertical shear:

(b)

bev = bm +

L [1-(L/L)J

slab width

(8.4)

where:

L
L

:
:

distance fmm the centre of the load to the nearest support


span length

8.1.6 Ultimate limit states


The resistanceof a composite slab shall be sufficientto withstand the design loads and to ensure that no

ultimatelimit state is reached, based on one of the followingmodes of failure (Figure 8.4):
Flexure (Sections 1 andII): These sections can be critical ifthere is complete shear connection at the
interfacebetween the sheet and the concreteBendingresistancemay be checked accordingto plastic
theory. Several restrictions to the use of plastic theory are given.
Longitudinalshear (Section IV): The maximum load on the slab is detennined by the resistance of
the shear connection. The ultimate moment of resistance at section I cannot be reached. This is
defined as partial shear connectionTwo design methods may be used to check the longitudinal shear
resistancebetween the concrete slab and decking. These are referred to as the 'm&k' design method
and the design method.
Vertical shear (Section 111): .This section (at support reaction) will be critical only in special cases,
for example in deep slabs of short span with loads of relatively large magnitude. Vertical shear
resistancedue to a line load or punchingshear resistancedue to a point load must also be checked.

Section 8.2

of the present manual gives guidance on for the calculation of design cross-sectional

resistances.

III

U;IIl

IV

Iv

Figure8.4 - Criticalsections

8.1.7 ServiceabIlity limit states


Several serviceability limit states should be checked for compositeslabs. These include the following:

Concrete cracking. Normally cracking occurs at or near internal supports. Minimum reinforcement

is required.

Mid-span deflections. This refers to the maximum deflectionin sagging moment regions.
End-slip.This refers to the slipbetweenthe concreteslab and the decking at the end of the slab.
ECCS N 87

DesignManualfor Composite Slabs

82

Vibrations. Generally only induced by heavy machinery or fork-lift trucks. In the case of office
buildings, vibrations may only be induced by pedestrians.

Two types of usage may be defined for composite slabs:


Those for which concrete cracking and
large deflections are acceptable. The first category may
include warehouses and some factories.
Those for which concrete cracking and large defiections are not
acceptable. This category normally
office
and
residential
includes
structures.
Serviceability criterion are normally included in manufacturex's design tables or charts. Assumed values

must be clearly indicated. Serviceabilitycriterion for each bay may be different thus care should be
taken during the design process and when drafting workingplans (see Chapter 2).
Section 8.3 of this manual gives guidance for the calculationof deflections.

8.1.8 Special considerations


A number of additionaldesign checks may be needed (seeexamples in Chapter 10). These are listed as
follows:

Openings. Openingsmay be classified as small or large. Small openings require no special design
considerations. Large openings, however, require additional design work.
Sound insulation. No provisions for sound insulation are presently given in the Eurocodes for
composite slabs. Practice suggests, however, that the sound insulationprovided by a compositeslab is
directlyproportionalto its mass. As a general rule a combination slab will providethe same phonic
insulation as a homogeneous slab with a thickness equal to (the distance from the top of the slab
to the centroid of the decking).
Thermal insulation. No
provisions for thermal insulation are presently given in the Eurocodes for
composite slabs. Practice suggests, however, that the thermal resistanceof a compositeslabis directly
proportional to its thickness. Thermal resistance can be substantially improved using suspended
ceilings and light-weight concrete in place of normal weight concrete.
Fire resistance. Design provisions are available for calculating the cross-sectional temperature
distribution of composite slabs in the Eurocodes. These values are somewhat conservative and in
practicetest values are often used. In general, however, the basic fire resistanceof a composite slab is
at least 30 minutes. The resistancecan be substantially improved by three different methods. First, a
suspended ceiling may be used. This is normally expensive since the ceiling must be carefully
detailed. Second, fire insulationmay be sprayed directly on the exposed face of the decking. Third,
additionalpositive moment reinforcementmay be placed in the slab. Steel decking with re-entrant
ribs may not require additional reinforcement (rib is protected by the surrounding concrete). For
continuous slabs with such decking, the fire resistance can reach 120 minutes.
Seismic considerations. No provisions for seismic forces are presently given in the Eurocodesfor
compositeslabs. Experience suggests, however, that seismic forces generatedduring an earthquake in
the composite slab are developeddue to the following. First, vertical forces in the slab are directly
proportionalto its mass and live load. Secondly, all composite slabs act as in-placebracing, whether
or not they are designed as such. Significant forces may thus be developed due to building
movements. A minimum of 2 connectors per panel per support is suggested for composite slabs in
light seismic areas.
In-plane bracing. No provisions for in-plane bracing are presently given in the Eurocodes for
compositeslabs. It is suggested, however, to includethe effects of the length to width ratio of the slab
and any openings. ECCS recommendations do exist for in-plane bracing [ECCS publication No 19
"European Recommendations for the stressed skin Design of Steel Structures",under revision].
Section 8.4 of the present manual gives guidance for some of these special designs.

ECCS N 87

Basis ofdesign - Composite condition

8.2

CROSS-SECTIONAL

83

RESISTANCES

8.2.1 BendIng
For flexural calculations, the plastic cross-sectionalresistanceMPRd. can be calculatedin both positive
(sagging) and negative (hogging) moment regions. When calculating this value the following
restrictions should be observed:
The effectivearea of the steel sheeting should be calculated ignoring the width of embossments and
indentations, unless it is shownby tests that a larger area is effective.
The effectivewidth of compressedparts of the sheeting should not exceed twice the effective width
normally calculated for class I steel webs.

a)

Calculations In sagging moment regions

If the neutral axis of the composite slab is above the sheeting (the most common situation, see Figure
8.5), the cross-sectional resistance, MPRd is equal to the following:
+

=
MPRd Ncf

(d - 0.5 x)

(8.5)

Ncf= Ap gyp/Yap

(8.6)

where:

f
?ap
dx

:
:
:
:
:

cross-sectional area of the sheeting in tension (reducedif required)


yieldstress of the steel sheeting
partial safety factor for the steel sheeting
distance from the top of the slab to the centroid of the effectivearea of the steel sheeting
depthof the stress block for the concretegiven by:
X=

fck

Ncf

(8.7)

b 0.85 fck/Yc

characteristic compressivestrength ofthe concrete


partial safety factor for concrete.
b
____________

0.85

1'

L J,
yp/Yap
Figure8.5 - Cross section in positive moment region

If the neutral axis ofthe composite slab is in the sheeting (not a commonsituation), the cross-sectional

MPRd is calculated using a somewhat more complicatedexpression. This expression is not


given here for brevity, but can be found in clause 7.6.1.2(5)of EC4.
resistance

ECCS N 87

DesignManisa!for Composite Slabs

of the sheeting,the width of the embossments in the sheet should


Note: For the cross-sectionalarea
be neglected, unless it is shown by tests that a larger area is effective.
b) Calculations in negative moment region

In negative (hogging) moment regions the steel sheeting should be ignored unless it is continuous.If
continuous sheeting is considered, the effective width of compressed parts of the profile should be
calculated.

The design sectionand the distributionof stresses at the ultimate limit state are shown in Figure 8.6.
The design negative bendingresistanceis given by yielding of the reinforcementat the support (underreinforced slab):
Mp.Rd = Asfysz7ys

(8.8)

where:
As

area of reinforcement
yield strengthof the reinforcement
partial safety factor for the reinforcement
lever-arm of the internal forces Nc and Nt.

The condition of equilibrium betweenthese forces allows the determination of z:


bc

Nc

0.85 ck/Yc

= As ys/Ys = Nt

(8.9)

As f5fy5

bc0.85fck/yc

(8.10)

ds-/2

(8.11)

where:
bc
ds

width of the concrete in compression, taken as the average width of the concrete ribs over
metre for simplicity (b =
: effectivedepth
:

h
hp

085ck IYc
2

Figure8.6 - Cross sectionin negative moment region

ECCSN 87

Basisofdesign - Composite condition

_____________________________________________

85

8.2.2 LongitudInal shear


Two designmethodsmaybe used to determine the resistance of a composite slab against longitudinal
shear failure.

a) The 'm&k' method.


This method is based upon full-scale composite slab test results. Tests should be conducted according to
EC4, chapter 10. The maximum design vertical shear resistance Vt.Rd for a width of slab, b, is
calculated as follows:

VtRd = b

d [(m A /b L5) + k]fy5

(8.12)

where:

m,k

A
L5

experimentally determinedfactors (EC4, chapter 10)


cross-sectional area of the decking,in mm2 (see note in section 8.:2.1)
shear span length (L/4 for a uniformlydistributed load), in mm
slab width, in mm
distance from the top of the slab to the centroid of the effective area of the steel sheeting, in

mm
normally taken as 1.25

The factorsm and k are obtained from at least 6 full-scale slab tests with simply supported slabs loaded
by two symmetrically placed concentrated line loads. Usually two groups of 3 identical tests are carried
out, one group with short and the other with long shear spans but still providing failure in longitudinal
shear. From each group the characteristic value is deemed to be the one obtained by reducing the
minimum value by 10%. The design relationship is formed by the straight line through these
characteristic values of both groups (see figure 8.7).
Note: Check must be made that these factors have been determined withoutthe influenceofthe

concretestrength(fck).

design relationship

for longitudinal shear resistance

A/bL

Figure8.7 - Evaluationoftest results


ECCS N 87

DesignManualfor Composite Slabs

86

b) The t method

is based on mechanical model which can account for influences of


additionalreinforcementor end anchoragedevices. This method is only available for ductile composite
The partial connection theory
slabs.

Slab tests have to be carried out in order to determine the design value of the horizontalshear strength
tu,Rd. Figure 8.8 shows the partial interaction diagram which is determined using the measured
dimensions and strengths of the concrete and the steel sheet for each particulartest specimen.

0,85 cm

if

j. N

i4

f yp

1)

1.0

test

'

,t'2

Mtest

Figure 8.8 - Determinationofthe degree ofshear connection from Mtest


The values used in the diagram of figure 8.8 are the following:
(8.13)

MNcZ+Mpr

z=ht-0.5x-ep+(ep-e)

(8.14)

Ap ypTYap

X=b.0fCmhC

(8.15)

where:

Nc

ht

e
cm
hc
Mpr

:
:
:
:

cross-sectionalmoment at N
axial force in the concrete. This value can vary from 0.0 (no interaction) to Ncf (full
and Ncf are calculatedas given in clause 7.6.1.2 of EC4
interaction).
total depth of the slab
distance of the plasticneutral axis of the effectivearea of the sheetingto its underside (soffit)
distance from the centroidof the effective area of the steel sheet to its underside(soffit)
mean value of the compressivestrengthof the concrete
height of the concreteslab above the steel sheeting
reduced plastic moment of resistance of the steel sheetingcross-section.

ECCS N 87

Mp

Basisofdesign - Composite condition

87

The maximum bending moment Mtest is evaluated from the test at the critical cross section(Dbeneath
the concentratedline load and thus, the degree of shear connection can be determined. If only partial
connection can be developed,i.e. < 1.0, the full bending resistanceMp.Rd cannot be attaired and only
a reduced value MRd can be achieved. The horizontal shear strength at the steel-concrete interface can
be calculated as follows:

Ncf

Ub.,+J)

(8.16)

where:
Ti

Ncf
b

Ls

L0

degree of shear connection


compressiveforce for full shear connection
width ofthe slab
shear span
overhang

At the end of each test series the derived tu-values providethe basis to determinethe characteristic shear
strength tu,pJ as the minimum value obtained from all tests reduced by 10%. The design shear strength
u,Rd is the characteristic value dividedby 'y = 1.25.

8.2.3 Vertical and punching shear


For un-proppedconstructionthe weight of the concrete slab may be assumed to be carried by the steel
sheeting. For propped constructionthe weight of the concrete must be added to the live load. In both
cases, propped and un-propped, all live loads are assumed to be carried by the concrete slab alone.

The vertical shear resistance, VvRd, of a composite slab subjected to a concentrated line load (this
includes support reactions)is calculated according to the following:

VVRd=bo dlRdkv(1.2+40p)

(8.17)

where (see Figure 8.9):


b0

: mean width of open trapezoidal concrete ribs, or the minimum width of re-entrant concrete

ribs
d
: positive bending region : d =
(distance from the top of the slab to the centroid of the
effectivearea ofthe steel sheeting,
negative bending region: d = d5 (distance from the bottom of the slab to the centroid of the
area of the reinforcement)
'rRd : basic shear strength of unreinforced concrete. This is equal tO 0.25 fctktlc
ctk =
0.05' defined in EC4, chapter 3
:
partial safety factor for concrete
Yc
:
p
A/b0d, but less than or equal to 0.02. This is a factor increasingthe basic shear strengthof the
concrete slab due to the presenceof sheetingor reinforcement
A
:
positive bending region : A = Ap (areaof the cross section of the sheet, see note in section
8.2.1)
(area of reinforcement)
negativebendingregion: A =

ti

ECCSN 87

DesignManualfor Composite Slabs

88

(1.6 - d), but greaterthan or equal to 1.0, with d in metres. This is a factor decreasingthe basic
shear strengthof the concrete slab due to increasing slab thickness. For composite slabs this
factor is between 1.3 and 1.5.

Figure8.9 - Cross sectionsusedfor vertical shear resistance


The vertical shear resistance, p.Rd' of a composite slab subjected to a concentrated point load is
calculated accordingto the following:

''p.Rd= Cp

h 'rRd k (1.2 + 40p)

(8.18)

where:
:

critical perimeter, shown in Figure 8.10

________

critical perimeter
loaded area

dpj

\)

Ta

-t
h*d4
section a-a

Figure8.10 - Criticalfailure pathfor concentratedpoint loads

ECCSN 87

Basisofdesign - Composite condition

8.3

89

DEFLECTIONS

8.3.1 General
Deflections

of composite slabs are very difficultto calculate precisely. This is due to their complicated

cross-sectional geometry and the possibility of longitudinal slip between the decking and concrete slab.
For internalspans, and externalspans with anchorages, longitudinal debondingnormally does not occur
at service load levels. The averagevalue of the cracked and uncracked momentsof inertia is thus used.

For externalspans without anchorages, this same moment of inertia may be used if full-scaletest results
indicate that slip does not exceed 0.5 mm at 1.2 times the design load. This information should be
obtained directly from the steel sheeting supplier.

8.3.2 Calculation

of deflections

Construction stage
An exampleof the statical system and loading case is given in Figure 8.11(a). For this example, the
deflection at constructionstage is:
(2.65 gap + 3.4 gc)14
6ser
(8.19)
384 Elap
where
Self-weight

gap
gc
lap

of the decking

Weightof the wetconcrete


unreducedmomentof area of the sheet based upon the net sheet thickness

g IJtII1JJJJI
a)

apfl Ill

LIEJJJJJJ LII

i 111111

if! i

LI I

iii

J i_i_I

11111 1

i I I

Minimum reinforcement

b)

Figure 8.11 - Statical systemand loading casesfor deflection calculations


ECCS N 87

DesignManualfor Composite Slabs

Composite stage
An exampleof the statical system and loading case is given in Figure 8.11(b). The composite slab is
analysed at the ultimatestateas a series of simply-supported beams, but for the calculation of deflection,
we assume that the slab is continuous. For an end span, the deflectionunder the weightof floor finishes
has the value:
2.65

g$

(8.20)

&v,g=384 Elv,m
where:

g2
'v,m

Weightof the floor finishes


Second moment of area taken as the average of the values for the cracked and the
uncracked section, calculatedwith an average value of the modular ratio (n = Ea/Ec = 15)
for both long and short term effects (see 8.3.3)

The deflection of the composite slab under variable loading of long duration, for the case of only an
end span loaded, has the value:

&v,q

3.4g14

(8.21)

384 EIv,m

where:
:
Variable loading of long duration
q

8.3.3 Elastic properties of cross-sections


Elastic analysis is normally used to determine external moments and shears acting upon the composite
slab at the serviceabilitylimit states. In this case the average value of the cracked and uncracked crosssectional stiffnessesshould be used.

a) Cracked section
The second moment of area 'vc of the cracked section can be obtained from:

'vc =

bx3 +
3n

- 2
Ap (dp x) + lap

(8.22)

x : positionof the elastic neutral axis


X

n.Ap( I
b

2bdp nAp

n = E /Ec

1)

(8.23)

b) Uncracked section
The second moment of area 'vu of the uncrackedsection can be obtained from:

'vu =

h )2 + bch + bchp (h - xu -

+ Ap(dp-xu)2+Iap
where:
ECCS N 87

(8.24)

Basisofdesign - Conzposiie condition

91

: average width ofthe concrete in the ribs over a slab with of 1 metre
positionof the elastic neutral axis:

b
Xii

8.4

hT+ bc h dp + flA d
bhc+bchp+nAp

(8.25)

VERIFICATION

8.4.1 Verification of the ultimate limit states


For compositeslabs, thischeck consists generally in showingthat at the critical sections (Figure 8.4), the
design internalshear forces and moments are smallerthan the design resistanceof the cross-sections.

a) Positive bending (section I)


This check is made at the section of maximum positive moment, generally for the external span of a
continuous slab. The condition can be expressedas:
+

MSd

MPRd

Md

: design value of the bending moment

MRd

: design value ofthe positive bending resistance

(8.26)

b) Negative bending (section II)


This check is made with the negativemoment from the analysis at the supports.

The condition can be expressedas:

M
MSd

MpRd

(8.27)

design value of the bending moment

: design value of the negative bending resistance

MPRd
C) Vertical

shear (section iii)

This check is rarely critical, however it may be in the case of deep slabs with loads of relatively large

magnitudes. This will occur at end supports where the bending moment is zero, or at intermediate
supports. In the lattercase, no interactionbetweenM and V is assumed. The condition is expressedas:
VSd
VSd

VVRd

(8.28)

design value of the vertical shear


ECCS N 87

DesignManualfor Composite Slabs

92

Vvjd

design value of the vertical shear resistance

d) Longitudinal shear (section IV)


This check is often the determining factor for compositeslabs with profiled sheeting but no anchorage.
This implies that overall failure of the slab occurs by failure of the bond. The bending resistance at
section I cannot be attained.
m & k method

If this semi-empirical method is used, the condition can be expressedas:


VSd V!Jd

(8.29)

where:
design value of the vertical shear (equivalent span, see figure 8.12)
VIRd: design value of the shear resistance (equivalent span, see figure 8.12)
VSd

IIILIIJ JUl

II11LIII1IL1IJiiiiJIi(I11JJJJJJ((t

Li

UJUw
flJiJjJjJllupy
Ii_I I I I I I I

11111

Liii II

IL],

L3

L2

A&

1fftuJ

LI_LI 111

J,LJ,

Figure 8.12 - Equivalentsimplespan for the verification of the longitudinalshear resistance

t - method
The design partial interactiondiagram - now calculatedwith designvaluesof material and geometrical
properties - represents the boundarycurve for the bending moment resistance MRd ofthe slab, i.e. MRd
of a cross-sectionat a distance Lx from the nearer support is plotted against Lx. The scale is given by
the length Lsf where full shear connection (TI = 1.0) can be reached
= Ncf

L5 btu.Rd

(8.30)

It has to be shown for any cross section along the span that the design bending moment MSd does not

exceed the design resistance MRd. The corresponding verfication procedure is illustrated in Figure
8.13.
Verification of compositeslabs with end anchorage

In many cases through-weldedheaded studs are providedfor composite beam action and for economic
reasons they should also be considered as end anchorage means for composite slabs. Composite slabs
with additionalend anchoragecan only be verified using the partial connection method.
ECCS N 87

Basisofdesign - Composite condition

93

LL

LAj
LB
L4

02

0.14

0.6

Lsf LB
0.8

1.0

Figure8.13- Very'icationprocedure
Annex E requires 3 additional slab tests to determinethe horizontal shear strength of an end anchorage
in combination with a certain profile. Thus, it is possible to check if the composite action provided by

the sheeting and the resistance of the end anchorage can be summed up. The resistance of the end
anchorage

ye follows from:
Vt =

T Ncf- turn

b (Ls + L0)

(8.31)

where turn is the mean value of


determined by the tests with the same sheeting but without end
anchorage. The design value is obtained with the same reductions as described for tu.Rd in 3.3.1. Once
the design resistanceVtd of an end anchorage device is determined, the verificationessentially follows
the same procedureas for slabs withoutend anchorageis obtained by calculatingthe compressiveforce
as follows:

N =b

Lx

tuRd + Vld

(8.32)

This results in a shift of the basic partial interaction diagram in the L-direction over a distance
representing the share of the end anchorage in the total horizontal shear resistance (see figure 8.14).
Finally, it has again to be checked if the existing bending moment MSd is not higher than the bending
resistance MRd for each cross section along the span length.
MRd

V1d

_____

- --------

NC

Lx
'A

LMP
Ncf bTURd

btuRd

Figure 8.14 - Designpartial interaction diagramfor a slab with end anchorage


ECCS N 87

DesignManualfor Composite Slabs

Verification of slabs with additionalreinforcement

Additionalbottom reinforcementcan be taken into account with a modified partial interactiondiagram


by calculating MRd as follows (see figure 8.15):

MRd=Npz1+Mpr+Nasz2

(8.33)

where:
Np

bLxtu.Rd

= Asfsk/ys
Mpr = reduced plastic moment resistanceof the sheeting
Nas

085

f
=
)M

Figure 8.15 - Contrthution of additional longitudinal reinforcement


Annex E of EC 4 requires three additionaltests to prove the validity of the modified partial connection

method.

8.4.2 Verification of the serviceability limit states


The following verificationshould be made concerning the serviceability of the compositeslab:

a) Deflections
Vertical deflectionsmust not exceed the limiting values.
Construction stage (seeChapter 7):

6seradm=4 or20 mm

(8.34)

Composite stage

If the slenderness (span/effective depth) of the slab does not exceed the limiting values given in

Eurocode 2, this deflection check is not essential. For one way continuous slabs, concrete lightly
stressed, the limit is:
(8.35)

If this ratio is greater than 32, the followingchecks should be made:


6max&v,g+

&v,q

(8.36)
(8.37)

ECCS N 87

Basisofdesign- Composite condition

95

where:
span of the composite slab
6max : total deflectionofthe slab, including any pre-camberand any variation in the deflectiondue to
the permanentloads immediately after loading, and including 82
deflectionunder the weight of floor finishes
6v,q : deflectionof the compositeslabunder variable loading of long duration,
: variation of the deflectiondue to variable loading acting on the slab plus any time-dependent
82
deformations due to the permanent loads.

The limiting values axe recommended by Eurocode 3 for floors and roofs in buildings. If the composite
slab supports brittle elements (cement floor finishes, non-flexiblepartitions, ect., 82 must be limited to
11350.

b) Crack width
Given that there is a profiled sheet on the lower surface of the concrete slab, only concrete cracking at
the supports must be verified. Such verification should be made according to the established rules for
reinforced concrete, for example Eurocode 2.
In normal circumstances, minimum reinforcement placed at the supports is sufficient. Normal
circumstances axe : no exposure to aggressive physicalor chemical environments; no damage other than
cracking; no requirements regarding waterproofing of the slab; cracking can be tolerated with regards
to appearance. Such reinforcement is necessary when the slab is designed as a series of simply
supported beams.
The amount of minimum reinforcementis given by the following:
for slabs propped at the time ofconcreting:
Pmin = b hc = 0.4 %

(8.38)

for slabs unpropped at the time of concreting:

Pmin=O2 %
C)

(8.39)

Vibration in composite floors

The tendency for a floor to vibrate in a perceptible manner depends on the mass of the floor, its
dynamic characteristics andthe nature of the disturbancecausing the loading. The latter may be caused
by movement of occupants,by machinery,wind or by externaleffects transmitted through the building
structure (traffic or adjacent construction).

In the case of composite floors one of its structural benefits, its reduced mass may lead to a more
"lively" response in similar conditions when compared to conventional two-way spanning reinforced
concrete slabs. Additionally the composite floor is essentially a one-way spanning element which may
further increase the problem.

Design methods for assessing the acceptability of floor vibrations are generally based on simplified
empirical approaches due to the complexity of modellingthe loading and the structural response of the
flooring.
These methods are all based on some form of one-way spanning action and take into account the whole
floor structure including the supportingbeams.

ECCS N 87

DesignManualfor Compose Slabs

The equivalentbeam method is often used for compositeconstruction. In this technique the steel beam
and an appropriate width of composite floor is used to calculate the section properties from which the
fundamental frequencyf0 is obtained

El
2 y me
it

(8.40)

Where I is the second moment of area for the transformed section, m is the mass per unit length of the
section which has a simply supported span 1. In a simplified approachthis natural frequency should be
greater than a threshold frequency but more correctly should be related to the degree of damping and
the building usage.
The other techniques for the assessment of acceptability include the heel-drop approach, the response
factor method and the minimum frequency approach. All these techniques do not produce reliable
results when compared to the limited field measurementinformationavailable. The use of increasingly
slenderfloorsmeans that vibration should be considered at the design stage, there is a need, however, for
more sophisticated analysis to predict frequency response.

ECCSN 87

97

Special design considerations

9.

SPECIAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

9.1

DIAPHRAGM EFFECT

9.1.1 Sheeting as diaphragm at temporary stage


a) General

A sheetingspanning betweenthe beam top flangesand fastened with screwsor pins acts as a diaphragm
and provides a stabilisingaction.
When using this stabilising action, the sheeting should meet the general requirements formulated in
Eurocode 3 Part 1.3, and special requirements given in Section 9.1.1.
See also "European Recommendations for the application of metal sheeting a diaphragm (in progress;
previous ECCS publicationNo. 19).
The shutteringcan be assumed to provide lateral bracing if the in-plane stresses in the sheeting due to
diaphragm action do not exceed 25% of the normal resistancestresses.
b) Strength and stiffness control of a shear panel
Definition : the shear panel is the part of the sheeting contained between two adjacentbeams.
The stabilising action of the diaphragm is the most efficient if the unstiffened flange of beam is in
tension.

In case of doubly or mono-symmetrical flexural members such as I beams (Figure 9.1), the stabiising
action of the sheeting may be calculated as follows.

(shear panel)
Ho

'Figure9.1 - ExampleofI beamstabilised by sheeting


The in-plane load in the shear panel, caused by the interaction between sheeting and beam to be
stabilised, follows from:

q=

kr
L
62.5 - c

(9.1)

where:

normal force in the fictitiousisolated compressed upper flange of memberunder


moment M:

N=M/H0

(9.2)
ECCS N 87

98

M,H0

Design Manualfor Composite Slabs

seeFigure9.1
coefficientdependingon the number

kr
kr

=
(O.2+)0.5
= n+
1

of members to stabilise:
(9.3)

L, n, w

see Figure 9.2


shear flexibilityofthe shear panel: c =
shear flexibilitydue to the sheet deformation: ci =
+
Cl
shear flexibilitydue to pmfile distortion
ci.1
shear flexibilitydue to shear strain
ci.2
shear flexibility due to the fastemersdeformation: C2 = c2.1 + c2.2
C2
shear flexibilitydue to sheet to beam fastemers
1
shear flexibilitydue to seam fasteners
C22
For the calculationof the shear flexibility ci i,C12,C21,c22,see the European Recommendations for
the Application of the Metal Sheetingas a Diaphragm, clause 5.9.

c+ c

cl.

The maximum shear force generatedin the shear panel by a beam to be stabilised is:

Vmax=J

(9.4)

To prevent the sheet/member fasteners failure, the following condition is required:

(9.5)

which is, taking into account the above equation, equivalent to:

max

0.5

(9.6)

where:
p

:
:

pitchofthe sheet/beam fasteners


design strengthof an individualsheet/beam fastener
beanis

sheeting
(bracing)

______

&ectior ofspano decking

n w
Figure9.2 - Shearpanels to stabilise beams
ECCSN 87

99

Special design conrideracions

To prevent the seam fastenersfailure, the following condition is required:

VVult

(9.7)

where:
Vult

ultimate strengthassociated with a given failure mode


(9.8)

Vult=flsFs+Fp

number of seam fasteners per side lap (excludingthose which pass through both sheets and
beam,
Furthermore, to prevent non-permissible modes, the following conditions are required:
a) sheet/beam fastenerstrength:

(9.9)

0.6Fp

b) end collapse of sheetingproffle:


when every corrugation at the end of the sheeting is fastened:
0,9t'-5wfyI d5 Vult
when alternate corrugations at the end of the sheetingare fastened:

(9.10)

0,3tL5Wf I d5

(9.11)

Vult

where:
d

: pitch of corrugation
:
thickness of the core material of the sheeting(excludinggalvanisingand coatings)
: design yield strength of the sheet material

c) shear buckling

VredtVu&

(9.12)

where:
Yred

reduced shear buckling strength under combined local and global buckling:

VgVt

(9.13)

Vredvg+v,

: local shear buckling strength:

V = 4.83E (t/t)2 wt

Vg

(9.14)

: width of the top or bottom flange of the sheeting, whicheveris wider


: global shear buckling strength:

when everycorrugationat the end of the sheetingis fastened:


28.8L 1/4 3/4
Vg
,2 D D

(9.15)

where

Dx, Dy : orthogonal bendingstiffnesses of profiled sheetingper unit length (see ER N19)


ECCS N 87

ioo

DesignManualfor Composite Slabs

9.1.2 Diaphragm effect of the slab at permanent stage


The ability of the composite slab to transmit in-plane forces has been demonstrated in experimental
studies. The in-plane shear stiffness and strength of the composite slab is of sufficient magnitude that
the design for horizontal diaphragms in such cases is governed by the strength of the connection
betweeneither the sheetingor the compositeslab with the supportingsteelwoiic.

The forces in the connections may be calculated assuming the composite diaphragm is rigid with the
failure criteria being the shear strength of the fastenersor shear connectors. The shear capacity of the
fasteners may be taken as that applied at the temporary stage. In cases where welded shear connectors
are employed, the current evidence suggests the mode of failure is similar to that for the push-off
strengthcapacity.
For seismic design it is recommended that weldedshear connectors should be employed with steel bar
reinforcement looped around connectors to ensure continuity.
The following rules which are contained in the European Recommendationsfor Steel Structures in
Seismic Zones (ECCS publication No 54) should be considered for diaphragms and horizontal bracing.
the horizontaldiaphragm and bracing should be able to transmit, to the various anti-seismic elements
to which they are attached,the forces derived from an analysisof the whole building multipliedby a
magnification factor = 1.5.
the horizontal diaphgrams in reinforced concrete should be reinforced in two
orthogonal directions
and the reinforcementanchoredto the perimeterbeams.
diaphragms which consist of parallel-ribbed elements should have an additional layer of
reinforcementplaced perpendicularyto the ribs in the upper layer of concrete. This reinforcement
should have an area of not less than 200 mm2 per metre. This reinforcement may be located in
special transverse ribs located at not more than 2.5 m centres.
for prefabricated plates or slabs, the reinforcement should be in two orthogonal directions. They
should be connected to the supporting beams on all four faces in such a way that the connected
structure acts as a truss system in a horizontal plane.

9.2

FIRE DESIGN

9.2.1 Definitions
The standard fire resistance is the ability of a structure or of the structural component to fulfil its
required functions (load bearing function and/or separatingfunction) for a stated period of time in the
standardfire exposure.

The load bearing function is the abilityof a structureto sustain all relevantactionsduring fire (criterion
R).

The thermal insulation criterion defines the ability of a separating member to prevent excessive
transmission of heat (criterion I).
The integrity criterion defines the ability of a separating member to prevent passage of flames and hot
gases (criterionE).

9.2.2 Performance requirements


Members shall complywith criterions "R", "E", and "I" as follows:

- for load bearing capacity


ECCS N 87

only "R"

Special design coideraions

101

- for separating functions


- for separating and load bearing capacity

:
:

only "E and "I"


"R", "E" and "I"

Where load bearing functionin the case of fire is required,structures shall be designed and constructed
in such a way that they maintaintheir load bearing functionduring the relevant fire exposure - criterion
When a separating function is required, the respective members shall be designed and constructed in

such a way, that they maintaintheir separatingfunctionduring the fire exposure, i.e.:
- no integrity failure due to cracks, holes or other openings which are large enough to cause fire
penetration by hot gases or flames - criterion "E";
- no insulation failure due to temperatures of the non-exposed surface exceedingpermissible limits criterion "I".

The permissible average temperature rise of the non-exposed surface is limited to 140C and the
maximum temperature rise to 180C.

9.2.3 Structural fire design


The behaviourof a composite slab exposed to the fire and the temperaturedistributionin the slab could
be determined by test or designed by a method based on simple calculation models.
9.2.4 Simple calculation models
Unprotected composite slabs

9.2.4.1
a) General

(1) Thefollowing rules apply to the calculation of the standardfire resistance of both simply supported
and continuous composite concrete slabs with profiled steel sheets and additional reinforcement,
when heated from below by the standardfire.
(2) This method is only applicableto directly heated steel sheets not protected by any insulation and to
compositeslabs not insulated on top side.
(3) The possible effect of axial restraint on the fire resistanceis not taken into account in the subsequent
rules.

(4) For a design complyingwith Part 1.1, of Eumcode 4, the fire resistanceof compositeconcreteslabs
with proffledsteel sheet withoutadditionalreinforcement is at least30 minutes, when assessedunder
the load bearing criterion "R". For means of verifyingwhetherthe thermal insulationcriterion "I" is
fulfilled. see below.

b) Insulation
with respectto the thermalinsulationcriterion "I" depends only on the effective
(1) Thefire resistance
thickness of the slab.
(2) The effective thickness hoffis given by the formula:
1e1_+_t2\

heffh1+O.5h2(i+i3J
r
,-ti_+_2\1

heffhl [l+0.75+.3)]

forh2/h1l.5andhl>SOmm

(9.16)

forh2/hl>1.5andhl>5Omm

(9.17)

The cross sectionaldimensions of the slab hi, h2, Li, 2, 3, are given in Figure 9.3.
ECCS N 87

Design Manualfor Composite Slabs

102

(3) 1113 > 21l, the effectivethickness should be taken equal to hi.

hefftbi

_____________________E 1)3
__________
1
13

h3

"'74E
e'ct
.l3j
screed

12

Figure9.3 - Cross sectional slabdimensions


(4) The relation between the fire resistance with respect to insulation and the minimum effective slab
thicknessheff is given in table 9.1 for commonlevels of fire resistance,where h3 is the thickness of
the screedlayerif any on top of the concreteslab.
Table 9.1 - Minimum effectivethicknessasfunction offire duration
Required fire resistance
mm.
30
60
90
120
180

240
(5) The thickness 113
calculation of

hf.

Mininuimeffectivethickness

heff (mm)

80-h3

90-h3
105-h3
125 - h3
150-h3
170 h3

of the screed layer should not be larger than 20 mm for the purpose of the

(6) Where lightweight concrete defined in 1.2.2.2. (EC4, Part 1.2) is used, the minimum effective
thickness of table 9.1 and the concrete temperature of table 9.5 may be reduced to 90 % of the
valuesgiven.
C) Load bearing resistance
Basis of calculation

(1) The fire resistance with respect to failure (2.1, P(2), EC4, Part 1.2) is assumed to be reached if the
design load bearing resistance in the fire situation Rf,d of the slab decreasesto a level equal to the
design effect of actions in the fire situation Ef,d (4.1, P(6), EC4, Part 1.2).
(2) The design load bearing resistance in the fire situation Rf,d shall be calculated on basis of the
elementaryplastic theory, using the rules specified hereafter.
(3) For the various statical systems the failure conditionsmay be formulated on basis of the elementary
plastic theory, when plastic moments and slab geometry are known. In table 9.2, some examples are
given.

4) On basis of the detailed calculation rules (8) to (12) of this section, a plastic bending moment
distributionmay be establishedleading to the ultimate bendingmoment resistance.
(5) In order to guarantee sufficient deformationcapacity for continuous slabs, rules (1), (2) and (3) of
4.2.7.3 of Part 1.6 of EC2, Draft August 1992, should be fulfilled.
(6) The effect of both, the tensile strength of the concrete and the strength of the steel sheet may be
ignored.
ECCS N 87

Special design considerations

103

(7) The fire resistance with respect to the thermal insulation should be fulfilled according to
"Insulation".

Note:
Rules (4) and (5) of 9.2.4.1 b) "Insulation" are necessary to ensure low temperaturesin the upper
part of the concreteslab in onler to allow the assumptions of (8) and (12).
Table 9.2 - Failureconditions
for slabs

Statical system with


continuous loading q

\L

c)

2
C

or

''

u,eqxL2i8

q8x,eiL2

Mu,e

'

\p)O

a
O
-E
C
>

Failure condition

or

M ,eO.4xIMt ,oJ qxL2i8


q (

8 , 3.2I
+

,e

/ L2

c_,
C.?

t.

M,e\
I

,.'

E
E'
oE
5
g.

'

or

q Sx

'-

or

+JM,6j qxL2i8

, j,e /
+

J)

J,eqxL2/8
q8xM,eJ,L2

Calculationofthe positiveplastic bendingmoment

Mu,e

M,9

(8) The compressivestrength for concrete should be taken at room temperature (20C).
(9) The relationship betweenthe temperature 8, of the reinforcing steel and the standardfire durationis
given in table 9.3 accordingto the geometricalpositionof the reinforcing bar in Figure 9.4.
Calculationofthe negativeplastic bendingmoment M9
(10) The negativeplastic bending moment of the composite slab may be calculated by taking account
of the reduced compressive strength of the concrete in the ribs and integrating over the
depth of
the ribs. As a conservative simplificationthe composite slab may be replaced by a slab with a
uniform thickness equal to the effectivethickness heff accordingto (2) of 9.2.4.1 b) "Insulation".
ECCS N 87

DesignManualfor Composite Slabs

(11) Temperature fields 0c in the concrete slab may be taken from table 9.5 for various standard fire
durations.
(12) The maximum stress level of the reinforcing steel situated in the tensile zone of the slab should be
taken at room temperature, 0max (0) = fsy(20C).

Table 9.3 - Relationfire duration - temperature ofthe reiiy"orcingsteel


Standard fire duration
[mini
60
90
120
180

240
1

Temperatureof reinfoiting steel


[C]

Os=ll75-3SOy

Os=1285-35OY
0s= 1370-350y
Os = 1490 -350. y 1000C(y
os=

4,0)

/;i+

(9.18)

distances [mm] of the reinforcing bar to the profiled steel sheet, as specified in Figure
9.4 with:

Ul,u2,u3

U[, U2 50 mm,
U3 35 mm

ISLAB

-.-I_

Figure9.4 - Geometrical position ofthe reiryorcingbar


d) Protected composite slabs
(1) An improvementof the fire resistanceof the composite slab may be obtained by using a protection
system applied to the steel sheet in order to decrease the heat transferto the slab.
(2) The performanceof the protection system used for a composite slab should be assessed according

to:

- ENyyy5-lA as far as suspended ceilings are concernedand


- ENyyy5-4A asfar as coating materialsare concerned

(3) The thermal insulation criterion "I" is assessed accordingto (1) to (6) of 9.2.4.1 b) "Insulation",by
deducing from the minimum effective thickness (beff) given in table 9.1, the equivalent concrete

thicknessof the protectionsystem.


(4) The load bearing criterion "R" is fulfilled as long as the temperature of the steel sheet of the
compositeslab is lower or equal to 350C, when heated from below by the standard fire.
ECCS N 87

105

Special design consideraions

Table 9.5 - Temperature distributionin the concreteslab


Depth
X

TemperatureO [C1 after a tire


durationin mm. of

mm

3O

535

705

10

470

642

738

15

415

681

20
25

350

581
525

469

571

30

300
250

421

35

210

374

40

180

327

50
55

140

289
250
200

519
473
428
387

60

110

80

80
60

45

100

9.3

6 9

140
100

627

I2l
754
697
642
591

542
493

345

454
415

294

369

271

220
160

180'1240'

h
738
689

740

635
590
549

700
670
645

508

550
520

342

469
430

270
210

330
260

395

Heated lower side of


composite slab

495
305

OPENINGS AND PENETRATION HOLES

9.3.1 General and definitions


a) Slab openings and service penetrations
This sectionis concerned with openings through composite floors whose dimensions(shown as m in
Figure 9.5) are not less than:

150mm

twice the concrete depth in compression


the slab depth

a group of small openings can also be assumed to be equivalentto a larger opening when the
ratio of openingin a given area is greater than 50%.

However,

b) Trimmer beams
Usually, slab openings and service holes are framed with a trimmer beam arrangement. Trimmer beams
are continuous membersusually employed to secure flexural continuityand stability of the slab. In the
case where the trimmer is interrupted by a penetration hole, it is necessary to consider different
construction arrangements. This may include one or more trimmer beams depending on the position
and the size of the hole (see Figure 9.6). Main trimmer beams are positioned along the slab opening
(parallelto the rib) and in the transversedirection, secondary trimmer beams are placed perpendicular
to the corrugationof the steel sheeting.

The purpose of such trimmer beams is to support the strip of composite floor which is interrupted by
the slap penetration.
The loads taken by the trimmer beams are then transmitted to the main or secondary members
depending on the complexity of the beam network.
ECCS N 87

iot

DesignManualfor Composite Slabs

m
I-

--

small
holes

Figure 9.5 - Group openingsequivalentto a slabpenetration


Supported openings
The edge of the penetration or slabopening rests on a frame constructedbefore the steel sheet has been
positioned (see Figure 9.7).
The frame is constructed with an arrangementof trimmer beams which has the double purpose, the
supportofthe proffle deck when the slabis cast and later the compositefloor.
This solutionis commonly used when dealing with large slab openings such as staircases.
C)

This technique should also be used in the case of holes interferrmg with areas subjected to large line
load loads or when the hole is in the neighbourhood of masonry walls or partitions sensitive to
differentialdisplacement.
There is also the case where the local deflections might exceed the permissiblelimits though previously
they were not. Finally, this type of framing is requiredwhen it is proposed that the floor will be subject
to lifting equipmenton the edge of the slab opening (e.g. fork-lift trucks)

d) Self supported openings


In this particularcase, the trimmerbeams are part of the formwork structure and support the openings
(see Figure 9.8).
The trimmers are supported by beam network hidden within the slab depth as part of the composite
floor. In these cases the deck is always cut prior to concreting. A set of props is then required during the
constructionstages around this type of opening.

ECCS N 87

Special design considerations

..-------

---

107

secondary

trimmers

beam

L..
main trimmers

rib direction
-

span
Figure9.6 - Main andsecondaiy trimmer beams

Cross-section A-A

main

trimmer
secondary

trimmer

main beam

or floor beam

Figure9.7 - Slab penetration and supportingframe


ECCS N 87

DesignManualfor Composite Slabs

Cross-section A-A
1'

BL/6
main trimmer

B is at least 2 corrugations

1
I

Figure9.8 Loadingsupported by the main trim,ner

9.3.2 Loading applied to an area with openings


Openings in compositeflooring produce a discontinuity in the loading pattern of the slabs. One current
design hypothesis is to considerthese floor areas as unloaded for both the dead and live loads. This is
the case when the opening has an independent support. However, other cases must be considered in
order to take into account additionnal loading which may occur later and which may result from:
local loading introduced by pipes, ducts, partitions and hanging devices
the selfweightof trap and access doors connected to the slab
the refuthishment or repair of openings after service placement

In all these cases the designeris requiredto accountfor the dead and live loads which act in the vicinity
of the openings.

9.3.3 Design of trimmer beams and trimmers for openings


Each trimmer beam around an opening carries a uniformly distributedand local load (q) typical of the
normal floor loading together with the load (Sf2) carried by the floor snip which is interrupted by the
opening (see Figure 9.8). Apart from particular cases, the deflection limit is not considered in the
analysisof the openingtrimmers whose basic design criterionis the strength.
The analysisis conventionally carried out for a slab strip of width equal to one half ofthe slab opening
including at least two corrugationsof the profile but not greater than 1/6 of the floor span. The strength
ofthe strip is satisfactory when the strip can take the load (a) + 0.6 x (Sf2).
However a narrower floor strip may be considered when the strength criterion is conservativefor the
effectivewidth givenabove.
ECCSN 87

Special design considerations

109

a) Flexural strength
The flexural capacity may be increased using steel reinforcementplaced in trough of the profile (see
also Figure 9.9). In that case, the reinforcementbars are positionnedequally in each trough within the

openingtrimmer area.

w/2
Figure9.9- Additional longitudinal reinforcement
In the hogging (negative bending moment) area the layout of the steel reinforcement does not
necessarily need to be alterated when the reinforcement is off-set from the opening.
When this is not the case, the negative steel bars must be placed in the area close to the trimmer or wider
when this is necessary (seeFigure 9.10).

The section of reinforcement required is generally taken as equal to the section


reinforcement cut by the opening.

of the negative

The maximum area of the negative reinforcement in the trimmer area is limited by the permitted
percentage of steel reinforcement. This ratio produces the maximum possible negative bending moment
for the slab thickness (total depth of the slab excludingthe steel sheet).
The length of the additional reinforcementis designed in order to ensure an adequate bond length to
transmit the bending moment interrupted by the opening. The transmission of the tensile forces by
these bars to the rest of the slab is considered to be achieved by a 45 distribution.

b) Shear strength
should be given to the load path from the trimmers to the main frame to determine the
shear force diagram for the main trimmer.
Consideration

In this analysis, the true layout of the opening must be considered in order to assess as precisely as
possible the actual reaction for the troughs at the trimmer and more particulary in the vicinity of the
supports.

The design is satisfactory when the shear force is within the permissible shear capacity of the troughs,
which can be reinforcedwhen necessary.

For other cases, the loads transmitted by the trimmers are taken using reinforcementcages as shown on
Figure 9.11 and designed according to the concrete code.
The shear stress limitationin the troughs is checked by comparing the permissible stress associated with
the shear reinforcement system and the shear force at the specific point. The shear force safety criterion

ECCS N 87

DesignManualfor Composite Slabs

110

consists of checking that the stress introduced in the corrugation by the total shear force point is less
than or equal to the permissible shear stress capacityof the reinforcement.

w/2

-1-

----

w/2

--

y :.lTIr:c
"1

Figure 9.10 - Layout ofthe hogging steel near openings

Figure9.11 - Steel reinforcementaround the penetration hole


ECCS N 87

Special design consideratio

111

9.3.4 Design of secondary trimmer beams


The secondarytrimmers add to the strength of the floor strips intemipted by the opening (see Figure
9.12). The supporting structure for the floor strip generally includes one supporting floor beam and
two main trimmers. The share of the load taken by the secondary trimmer can be reduced or increased
accordingto the choice of the designer.

Figure9.12 - Strip IX)


The main parameterin the analysis is the ratio (r) of the distance b of the two main trimmers and the
distance a between the secondary trimmer and the floor beam (see Figure 9.13). When the ratio Cr) is
less than 0.5, reinforcement should be equally distributed(case A). For a ratio (r) greater than 1.5 a real
beam should be considered (case B).

Case

hi this situation, the composite action betweenthe concreteand the profile is neglected,the strip [Xa] is
considered as a plainreinforcedconcrete slab whose thickness is equal to the depth of the slab above the
proffle.The main directionof bendingis perpendicularto the proffle ribs. Reinforcementis required in
the lower part of the strip [Xa] perpendicularto the decking corrugations, 10 mm above the top of a
trapezoidal profile.
Depending on the choice of the designer, the reinforcementcan be uniformly distributed between the

opening and the supporting beam or concentrated in a quarter of this width towards the opening in
order to reduce the load applied to the main trimmers.

In this case the profile is consideredas a formwoit for the strip [Xa] (see Figure 9.13). The device used
to fasten the forinwork to the sides is simply designed to avoid a possible separationof the proffle from
the concretewithoutany allowance for local forces.
The most frequentsolution consists of placing a steel angle to which the steel sheet is fixed by mean of
the usual fastening devices (rivets,selftappingscrews,etc...)
A width less than a quarter (mentioned above) is possible providingthe bonding betweenthe proffle and
the slab, which are assumed to work in composite manner, is satisfactory.
The support of the proffle must be then set on a positive support as explainedlater for case B.
ECCS N 87

DesignManualfor Composite Slabs

112

b/a 0.5
strip
EXa]

strip
EXb}

b/a

1.5

ribs of decking
concrete slab
Figure 9.13 - Main bendingdirectionfor stripsIXa] and (XbJ

B
F

:1

/1

1/

7;'

/1'

trapezoidal ribs e = 10 mm

II

re-entrant shape e = 0

Figure 9.14 - Positioning ofthe reinforcementbars


ECCSN 87

Special design considerations

113

Case B

In this situation, supportingbeams must be placed around the opening.The beam takes half the load of
the sthp [Xb] or a lower percentageif the flexural reinforcement bars are positionedas indicatedabove.
Checking of the supporting conditions for the deck.
The end of the profile should rest on a support (generally steel), whose form fixed by a steel angle
provides the formworkfor the opening (see Figures 9.15 & 9.16).
When the steel decking cannot be designed as above, it is necessary to have an edge section which
ensures the proffle can transmit forces to the reinforcement of the beam (see Figure 9.17).
A satisfactory solution (see Figure 9.18) generallyconsists in placing steel bars in the troughs of the
proffle. This reinforcement are designed to carry the shear forces. They must have a sufficient length
for anchorage and support the profile.
The end sectiontransmits forces to the upper part of the trimmer.
Reinforcement

of the secondary trimmer

The lower steel reinforcement is designed according to the concrete code. The span of the secondary
trimmeris similar to the span mentioned above. The lower reinforcementis bent up in order to transmit
the shear in the secondary trimmerto the upper part of the main trimmer(see Figure 9.18).

Figure 9.15 - Slab openingdetailfor trapezoidalprofiles


strap

i.

4J
Figure9.16 - Supported endof theprofile using afoldedplate
ECCS N 87

DesignManualfor Composite Slabs

114

-.

.6
I

1:I. T;

Figure9.17- Secondary trimmerbeam hidden into the slab

folded steel sheet

shear reinforcement(45)

Figure 9.18 - Secondary trimmerwith shear andflexisral reinforcement

9.4

CONCENTRATED LOADS

9.4.1 General and definitions


The treatment of static concentrated loads is covered in Eurocode 4 and gives expressions for the
effectivewidths for limit state criteriaof flexure and shear. There is also guidance on the calculation of
punchingshear capacity for composite slabs and the provision of supplementary bar reinforcementfor
such cases. In both these cases (concentrated loads and punching shear) the implied assumptionis that
the loading is static.
There is, however, an increasing use of composite steel deck floors in warehouse or storage buildings
where forklift trucks are in use. It is apparent that whilst the EC4 rules for concentratedloads may give
an indication of structural adequacy for slabs subjected to these heavy moveable point loads there is a
requirement for additionalrecommendations to cover more rigorouslythese design situations.
The following definitions are based on a review of current procedures and may be amended in the light
of further information:

ECCS N 87

Special design considerazions

115

Concentrated load

Any loadwhich
a) isappliedoveranareaoflessthat45Ommx45Ommormthecaseofalineloadlessthan300mm
wide

and/or
b) causes, in the positive moment region, a free-momentor shear of more than 10% of the positive
moment or shear bond capacity of the compositesection

Repeated loading
Any loadingon a composite structure which is applied for more than 50'OOO cycles and causes a
positive moment or shear of more than 10% of the positive moment or shear bond capacity of the
composite section.

This loading includes the considerationof vertical and horizontalloads associatedwith the braking and
general movement of rolling loads.

Fatigue loading
that may be consideredto have an effect on the serviceability or ultimate
Any cyclic loadingsequence
limit state capacity of the composite slab. For the purposes of design and testing the number of
repetitions appropriate for fatigue loading shall be 2 million cycles. For cases of repeated loading
(comprising vertical and horizontal loads) defined below, the overall assessment of fatigue life shall be
carriedout by consideringthe spectrum of loads and cycles to which the slab subjected.

9.4.2 Design considerations


The following sectiondeals with guidance for moveable loads which come within the definitionsgiven
above for concentrated loading and have a repeatedor fatigue loading aspect.

The bending resistance of the composite slab which may be adequate for the equivalent uniformly
distributed load case may be inadequate for the heavy point load case. l'his could arise for the flexural,
vertical shear or longitudinal shear capacity (especially close to supports). In these cases additional bar
reinforcement should be introduced either over the supports or as positive reinforcementin the troughs
of the profile.
The following detailed recommendations proposed by the Steel Construction Institute (New Steel
Construction, December 1993, p 37) reflect current good practice for the design of composite floors
subjected to heavy local wheel loads:
The load carrying capacity of the simply-supported slab should exceed the factored uniformly
distributedload on the floor.
The flexural capacityof the slab with the moveable loads in their worstpositions should be adequate.
If not additional bar reinforcement should be included over all supports. The bar reinforcement
should have a cover of 30 to 40 mm from the top of the slab and extend into the span by at least one
quarter of the span length. Additional steel may also be placed in the troughs of the profile in the
positive moment region.
The additional bar reinforcement should have a minimum percentage of 0.5% (of gross concrete
area) over supportsand 0.2% eLsewhere.
The vertical shear and punching shear capacity of the slab with the moveable load in its worst
position should be checked. A minimum overall slab depth of 140 mm with not less than 80 mm of
concreteabove the top of the deck is recommended.
The deflection of the slab should be limited by using slab
span/depth ratios of less than 25.

ECCS N 87

116

Design Manualfor Composite Slabs

The use of through deck welded shear connectors or other means of providing end
anchorage is
recommended to increase the shear bond capacityof the slab.
The above recommendations should be followed for all cases of repeated or fatigue loading ensuring
that normally the limiting ultimate limit state criteria is flexural capacity. In cases where this is not
possible and the moment capacity of the slab is inadequate the slab may be designed as a continuous
reinforced concrete slab ignoring the contributionof the steel deck and including additionalreinforcing
bars in the deck troughs. This may be considered appropriate for heavy imposed loads of over 10
kN/m2 or long term usage by heavy movingloads.

9.5

SOUND INSULATION

The acousticalinsulation of a compositefloor may be determinedusing one of the two methods which
axe outlined below.

9.5.1 "Mass" or "weight law"


Acoustic insulation to airborne sound achieved by a composite
slab itself is related
(i.e. weight). The higher the weightis andthe higher the intrinsic sound protectionis.

to its mass

As general guidance, a compositeslab will provideaboutthe same acousticalinsulationas a normalslab


with a thickness equal to the average height of the compositeslab (see Figure 9.19). Howeverthis simple
principleis not always sufficient to providethe acoustical insulation needed and designers have then the
choice between either a thicker slab or the use of an other technique which is presented in the next
section.

D
V

vi

Acoustic Performance [R dB(A)]

d = D-vi
where:
D : total thickness
d : average thickness
V1 : centroId coordinate

SlabDepth[cm] 10 11

12

13 14 15

40mmdecking

47 48 50 51 52 54

70 mm decking

45 47 49 50 52

Figure 9.19 - Examples ofcomposite slab average depth and their acousticalpeiformance
ECCS N 87

117

Special design considerations

9.5.2 Mass-Dumper-Mass law


The other method of acheiving the acoustical insulation requiredfor compositeslabs Consists of using a
double layer system which includes a suspendedceiling attached to the deck soffit by mean of tags as
shown in Figure 9.20. The acoustical responsesof such systems are calculatedby the "MASS-DUMPER
MASS" law (see Figure 921).

S
S

S
S
Efficient

Efficient

Inefficient

Figure 9.20 - Suitabletag for acoustic suspendedceiling

Acoustic
Performance

MassDumperMass

[RdB(A)J

GAIN
Law

125

Lhi

Frequency [Hz]

Figure9.21 - illustrationof the MASS-DUMPER-MASSlaw

ECCS N 87

118

Design Manualfor Composite Slabs

Airborne Sound
The acousticalinsulationto airborne sound of a system made up from a composite slab and a
suspended ceiling is acceptable if the vibration frequency is less than 60 Hz. This frequency can be
approched using the following fonnula:

f0=
1

/1

where:

: vibration frequency
mi : slabgross weight in kgfm2
m2 : ceiling weight in kg/rn2
K : dynamic stiffnesscoefficientexpressedin NewtonMietre
f0

Impact Sound
Slab weight influences only slightly the acoustic at reaction of composite slabs to impact sounds. It is
therefore necessary to use one of the three following methods in order to acheive efficient sound
insulation to this type of noise:

The use of shock absorbingfloor cover such as deep carpeting (see Figure 9.22).
The use of a flexible filler betweenthe composite slab and the mortar finish for the tiling (see Figure
9.23).
The use in the false ceiling of a layer of mineralglass wool (see Figure 9.24).

Absorbing covering(i.e. carpetting)

Figure9.22 - Floor with shock absorbing covering

.._._- Topping

Flexible

material
Slab

Figure 9.23 - Flexible acousticalfiller betweenthe slab and thefinishes


ECCS N 87

119

Special design considerations

(1) Steelsheet
(2) Concrete slab
(3) & (4) Suspension
(6) Suspended ceiling

(5) Insulation
(6) Suspended ceiling

Figure9.24 - Patented acoustic suspendedceiling


Table 9.6 gives a typicallevel of performance for the thiee solutions. However,at the time this sectionis
written, the Eurocode dealing with acoustical behaviour is not yet completed. The methods discussed
here are valid but the acoustic values of the various systems can change slightly from one country to an
other.
Table 9.6 - Comparison betweenthe various acoustic performance
Absorbing

Flexible filler

floor

inserted

Acoustic
ceiling

Airborne noise
R dB (A)

47

52

62

Impact noise

72

67

65

LndB(A)
Note that for:
airbornenoise

the higher values are better for the floor

impact noise : the lower values are better for the floor

9.6

CORROSION PROTECTION

9.6.1 Introduction
Composite floors are generally used in interior environments. Special attention to corrosion protection

should be paid in places, where penetration of water or corrosive substances into the slab may take
place. Corrosive compoundsin the air or condensationmay effect the surface of the sheet. The correct
selectionof the surface treatmentoffered by the manufacturerensures that the protectionis satisfactory
for the particularenvironment.
From the infinite range of environments, only four categories are defined in this document for reasons
of simplicity. Coating performance may be greater or less than quoted, depending on the precise
conditions experienced. The classification is not exactly the same as that specified in ENV 1992-11:1991 (Eurocode 2). Where possible, the equivalent category is given into brackets.

ECCS N 87

DesignManualfor Composite Slabs

120

9.6.2 Environment category


Class

A : Normal

(class 1) In this category, the risk of condensation is negligible.


Class B: Occasional condensation
In this category, there is a low risk of condensation.
Class C: Frequent condensation
(class 2a) In this category, there is a significant risk of condensation.
Class D: Frequent condensationwith corrosiveatmosphere
(class 5) In this category, there is a high risk of corrosion.

9.6.3 Surface protection


a) Galvanized steel

The basic material used to fabricate a composite floor is


sheetingmust be in accordance with 5.1.4.

a galvanized sheet. The galvanized steel

b) Prepainted steel
The most commoncoating materials used for organic coated flat sheet production together with their
normal coating thicknesses are given in table 1 of PrEN 10169-1:1993. In this table, there are two
coatings which are especiallyrelevant for the compositefloor applications:
Nominal thickness (primer included) = 25 p.
1) Polyester (symbol = SP)
2) Polyvinylidene fluoride (symbol = PVDF)

Nominal thickness (primer included) = 25 p.

9.6.4 Particular precautions


Inadequate coatings

(also called aluzinc)is an alternative coating to the galvanizedcoating. This coating is not
compatible with wet concrete. Therefore, this coating may not be used for the composite floor
Galvalume

application.

Mechanical bending
Mechanical

bendingcan produce,significantdeformations in the sheet and may damage the coating.

9.6.5 Recommendations
In general, the followingcoatings are recommended:
Class

A:

Normal

Coating recommended
galvanized steel (Z 275)

Occasional condensation

coated steel (SP)

Frequent condensation

coated steel (PVDF) with precaution during manufacturing to


avoid damage in the coaling

Frequent condensation
with corrosiveatmosphere

ECCS N 87

not allowed withoutextra site precaution

Designexamples

10

121

DESIGN EXAMPLES

10.1

PRELIMINARY DESIGN EXAMPLE

Problem

10.1.1

An architectwantsto pre-design a compositefloor located in a small two storey building with a storage
area on the ground floor and an office area on the first floor. The design requirements given by the
client area:
Live load of 3.0
Permanentload of 0.5 kN/m2
Composite slab cast withoutprops because of the high ceiling level needed (6 metres)
Fire resistanceof one hour
Acousticalperformanceof 52 dB(A) to airbornenoise (the storage area includes a noisy
workshop)
The architect can determinethe minimum thicknessof the slab and the maximum beam spacing to cast
the slab withoutpropping as follows:

10.1.2

Pre-design information

Load carrying capacity


Manufacturer's safe load table for the deck used for this example is given in Figure 10.1.1.
1.

Distance maximale I entreappuis au coulage( cm)

epaisseur d (Cm)

paisseur

Ia lle
(mm
100

075

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

22

25

30

279 270
307 297

262
288

255
280

248
273

242
267

237
261

232
256

228

223
246

216
238

206
228

193
214

370 359
407 394

349
383

339
374

330
364

323

316
348

309
341

303 298

288

256

203

335

318

304

286

11

0 75

A:
A

flche /300

100

12

356

LAL

183
732

251

329

350 daN/rn2
L
jusque 2,90
de 2,90 a 3,30
de3,303,55
de 3,55 a 3,70
de3,703,80
de3,80 3,95
de 3,95 a 4,30
de 4,30 a 4,50
de4,504,65
de4,655,00
de 5,00 a 5,40
de 5,40 a 5,60
de 5,60 a 5,85
de 5,85 a 6,00
de6,006,10
de6,106,30
de6,306,50
de 6,50 a 6,65
de 6,65 a 6,90
de6,907,10
de7,10 a 7,20
de7,207,40
de7,407,50

=0,75mm

,,

,,,, 11
11

,,, 11
11
11
11

12

13 __

,,
, 18
19
14,,
15
7700

16 P700
17
18

, 20
21

7003

__

"

222P600
23 '600 7700

Fig. 10.1.1 - Manufacturer information


ECCS N 87

DesigiiManualfor Composite Slabs

122

2. Acoustical responseof the compositeslab


Acoustical response dB (A)

Slab depth
COFRASTRA 40
COFRASTRA 70

3. Firerating of the compositeslab


minimum d

Fire rating

COFRASTRA

[cm]
COFRASTRA

required

40

70

60'
90'

11

120'

10

13
14

180'

14

17

Solution
The minimum thickness of the slab is given by the higher thickness necessary to achieve the fire or the
10.1.3

acousticalperformance required.
The second criteriongives a 15 cm slab overall thickness,the minimum thickness for a fire rating of 1
hour is just 11 cm. The minimum thicknessfor this case is therefore 15 cm.
The maximum span of the slab is then given by the load carrying capacity. The maximum value is 2.48
metres for 15 cm deep slab with a 0.75 mm thick steel sheet. The second part of the table shows that a
total loading of 3.5 kN/m2 can be achieved using a 11 cm thickslab.

it may be seen that the design of the composite slab is governed by both the propping
and the acoustical requirements. It should be noted that the use of an appropriateacoustic solution as
given in Chapter 8 can allow the reductionof the slab to 11 cm (i.e. a saving in self-weight of 1 kN/m2)
and permit a span up to 3.7 metres withoutpropping.
In conclusion,

ECCS N 87

123

Designexamples

10.2

VERIFICATION OF THE SHEETING AS SHUTTERING

This example is calculated according to EC 3, part 1.3.

10.2.1

Data

a) Actions
weight of the wet concrete (ht = 120 mm)

G = 0.09 kN/m2
G = 2.04 kN/m2

distributedconstruction load

s=

concentrated construction load

S2

selfweight of sheeting

0.75 kN/m2

1.50 kNfm2

b) Partial safety factors


YG = 1.35 (self and concrete weight)

actions:

YQ

= 1.50 (constructionload)

= 1,i9 (serviceability limit state at intermediate support)


= 1.10

material:

c) Profiled sheeting - COFRADAL60-0.75 mm


manufacturer data:

(depth of profile)
hh5 == 60 mm
mm (depth of slab)
120

= 330 N/mm2(yield strength)

I = 47.660

mm4 (moment of inertia)

A
.,.511 -

-I
50 4
0(1
4.__
I

__________ __________ __________ _________

E 3.C..

2.50
lii
2.c:

____ ____ ____ ___

1.50j
1.00
0.50

I
-

0.00 'uIIII
0.00

_______________ ______________

.
5.00

..

_______________

10.00
15.00
reactIon (kNim

______________

20.00

25.00

Figure 10.2.1- Relation betweenmoment and support reaction (Lsupport = 100 nUn)
ECCS N 87

DesignManualfor Composite Slabs

124

Span resistance:

Mer = 4.78 kN rn/rn (positive servicemoment)

M = 4.34 kN rn/rn (positive ultimatemoment)


Intermediate support resistance:

Mr,max

= 4.04 kN mMi (maximumnegative service moment)


=

=
Mser,max Ys 3.64 kN*m/m (negative service allowable moment)

= 3.68 kN rn/rn (maximum negative ultimate moment)

Mrrnin
Mu,min

Mres

Rn,ser

Rmin

= 3.35 kN rn/rn (minimum negative service moment)


= 3.04 k14 rn/rn (minimum negative ultimate moment)
= 2.63 kN rn/rn (0.9 of minimum remaining plastic moment under expected
maximum rotation 0res=005)

20.26

max

18.41 kN rn/rn (ultimate maximum

10.79 kN rn/rn (service minimum intermediate reaction)

kN rn/rn (maximum service intermediate reaction)

18.23 kN rn/in (allowable reaction)

intermediatereaction)

= 9.80 kN rn/rn (ultimate minimum intermediatereaction)


End support resistance:

Rmax

= 17.00 kN rn/rn (service maximum end support reaction)

Rax

= 15.45 kN rn/rn (ultimate maximum end support reaction)

10.2.2 Auxiliary values for calculation


g=G+G=0.092.04=2.13kN/rn2
S = Si = S2 = 0.75

qi = g + s1 = 2.88
q2=g+s1--s2=3.63kM/rn2

G=yg= 1.35 2.13 = 2.88 kN/rn2


S

s = 1.50 0.75 = 1.125 kN/m2

Qi =yog--yQsi = 1.352.131.500.75=4.00 kN/rn2


ECCS N 87

125

Designexanp1es

Q2=yGg+YQS1 +)'Q S2

1.352.13+ 1.50 0.75+1.500.75=5.13 kNfti2

== 1208
ZM=m
M
3.35

ser,mm

Zr =

Rmt
ser,max

= 20.26 = 1878
10.79

Rmt
ser,mm

ZfZJ1 _L2O8L878_l_L196
1208(18781)

ZM (ZR 1)
R

ZMZR1 _L208L8781_3243

ZR (zM 1)

10.2.3

1878 (12081)

SingJe span

L = 2.50 m
S2

till11111111
.u..iuu.uii..u.uuu.i.u,u.
____________________

Si

uIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIuIIIIIJIIIIIItI.#" g=Gp.+.G

II1IIII1IIII1IIII11IIIIIIt11111111 IIIIIIlIIIIIIIlIIIIIIII/utV
L

1,
A

firststep: calculation without ponding effect:


span moment
Mspan

5.13 2302 = 4.00 kNm/m


= Q2 L2

M=

4.34 kNm/m

end support reaction


Q2 L 5.13 . 2.5 = 6.41
kN/m
Rend = 2 =
2

Rend

u,max

= 1545 kN/m

central deflection

_52.13102S00 = 10.8 mm = L/231 <L/l80

6_5gL4
384E1
384 210 47.66 i04

> L1250

=> ponding effectshall be taken into account:

p = 0.7 24.5 = 0.7

0.108 24.5 = 0.185 kN/m2

ECCS N 87

DesignMamsal for Composite Slabs

126

second step: calculationwith ponding effect:

g+p = 2.13 p = 2.13 + 0.185 = 2.315 kN/m2

Q2P = 5.13 +

p = 5.13 + 1.35- 0.185 = 5.38 kNIm2

span moment

Mspan=

(Q2 +P) L2

5.38

- 2.502
8

= 4.20 kNrn/in

M = 4.34 kNni/m

end support reaction


Rend

(Q2+P)L = 5.38-25 = 6.72 kN/m


2

R1

= 1545 kN/m

central deflection

85(gp)L4
384 El

5-Z315-103 -2500 = lL8mm =


L/212 < L/180
384-210-47.66-

10.2.4 Two spans


L = 2.85 m
a) One span loaded

,S2

IIuuiuu,I.iI,.iuuuuuu..uI.iuI
______

Si

I.IuIIuuII.IuI.IIuIuh.IuI.III

UIIIIIIIIIIIIlIIIIIIIIIIIIIII,,.1#r

Serviceability limit state- resistanceat theintermediatesupport

.!11111111111111111111t11111111!#1r

L
#1

I,

/1

moment at intermediatesupport

Msup =

q2L2 = 3.63 .2.852 = L84 kNm/m

ECCS N 87

M=

3.64 kNm/m

127

Design examples

reaction at intermediatesupport
Rsup=

q2
2

2Msup = 3.63-2.85 + 2-184 = 647 kNm/m


L
2
2.85

adm,ser

= l&23kNin/m

interaction

Msup

Rsup

184

Rrnt
adm,ser

1196-3.64

3.243-18.23

= 0.532 < 10

Ultimatelimit state - resistance at the supports and in the span

DIIIlIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIlIIIIIIJl"

moment at intermediatesupport

Q2 L2

Msup

5.13

16

2.852

=2.6OkNm/m<M u,m=a68kNm/m

16

reactionat intermediatesupport

Q2 L + 2Msup = 5.13. 2.85 + 2 - 2.60 = 9.13 kN/m <

Rsup

2.85

=18.41 kN/m

interaction

Msup

+ Rsup

2.60

aM u,max Rmt
u,max

9.13

1196a683243-18.41

= o.7w < 10

==> elastic behaviour

end reaction

Rend _Q22

L Msup - 5.13 - 2.95


L

2.60

_=6.39kN/mRm=17.OkN/m

span moment
Rend2
Mspan =
2Q2

6.392

2-5.13

3.98kNm/m

M= 4.34kNm/m

ECCS N 87

128

DesignMapusal
for Composite Slabs

--

b) Two spans loaded


Serviceability limit state - resistance at the intermediate support
S2

3,Om

1
11111

IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII'

J,LJ,LJF
Serviceability limit state

,L-1.5m

3.OOm

q1

11111 ItItIIIIlIIIIIIIIIIIItIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII

11111 lIlt"

JL
moment at intermediatesupport

Msup=1L+(2L
32L2
= 3.38 kNmfm<

4Z882.85 9.0.75(2.2.85_1,5)2

= 3.64 kNm/m

32.2.852

reaction at intermediatesupport

3s(L - 0,75) 2Msup = 2.882.85 + 3 0.75(2.85- 0,75) 23.38


+
Rsup= qi L +
L
L
2.85
2.85
= 12.24kN/m <
1&23kN/m
interaction
Msup

Rsup

+
13

RU

3.38

12.24

+
1196 . 3.64 3.243 1&23

= 0.983 <10

Ultimate limitstate - resistance at the supports andin the span


moment at intermediatesupport
MSUP=4Q1

L4+ 9S(2L 1,5)2 = 44.O0 2.85+ 9.1125(2 P2.85 1,5)2

= 4.75 kNm/m>
ECCS N 87

32 L2

Mj,= 3.68 kNm/m

32 2.852

129

Design examples

plastic binge at the intermediate support, with the remaining plastic moment:

M5 = Mres = 2.63 kNm/m

,1

3.OOm

.5m,

4'
IIIJt1 II

111111111111111111111111

J,L J,L

Note:

the plastic hinge occurs if one or more of following 3 conditionsis not fulfilled:

Msup=

+ 9S (2L 1,5)2

4Q1

32L2

RsupQlL+
Msup

_M

3S(L.0,75) + 2Mj <Rmt

Rsup
13 Rint

LOO

Verification of the rotation at the intennediate support:

3El

MJ=
)

5.l3 io 28502 2.63


= 0.0488 < Ores = 0.05
8
3.210.47.66.104
103)
2 2850

Note: the above used fomiula is a simplified (conservative) one, it implies that total load Q2=Q1+S is
distributed among all length of both spans.
end reaction
Rend

=Qi L + 9S

8L

Msup

4.00 2.85
2

9 L125
2.63
8 2.85 2.85

522kN/m

Rend

u,max

= 15.45kN/m

span moment
Rend

Qi
4

- 4.00 = L30m < L-L50


5.22

Mspan =

Rend2

5.222

2Qi

24.00

2.85-L50 = L35 m

= 341 kNm Im <

M= 4.34 kNm lm
ECCS N 87

DesignManualfor Composite Slabs

130

Serviceabilitylimit state - central deflection

k
= cL4 =
192 El

;;

213-10 2850 = 7.3mm = L/390L/180

192210 47.66 i04

The central deflectionfulfils the condition:

<

11250

The ponding effect can be neglected (p = 0) and no iterationis needed.

ECCS N 87

Design exanzples

131

10.3 FIRST TYPICAL DESIGN EXAMPLE


10.3.1

Data

a) Decking
(from manufacturer's information)
610

C.-

Figure 10.3.1 - Decking of example10.3

= 0.86 mm
= 350 N/mm2
= 1562 mm2/m

A =62 i04
mm4/m
'p
construction stage:

+
MPRd
RPRd

= 6.1 kNm/m
= 6.3 kNm/m
= 37.0 kN/m

Mpa

= 8.1 kNm/m (no local buckling)

MRd

composite stage:

ECCS N 87

DesignManualfor Composite Slabs

132

b) Composite slab
depth:

ht

concrete : C25/30 with

ck

= 140 mm
= 25 N/mm2
= 1.8 N/mm2
= 30500N/mm2

ctkO. 05
Ecm

C)

Statical system

tempo

2,40
if

J,

i-

II
2,40

ra props during construction

4,80

2,40

,,j,

2,40

2,40

J,

2,40

6,80

4,80

Figure103.2 - Statical system

construction stage

temporalyprops at midspan
composite stage
Alternative 1:

The composite slab is designed as a series of simply-supported slabs with L = 4.80m. Nevertheless,the
sheetingis continuous over 3 spans.
Alternative 2:

The composite slab is designed as continuous using linear analysis with 30% redistribution of the
beding moment

d) Actions
constructionstage (see EC4, 7.3.2.1)

selfweight of sheeting
weightof the wetconcrete(lit = 140 mm)
distributed construction load
concentration of construction load

ECCS N 87

= 0.13 s/m2
G = 3.37 4/m2
Qi = 0.75

Q2

= 1.50

133

Design examples

composite stage

selfweight of compositeslab

G1

= 3.3 kN/m2

= 1.2 kN/m2
= 5.0 kN/m2

floor finishes
live load

e) Partial safety factors


actions:

YG
YQ

concrete:

resistances:

sheeting:

= 1.35
= 1.50
1.50

1.10

Yap

reinforcement:

1.15

longitudinalshear:

1.25

10.3.2

Verification of the profiled steel sheet as shuttering

10.3.2.1

Ultimate limit state


(see EC4, 7.3.2)

a) Design bending moment and support reactions


maximwnpositivemoment

02c
LL

Figure 103.3 - Loading pattern for maximum positive moment (ULS)


+

MSd

Md

+
+
= YcrMG+YQMQ
= 1.35 . 0.078 0.13 2.42 + 1.35 0.094 3.37 . 2.42
+ 1.50 0.094 1.5 2.42 = 3.76 kNm/m

ECCS N 87

DesignManualfor Composite Slabs

134

ininimwn negative momentand correspondingsupport reaction

_____________

3,00

Figure 103.4 - Loading pattern for minimum negativemoment ((ItS)

Md
RSd

b)

=
YG.MG+YQMQ
= - 4.47 kNm/m
=
TGRG+TQRQ
= 19.51 kN/m

Design check
(see EC3, Part 1.3,4.9)

Md
Md

= 3.34 kNm/m <

= 6.1 kNm/m

= 4.47 kNm/m <

M1j= 6.3 kNin/m

RSd

Md

19.51 kNmJm <RpRd = 37.0 kN/m

RSd

4.47 19.51
=+
6.3 37.0 =1.241.25

Rp.Rd
10.3.2.2
ServiceabilIty limit state

MRd

(see EC4, 7.5.2)

a) Calculation of the effective stiffness


maximumpositive moment

Figure 10.3.5- Loading pattern for maximum positive moment (SLS)

Mser= 0.078 0.13 2.42 + 0.094 3.37. 2.42 = 1.88 kNm/m

ECCS N 87

135

Designexamples

maximum compression stress at the topflange

0com=

Mser
ZCOR1

= 1 88

106
(51
62 10 4

- 17) = 103.1 N/mm2

Check ofthe effective width of the topflange

(see EC3, Part 1.3, 3.2)

103.1

= 1.053 38

= 1.053
= 0.515 < 0.673

p = 1.0

4.0

is fully effective

b) Calculation of deflections

ser=

C) Check

+ 3.4

(2.65 .

0) . L =

(2.65

384.E.I

. 0.13 + 3.4

3.37) . 2400 =7.8nim

384210000-6210

of deflections

I L/180= 2400/180 = 13.3 mm

6p7.81Bfl1< 20mm

10.3.3

Verification of the composite slab

10.3.3.1

Ultimate limit state

10.3.3.1.1

Alternative 1 : Design as a series of simply supported slabs

a) Flexure
(see EC4, 7.6.1.2)

Design Bending Moment

[ic (01 + G2) + YQ

Msd

Q] .

[1.35 (.3 + 1.2)+ 1.5 . s.oI . 4.82


8

39.1 kNm/m

ECCS N 87

136

Design Manualfor ConzposizeSlabs

Design Bending Resistance

Ncf

1562

i3 = 497 kN/m

Yap

Ncf

497 io3

=35.1mm

1ooo.(o.85.1-)

b.(0.85.--)

= ht - e = 140 - 17 = 123 mm
= Ncf (d -0.5 x) = 497 (123-0.5 35.i)
Mp.Rd

i0

= 52.4 kNm/m

Designcheck

MSd = 39.1 kNmJm <MPRd = 52.4 kNm/m

b)

Longitudinal shear by m + k

- method

(see EC4, 7.6.1.3)

Design shear force

VSd=

[YG (01 + G2) + YQ Q]

[1.35 (3.3 + 1.2)+ 1.5 5.01 4.8


2

Design longitudinalshear resistance


Manufacturer'sinformation providesthe following m + k - values:

m=166

k=0.150

L = L/4 = 4800 =

shear span:

1mA

1200 mm

VtRdbdpLbL" kj /y5
VeRd = 1000 123

ECCSN 87

[2

.
o.150]

i0 / 1.25= 36.0 kNfm

=32.6kN/m

Design examples

137

Design check

Vj = 32.6 kN/m < VIRd = 36.0 kN/m


C) Longitudinal shear by partial connection method
(see EC4, Annex E)

Design shearstrength

from manufacturer'sinformation:

'u.Rd = 280

Shearspanrequired forfullshear connection

Ncf
497
LSf=b 'u.Rd = 1.0280 = 1.775 m

Design check using the simplified partialinteraction diagram


For any cross section along the span length it has to be shown that the correspondingdesign bending

moment MSd does not exceed the design bending resistance MRd. The scale for plotting the design
bending moment into the design partial interaction diagramm is given by the length LSI where ftll
shear connection (r] = 1.0) could be reached.

I kNm/m]
MRd

MPRd

52,4

-1
M=

[YG

(c + G2)+ .ia a]

L2

LT

L]

= 6,1
Ti

0,5

1,0

1,5

Lsf

1.775 2,0

L Em]

Figure 10.3.6 - Design partial interaction diagram


MSd

MRd for all cross sections


ECCSN 87

138

d)

Design Manualfor Composite Slabs

Vertical shear
(see EC4, 7.6.1.5)

Design shearforce

VSd = 32.6 kN/m

Design vertical shearresistance

b0 = 750 mm/rn (minimum width of concreteribs)

tRd

kv

Ap

VVRd

VYRd

0.25 .

ct1c005 =
18 = 0.3
0.25
N/mm2

d = 1.6 - 0.123 = 1.48>

1.6

b0

t = 750

0.86 = 645 mm2

645

b0d

750123

= b0.d.tR.k.(1.2+4O.p)
= 750 123 . 0.3. 1.48 . (1.2 + 40 0.007).
= 60.6 kN/m

Designcheck

VSd= 32.6 kN/m <VVRd = 60.6 kN/m

ECCSN 87

i0

139

Designexamples

10.3.3.1.2 AlternatIve 2 : Design as a continuous slab


a) Bending at Internal supports
Design bending moment
minimum negative moment

G1G2

Figure 10.3.7 - Loadingpatternfor minimum negativemoment (UL)


elastic calculation

Md
MSd

Md

=
=
=

YG.M+?Q.M +
1.35 (-0.10) (3.3
-34.21 kNm/m

1.2) . 4.82 + 1.5 (-0.117)

5.0 4.82

30% moment redistribution

Md

-34.21

. (1 - 0.30) = -23.95 kNm/m

Design bending resistance

choice of reinforcement:

50 l2perm width

distance from the top of the slab

width of the concrete in compression

A5

es
fsk

=
=

bc

565 mm2/m

20mm
500 N/mm2

= 870 mm/rn

contribution of the steel sheet neglected

Nf
x

A5fsk = 565500 iO3 = 245.7 kN/m


1.15

Nf

245.7 i03

ck

bc-(0.85.-)

Md = N (lit - es - 0.5. x) = 245.7


Md = 27.03 kNm/m
Design check

Mj = 23.95 kNm/m

M=

= 19.9 mm

870.(0.85-)

(140 - 20 - 0.5- 19.9)

27.03 kNm/m

ECCSN 87

DesignManualfor Composite Slabs

140

b) Other critical cross sections


For all othercritical crosssections the design follows the same procedure as in alternative I which is
more unfavourable and therefore conservative for the positive moment region.

Servicablilty limit state


a) Cracking of concrete
(see EC4, 7.6.2.1)

The continuous slab is designed as simply-supportedand thus, only an anti-crack reinforcement of


0.4% of the cross-sectional area of the concreteon top of the steel sheet is requiredat internalsupports.
mm

b)

As = 0.4% b hc = 0.004 1000 89 = 356 mrn2fm

Deflection
(see EC4, 7.6.2.2)

General

For the calculation

of deflections the slab is considered to be continuous.

Manufacturer'sinformation gives evidence that end slip does not occur before maximum service load
leveL

The second moment of area is taken as the average of the values for the cracked and uncracked section.
An average value of the modular ratio for both long and shortterm effects is used (see EC4, 3.1.4.2(4)).
Ea
n=-=
'cm

= 210000 =10.3

Ea

-'Ecm

) 305O0

Elastic properties ofthe crosssection

crackedsection

XC

= EA1z1 =

Xc

= 10.3 1562 ( I 1 + 2
1000

ECCS N 87

ZA

bx+nAp

= n.Ap

1000W 123
10.3 1562

1)

,t

2bdp -l

\4nAp

= 48.8 mm

Designexamples

'C.C

141

'c.c =

bx
12n

1000

fXc 2

bxc)

+Ap(dpxc)2+Ip=

b'x

+Ap(dpXc)2+lp

-48.8 + 1562(123 - 48.8)2 + 62- 104 = 1298- i04 mm4/m

uncrackedsection

XU

'C.U

'C.U

= ZA-zj =

b+bmhp(ht)+flApdp
bhc+bnhp+flAp

+ 10.3- 1562- 123


-J)
=73.2mm
1000-89+834-51+10.3-1562

1000 .+ 834-51 . (140

bh
bhc
12n + n

Ap(dpx)2+Ip

100089+ 1000-89
12- 10.3

+ 1562

hc'2 + bmh + bmhp(


12n
n

xu-T)

10.3

73.2

(123 - 73.2)2 + 62-

1ht-x- 2 )

- 89\2 + 83451 + 834511

T)

12 10.3

10.3

140 - 73.2 -

51\,2

i = 2525- i nlm4/m

average of cracked and uncracked section

'c.m =

1c.c + 'c.u = 1298+ 2525 2


2

4 = 1912- hr mm4/m
hr
A

CalculationofDeflections
removal of props

G1_

Figure 103.8 - Removal ofprops


ECCS N 87

DesignManualfor Composite Slabs

142

Gj
cGf

=G1=3.3=7.92kN/m
= mm
2.5

weight of floor finishes

1
Figure103.9 - Weightoffloorfinishes

= 0.0068 G2L4 = 0.0068


E 1c.m

1248O0
210000

i9l2

= 1.1 mm

variableloading

_____1

_____
1

__

0.

Figure 103.10- Variable loading

c.Q = 0.0099 E
Check ofdeflection

I_ =

0.0099

3c.Gj + cG2 + c.Q

= 2.5 + Li + 6.5 = 10.1 mm


= 10.1 mm

ECCS N 87

L/475 < L/250

210000-

i04

= 6.5 mm

0.

143

Design examples

10.4 SECOND TYPICAL DESIGN EXAMPLE


Data

10.4.1

A 120 mm thick slab with HiBond 55/1.00 profiled decking has three equal spans of 2.80 m (Figure
10.4.1). A reinforcing steel mesh is placed in the concrete slab, with 25 mm top cover, providing 188
mm2/in of reinforcement (0 6 mm, a = 150 mm). The steel decking is Grade 320, the concrete Grade
C30/37 and the reinforcementis Grade 550. Considerthe following loads:
- self-weightof the slab
- weight of floor finishes
- live load

gi

2.3

g2 =

1.2

5.0

Verify the ultimate limit states and the serviceability limit states of the profiled sheeting and of the
composite slab.

rr--

I
f

2oo

zeoo

joj

So

2o

GC

120
.511

ISO

1'85
4

Figure 10.4.1 -

10.4.2.

G1.5

Scheme ofthe composite slab

VerificatIon to the profiled decking

We assumethat bending resistance is the determining criteria.

Loads
Self-weight of the decking
Weightof the wetconcrete
Constniction load

gap = 0.12 kN/m2


gc = 2.22 kN/m2
m1 = l.5kN/m2

m2 =

0.75 kN/m2

Staticalsystemand loadingcases are given in Figure 10.4.2

ECCS N 87

DesignManualfor Composite Slabs

q, Li 111111 iii i

lii L1ILIJJJJJJIIIIIHjJJJJJI(L(iLjfll

Ui Lilt liii I I Jill LI Li I iii Jill Ill lii ii Z+g

Md

S...

Mser

Figure 10.42 - Statical systemand loading cases for the concretingstage


1 0.4.2.2

Ultimate limit states

Maximwn positive bendingmoment (case 1)

M=TG

Mg+YQ Mqm

= 1.35 0.08 (Zap + g) 12 + 1.5 0.094 qmi 12


= 1.35 0.08. 2.34. 2.82 1.5 0.094 1.5 2.82

M = 1.98 + 1.66

= 3.64 kNm/m

Maximum negative bending moment (case 2)

Mdy0

Mg +YQ Mqm

= 1.35 . 0.10 (gap + g) 12 - 1.5 (0.117 + 0.050)


= 1.35 . 0.10 2.34 2.82

1.5

. 0.167

Md = -2.48 -1.47 = -3.95 kNm/m

ECCS N 87

0.75 2.82 =

12

Design examples

145

Corresponding support reaction (case 2)

Rd7G Rg+7Q Rqm


= 1.35

1.1 (gap + gc) 1 + 1.5 (1.2 0.55) m2 I

= 1.35

1.1

2.34 2.8 + 1.5

=9.73+5.51 =

1.75

0.75 2.8

15.24kM/rn

Cross-sectionresistances

M,ap= 7.41 kNrnlln


Manufacturefs information
Mp,ap

= - 7.48 kNrn/in

RR = 68.1 kN/m

(Lsupport = 100 mm)

Verifications

M = 3.64 kNni/rn < 6.74 kNm/ID = Md = M,ap I Yap


Md = 3.95 kNm/m < 6.80 kNm/m = MRd = Mp,aplTap
Rd = 15.24 kNm/m < 61.9 kNm/rn = RRd = RR I Yap

Md

MRd Ta

Rd

RRd I Ta

0.58 + 0.25

0.83

<

1.25

ServiceabilIty limit states


Momentat serviceability limit states (case 3)
10.4.2.3

Mser= (0.08 ap + 0.094 + gc) j2 = (008 0.12+ 0.094 2.22) . 2.82

Mr

1.71 kN/m

ECCSN 87

Design Manualfor Composite Slabs

* no reduction

in stiffness (lef = 'tot)

Manufacture?s
inhonnation

Deflection
6ser

(2.65 ga + 3.4 gc)$


384E1ap

0.12 + 3.4 2.22) 2800


384.21000.0.72.106

(2.65

83

Deflectionlimit

adm =

= 2800
= 15.6 mm <20 mm
180

Check

ser= 8.3 mm <15.6 mm

10.4.3

Verification of the composite slab


Statical system and loading cases are given in Figure 10.4.3. It is assumed that the composite slab is
designedas a series of simply-supported beams.

Jill LII JJiJig2

________________
I

II

./

remforcing steel mesh

It

Figure 10.43 - Statical systemand loading casesfor the compositestage

10.4.3.1

UltImate limit states

a) Designload

Pd=[YG(gl +g2)+lQq]b

= [1.35 (2.3 + 1.2) + 1.5 5.0] 1.0


Pd = 12.2 kN/m
ECCS N 87

147

Designexamples

b) Bending
Design bending moment
+

Md

Pd1

12.2

2.82 8 = 12.0 kNm/m

Calculation of the design bending resistance

Positionof the neutral axis:


Apfypfyap

b0.85fck/yc

1482320/1.1
10000.853011.5

254mm

Design bending resistance:

M,Rd= Ap fyp Cds -)/Tap =

1482

320 (120 27.5 12.7)/ 1.1

= 34.4 kNm/m
Check

MM;d

-*

12.0

<

34.4

OK

c) Longitudinal shear (m and k method)


Calculation ofthe designshearforce

VSd =

PCI'

12.2 2.8 = 17.1


kM/rn

Calculationofthe designshear resistance


The valuesm and k for the HiBond 55/1.00 sheeting are the following:

rn=86

k=0.069

Designshear resistance:

Vl,Rdbdp[rn+kJ/)\r
= 1000 92.5 [ 86
10O02800/

+ 0.069

/ 1.25 = 18.6 kN/m


ECCSN 87

148

DesignManualfor ConzpositeSlabs

Check

Vd Vl,Rd

17.1

<

18.6

OK

d) Partialinteractionmethod

Thedesignshearstrengthtu,Rd, determined with the same tests results as for the m and k values given
in 10.3.3a). is

u,Rd= 68,4 jsJ/2


Shear span requiredforfull shear connection

Apfyp =

Ncf

Lsf

1482

Yap

Nf
b 'uRd

320

431kN/m

431,1.0 68.4) = 6.30 m

Design check (seefigure 10.4.4)

J' [km/rn]

Ls6.3m
Figure10.4.4 - Partial interactiondiagram
Figure 10.4.4 shows that MSd <MRd for all cross sections.

ECCSN 87

149

Design examples

e) Vertical shear
Calculation ofdesign verticalshear resistance

Rd = 0.25 fctk0.05 /Yc = 0.25

k = 1.6 - d5 = 1.6 - 0.095

2.0

/ 1.5 = 0.33 M/nim2

1.505

pAs/bod5= 188/50095.0=O.004
Vv,RdbodstRdkv(1.2+4Op)
= 500

95.0 0.33

1.505 (1.2 + 40 0.004) = 32.1 kN/m

Check

Vd V,Rd +

17.1

<32.1 OK

A longitudinal shear failure is the determining factor.

10.4.3.2

ServIceability limit states

a) Deflectioncalculations

For the calculation of the deflectionof the composite slab, we assume that the slab is continuous.For a
side span, the deflection under the weight of floor finishes has the value:
2.65 g2
&v,g =384 EIv,m

2.65 1.2 .
1012 =
0.31 mm
384 210'0007.78

The deflectionof the compositeslab under variableloadingof long duration,for the case of only a side
span loaded, has the value:
3.4 p14

6"P384EIv,m

3.4

5.0

1012

384 210'OOO '7.78 i06

= 1.67mm

Iv,m is the second moment of area taken as the average of the values for the cracked and the uncracked
section, calculated with an average value of the modular ratio (n = Ea/Ec = 15) for both long and short
term effects:

ECCSN 87

DesignManualfor Conzposize Slabs

150

Crackedsection
Positionof the elasticneutral axis:

nA
b

2bd

flAp

15. 1482( I
1000

t%s1

Second momentof area

'vc=

200092.5 \
151482 l)=45.6mm

L ofthe crackedsection:

bx3 +

Ap (dp X)' + lap

45.6 + 1482 (92.5- 45.6)2 + O.72 io6

= 1000

= 6.08 i06 mm4 / m


Uncrackedsection
Position of the elastic neutral axis:

b
XU

h + b0 hap dp+ n Aap d


bhc+bohap+nAap
662

1000 r-+ 500 54 92.5 + 15 1482 . 92.5

100066+50054151482
Second moment of area

Iy ofthe uncrackedsection:

3
bhc

bhc
h1 2+ b0 hap + b0 hap
1VU12n + n (Xv12n
n

+ Ap (dp - XU)2 + lap


=
+

100066
1215

l00066

15

(120-58.4

= 9.47 106 mm4! m


ECCS N 87

= 58.4mm

66 2

584-T

542 + 1482

1tXJ

2
2

5.543
1215

(92.5- 58.4)2

+ 0.72 106

J5j

Design examples

Mean value1v,m ofthe second moment ofinertia:


tv,m

=(6.08+9.47) 106/2=7.78 106 mm4/m

Checks

max=v,g+v,p=O.3l+
6max = 1.98 mm <

1.67

1.98mm

= 11.2 mm

OK

= 1.67 mm

62=1.67mm <

= 9.3mm

OK

This confirms that for non-slendercomposite slabs (1 /


determining case.

d=

2800 92.5

= 30 < 32), deflectionis notthe

b) Cracking of concrete
The slab is designed as simply-supported and unpropped. The amount of reinforcementat intermediate
supports is:

_____

b hc

188

1000

650.29

This percentage is greater than the minimum recommended by EC 4 for unproppedslabs (0.2 %).

ECCS N 87

DesignManualfor Composite Slabs

152

10.5

SPECIAL DESIGN EXAMPLE

10.5.1

Data

a) Profiled sheeting (without embossments)


(from manufacturer's infonnation)

l 4 .:

620

.-

150

150

36

150

150

-12

Figure 10.5.1 - Profiled sheeting ofexample10.5

f,

=0.84mm
= 280 N/mm2
= 1562 mm4/m
=62 i04 mm4/m

composite stage:

Mpa

= 6.3 kNflh/Ifl

b) Composite slab
depth:

ht = 160 mm

concrete:

C25/30 with ck = 25 N/nUll2

C) Statical system

3,60

3,60

Figure 10.5.2 - Statical system


ECCS

N 87

I.

153

Designexanples

composite

stage : design as simply supportedslabs

d) Actions
composite stage

G1 = 3.55 kN/m2

selfweight of the compositeslab


floor finishes
live load

= 1.2 kM/rn2
= 5.0 kM/rn2

e) Partial safety factors


actions:

YG
YQ

resistances:

concrete:

Ye

sheeting:

Yap

1.10

= 1.15

reinforcement:

Ys = 1.25

longitudinal sheai

10.5.2

= 1.35
= 1.50
= 1.50

General

The plain profiled sheeting (without embossrnents) provides only weak mechanical interlock. Thus, the
load carrying capacityof the composite slab is governed by the longitudinal shear resistance.

The load carrying capacitycan be enhanced by taking into account end anchoragedevices or additional
reinforcement. Both effects can be determined by the partial connection method.

10.5.3

Verification of the longitudinal shear resistance of the plain

profile
(see EC4, Annex E.3)

a) Design shear strength


from manufacturer's information

tuRd = 34.0 kM/rn2

b) Shear span required for full shear connection

Ncf

AP .Y1

Yap

Lsf= b tuRd = b . tuRd =

1562 . 280
1000 34

=11.7m

ECCS N 87

DesignManualfor ConzpositeSlabs

154

C)

Design

check using the simplified partial interaction diagram

Ncf=

= 1562280
= 397.6 kN/m
1.1

'Yap

Ncf

=
b

397.6

1000

85

Yc)

(o.

(0.85

d=ht-e= 160-17=143mm
=
=
Mp.Rd Ncf (d O.5 x) 397.6
I

= 28.1

25

(143 - 0.5

mm

28.1) = 51.3 kNm/m

kNm/m]

MRd

MPRd

mu MSd

22,5
2

LL

6,3

075
0

1,0

10

Lsf=l13
3,6Orn

Figure 10.53 - Designpartial interaction diagram


MSd>MRd!!

10.5.4

of composite slabs with end anchorage

Verification

(see EC4, Annex E.4)

a) Data of the end anchorage


headed studs

type:
number:

0 19 mm weldedthrough the sheeting

I stud pertrough 6.67 studs/rn


design resistanceof headed studs 0 19 (see EC4, 7.6.14)
t

=0.84mm

ddo

=1.119=20.9mm

=2dd0

ECCS N 87

155

Design examples

pb.Rd

= 1 + Wdj = 3

kddOt yp'Yap
0.84 280 j-3 / 1.1 = 13.4 kN

pb.Rd = 3. 20.9

b) Design resistance of the end anchorage

Vtd = 6.67 studs/mS 13.4 kN/stud = 89.4 kN/m


Vld 89.4
= 397.6 0.225
C) Design check using the simplified partial Interaction dlagramm
Account is taken of the contributionof the end anchorage by shifting the resistanceline in the direction
of the abscissa over a distance representing the share of the end anchorage in the total longitudinal shear
resistance.
-Ved

= -89.4 =-2.63m
bcuRd 1.034

Nef- Vd _397.689.4_ 9.07m

btuRd

1.034

kNm/m I
MSd
MPRd

mcix

MSd

= 22,5

Mpci

0,75
2,63

= _______
b- tURd

2
3.60

Ti

9,07

Ncf-VId
Lsf =

L[m]

b TURd
11,7

Figure 10.53 - Design partial shear interactiondiagram with endanchorage


MSd MRd for all cross sections
ECCS N 87

DesignManualfor ConposireSlabs

156

105.5

Verification of composite slabs with additional reinforcement


(see EC4, Annex E.5)

a) Data of the additional reinforcement


1

0 6 mm per trough

= 188 mni2/m
sk = 500 N/mm2
= 130mm
ds
As

b) Design bending resistance

AS:Sk = 188 500

= 0 and Lx

= 81.7 kN/m

x= ____________

81.7 i03

=5.8mm

b.(0.85.) 1ooo.(o.8s.1_)

Z2 = ds - 0.5 x = 130 - 0.5 5.8 = 127.1 mm

Mpr=Mpa

= 6.3

-/B

MRd (11 = 0) = Mpr + Nas Z2 = 6.3 + 81.7 0.1271 = 16.7 kNm/in

i= 1.0 and Lx=Lsf


N = Ncf= 397.6 kN/m
NN = (397.6+81.7)
X

1000

(0.85
Z2 = ds -0.5 x
z1 = ht - 0.5
Mpr= 0
MRd (11

(0.85

=33.8mm

130-0.5 33.8 = 113.1 mm


x - e = 160 - 0.5 33.8 - 17 = 126.1 mm

1.0) =

Zi Mpr + Nas Z2

59.4 kNm/m

ECCSN 87

i03

397.6 0.1261 + 0 + 81.7 0.1131 =

Design examples

157

kNm/irl
MRd

MSd

Mppd

max MSd

22,5
16,7

0,5
0

3 60 m

0,75

1,0

10

L5f 11,7

11

Figure 10.5.5- Designpartial shear ineractiondiagram with additional reinforcement


MSd MRd for all cross sections.

ECCS N 87

DesignManualfor Composite Slabs

158

10.6

DESIGN EXAMPLE FOR MOVING CONCENTRATED LOAD

Using data from example in Section 10.3 with simply supported span of 3 m - values of resistancesare
given in Section 10.3.3. Find the maximum movingconcentratedload that the slab will carry.

Section 9.4.2 recommends the minimum overall depth of slab should be 140
mm with a minimum of 80 mm of concrete above sheeting.
Cross section of
slab

....

...'-

____ ____

Composite stage loading

Gi = 3.3 kN/m2

Self weight of slab


finishes
live loading

4.5 kN/m2

G2 = 1.2 kN/m2
Q = 5.0 kN/m2

Partial safety factors

y=l.50

YG= 1.35

Yap=l.lO

Yvs=125

From example 10.3


Section 10.3.1 gives
10.3.3.1 gives

= 8.1 kNm/m width


= 39.1 kNm/rn width for 4.8 m span
MpRd = 52.4 kNm/m width
= 32.6 kN/m widthfor 4.8 m span
Vd = 36.0 kN/m width
VvRd = 77.0 kN/m width
Mpa

Vj
For3m span

M=39.1 x

=15.3kNm/mwidth

V = 32.6 x

= 20.3kN rn/rn width

The partial interaction diagram is given in Figure 10.3.6.


Concentrated Point Load
Applied over area:-

_____

1100

Ultimate Limit State


a)

Flexure
Effective width of slab for bending and longitudinal shear section 8.1.5

ECCS N 87

159

Design exanzples

bm

bp = 300 mm
= 89 mm
=
hf 0, strength of finish not known

bp+2(hc+hf)

= 100 + 2 (89 + 0)
= 278 mm

bern = bm + 2Lp

atLp

bern = 278 + 2 x 200

200 mm

200

(i

3()()())651

mm

bern = 1111 mm
bern = 1611 mm
bern = 1778mm

at Lp = 500 mm
at Lp = 1000mm
at Lp = 1500 mm

Since the effective width of slab supporting the concentrated load


varies flexure should be checked at several sections. The partialinteraction method appears more suitable for this case.

M&j at x from support

54

=(1.35x4.5+1.5x5.0)!(_)

fl

at x = 1500 mm
'I

'

e.Z a'S

lo
"7

.
.g

Mj = 15.3 kNm/m

atx= 1000 mm M= 13.6kNm/m


L

1.75

atx= 500mmMsd= 8.5kNm/m


atx= 200mmMscj= 3.8kNmIm

Permissibleconcentrated load

At mid-span:
Bending resistance available for concrete load
MpLRd = MpRd

- Md = 45.5 - 15.3 = 30.2 kNm/m.

Allowing for effective width of 1778 mm


MpLeft = 30.2 x 1.778=53.7 kNm/1 778 mm width
Due to conc. load MsdpL = Wab =
W = YG GPL =

53.7 x

4=

53.7x=

= 53.7kNm
IN

71.6kN

GPL= 26=4UkN
ECCS N 87

DesignManualfor Composite Slabs

At 1000mm from support:


MpLRd = 33.1

- 13.6 = 19.5 kNm/m

Allowing for effective width MpLeft = 19.5 x 1.611 = 31.4 kNm/1611


mm width
Moment (MdpL) at conc. load =

Wx1x

= 31.4 kN m

thereforeW=x GpL=31.4x3/2
GpL=31.4x3/2 j-.=31.4 kN
At 500 mm from support:
MpLRd=20.6-8.5
MpLeff= 12.1 x 1.111
2.5

MSIjPL=WXO.5X

=12.1 kNm/m

= 13.4 kNm/1111 mm width

= 13.4x3 =32.2kN
0.5x2.5

YGXGPLW

GpL=32-2/1.5= 2L.4kN

GPL= _(131_38)0.637x3 = 21.6 kN

b)

04 05

0.2X 2.8

Vertical shear resistance = 77 kN/m width = VVRd


Shear resistance available for conc. load = VVRd - Vd = 77 - 20.3 =
56.7 kN/m width

At support

= 278 + 0

ECCS N 87

Lp/

/iiiii. '6far,ce apart


Co'7C. /idt (m)

Vertical Shear section 8.2.5

Effective width bev = bm + Lp (1

,'-s

+!n T 1

At200mmfromsupport
1.5

477

=13.4kNm

L2"

161

Design examples

Resistanceavailable for conc. load = 56.7 x 0.278 = 15.8 kN


15.8

YGGPL

GpL

15.8/1.5= 1O.5kN

This value is less than that given by flexural considerationsbut a


section at the support seems unrealistic.
At 200 mm from support
Effective width bev= 278 + 200

(i

)=

464 mm

Resistance available for conc. load = 0.464 [77 20.3 x

1.5

= 26.9 kN/464 mm width

= 18.OkN

GPL=

MINIMUM

VALUE
Punching Shear section 8.2.5

C)

Vertical punching shear resistance VPRd = Cp.hc.tRD

k (1.2 + 40

p)

=2x200+2x100+4x34+2it89=1227mm

VpRd = 1227 x 89 X 0.3 X 1.48 (1.2 + 40 X 0.019)


=91.1 kN

r___

/
d

ti-F'-4

GPL =

Jj!=60.7kN

Deflection
Iavg cr

= 1912 x i04 mm4/m

uncr

80

5WL3
= +
384

El

WL3

48E,I

steel units

is.4,
cg14s

W
1-

5
18x103x33x109
(9.5x3)x33 x109x103 +
=x
384 210,000x1912x104 48x210,000x1912x104

s""

= 5.02mm

ECCS N 87

DesignManualfor Conzposi:eStabs

162

10.7

DESIGN OF COMPOSITE SLAB WITH ADDITIONAL REINFORCEMENT


CARRYING MOVING CONCENTRATED LOAD

Sab Span = 3 m, depth = 200 mm (overall)


Sheeting area = 1562 mm2/m width
Slab self wt
Finishes
Live load
Concentrated load

Loading

2v1f.

"

$I

= 4.8 kN/m2
= 1.2 kNlm2
= 5.0 kN/m2
=

-.

2w'17

60 kN (mm. distance apart = 1.0 m)

Design moments at mid span

M (self wt + finishes)

(y.G+y0Q)! = (1.35x(4.81.2)+1.5x5.O).

17.55 kNm/m width

M&JPL (conc. load)

(y.Gj.

M&J + M&jpi

1.5x6Ox-

= 67.SkNm

17.55 + 67.5 = 85.05 kNm/m width

Additional Reinforcement
Using 2 No. 8 mm diameter bars in each trough,

Area=

f= 500

N/mm2 Ys

x12=603mm2/m

1.15

d=200-25=175mm
Design bending resistance

= 603x500x103 = 262kN/n,width

Nas =

1.15

At support = 0, L, = 0
Nas

x=

b(0.85
L

Z2

262x103
=18.49mm
1000(0.85x 25 1.5)

Y)

d50.5x1750.5x18.49166.7mm

M = 8.1 kNmlm width


MpRd (Lx = 0) = Mpa + Nas.Z2 = 8.1 + 262 X 166.7 X
= 51.78 kNm/m width

ECCS N 87

iO

Design exwnples

163

(Note: this bending resistance wou'd only be provided when additional bars
have adequate anchorage)
Shearspan for full shear connection
LSt

A
y,

b;

1562x280

1.Oxl.1x280

= 1.42m

L = L1
= At = 1562

At mid-span = 1.0
N

= NC

Yap

x= (N +Nas)
b(0.85f0,

/y)

= 397.6kN/mwidth

10

1.1

397.6+ 262

= 46.56mm

1000(0.85x25/1.5)

Z2d50.5x = 175-0.5x46.56=151.72mm
Zi = h1- 0.5x - e = 200 - 0.5 x 46.56 - 17 = 159.72 mm
= N.Z1 +N.Z2

= 397.6 x 159.72 + 262 x 151.72 = 103.26 kNm/m


Effective width
bm = bp + 2 (hc + hf)

= 300+2(149+0)
= 598 mm

bp = 300 mm

h == 0149mm
hf

_J

(weak finishes)

b =bm+2L(1_J
at Lp = 1500mm

bern = 598 + 2 X 1500

at Lp= 200 mm

bem=S98+2x200

at Lp = 500 mm

bern = 598 + 2 x 500

(Modifications may be necessary at

(i )

2980mm

(1_)=971mm

(i

_)=

1431mm

L = 200 mm)

Anchorage length of additional reinforcement

40 x diameter of bar

= 40x8=320mm

ECCSN 87

DesignManualfor ConzpositeSlabs

164

M,4

M=

O20 .S

L2(L(L\2

. cr))

=(YGG+YQQ) L

YGGPt.

Mj curve values
At 200 mm:

M =(1.35(6.O)l.5x5.O) (0.2
3
M1 = 1.5x60x0.2x_
3

(0.22

3)

= 4.37 kNm

= 16.80
21.17

At 500 mm:

M =(15.6)_(2.)J
21

= 9.75

2.5
M1 = 1.5x60x0.5x
3

= 37.50

47.25

At 1000 mm:

M =(15.6).(!_()]
2 13
2

MpL = 1.Sx6OxIx
3

= 15.60

= 60.00
75.60

From the above MpRd/Lx diagram the bending resistance is


everywhere greater than the design bending moments.

ECCS N 87

165

Design exanzples

Vertical shear (see EC4, 7.6.1.5)


Design shear force

v,

(YG(G,

G2)y0Q)y0Q1

1.2)+ 1.5(5.0))+1.5x60
(1.35(4.8+

113.4kN/mwidth

Design vertical shear resistance

b0drRdk(1.2+40p)
+

750x179x0.3x1.421(1.2
=

4Ox2165

1x103

750x 179)

1183

105.6kN/mwidth
b0

750mm

-i-

179,(175to183)

dp
=

0.25

= 0.25 x1- = 0.3N/mm2


1.5

f0.05 =1.8N/mm2

(1.6d)=1.6o.179=1.421,(1)

___ - 1562+603
750x179

b0d

0016 (<002)

Design check

113.4 kN/m > VVAd = 105.6, therefore unsatisfactory

Checking shear at 200 mm from supports

1.3

2.8

ECCS N 87

166

DesignManualfor Composite Slabs

= (1.35(4.8 + 1.2) + 1.5 x5.0).x! + 1.5x60x


2

1.5

= 104.3 kN/m width

V <V .. slabissatisfactory
Punching Shear
Vertical punching shear resistance

= CphctRd k(1.240p)
= 200-51 = 149mm

VVRd

IJ4 6o4J4$

dp = 179 mm
Cp =

3cc

Cfr

2x300+2x260+4(179- 149)ax2x149

= 2176 mm

ir = 0.25f

= 0.25x1. = 0.3N/mm2
"C

Area within critical punching shear perimeter


(360 (2 x 149 + 260) + 2 x 149 x 260 + it 1492) 1 0-6
0.348 m2

k=

1.6dp =1.6-0.179=1.421

b0d
VVRd

1562+6030016
750x 179

= 2176 x 149x0.3x 1.421 (1.2 +40x0.016)x


= 254kN

Design shearing force

Vj

= 0.348 (1.35(4.8+1.2)+1.5x5.0)1.5x60
= 95.4 kN

Check

< VVR
95.4 < 254, therefore, slab satisfactory

ECCS N 87

iO-

167

Bibliography

BIBLIOGRAPHY
American Society of Civil Engineers
ASCE Standards, 345 East 47th Street, New York 10017-2398, USA.
ANSI/ASCE 3-91 Standard for the structural design of composite slabs
ANSI/ASCE 9-91 Standard practice for construction and inspectionof composite slabs

British Standard Institution


BSI, 2 Park Street,LondonW1A2BS.
BS 5950 : Part 4: 1994 StructuralUse of Steelwork in Building. Part4
"Code ofpractice for design of compositeslabs with profiled steel sheeting"
Comit europen de normalisation
CEN, rue de Stassart 36, B-1050BRUSSELS (Belgium).
Eurocode 2 ENV 1992-1-1 Design of concrete structures
Part 1.1 General rules and rules for buildings, 1992
3
Eurocode ENV 1993-1 Designof steel structures
Part 1.1 General rules and rules for buildings, 1992
Part 1.3 Cold-formed steel sheeting and members
Eurocode 4 ENV 1994-1 Design of compositesteel and concrete structures
Part 1.1 General rules and rules for buildings, 1992
Part 1.2 Structuralfire design
Canadian SheetSteel BuildingInstitute
CSSBI, 305-201 Consumers Road, Willowdale, Ontario M2J 4G8.
S3-88
Criteriafor the design of composite slabs
S2-85
Criteriafor the testing of composite slabs (revisedNovember, 1988)
European Convention for Constructional Steelwork
ECCS, Av. des Ombrages32136, B-1200 BRUSSELS (Belgium).
N 14
The design of compositefloors with profiled steel sheet
N 72
Composite beams and columns to Eurocode4, 1993
N 73
Good construction practice for composite slabs, 1993
Fdration internationale de Ia prcontrainte
FIP, 11 Upper Beigrave Street, London SW1X 8BH, UK.
FTP Guide to good practice : Precast compositefloor structures (in preparation)
SteelConstructionInstitute
SC!, Silwood Park, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7QN, UK.
P055
Designof composite slabs and beams with steel decking
P056
The fire resistance of compositefloors with steel decking
P076
Design guide on the vibration of floors
P090
Good practice in compositefloor construction
P110
Slim floor design and construction
P127
Slim floor construction using deep decking

ECCS N 87

168

DesignManualfor Composite Slabs

Other references
H. and Sauerbom, I : Modern design concept for composite slabs with ductile behaviour.
Composite construction in steeland concrete II, ASCE,New York. USA, 1993, pp.125-141.
Bode,

Crisinel,Michel : Composite slabs. IABSE Reports, Vol. 61,ZUrich, 1990, pp. 69-87.
Daniels, B. : Comportement et capacit portame des dalles mixtes, modlisation mathmatiqueet tude
exprimentale. These EPFL n 895, Ecole polytechnique f6drale de lausanne, 1990.

B. and Crisinel M. : Composite slab behavior and strength analysis. Journal of Structural
Engineering,New York.
Part 1 Calculation Procedure, VoL 119, N 1, January 1993, pp 16-35.
Part II Comparisons with Tests Results and Parametric Analysis, VoL 119, N 1, January 1993, pp. 36-49.
Daniels,

Patrick, M. : A new partial shear connection strength model for composite slabs. The Broken Hill
Proprietary Company Limited, Melbourne Research Laboratories,Report MRL/PS64/90/016,Muigrave,
Victoria, Australia, March 1990.
M.L. and Ekberg, C.E. Jr. : Compendium of ISU Research Conducted on Cold-Formed SteelDeck-Reinforced Slab Systems. Iowa State ResearchInstitute, Ames, Iowa, 1978.
Porter,

Schuster, R.M. and Ling, W.C. : Mechanical Interlocking Capacity of Composite Slabs. In : Fifth
International Specialty Conference on Cold-FormedSteel Structures. University of Missouri-Rolla, St.
Louis, 1982, pp. 511-513.
Stark, J.W.B. and Brekelmans, J.W.P.M. : Plastic design
constructional steel research, 15 (1990) pp. 23-47.

of continuous composite slabs. Journal of

Veljkovic, M. : Longitudinalshear capacity of composite slabs. Nordic Steel Construction Conference,


MalmO, 1995, pp. 547-554.

ECCS N 87