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`Name:_________ Block: 1 2 3 4

Cell Membranes/Transport Review


REMEMBER: 1. Textbook is a great resource you should be reading. (Ch7 Pgs. 125-139)
2. Go through the IB objectives in your notes packet, it tells you what youve got to know!
1.

Define the plasma membrane.

A selectively permeable membrane which means that it keeps in things that it wants and is
able to keep things out of the cell that are not wanted/are harmful to the cell. It is made up by
a phospholipid bi-layer which includes polar heads and non-polar tails made up of fatty acids.

2.

Draw and label the plasma membrane.


Include: phospholipid bilayer, integral and peripheral proteins, glycoproteins and cholesterol.
Why is it described as a bilayer?
The plasma membrane is described as a bilayer because it is made up of two layers of phospholipids.

3.

List six functions of the membrane proteins.

1.

transport

2.

enzymatic activity

3.

signal transduction

4.

cell-cell transduction

5.

intercellular joining

6.

attachment to the cytoskeleton and ECM

4.

Explain why the plasma membrane described as a fluid mosaic model.

Phospholipids in the bilayer create a sea in which other molecules will float and move.

5.

State the functions of these plasma membrane components.

a.

glycoproteins/glycolipids: glycoproteins are membrane carbohydrates that are covalently


bonded to proteins, and glycolipids are are membrane carbohydrates that are covalently
bonded to lipids. They serve as a chemical ID for the cell.

b.

6.

cholesterol: keeps phospholipid bilayer fluid at cool temp. and restrains movement at
warm temp. (like 37 degrees C--body temp.)

Match the following membrane proteins with their functions:

Channel/ carrier proteins(A) (D)used in cell surface reactions


Protein pumps(B) (E)binding cells together
Glycoproteins(C) (C)communication between cells
Enzymes(D) (A)passive transport across the membrane
Adhesion proteins(E) (B)active transport across the membrane
Receptors proteins(F) (F)hormone binding and recognition

7.

Draw a single phospholipid molecule. Label the hydrophobic and hydrophilic sections.

http://openlearn.open.ac.uk/file.php/3592/!via/oucontent/course/236/t356_3_002i.jpg

Head = Polar = Water-loving = Hydrophilic


Tails = Nonpolar = Water-hating/Water-fearing = Hydrophobic

8.

Explain how hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties of the phospholipid bilayer allow a
membrane to maintain its structure.

since the cell membranes are phospholipid bilayers, a double layer of molecules exist as a stable
boundary between two aqueous compartments because the molecular arrangement shelters the
hydrophobic tails of the phospholipids from water while exposing the hydrophilic heads to water

9.

Define selectively permeable in the context of the plasma membrane.

selective permeability allows some substances to cross the membrane more easily than others
10. Define diffusion.

the movement of molecules of any substance so that they spread evenly into available space
Define osmosis.
the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane

11. Outline the conditions required for the following methods of membrane transport:

Answer: yes or
With concentration
Membrane
Uses Selectively permeable membrane.
no
gradient
proteins
For each box
Simple
No (perfume ex.) or Yes (if
yes
no
diffusion
molecules across membrane)
Yes
Osmosis
yes
yes
(aquaporins)
Facilitated
yes
yes
diffusion
yes
Active
no
yes
yes
transport

13. State the membrane transport methods used by the following molecules:

Water: osmosis through aquaporins


Non-polar molecules (with the concentration gradient): diffusion
Polar molecules (with the concentration gradient): facilitated

ATP
(source of
energy)
no
no
no
yes

Any molecule against the concentration gradient: active transport


Macromolecules: endocytosis or exocytosis

14. Explain what is happening in this diagram: Water diffuses across a membrane from the region

of lower solute concentration to the region of higher solute concentration.

15. Explain how osmosis can lead to turgidity, using a labeled diagram.

If the environment a plant cell is placed into is considered to be hypotonic, then water
will flow into the plant cell causing it to swell (turgid). This is the normal condition
for a plant cell.

16. Annotate the diagram below to show how a protein pump is used in active transport of

molecules across a plasma membrane. The Na /K pump is an example.


+

Although molecules may bind in the integral protein, the protein will not be able to release them
into the high concentration area because it requires energy to be able to push them against the
concentration gradient. When ATP binds to the protein, it deposits one of its phosphate groups
which gives energy to the protein to be able to pump/push the molecules into the region of high
solute concentration.
17. Define vesicle.

Vesicles are tiny sacs made of membrane. They are used to transport items around the cell. They
come from membranes within the cell or the plasma membrane itself. Either way, it is a circular sac
made of a phospholipid bilayer.

17. Compare and contrast facilitated diffusion and active transport.


Compare: Both types of transport use integral membranes to move molecules.
Contrast: Facilitated diffusion is a form of passive transport: no energy required because
molecules are moving with their concentration gradient. Active transport requires energy
because molecules are being moves against their concentration gradient.
18. Since carbs are big, the cell uses facilitated diffusion to help move them into
the cell. What factors will increase the rate of carbohydrate uptake by the cell?
Can the rate of carbohydrate uptake continually increase or will the rate eventually
level out? Explain your reasoning.
The rate of carb uptake by the cell will be increased as the concentration of carbs
on the outside of the cell increases. It adds to the concentration gradient and more
carbs will be moved into the cell. However, the rate of uptake will NOT continually
increase because there are only so many integral proteins that can facilitate the
movement into the cell before theyre all occupied. Rate will level out.

19. Complete and annotate the diagram below to show the process of vesicle transport of a

protein molecule through a eukaryote cell. Begin with protein synthesis in the Rough ER and
finish with exocytosis though the plasma membrane. Label all organelles shown.

Proteins are synthesized by ribosomes on the Rough ER. The protein then gets transported to the
golgi. There, it will get further modified and packaged for secretion. When it gets packaged,
phospholipids from the golgi membrane will pinch off to form a vesicle around the protein. The
vesicle will move to the plasma membrane, fuse with it, and then the protein will get released
from the cell.
20. Distinguish between exocytosis and endocytosis.

In endocytosis, the cell takes IN biological membranes and particulate matter by forming new
vesicles from the plasma membrane. Plasma membrane temporarily shrinks in size.
In exocytosis, the cell SECRETES certain biological molecules by the fusion of vesicles with the
plasma membrane. Plasma membrane temporarily increases in size.