Brunel Lecture about energy convertion

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Energy Conversion Tecnologies

Brunel Lecture about energy convertion

© All Rights Reserved

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(Part 3)

1. Conversion of thermal to mechanical energy

2. Conversion

electricity

of

thermal

and

chemical

to

4. Environmental impact of power plant operation

Reading List:

1.

Stephen R. Turns, Thermodynamics - Concepts And Applications, Cambridge University Press, 2006

2.

A.W. Culp, Principles of Energy Conversion, McGraw-Hill Series in Mechanical Engineering, 2nd Edition, 1991

3.

T. D. Eastop and A. McConkey, Applied Thermodynamics for Engineering Technologists - Prentice Hall, fifth

edition (1996)

4.

M.J. Moran and H.N. Shapiro, Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics, John Wiley & Sons, 4th

edition (2000)

5.

R. OHayre, W. Colella, SukWon Cha and F.B. Prinz, Fuel Cell Fundamentals, John Wiley & Sons; 2nd edition

(2009)

2

Learning Objectives

Understand the principles of different thermodynamic power

cycles

Be able to calculate the thermal properties at state points

under some conditions

Be able to assess the overall performance of power cycles

Be aware of the principle of the direct conversion of thermal

to electricity

Know the basic principle of fuel cells; their types and

applications

Be aware of the basic concepts of nuclear reactors and their

operations

Be aware of the pollutions caused by the energy conversion

systems

3

Introduction

Basic Concepts and Definitions

The first law of thermodynamics defines the

relationship between

the various forms of energy present in a system

(kinetic and potential):

the work which the system performs and the

transfer of heat

The 1st Law of Thermodynamics is a statement of

the Conservation of Energy Principle:

in terms of heat, work, and internal energy

4

Introduction

Energy is neither created nor destroyed during a

process; it can only change forms

Energy of the universe (system + surroundings) is

constant

The heat Q transferred to the control volume is

equal to the shaft work W and the change in the

internal energy U

Universe=System+ Surroundings

5

The second law of thermodynamics asserts that energy has

quality as well as quantity, and

that processes occur in the direction of decreasing quality of

energy

It is impossible to extract an amount of heat QH from a hot

reservoir and use it all to do work W

Some amount of heat QC must be exhausted to a cold reservoir

This precludes a perfect heat engine

Chapter 1 - Conversion

Mechanical Energy

of

Thermal

to

The

output are often called engines, and

the thermodynamic cycles they operate on are

called power cycles

processes to model the workings of actual devices

A thermodynamic cycle is a series of thermodynamic

processes transferring heat and work, while

varying pressure, temperature, and

other state variables, eventually returning a

system to its initial state

7

vapour cycles, depending on the phase of the working

fluid:

In gas cycles, the working fluid remains in the

gaseous phase throughout the entire cycle, whereas

In vapour cycles the working fluid exists in the

vapour phase during one part of the cycle and

in the liquid phase during another part

Thermodynamic cycles are also categorized as closed

and open cycles:

In closed cycles, the working fluid is returned to the

initial state at the end of the cycle and is recirculated

In open cycles, the working fluid is renewed at the

end of each cycle instead of being recirculated

8

Heat

engines are

combustion engines,

categorized

as

internal

and

external

In external combustion engines (such as steam power

plants), heat is supplied to the working fluid from an external

source:

radiation

(such

as

engines

automobile engines), this

is done by burning the

fuel within the system

boundaries

10

for

the

purpose

of

converting thermal energy

to work:

The thermal efficiency

th is the ratio of the net

work produced by the

engine to the total heat

input:

th =

added heat (kJ )

Wnet

=

Qa

11

never-ending cyclic process

The detailed structure of the heat engine contains

the following four steps:

1. Isothermal absorption of heat from the hightemperature reservoir

2. Adiabatic (isentropic) production of work

3. Isothermal rejection of heat to the lowtemperature reservoir

4. Adiabatic work done on the fluid to return it

to the state at the start of step 1

12

reversible (i.e., no entropy generation) adiabatic process:

PV = C

where P is pressure, V is volume, and k the specific heat ratio

defined as:

k=

cp

cv

the specific heat for constant volume

For a monatomic ideal gas, k = 1.66, and for a diatomic gas

(such as nitrogen and oxygen, the main components of air)

k =1.4

http://buphy.bu.edu/~duffy/semester1/c27_process_adiabatic_sim.html

13

transferred), it is also true that

k 1

P T

=C

(no

heat

k 1

T =C

Using the ideal gas law, this can also be written as:

P1 T1

=

P2 T2

k

k 1

V2 T1

=

V1 T2

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t6cGw1scLvc

1

k 1

P2 V1

=

P1 V2

14

Two reversible isothermal processes alternated with two

reversible adiabatic (isentropic) processes

Thermal efficiency:

th ,max

TL

= 1

TH

15

EXAMPLE 1

The turbine in a power station extracts kinetic energy from

steam at a temperature of 800 K. The steam emerging from

the turbine has a temperature of 370 K. What is the Carnot

maximum efficiency of the turbine?

The Carnot efficiency of the heat engine is given by:

th ,max

TL

370

= 1

= 1

= 0.5375 or 53.75%

TH

800

whole

16

Principle of the reciprocating internal combustion

engine

The

reciprocating

engine (basically a

pistoncylinder device)

is the powerhouse of

the vast majority of:

automobiles,

trucks, light aircraft,

ships, and electric

power generators

Reciprocating engine

17

between two fixed positions called:

of the piston when it forms the smallest

volume in the cylinder (vmin), and

The bottom dead center (BDC): the

position of the piston when it forms the

largest volume (vmax) in the cylinder

The distance between the TDC and the BDC

is the largest distance that the piston can

travel in one direction, and it is called the

stroke of the engine

The diameter of the piston is called the bore

Nomenclature

reciprocating engines

for

The airfuel mixture is drawn into the cylinder through the intake

valve, and

the combustion products are expelled from the cylinder through the

exhaust valve

18

is at TDC is called the

clearance volume

The volume displaced by the

piston as it moves between

TDC and BDC is called the

displacement volume

The ratio of the maximum

volume formed in the cylinder

to the minimum (clearance)

volume

is

called

the

compression ratio rv of the

engine:

a reciprocating engine

vmax

rv =

vmin

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nplacsumrfw

19

conjunction

with

reciprocating

engines is the mean effective

pressure (MEP), given by:

Wnet

MEP =

vmax vmin

equivalent to the product of the

mean effective pressure and the

displacement volume:

(kPa )

MEP

exerted on the top of the piston

during the power stroke

The engine with a larger value of MEP delivers more

net work per cycle (the power output of the engine)

20

Reciprocating

compression-ignition (CI) engines,

depending on how the combustion

process in the cylinder is initiated:

In SI engines, the combustion of the airfuel

mixture is initiated by a spark plug

In CI engines, the airfuel mixture is selfignited

as a result of compressing the mixture

above its self-ignition temperature

21

The Otto cycle is the ideal cycle for spark-ignition reciprocating engines

In most spark-ignition engines, the piston executes four complete

strokes within the cylinder for each thermodynamic cycle

Actual and ideal cycles in spark-ignition engines and their P-v diagrams

22

Initially, both the intake and the exhaust valves are closed, and the

piston is at its lowest position (BDC):

During the compression stroke, the piston moves upward, compressing

the airfuel mixture:

Shortly before the piston reaches its highest position (TDC), the

spark plug fires and the mixture ignites, increasing the pressure and

temperature of the system

The high-pressure gases force the piston down,

which in turn forces the crank-shaft to rotate, producing a useful

work output during the expansion or power stroke

At the end of this stroke, the piston is at its lowest position (BDC), and

the cylinder is filled with combustion products

Now the piston moves upward one more time, purging the exhaust

gases through the exhaust valve (the exhaust stroke),

and down a second time, drawing in fresh airfuel mixture through the

intake valve (the intake stroke)

23

processes:

1-2 Isentropic compression

2-3 Constant-volume heat addition

3-4 Isentropic expansion

4-1 Constant-volume heat rejection

24

energy balance for any of the processes is expressed as:

(Qa Qr ) + (Wa Wr ) = U

(kJ )

(2-3 and 4-1) since both take place at constant volume

Therefore, heat transfer to and from the working fluid can be

expressed as

Qa = U 3 U 2 = mcv (T3 T2 )

Qr = U 4 U1 = mcv (T4 T1 )

Where m is the mass of the working fluid

25

T4

T1 1

T1

Wnet Qa Qr

T4 T1

=

=1

=1

th =

Qa

Qa

T3 T2

T3

T2 1

T2

Processes 1-2 and 3-4 are isentropic, and v2=v3 and v4=v1 .Thus,

T1 V2

=

T2 V1

k 1

V3

=

V4

k 1

T4

=

T3

(1 k )

th = 1 rv

26

vmax v1 v4

rv =

= =

vmin v2 v3

and k is the specific heat ratio

k=

cp

cv

27

The Diesel cycle is the ideal

cycle for

engines

CI

reciprocating

airfuel mixture is compressed

to a temperature that is below

the auto-ignition temperature

of the fuel,

and the combustion process

is initiated by firing a spark

plug

replaced by a fuel injector, and only air

is compressed during the compression

process

auto-ignition temperature of the fuel,

and combustion starts on contact as the fuel is injected into this hot air

28

The ideal Diesel cycle processes are: 1-2 isentropic compression, 2-3

constant-pressure heat-addition, 3-4 isentropic expansion, and 4-1

constant-volume heat rejection

The thermal efficiency of the ideal Diesel cycle

T4

T1 1

T1

Wnet

mcv (T4 T1 )

Qr

T4 T1

= 1

= 1

= 1

= 1

th =

Qa

Qa

mc p (T3 T2 )

k (T3 T2 )

T3

kT2 1

T2

29

ratio of the cylinder volumes after and before the combustion

process:

v3

rcf =

v2

processes 1-2 and 3-4, the thermal efficiency relation reduces

to

th = 1

k

cf

( k 1)

v

r 1

kr

(r

cf

1)

vmax v1

rv =

=

vmin v2

30

Take the cv=0.7176 kJ/(kg K) and the specific heat ratio, k=1.4 for the compression

and the expansion processes

following p-v and T-s plots,

are shown in

31

The process from state 1 to state 2 is isentropic, so

the reversible adiabatic relationships for an ideal

gas can be used, as

k 1

T =C

and

V1

= rv = 8

V2

k 1

T2 V1

=

T1 V2

T2 = 300 x8 0.4 = 689 .2 K

32

PV = C

p2 V1

=

p1 V2

p2 = 100 x81.4 = 1837 .9kPa

the heat transfer is equal to the change of internal energy

according to the first law,

qa = (u3 u 2 ) = cv (T3 T2 )

kJ

kJ

(T3 689.2 )

1840

= 0.7176

kg

kg .K

P

T3 = 3253 .5 K

=C

T

T3

3253 .5

p3 = p2 = 1837 .9

= 8676 .1 kPa

689.2

T2

33

following relationships hold

k

PV = C

T4 V3

=

T3 V4

V3 1

=

V4 rv

and

k 1

1

T4 = 3253 .5

8

k

p4 V3

=

p3 V4

0.4

= 1416 .2 K

1.4

1

p4 = 8676 .1

8

= 472 .1kPa

34

Thermal efficiency

th = 1

1

( k 1)

rv

1

= 1 0.4 = 0.565 or 56.5%

8

35

(see Fig. I.2). At the beginning of the compression

process, air is at 100 kPa and 17C, and 800 kJ/kg of

heat is transferred to air during the constant-volume

heat-addition process. Take the cv=0.72 kJ/(kg K)

and the specific heat ratio, k=1.4 for the

compression and the expansion processes.

Determine:

1)The temperature and pressure at the end of each

process of the cycle.

2)The heat rejected qout, in kJ/kg

3)The net work output, in kJ/kg

4)The thermal efficiency

36

37

Fig. next slide). The conditions at the start of compression

are 27C and 100 kPa. The heat supplied is 1840 kJ/kg, and

compression ratio is 16. Take the cp=1.0047 kJ/(kg K),

cv=0.7176 kJ/(kg K) and the specific heat ratio, k=1.4 for the

compression and the expansion processes. Determine:

a)The maximum temperature and pressure of the diesel cycle

b)The thermal efficiency

c)The mean effective pressure (MEP) in (kPa)

d) The power output at 2000 rpm for an engine displacement

of 5000 cm3

Assumptions

1.The air in the piston-cylinder is a closed system

2.The air in the system is an ideal gas with constant specific heats

3.Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible

38

Solution: The ideal Diesel cycle and given data are shown in

following p-v and T-s plots,

process can be determined by utilizing the ideal-gas

isentropic relations for processes 1-2 and 3-4

But first we determine the volume at state 1 for ideal-gas,

where, T1=300K, p1=100 kPa, and

39

3

v1 =

=

= 0.861 m / kg

p1

100

Process 1-2 (isentropic compression of an ideal gas,

constant specific heats), hence:

k

Pv = C and

v1

v1 0.861

= rv = 16 ; v2 =

=

= 0.0538 m 3 / kg

v2

16

16

v k 1T = C

k 1

T2 v1

=

T1 v2

T2 = 300 x16 0.4 = 909 .4 K

40

p2 v1

=

p1 v2

1.4

p2 = 100 x16 = 4850 .3kPa

Process 2-3 (constant-pressure heat addition to an ideal gas):

qa = (h3 h2 ) = c p (T3 T2 )

1840 = 1.0047 (T3 909 .4 )

T3 = Tmax = 2740 .8 K

p3 = pmax = p2 = 4850 .3 kPa

RTmax 0.287 x 2740 .8

v3 =

=

= 0.1622 m 3 / kg

pmax

4850 .3

41

specific heats), and v4=v1 , hence:

k 1

Pv = C ; v T = C ; and

v3 0.1622

=

= 0.188

v4

0.861

k 1

T4 v3

=

T3 v4

0.4

T4 = 2740 .8x0.188 = 1405 .7 K

k

p4 v3

=

p3 v 4

1.4

p4 = 4850 .3x0.188 = 468 .6kPa

42

involves no work interactions), and the amount of heat

rejected is

qr = (u1 u 4 ) = cv (T1 T4 )

qr = 0.7176 (300 1405 .7 )

qr = 793 .4 kJ / kg

Thus, the net work output of a cycle is

b) Then, the thermal efficiency of this Diesel cycle is

determined from

wnet 1046 .6

th =

=

= 0.569 or 56.9%

qa

1840

43

definition

wnet

wnet

1046 .6

MEP =

=

=

= 1296 .6 kPa

vmax vmin v1 v2 0.861 0.0538

d) The power output is calculated as

2000 s 1

rpm

-6

3

= 108.05 kW

Power = (MEP ) piston displacement

= 1296.6 kPa x 5000x10 m

2 x 60

2 x 60

44

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