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MARKET STUDY REPORT ON MEDICINAL & AROMATIC PLANTS (MAPS)

S. No.
1.

Content
INTRODUCTON

-Medicinal

&

Aromatic

2.

OBJECT & SCOPE OF STUDY of MAPs

3.

PRODUCT

3.1

PROFILE

3.2

CHARACTERISTICS

3.3

CLASSIFICATION [HS CODE]

4.

GENERAL FEATURES OD MAPs

4.1

HERBAL MEDICINE MARKET

4.2

MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS

5.

EUROPEAN TRADE

5.1

EU TRADE VOLUME

5.2

WORLD MARKET TRENDS

6.

GERMANY

6.1

MARKET POTENTIAL

6.2

FEATURES OF TRADING

6.3

TRADE STRUCTURE

7.

INDIA

7.1

STRENGTHS/MARKET SHARE

7.2

AS MAJOR EXPORTER OF RAW MAPs

8.

ROLE OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

8.1

AS SUPPLIERS FOR MAPs

8.2

CURRENT CHALLENGE

8.3

MEETING THE CHALLENGE

9.

BARRIERS TO TRADE

10.

STRATEGIES FOR INCREASING EXPORTS

11.

ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS

Plants

APPENDICES
Appendix No.

APPENDIX

1.

TRADE FAIR ORGANISERS

2.

STANDARD ORGANISATIONS

3.

SOURCES OF PRICE INFORMATION

4.

TRADE ASSOCIATIONS

5.

LIST OF MEDICINAL PLANTS AND DISEASES THEY TREAT

6.

TRADE PRESS

7.

OTHER USEFULL ADDRESSES

[MAPs]

8.

LIST OF MAPs IMPORTERS IN GERMANY

9.

LIST OF MA Pc IMPORTERS IN EU [Excl. Germany]

10.

SERVICES BY ITPO FRANKFURT OFFICE

1. INTRODUCTION
Medicinal plants, since times immemorial, have been used in virtually all cultures as a
source of medicine. The widespread use of herbal remedies and healthcare preparations, as
those described in ancient texts such as the Vedas and the Bible, and obtained from
commonly used traditional herbs and medicinal plants, has been traced to the occurrence of
natural products with medicinal properties.
The demand for plants and plant-based drugs of proven therapeutic value within traditional
medical systems such as Ayurveda, Unani Tibb, and Chinese medicine has never been
higher. In many countries, including India, traditional medicine is becoming more widely
appreciated within all segments of society. Due to population growth and increasing
urbanization, the demand for plant-based drugs is rising very rapidly in cities and towns.
Worldwide, the increased popularity of non-Western treatments ("alternative" or
complementary medicine) is creating a rapidly expanding market for both crude drugs and
sophisticated compound preparations. The global annual trade in herbal drugs has recently
been estimated at US$14 billion to over US$20 billion with the largest markets found in
Europe (-50% of global trade), Asia, and North America.
While we may welcome the growth of Ayurveda and other traditional medical systems, we
should be very seriously concerned about other trends that jeopardize the future availability
of Ayurveda's plant drug sources. Healthy, diverse forests and other natural ecosystems that
are the source of the overwhelming bulk of medicinal plants are being degraded,
fragmented and disappearing altogether at alarming rates in many parts of the world. At the
same time, the cultural diversity and traditional ecological knowledge of the uses and
medicinal value of biodiversity that have been developed through millennia by countless
indigenous or tribal societies throughout the world is also on a downward spiral.

2. OBJECT & SCOPE OF STUDY


The object of the market study report is to give an overview of the current trade in MAPs,
identify the Indian export prospects, constraints etc. and to recommend/suggest strategies
for the promotion of Indian exports to EU. The market study has been done with reference
to available information on the subject.
3. PRODUCT
3.1 PRODUCT PROFILE [MAPS]
According to the World Health Organization, "a medicinal plant is any plant which, in one or
more of its organs, contains substances that can be used for therapeutic purposes, or which
are precursors for chemo-pharmaceutical semi synthesis". This definition allows for a
distinction between the already known medicinal plants whose therapeutic properties or
character as a precursor of certain molecules have been established scientifically, and other
plants used in traditional medicines and regarded medicinal, but which have not yet been
subjected to thorough scientific study.
3.2 PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS
'It is not possible to assess the volume or value of the trade in all botanicals that are used

medicinally because trade statistics do not identify all the plants individually and of those
listed, the statistics do not identify medicinal and other uses separately. Products reported
as medicinal plants often include gums, spices and plants used in the food industry; certain
plant products include those used for teas and infusions; large volumes of plants such as
pyrethrum are used in manufacture of insecticides; plants used by the cosmetic industry are
also included'.
3.3 CUSTOMS/STATISTICAL PRODUCT CLASSIFICATION
On January 1, 1988, a unified coding system was introduced to harmonise the trading
classificationsystems used world-wide. This system is called the Harmonised Commodity
Description System (HS) and was developed by the World Customs Organisation(WCO). The
system comprises about 5,000 commodity groups, each identified by a six digit code,
arranged in alegal and logical structure and is supported by well defined rules to achieve
uniform classification.
Most of the natural ingredients used in the pharmaceutical industry do not have an exclusive
HS Code and are incorporated in a broader product code. As per the information available, a
four to six-digit list of the main product groups is mentioned below. These product groups
can be further divided into sub-groups to the extent of ten digits.

SITC &
HS
Codes Description
Code
SITC
292.4

Plants and parts of plants (including seeds and fruits) of a kind


used primarily in perfumery , in pharmacy , or for insecticidal,
fungicidal or similar purposes, fresh or dried, whether or not cut,
crushed or powdered

Corresponding
HS or CCCN
code

1211

292.41 Liquorice roots

1211.10

292.42 Ginseng roots

1211.20

292.49 Other

1211.90

HS or CCCN codes 1211.20 and 1211.90 are subdivided as follows:


1211.20.00 Ginseng root
20 Cultivated
40 Wilde
1211.90

Other
-Mint leaves:

1211.90.20
Crude or not manufactured
00
1211.90.40 Other
20 - Herbal teas and herbal infusions (single species, unmixed)
40 Other

1211.90.60 00 Tonga beans


1211.90.80

Other Substances having anaesthetic, prophylactic or therapeutic properties


and principally used as medicaments or as ingredients in medicaments:
10 - Coca leaves
20 - psyllium seed husks
30 Other
40 Basil
50 Sage
80 - Herbal teas and herbal infusions (single species, unmixed)
90 Other

4. GENERAL FEA TURES OF MAPs AND MARKETS


4.1 Herbal medicine market
Herbal medicines, as distinct from pharmaceuticals, are produced directly from whole plant
material. As a result, they contain a large number of constituents and active ingredients
working in conjunction with each other, rather than a single, isolated active compound.
Because the drug approval process and patenting systems do not provide incentives for
companies to conduct (expensive and time-consuming) research on the synergistic and
collective function of active ingredients in whole plants or plant formulas, botanical
medicines are often scientifically poorly understood. However, most herbal medicines have
long histories of traditional use, which confirm safety and efficacy, and as documented are
used in many regulatory systems to guide the approval of commercial products. Herbal
medicines represent a range of product types. These include products sold as raw herb
(dried or fresh), and others that are processed to varying degrees, including tinctures (an
infusion of herbs in alcohol) and extracts (greater concentration of the active material of the
plant with the aid of a solvent).
The largest markets for herbal medicines are found in Germany, China, Japan, the USA,
France, Italy, the UK and Spain.

4.2 Medicinal and Aromatic Plants


Medicinal and aromatic plant material is obtained both from plants growing in the wild and
from cultivated stock. Collection in the wild still plays a vital role in the use of, and trade in,
medicinal and aromatic plant material in Europe, since cultivation has not proved to be
profitable for the majority of plants traded. This is because: many plants are difficult to
cultivate; many are required in small quantities; the quality of some wild harvested material
is supposed to be superior; the costs associated with obtaining plant material from the wild
are relatively low.
About 2,000 medicinal and aromatic plant species are used on a commercial basis in
Europe, of which two-thirds are native to Europe. In the EU, medicinal and aromatic plants
are cultivated on an estimated 70,000 ha. Leading species are: lavender (Lavandula spp.),
Opium Poppy (Papaver somniferum), Caraway (Carum carvi) and Fennel (Foeniculum
vulgare). France and Spain are EU countries with many hectares under cultivation.
However, in Spain wild-harvesting and cultivation of medicinal and aromatic plants has

declined. There is some cultivation in Germany, where leading producers of herbal medicines
have their own plantations for popular products. Finzelberg, for example, cultivates St.
John's wort and echinacea in Germany. The area under cultivation, however, is small as
cultivation in Eastern European countries is much cheaper.
Eastern European countries such as Bulgaria, Hungary and Albania are major EU suppliers
of material from medicinal and aromatic plants.

5. EUROPEAN UNION
5.1 EU TRADE VOLUME
Table 1: List of importers for the selected product in 2001 Product: 121190 Plants
& pts of plants(incl. Seed & fruit) used in pharm, perf, insect etc
Value
Quantity
imported in
Quantity Unit value
Importers
imported
2001, in US$
unit
(US$/unit
in 2001
thousand

Annual
growth in
value
between
1997-2001,
%

Annual
growth in
value
between
2000-2001,
%

Annual
growth in
Quantity
between
1997-2001

Share in
world
imports,
%

World
estimation

850,662

432,129

Tons

1,969

-6

-2

-4

100

United State
of America

132,129

43,966

Tons

3,005

-4

-4

16

Japan

89,975

27,031

Tons

3,329

-3

-21

10

11

Germany

71,953

38,585

Tons

1,891

-15

-6

-15

France

56,353

18,585

Tons

3,032

-1

16

Hong
Kong(SARC)

43,139

27,613

Tons

1,562

-20

-14

-26

Korea, Rep.
of Korea

39,122

33,689

Tons

1,161

-6

-3

-24

Italy

36,048

12,039

Tons

2,994

-6

-3

-4

United
Kingdom

33,418

6,915

Tons

4,833

-5

-4

Canada

29,418

No
quantity

Malaysia

26,705

14,595

Tons

1,830

-5

-9

Singapore

22,021

4,493

Tons

4,901

-8

-2

Spain

21,784

11,461

Tons

1,901

-10

-2

-10

The above table indicates that among top 12 importing countries having 69% of total import
shares for medicinal and aromatic plants in the year 2001, the share of EU countries was
26%.
In 2000, Germany was, by far, the leading EU importer of medicinal & aromatic plants.
Between 1998 and 2000, however, Germany saw its share in EU imports decrease from 38
percent to 29 percent, while the United Kingdom experienced an increase from 7 to 12
percent. The Netherlands was small importer of medicinal & aromatic plants, being only the
12th leading EU importer.
The major importing markets are the EU and USA. In these countries, increased
demand for medicinal plants is being fuelled primarily by consumer interest in natural
products and remedies, as well as by increasing concerns about the possible side effects of
allopathic medicines. Major developing countries such as China and India are exporting

medicinal plants, herbal tonics, cosmetics, perfumes etc. There are therefore good prospects
for export growth from LDCs in this market. However, markets in developed countries for
herbal medicine -especially in Europe and the USA - are highly regulated and are
very difficult to penetrate, particularly for developing countries and LDCs whose
products have not undergone the stringent tests applied by developed country
pharmaceutical manufacturers before mass production.
Sales of herbal medicine alone were estimated to have exceeded US$ 12.5 billion in 1994
and US$ 30 billion in 2000, with annual growth rates averaging between 5% to 15%,
depending on the region. Meanwhile, the herbal supplements market has had a higher
annual average growth rate between 1990-1997 of 25%. Rising global interest in medicinal
plants has also created a sustained and largely 'underground' trade in plant materials, many
of which are being collected in LDCs in an unregulated manner, resulting in indiscriminate
harvest of wild varieties and serious damage to bio-diversity.

5.2 WORLD MARKET TRENDS


The European market for herbal supplements is estimated at over US$ 2.7 billion and for
herbal remedies, a further US$ 0.9 billion. GERMANY IS BY FAR THE LARGEST MARKET. The
market is growing rapidly at over 4% per annum for herbal remedies and considerably
faster for herbal supplements. The US herbal market is nearing saturation and is expected
to peak at US$ 6-8 billion in the next few years. Their dietary herbal supplement market is
estimated at US$ 4 billion and has been growing at 6-8% per annum.

The main producers are manufacturers based in the developed


countries, including the large multinational pharmaceutical companies. There are
also smaller companies that specialize in herbal products and some have emerged to
challenge the multinationals for market leadership in this field. The main products
sold are based on plants such as Echinacea and St. John's Wort that were known for
their medicinal properties in the consuming countries. Recent research has helped
propel the knowledge of other plants from around the world and this has helped
accelerate the development of new supplements and medicines.

The market share of herbal products made in developing countries remains


comparatively low. The major successes have been achieved by Chinese products,
mainly herbal supplements. The EU and the US regulations have special provision for
herbal medicines that do not use mixtures of herbs. In this respect their regulations
are, comparatively, relaxed. But if the exported products contain herbal mixtures and
claim curative properties, the rules become much stricter. For medicines, product
trials need to be carried out that cost several millions of dollars. Scientific knowledge
of the products produced in the developing countries, and of their systems of
traditional medicine, is limited and this also restricts the market for their herbal
products. As markets grow, the search for a wider variety of ingredients is
increasing. 'Phytomedicines' have already started to link traditional medicines with
modern (allopathic) medicine, with research and development primarily funded by
large pharmaceutical manufacturers. Some developed countries have already
included into their national curricula medical, pharmaceutical research of a number of
alternative health systems, while traditional medicine is being developed in parallel
with allopathic medicine in developing countries such as Nigeria, Mexico, Thailand,
Burma, India, China, etc. Countries have started also to regulate the production and

sale of traditional medicines resulting in greater consumer confidence.

However, there is still a general lack of knowledge within the world market
about the whole range of traditional remedies available, and demand will grow as
knowledge increases. The issue of consumer safety is increasingly important with the
USA recently prohibiting the sale of some Chinese products. The developing countries
will need to pay increasing attention to this issue.

The number of practitioners of alternative medicine in the developed


countries is increasing rapidly. There is also growing capability in the use of
traditional medicines from the developing countries. This will stimulate demand for
products made in the developing countries. Retail outlets for herbal products are
increasing rapidly. From being confined to a few health food retailers, herbal products
are now carried by a large number of high street chemists. These retailers are
interested in product made in the developing countries but regulatory constraints are
likely to limit this interest to supplements and cosmetics.

EU Consumption and trends


There certainly is a market for natural ingredients for herbal medicines in Europe. Global
demand for herbal medicines has increased dramatically during the last ten years. Herbal
medicines represent a range of product types. These include products sold as raw herb
(dried or fresh), and others which are processed to varying degrees, including tinctures (an
infusion of herbs in alcohol) and extracts (greater concentration of the active material of the
plant with the aid of a solvent).
Global sales for herbs/botanicals accounted for US$ 17.5 billion of sales in 1999. The major
market is Europe, accounting for some 38% of the world market. The leading European
market is Germany, accounting for over 50% of the European market, followed by France,
the United Kingdom and Italy. The medicinal plant trade is largely conducted through
Germany. Most importers are found in Germany and it is the leading market for exporters in
developing countries. In general, herbal medicines are growing at a faster rate than
conventional chemical drugs. Average annual growth rates for herbal medicines in Europe
between 1985 and 1995 were 10 percent, but are expected to slow down to 5-10 percent
over the next few years. In the USA, sales of most supplements were flat or down in 2000
following the combination, of bad press and the demise of many of the dot-coms in the
Health sector.
Trends which have an impact on demand for botanical medicines and, consequently, the
demand for natural pharmaceutical ingredients include, amongst others:

Consumers seek an alternative or complement to pharmaceutical drugs and modern


healthcare. The increase in demand for 'natural' medicine is also strongly related to
the rise of the green consumption movement.

The entry of large pharmaceutical and Over-The- Counter (OTC) companies has
placed botanical medicines more strongly on the mass market.

Increased advertising budgets and media attention for botanical medicines have

contributed to rapid growth in consumer demand.

Increased emphasis on safety, efficacy and quality has resulted in more research and
development, a shift towards standardized products, and requirements for highquality raw materials. This expanded research and development has improved the
legitimacy of botanical medicines.

Acceptance of botanical medicines by national (Germany and Japan) and commercial


insurance companies (USA). However, at a global level re-imbursement is currently
decreasing.

Some claim that the innovation and expansion of the pharmaceutical biotechnology
sector, which is based on natural materials, has produced a scientific and financial
environment open to the potential medical benefits of other natural products,
including botanicals.

Moreover, more and more innovative companies are requesting organically certified raw
material or value added products, especially for the development of new products. There is
increasing demand for certified raw material and value added products.

6. GERMANY
6.1 MARKET POTENTIAL
European-based companies and German companies in particular, dominate the global herbal
supply industry. The biggest herbal raw materials group is Martin Bauer Group, a Germanbased corporation with annual sales of over US$ 250 million. About 4,000 to 6,000
botanicals are of commercial importance. It has been reported that between 500 and 600
medicinal plants are traded via Hamburg, which made it the world's leading trading centre in
plants. However, the position of Hamburg has decreased in recent years. Manufacturers of
herbal medicines used to acquire their raw materials from traders, but now some have their
own plantations or have direct contacts with producers. Manufacturers of herbal products
are increasingly interested in having direct relationships with producers of the required
materials, in order to ensure a sustained source and/or to save costs. Exporters should
realize that the Internet is an important medium in the sourcing of raw materials for herbal
products. A number of users/traders of natural ingredients mentioned that they use the
Internet in order to find new suppliers.

Existing and indicative potential trade between Germany and India in


2001(imports reported by Germany)
Product
Germany's Import
from India

India's exports to world

Indicati
ve
potenti
Germany's imports from
al trade
world
in US$
thousan
d

Value Annual Share in Value Annual Quanti Quanti Value Annual Quantity
2001 in growt German 2001 in growt
ty
ty unit 2001 in growt 2001(ton
US$
h in
y's
US$
h in 2001
US$
h in
ns)
thousa value imports, thousa value
thousa value
nd
betwe
%
nd
betwe
nd
betwe

en
19972001,
%

en
19972001,
%

121110 Liquorice roots usd


primly in
pharm,perf,insecticide,fungi
cide/sim purp

40

121120 Ginseng roots usd


primly in pharm,
perf,insecticide,fungicide/si
m purp

121190 Plants &pts of


plants(incl sed & fruit)usd in
pharm,perf,insect etc nes

2,594

-13

en
19972001,
%
9

Tons

1,234

-4

695

40

19

Tons

1,809

139

19

4 72,199

-2 39,082

Tons 71,953

-15

38,045

69,35
9

-50

The above table indicates that in respect of three major product groups of MAPs being
imported by Germany, only one product group is being exported by India to Germany.
Therefore, there is a good scope for exporting the other two product groups, which are any
how being exported by India to some other countries in the world.
Europe is a major world trader in MAPs. At least 2,000 MAP species are traded, of which two
thirds (1,200-1,300 species) are native to the continent. The most popular botanical
medicines sold in Europe in 1996 were formulated from gingko, ginseng, garlic, echinacea
and evening primrose.
About a quarter of global imports of MAPs each year are into Europe. In 1992-90, imports to
Europe came from more than 120 countries, with 60 per cent of material coming from
outside Europe, mainly from Africa and Asia. Between 1985 and 1995, the average annual
growth rate in the European market was 10 per cent, with 440,000 tonnes imported in 1996
valued at US$1.3 billion. This is now likely to have risen to well above 500,000 tonnes.
Germany is the leading European importer, accounting for a third of both the total volume
and the total value of European imports, with France, Italy, Spain and the UK among the
other
12
leading
importing
countries.
The 12 leading exporting countries in Europe are led by Germany, Bulgaria and
Poland, with Germany accounting for a fifth of the volume and a third of the value.
Germany has a large re-export trade. Between 1992 and 1996, Europe exported an average
of 70,000 tonnes of MAPs annually, 20 per cent to non-European destinations, mainly North
America. Sixty per cent of exports were from just five European countries -Germany,
France, Italy, Spain and the UK.
Germany is the major European trader in MAPs, being the pivotal country in intraEuropean trade and acting as a link between markets in eastern and south-eastern Europe
and those in the north and west. The German phytomedical market grew at 30 per cent
between 1993 and 1995, from a value of US$2.5 billion to US$3.26 billion. The estimated
growth rate in 1998-99 was 5- 10 per cent.
The UK is the fourth largest market in Europe. Britain lost direct access to suppliers in
eastern Europe after the fall of communism, the trade becoming directed to an even greater
extent than previously through Germany. Activities are currently under way to re-establish
and strengthen former trade links between the UK and eastern Europe.
UK trade restrictions differ from those of the rest of Europe. For example, bloodroot,

Sanguinaria canadensis, is restricted in the UK and much of the small trade in this product is
re-exported to Europe. There is very little overlap in the UK between trading systems for
traditional European herbal medicines, TCMs(Traditional Chinese Medicines), Ayurvedic and
Unani medicines. Of the 704 medicinal plant species which have been identified as being
traded in the UK, 290 species are used exclusively in TCM with only 33 "cross-over" species
used both in TCM and western herbal medicine. Imports of TCM materials were reported to
be worth about 3 million per annum, which is far smaller than the western herbal trade.
Raw materials for Ayurvedic and Unani medicines tend to be imported directly by individual
practitioners on an informal basis.
Bulgaria is the most important source country for European MAPs, with average net exports
of 7,000 tonnes per annum. Sixty to seventy per cent of MAPs produced or harvested in
Bulgaria are exported, mainly to wholesalers in Germany. Bulgarcoop, a cooperative
enterprise instituted under the communist regime, is still the main national dealer in MAPs,
even in this post-communist era. This cooperative helps growers with cultivation and
guarantees to buy an agreed harvest. Since the fall of communism, 50-60 private and small
companies, often family-owned, have joined the MAP trade and founded the Private Herb
Exchange, which provides similar help to growers to Bulgarcoop and also organises courses
for collectors. Turkey exports approximately 28,000 tonnes of MAPs annually, generating
nearly US$50 million.

6.2 FEATURES OF TRADING


Medicinal and Aromatic plants (MAPs) are normally traded in dried form (Germany 95 per
cent; Albania and Turkey, 100 per cent). Otherwise, they may be traded fresh or preserved
in alcohol. Plant parts may be traded in their whole form or comminuted (cut, rasped or
powdered). It is difficult to analyse data relating to the international market in MAPs. The
industry is complex with little vertical integration. The large number of small and mediumsized companies in the industry are hesitant to share data. Cross-trading between
companies is commonly practised, adding to the difficulties of understanding the trade.
In most cases, manufacturers do not know the original sources of their MAPs. Most
manufacturers in Europe and North America buy from large wholesalers, some of the
biggest of which are in Germany. These wholesalers are also hesitant to provide information,
for fear that companies might try and bypass them. Many manufacturers prefer working
through wholesalers because they can generally be better assured that stocks of reliable
quality are available at known prices. Overall, this makes purchase of herbal materials
easier and more economic. More direct sourcing is the preferred option only for
manufacturers which have very specific standards (organic, ethical, community trade, etc.)
and which are able to charge higher prices for the extra costs incurred.

6.3 TRADE STRUCTURE: SOME ASPECTS

In Europe the trade structure is complex and dominated by a few wholesalers


(Germany, Bulgaria, Albania).

In producer countries generally, the plant material is bought from collectors and
cultivators by various types of traders, including local dealers, village cooperatives

and district traders. It is then passed on to wholesalers, manufacturers or directly to


retailers. The wide range of manufacturers involved can include those engaged in the
production of pharmaceuticals, extracts~ , cosmetics, foods and colouring agents.

The number of outlets for MAPs reflects their diversity of uses. Material of a species
which has entered the wholesale or manufacturing sectors may have originated from
various harvesting areas within countries, or it could even have been imported. This
makes it very difficult to identify sources of materials and to impose quality controls.

The lengths of trade chains and the perceived need to protect information lead to a
lack of transparency. A direct consequence is that those at the start of the chains
(producer and collectors) have little idea of the market value of the MAPs which they
are supplying , nor the means opt discover the value added from source to end-use.

In India and Nepal, some NGOs are working to make market information available to
collectors in order to give them bargaining power. The lack of transparency means
that it is difficult to influence the trade easily in order to improve the sustainability of
the source of MAPs.

In former Eastern Bloc countries, the trade has changed in recent years from strictly
organised , state-controlled systems based mostly on cuntry-wide networks, to free
and diversified markets with the increasing number of competing private companies.
This has had significant negative effects on the sustainability and conservation of
MAPs because previous quotas and controls are nw largely ignored. Only Bulgaria still
has a relatively well controlled MAP trade.

7. INDIA
7.1 INDIA'S STRENGTHS / MARKET SHARE: [Relation vis A vis Rivals]
Table: List of exporters for the selected product in 2001
Product:121190 Plants &pts of plants(incl sed &fruit)usd in pharm,perf,insect etc.
Annual
Annual
Annual
Value
growth in growth in growth in Share in
exported in Quantity
Report in
Quantity unit value
value
quantity
value
world
Exporters 2001, in exported
Comtrade
unit
(US$/unit) between
between
between exports,
US$
in 2001
in 2001
19971997-2001, 2000-2001,
%
thousand
2001,%
%
%
World
estimation

760,178

563,407

Tons

1,349

-6

100

China

144,109

160,687

Tons

897

-12

-7

19

India

72,199

39,082

Tons

1,847

-2

17

France

51,946

8,002

Tons

6,492

10

-3

-2

United
States of
America

50,707

14,986

Tons

3,384

-3

-20

Germany

50,374

13,139

Tons

3,834

-10

-5

-6

India enjoys being the second largest exporter of medicinal and aromatic plants in the world
sharing the 9% of the total world export as per the table above. It is also indicates that
India leads Germany in export of above MAP product group by 2% share because Germany
exports only 7% of total market share on exports.
7.2 INDIA IS A MAJOR EXPORTER OF RAW MAPS

India is a major exporter of raw MAPs and processed plant-based drugs. Exports of crude
drugs from India in 1994-95 were valued at US$53,219 million and of essential oils
US$13,250 million. Important crude drugs included Plantago ovata (psyllium), Panax spp.
(ginseng), Cassia spp. (senna) and Catharanthus roseus (rosy periwinkle). Essential oils
included Santalum album (sandalwood), Mentha arvensis (peppermint) and Cymbopogon
flexuosus (lemongrass). Seventy-five per cent of total exports from India are sent to six
countries -France, Germany, Japan, Switzerland, the UK and the US. Other major importers
are Bangladesh, Pakistan and Spain.
The leading developing country suppliers of medicinal & aromatic plants to the EU were
China, India, Egypt, Morocco, Chile, Turkey, and Albania. The imports of medicinal plants
considerably.

List of importing markets for a product exported by India in 2001


Product: 121190 Plants &pts of plants(incl sed&fruit) used in pharm, perf ,insect
etc nes
Total
import
Export
growth
Export
Export
Ranking Share of
Exporte
trend in
in value
trend in
growth in of
partner
d value Share in Exporte
unite
value
of
value
value
partner countrie
Importer 2001 in India's d
Quantit value
quantity
partner
between
between countrie s in
s
US$
exports, quantit y unit (US$/uni
between
countrie
19972000s in
world
thousan %
y 2001
t)
1997s
2001,%,p
2001,%,p. world
imports,
d
2001,%,p.
betwee
.a
a.
imports %
a.
n 19972001,
%, p.a.
Total

100

39,082

Tons

1,847

-2

17

United
States of 40,947
America

72,199

-6

57

18,601

Tons

2,201

-5

-3

29

16

-4

Japan

5,029

4,711

Tons

1,068

11

11

32

11

-3

France

4,620

1,796

Tons

2,572

15

10

62

Italy

3,371

429

Tons

7,858

-35

-6

Germany 2,594

1,825

Tons

1,421

-13

-17

-15

United
2,355
Kingdom

1,010

Tons

2,332

-12

Germany is the fifth largest importer of MAPs, wherein the leaders are USA, Japan, France
and Italy.
8. ROLE OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
8.1 As suppliers for Medicinal & Aromatic Plants
In 2000, developing countries were particularly strong in the supply of medicinal & aromatic
plants, accounting for 40 percent of imports by EU member countries in terms of value and
54 percent of imports by EU member countries in terms of volume. Since 1998, the share of
developing countries in EU imports has fluctuated closely around these levels. China and
India, as a result of their long tradition in the field of natural medicine and their vast land
area, comprising all climatic zones, were leading producers of natural ingredients for
pharmaceuticals. demand for kava kava which is endemic to the South Pacific. Vanuatu is
another Pacific island which profited from the increased demand. After 1998, EU imports

from Fiji decreased again to their previous level.


In June 2002, Germany banned the supply of the herbal remedy kava-kava after reports
linking it to fatal liver failure. Britain's Medicines Control Agency (MCA) has proposed to ban
kava-kava but a decision is only expected around December 2002. From the box below, it
also becomes clear that East European countries were major suppliers of medicinal &
aromatic plants to the EU.
Although The Netherlands was only a small European importer of medicinal & aromatic
plants in 2000, relatively it obtained the biggest share of its imports from developing
countries. Kenya and Congo together supplied over 45 percent of The Netherlands' imports
in 2000.

8.2 Conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plant resources: the current
challenge
In spite of their significant contributions to public health and local or national economies,
sound data regarding either the number or volume of medicinal plant species harvested
from wild sources for local or commercial use are generally lacking, or at best very
incomplete, in most countries. However, the few studies that have examined this topic
strongly suggest that with relatively few exceptions, the overwhelming majority of plant
drugs used in Ayurveda and other traditional systems of medicine are derived from plants
collected from the wild, and mainly from forests.
In China, for example, an estimated 5,000 species are used in traditional medicine. The
annual demand for these plant drugs exceeds 700,000 tons, 80% of which are from wild
sources, with an in-country market value of US$1.4 billion. In Indonesia, a total of 1260
species of medicinal plants are reportedly sold in markets, most of which are collected from
forests. In South Africa, between 400 and 500 species are commonly sold for traditional
medicinal use, of which 99% are harvested from wild sources. In Germany, 1543 medicinal
plant species are in import and export trade, 70-90% of which are harvested primarily from
the wild. In exports of medicinal raw materials, India ranks second next to China, which
exports an estimated 32,600 tons per year valued at US$46 million.
As noted earlier, rising commercial demand for wild-source plant drugs in some countries
(including India) is occurring against a backdrop of rapid deforestation and/or degradation
of species-rich forest ecosystems. The direct and underlying causes of deforestation in most
countries currently facing this challenge are numerous, often complex, and related to
variety of social, economic and political issues, including the failure to assess and
avoid/mitigate the negative impacts of non-forest sector (i.e., agriculture, transportation,
energy, trade, etc...) policies and developments on forests and biodiversity more generally.
Over-exploitation of medicinal plants from wild sources is only one of many cumulative,
unsustainable uses of forests leading to their degradation and devaluation, although its
impact can be locally severe.
With reference to the exploitation of medicinal plants, a number of inter-related factors in
addition to those responsible for forest loss have contributed to the over-harvesting and
depletion of key plant species, consequent degradation of forest resources, and the erosion

of local self-sufficiency for locally-used and traded medicinal plants:

Non-sustainable harvests by plant collectors have led to the depletion of many


medicinal species in otherwise healthy forests. Non-destructive, relatively lowintensity, collection practices for whole plants, reproductive structures (buds, flowers,
fruits), root stocks/rhizomes, and bark (for trees and shrubs) have frequently been
replaced by destructive harvesting practices that preclude the natural recovery of
individual plants and the regeneration of viable populations within exploited forests.

A shift from subsistence (local) use to commercial sale has in many locales
resulted in larger volumes of certain species being harvested beyond sustainable
levels. Increased commercialization of medicinal plants (and other forest products)
often has significant effects on traditional resource tenure and user-right
arrangements, particularly in relation to tribal communities. This process is often
linked to more general shifts from subsistence to cash economies and to the erosion
of traditional cultural and religious values within forest-dependent communities.

Lengthy marketing chains, i.e., the existence of numerous middlemen involved


between collection of plant drugs and their sale to consumers, often severely
depresses prices paid to collectors, thereby encouraging over- harvesting to
supplement income.

Improved transportation networks in the vicinity of biodiversity-rich forests and


other natural areas has increased resource accessibility and trade.

The process of urbanization has increased urban market demand for plant drugs the
influence of these markets on rural resource exploitation.

Expanding international trade often increases the demand and market prices for
particular species, resulting in rapid resource depletion, as has been historically the
case for a variety of timber and non-wood forest products from tropical forests since
the 19th century.

There are an increasing number of plant species of known medicinal value that are
threatened with extinction in the wild in the short- or medium-term. For example, the
IUCN1 Red List of Threatened Species includes, for India, a total of 319 terrestrial plant
species, of which a significant proportion are used in traditional systems of medicine,
including Ayurveda. Threatened and endangered higher plants in South India include 36
medicinally important species, including such well-known species as Saraca asoca (Asoka),
Pterocarpus santalinus (Raktacandana) and Rauvolfia serpentina (Sarpagandha).
Considering that the conservation status of only a very small percentage of plant species
has been assessed, the total number of threatened medicinal plant species in India can be
projected to be in the hundreds.
Current rates of forest loss, forest degradation and depletion (or loss) of wild populations of
medicinal plants represent a serious threat to the future of traditional medicine, to the wellbeing of the majority of the world's population who depend directly on plant drugs for their
health care needs, and to the capacity of forests to provide a broad spectrum of essential
environmental goods and services. Reversing these trends, and thereby ensuring the future
supply of high-quality plant drugs, is a monumental task, but one that is compatible with

the large number of local, national and international efforts aimed at fulfilling the noble
objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity, i.e., conservation of biological diversity,
sustainable use of components of biological diversity, and fair and equitable sharing of the
benefits arising out of the use of genetic resources. The resolution of challenges related to
the conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plant resources is a major test for the
CBD, its Global Strategy for Plant Conservation, and the network of local-to-global
organizations and initiatives that will determine the success of the CBD.

8.3 Meeting the Challenge


The growing recognition of the importance of forest biological diversity in meeting local (and
increasingly global) health care needs provides an important opportunity for
conservationists, traditional medicine proponents, local communities and others to work
together to develop mutually-supporting solutions to problems associated with forest loss
and biodiversity erosion. Sustained and coordinated efforts are needed to transform
currently unsustainable practices of medicinal plant "mining" from wild sources to more
ecologically sustainable, socially acceptable, and economically equitable production and
utilization systems. This will require, appropriate action, and changes, by the full range of
society's "stakeholders" involved in the conservation, production, management, marketing,
processing, and use of medicinal plants and their derivatives. There are three broad areas in
which further work is needed: improved information and awareness-raising; improved in
situ conservation and management; and, expanded development of ex situ production
options.

BOTTLENECKS/CONSTRAINTS
Medicinal plants have received low priority in national investment, research and export
development; as they tend to be considered minor crops. Most LDCs concentrate their
research and development on staple crops such as rice and wheat.
Threats to the future development of medicinal plant exports from LDCs depend on the
structure of the major importing markets. Despite large import potential for medicinal plants
in developed countries, market development is constrained by several factors:

Capital and R&D:- The capital requirements and R&D facilities needed for entering
into major markets such as Germany and France are too costly for small LDC
exporters. Their entry into the countries where herbal medicines are not sold as
over-the-counter products is also made difficult, as distribution outside food outlets
is hard to access and risks are incurred by selling in unlicensed markets without
being able to make claims of benefits.

Lack of available technology:-Poor local technology as well as skill shortages


result most often in inadequate post harvest handling, storage, processing, and
packaging resulting in poor quality and low unit values for exports.

MSTQ:- LDC exporters lack systems of measurement, standards, testing and quality
(MSTQ) required by exporters to ensure their products meet international standards

for hygiene, product specification and quality.

Lack of knowledge of supply:- Few, if any, LDCs have carried out an inventory of
species and sustainable off-take on the basis of gathering or limited husbandry.
Prospects for cultivation are yet to be studied. The supply potential is thus virtually
unknown. At present, few LDCs have the resources and the institutional capability to
advise on policy and regulatory mechanisms to provide consistently high-quality
products. Know-how in processing technologies is also deficient, as is the availability
of sustainable production processes.

Limited knowledge of properties:- There is limited knowledge also of the


medicinal properties of the herbs beyond traditional knowledge and belief. This
restricts the use and marketability of the plants. A systematic process is required to
work with end-users in the developed countries to study their use in herbal
supplements and herbal remedies manufactured by them, explore the possibility of
selling traditional herbal supplements and tonics and lastly, to examine the
requirements for marketing traditional medicines. The sale of the latter requires
regulatory approvals that are usually expensive and time consuming, beyond the
resources of most LDC exporters.

Intellectual property rights (IPR):- An issue of potentially huge importance to


the LDCs and all developing country exporters is intellectual property. These plants
have been used in traditional medicines for centuries and hence cannot be protected
by patent. They can be registered as individual or regional trademarks, with explicit
rules of origin. Knowledge of the whole intellectual property rights (IPR) field is
limited in the LDCs and access to IPR systems limited. There is evidence of
organisations in developed countries taking advantage of lack of IPR knowledge.
Recently the European Patent Office revoked a six-year-old patent covering the use
of neem tree oil as a fungicide, upon learning that the oil had been used for the
same purpose in India years before the patent was filed. Such patents are becoming
increasingly common as new botanical uses are discovered -there are close to 70
patents covering neem tree products alone. 'Biopiracy' of plants or genes hurts
exporters in LDCs, not only denying them the use over their intellectual property but
potentially transferring their rights to foreign companies.

Market access:- Market access issues have also constrained LDC export
development. Generally, most medicinal plants and crude drugs are allowed without
any tariff restrictions in several countries. They are exempt from import duty in
Canada, Japan, the European Union and the USA. However, tariff charges in China
and South Africa vary between 10% and 20% of the value of goods, depending on
product and origin, while Japan levies a 5% tax on imports of ginseng roots, peppy
straw, sandalwood and some others.

9. BARRIERS TO TRADE
European Union has a number of regulations to regulate the trade in pharmaceutical sector.
The export market in EU is quite large as indicated by import of Indian medicines as Food
supplements but the import is impeded by EU regulations. The tariff rates on products

related to Medicinal & Aromatic Plants can be referred from the websites mentioned below:-

http://www.wto.org/English/tratog_e/schedules_e/goods_schedules_e.htm

We may need the relevant HS codes for these products, which can be obtained from
the World Customs Organization httg://www.wcoomd.org/ie/index.html

For non-tariff barriers another website mentioned below can be seen:http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/tbt_efibte.htm

The following websites may


Medicinal/Herbal products:-

also

be

consulted

for

more

information

Association
of
European
Self-medication
http://www.aesgg.be /links2.html = Herbal medicinal products.
http://pharmacos.eudra.org then
go
to
http:// europa.eu.int/comm/research/headlines/12-2001.html

regarding

Industry:

Pharmaceuticals.

An example can be given of a product code 1211903000 Tonquin beans, wherein the TB and
NTB are given in the following table:for product: 1211903000 Tonquin beans
Tariffs and non-tariff
measures

Tariff
advalorem

MFN duties

3%

GSP rate

0%

Preference for ACP


countries

0%

Tariff
specific

Agreement with the


following countries

Non-tariff measures or
product description

Preference for South


0%
Africa
Preference for Czech
0%
Republic
Preference for
Hungary

0%

Preference for Egypt 0.6%


Preference for
Morocco

0%

Preference for Syria

0.6%

Preference for Tunisia 0%


Preference for Algeria 0%
Note:- The tariff advalorem differs from 3% to 0.6% and the preference is given to some
counties like South Africa, Czech Republic, Egypt etc. by exempting/non charging tariffs.
10.STRATEGIES FOR INCREASING EXPORTS

Opportunities for Exporters It is not easy to present an overview of promising products for
exporters from developing countries. However, some important points that emerge are
mentioned below. There is a big transfer of natural ingredients from developing countries to
the pharmaceutical industry for research purposes. Large pharmaceutical companies are
engaged in bio-prospecting, which refers to the exploration of biodiversity for commercially
valuable genetic and biochemical resources. This type of trade in natural ingredients is
research-driven. Pharmaceutical companies study the properties and effects of specific
medicinal plants and the knowledge is used with the aim to develop new medicines, which
can be patented.
This so-called bio-prospecting is strongly dominated and controlled by large pharmaceutical
companies. Exporters from developing countries will find more opportunities in the trade of
ingredients with known properties and effects, which are not patented and which can be
traded freely.
In Europe, some 2,000 medicinal and aromatic plants are used on a commercial basis. A
number of botanical species are consistently cited by industry representatives in the USA
and Europe as the most important today, and likely in the next five years. Echinacea was
cited as the top product now and in the years to come, in both the USA and Europe.
European companies continue to consider St Johns wort and Kava kava extremely
important, while USA industry representatives tended to think both might be in decline due
to controversial recent studies and bad press. Other important botanicals cited include:
Gingko, Ginseng, Valerian, Goldenseal, and Garlic. USA companies also cited Black cohosh
and Astragalus as good performers, while European, companies have had continued success
with Hawthorn and Chamomile. Most buyers in The Netherlands are not interested in plant
material, but in plant extracts. There are only a few developing countries which are able to
supply extracts conforming to the requirements of western industry.

Prospects, Policies & Strategies for LDC


LDCs have the opportunity to expand their global export share of medicinal plants. They
should aim to penetrate at the early stages of the value chain by supplying firstly, developed
country manufacturers with unprocessed raw materials and then move towards providing
herbal supplements before tackling the highly regulated market for herbal remedies.
Export strategies for LDCs should aim for the following:Improve market knowledge
Export development strategies should seek to increase exporters' knowledge of consumers
and end-user requirements and preferences, market access conditions, and appropriate
marketing channels and techniques. The preliminary transmission of import requirements
and regulations to suppliers and exporters is critical to allow them to reach the high
standards of quality and sophistication required in the international markets. Agencies
responsible for export promotion and sector business associations are expected to playa
crucial role in this respect and their capacity needs to be strengthened. Following this,
producers should be trained in sustainable harvesting techniques, sorting and grading,
packing and shipping activities to enable them to meet customer requirements.
Research products adequately
The starting point for any programme to develop exports of medicinal herbs and plants after

having gained market knowledge must be to map the areas in which they occur naturally
and attempt to estimate sustainable off-take. The available species should then be market
tested by laboratories and end-users in Europe and the USA to determine which of the
available species have the highest market potential. Having identified the scale of the
opportunity, the next step would be to examine husbandry and/or cultivation methods, at
which point firmer estimates could be made of supply potential. An active programme of
marketing herbs and plants to end-users should follow this.
Explore Alternative sales techniques
Alternative sales techniques are also available to the LDCs by taking advantage of the
Internet. Dietary supplement sales on the Internet reached US$ 40 million in 1998, an
increase of $12 million over 1997 figures. This accounts for only 0.3% of the total 1998 US
supplement market of $13.6 billion. However, the rate of sales growth for supplements on
the Internet far exceeds that of natural foods stores, mass-market stores, and multilevel
marketing.
Improved information and awareness-raising
At present there are significant gaps in the knowledge of the present consumption and
projected future demands, as well as trade statistics, for the vast number of plant drugs
that are locally used and that enter into local, national and international. In the absence of
such information, informed decision-making and planning by industry, policy-makers,
medicinal plant producers (or forest managers for wild-source plant drugs), and research
and development organizations is severely impaired. There is a critical need to compile,
synthesize, and make widely available such information. Major marketing organizations,
industrial phytomedicine producers, government agencies, and research institutions all have
important roles to play in this regard. At the international level, several organizations have
been active in promoting and coordinating such activities, notably the TRAFFIC wildlife trade
monitoring program.
There is a similar, perhaps more severe, dearth of reliable information on the present and
projected future supplies of medicinal plants from wild sources. While there are significant
efforts by a variety of organizations at local, regional, national and international levels to
monitor and evaluate the changing conditions and conservation status of forest ecosystems
and their constituent species, greater public support for such efforts is needed.
In recent years there has been a dramatic increase in the numbers of useful databases,
publications synthesizing and popularizing medicinal plant information, as well as growing
public debate and media coverage of traditional medicine and its links to biodiversity
conservation and other issues such as intellectual property rights and cultural preservation2.
Additional efforts are needed, however, to increase public awareness of the value of
medicinal plant resources and their role in public health, and of the importance of
conservation and sustainable management of natural forests and other biodiversity-rich
habitats for the continued survival and production of valued plant drug sources. Broadened
public awareness of the ecological, social and economic importance of healthy natural
ecosystems needs to be translated into more active public involvement and political support
for conservation and sustainable forest management. Closely linked to this is the need for
increased consumer and producer awareness and support willingness to pay for plant drugs
derived from sustainable forest management systems. Unless there are sufficient financial
incentives to market medicinal plants (or plant parts) collected non-destructively and at
sustainable levels, markets (in most countries) will continue to be dominated by plant drugs
from "mined", rather than from sustainably managed, wild sources. In some national and

international markets, consumer-driven "certification" or "green labeling" schemes similar to


those gaining popularity for wood products and agricultural commodities like coffee could
provide market-based incentives for promotion of conservation/sustainable management of
medicinal plant resources.

Participation in trade fairs


Trade fairs are the best opportunity to establish contacts with the buyers, feel the current
market situation, build up databases for multiple uses and to exhibits/publicize the products
in which India has strength. The visit of delegations to the fairs relating to MAPs needs to be
encourages. A list of some important trade fairs related to medicinal plants is attached as
Annexure for easy reference.
11.ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS
The role of International Organizations and Collaboration
There are numerous international non-governmental organizations that focus on
conservation, social and economic development, and a variety of other relevant issues, have
evolved increasingly effective strategies and mechanisms for working with local
communities, local NGOs, research organizations, industries, and governments to promote
sustainable management and utilization of biodiversity- rich forests in most parts of the
world. Through their networking, such organizations are very often able to coordinate
technical expertise as well as institutional and financial support in ways that local NGOs or
local communities cannot do as effectively on their own. Major conservation and
development NGOs often have considerable influence in the development of national and
international policies affecting natural resource management, trade, and other issues
pertinent to biodiversity conservation, sustainable use, and benefit-sharing.
Bilateral and multilateral development assistance agencies are also important sources of
financial and technical support for programs aimed at addressing underlying and direct
causes of forest (and biodiversity} loss and degradation. Several, such as GTZ (Germany},
NRDC (Canada}, and DFID (UK}, provide significant support to governments, NGOs and
other institutions for projects aimed directly at sustainable management and development
of medicinal plant resources in a number of countries. While development assistance (or
lending by major multilateral financial institutions such as the World Bank, the Asian
Development Bank and others} to countries for programs in sectors (agriculture,
transportation, energy, mining, trade} that impact forests (or other natural ecosystems}
has frequently exacerbated the problems we are concerned with here, there is increasing
public pressure and apparent willingness of these institutions to reform their operational
policies and practices to avoid negative "cross-sectoral" environmental and social impacts.
There is a long way to go in this regard.
The Global Environmental Facility is perhaps the major single source of international
financial support for projects that directly address the challenges surrounding the
conservation and sustainable management of medicinal plant resources. There are at
present 7 major current or planned projects funded by the GEF in Egypt, Ethiopia,
Zimbabwe, Jordan, India, Sri Lanka, and the Caribbean (several countries} that address
these issues. These projects, are typically multi-faceted but with a focus on local
conservation management and community development.

Agencies and programs of the United Nations, as well as international treaties, conventions
and forums operating under their auspices, are also extremely important elements of the
broad array of organizations and activities undertaken at the international level that
contribute to the resolution of issues related to medicinal plant conservation, management,
development and trade. Several UN agencies serve critical roles in highlighting relevant
issues, facilitating international policy and scientific dialogue, and provide mechanisms and
coordinate support for effective international collaboration. These include: UNESCO (which
administers the Man and the Biosphere program - http://www.unesco.org/mab/), FAO
(specifically FAOs Forestry Department -http://www.fao.ora/forestry/ - which coordinates
the ongoing UN Forum on Forests), UNEP (http://www.unep.orgl - which administers the
Convention
on
Biological
Diversity),
the
World
Health
Organization
(http://www.who.int/en/),
and
the
World
Intellectual
Property
Organization
(http://www.wipo.int/ - which seeks to address issues related to intellectual property rights
at the heart of many international disputes over access and benefit-sharing vis--vis
medicinal plants and their derivatives)

APPENDIX I
TRADE FAIR ORGANISERS
AUSTRIA
IGM
International Horticultural Exhibition, cut flowers and plants
Frequency: annual (28 August-1 September 2003)
Address:

Tullner Messe GmbH, Messegelnde, 3430 Tulln, Austria

Telephone: +43 (0)2272 624030


Fax:

+43 (0)2272 65252

Email:

messe@tulln.at

Internet:

www.tulln.at/messe

DEENMARK
DAN-GAR- TEK/DAN-PLANT
technology, cut flowers, pot plants
Frequency: biennial (August 2003)
Address:

Odense Congress Center, rbaekvej 350,5220 Odense, Denmark

Telephone: +45 (0)65560100


Fax:

+45 (0)65 560 199

Email:

adm@occ.dk

Internet:

www.occ.dk

FRANCE
Florissimo
International exhibition fair for exotic flowers and foliage
Frequency: every 4 years (March 2004)
Address:

Parc des Expositions et Congrs de Dijon, 3, Bd. De Champagne, P.O. Box


108,210003 Dijon

Cedex, France
Telephone: +33 (0)3 80773900
Fax:

+33 (0)3 807739

Email:

congrexpodijon@exnet.fa

Hortiflor
Florist's trade fair, cut flowers and pot plants
Frequency: annual (8-10 March 2003)
Address:

BEPP- Bureau Europen de Presse et de Publicit, 44, avenue de Grorge V,


75008 Paris, France

Telephone: +33 (0)1 49521400


Fax:

+33 (0)1 49521442

GERMANY
IPM
International trade fair for cut flowers and plants, equipment and florists' requisites
Frequency: annual (30 January- 2 February 2003)
Address:

Messe Essen GmbH, Postfach 100165, 45001 Essen, Germany

Telephone: +49 (0)20172440


Fax:

+49 (0)201 7244248

E-mail:

zoppa@essen-tradeshows.com

Internet:

www.ipm-messe.de

IFLO - International Floristik Messe


Floricultural trade show
Frequency: annual (17-26 August 2003)
Address:

Messe Essen GmbH, P.O. Box 100165, 45001 Essen, Germany

Telephone: +49 (0)201 72440


Fax:

+49 (0)201 7244248

Internet:

www.messe-essen.de

GAFA - International Gartenfachmesse


International trade fair for horticulture
Frequency: annual (March 2003)
Address:

Messe Kln. Messeplatz 1,50679 Kln, Germany

Telephone: +49 (0)221 8210


Fax:

+49 (0)221 8212574

E-mail:

info@koelnmesse.de

Internet:

www.koelnmesse.de

ITALY
Miflor

Flowers, plants, equipment


Frequency: semi-annual (21-23 February 2003)
Address:

Padova Fiere, Via Tommaseo 59, 35131 Padova, Italy

Telephone: +39 (0)049840 111


Fax:

+39 (0)049 840570

Email:

info@padovafiere.it

Internet:

www.padovafiere.it

THE NETHERLANDS
International Hortifair
Equipment, flowers and plants
Frequency: annual (5-8 November 2003)
Address:

Amsterdam RAI, P.O. Box 77777, 1070 MS Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Telephone: +31 (0)205491212


Fax:

+31 (0)205491894

Email:

waal@rai.nl

Internet:

www.flowertradeshow.nl or www.hortifair.nl

SPAIN
Iberflora
garden and horticultural technology show
Frequency: annual, (17-19 October 2003)
Address:

FMIV, Avenida de las Ferias s/n, P.O. Box 476,46080 Valencia, Spain

Telephone: +34 (0)6 3861100


Fax:

+34 (0)6 3636111 and 3644064

Email:

feriavalencia@feriavalencia.com

Internet:

www.feriavalencia.com

UNITED KINGDOM
Horticulture
International Flower & Plant Trade Exhibition
Frequency: biennial (February 2003)
Address:

Nexus Media Ltd, Nexus House, Swanley, Kent BR8 8HU, United Kingdom

Telephone: +44 (0)161 7764460


Fax:

+44 (0)161 7776524

Email:

nxhort@nexusmedia.com

IFTEX
International Flower & Plant Trade Exhibition
Frequency: biennial (September 2003)

Address:

Nexus Media Ltd, Nexus House, Swanley, Kent BR8 8HU, United Kingdom

Telephone: +44 (0)1617764460


Fax:

+44 (0)161 7776524

Email:

nxhort@nexusmedia.com

APPENDIX 2 STANDARDS ORGANISATION


INTERNATIONAL
The World Health Organization
Address:

Avenue Appia20, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland

Telephone:

+41 (0)227912111

Fax:

+41 (0)227913111

E-mail:

info@who.int

Internet:

www.who.org

EUROPEAN UNION
European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (EMEA)
Address:

7 Westferry Circus, Canary Wharf, London E14 4HB, United Kingdom

Telephone:

+ 44 (0)17l 418 8400

Fax:

+44 (0)171 418 8416

Internet:

www.eudra.org

Comit Europen de Normalisation (CEN)


European Normalisation Committee.
Address:

Third Countries Unit, Rue de Stassart 36,


B-1050 Brussels, Belgium

Telephone:

+ 32 (0)2 5500811

Fax:

+ 32 (0)25500819

E-mail:

infodesk@cenclcbel.be

internet:

www.cenorm.be

AUSTRIA
sterreichisches Normungsinstitut (ON)
Address:

P.O. Box 130, A-1021 Vienna, Austria

Telephone:

+ 43 (0)1 21300

Fax:

+ 43 (0)1 213 00650

E-mail:

infostelle@on-norm.at

Internet:

www.on-norm.at

BELGIUM
Institute Beige de Normalisation (IBN)
Address:

Avenue de la Brabanonnelaan 29,


B-1000 Brussels, Belgium

Telephone:

+ 32 (0)273801 11

Fax:

+ 32 (0)2 733 42 64

E-mail:

info@ibn.be

Internet:

www.ibn.be

DENMARK
Dansk Standard (DS)
Address:

Kollegievej 6, DK-2920 Charlottenlund, Denmark

Telephone:

+ 45 (0)39 9661 01

Fax:

+ 45 (0)399661 02

E-mail:

dansk.standard@ds.dk

Internet:

www.ds.dk

FINLAND
Suomen standardisoimisllito r.y. (SFS)
Address:

P.O. Box 116, 00241 Helsinki, Finland

Telephone:

+ 358 (0)9 1499331

Fax:

+ 358 (0)9 1464925

E-mail:

info@sfs.fi

Internet:

http://www.sfs.fi

FRANCE
Association Francaise de Normalisation
Address:

Tour Europe, 92049 Paris la Defense, France

Telephone:

+ 33 (0)1 42915555

Fax:

+ 33 (0)1 42915656

Internet:

www.afnor.fr

GERMANY
Deutsches Institut fr Normung eV (DIN)
Address:

Postfach, D-10772 Berlin, Germany

Telephone:

+ 49 (0)302601 0

Fax:

+ 49 (0)302601 1231

E-mail:

postmaster@din.de

Internet:

www.din.de

GREECE
Hellenic Organisation for Standardisation
Address:

313 Achamon, GR-1145 Athens, Greece

Telephone:

+ 30 (0)1 2120100

Fax:

+ 30 (0)1 2286219

E-mail:

info@elot.gr

Internet:

www.elot.gr

ITALY
Ente Nazionale Italiano di Unificazione (UNI)
Address:

Via Battinotti Stassi IIB, 1-20133 Milano, Italy

Telephone:

+ 39 02 700241

Fax:

+ 39 02 70106106

E-mail:

uni@uni.unicei.it

Internet:

www.unicei.it

IRELAND
National standards Authority of Ireland (NSAI)
Address:

Glasnevin, Dublin 9, Ireland

Telephone:

+ 353 (0)1 8073800

Fax:

+ 353 (0)1 8073838

E-mail:

nsai@nsai.ie

Internet:

www.nsai.ie

LUXEMBOURG
Service de l'Energie de l'Etat (SEE)
Address:

Departement Norrnalisation, B.P. 10, L-2010,


Luxembourg

Telephone:

+ 352 (0)46 9746 1

Fax:

+ 352 (0)46 97 46 39

E-mail:

see.norrnalisation@eg.etat.lu

Internet:

www.etat.lu/see

THE NETHERLANDS
Nederlands Normalisatie Instituut (NNI)
Netherlands Standardisation Institute
Address:

P.O. Box 5059, 2600 GB Delft, The Netherlands

Telephone:

+ 31 (0)152690390

Fax:

+ 31 (0)152690190

E-mail:

info@nni.nl

Internet:

www.nni.nl

PORTUGAL
Instituto portugus Da Qualidade (Ipq)
Address:

Rua Antnio Gio, 2, P-2829-513 Caparica, Portugal

Telephone:

+ 351 (0)21 29481 00

Fax:

+ 351 (0)21 29481 01

E-mail:

ipq@mail.ipq.pt

Internet:

www.ipq.pt

SPAIN
Asociacin Espaola de Normalizacin y Certificacin
(AENOR)
Address:

Genova 6, 28004 Madrid, Spain

Telephone:

+ 34 (0)91 4326000

Fax:

+ 34 (0)913104032

E-mail:

info@aenor.es

Internet:

www.aenor.es

SWEDEN
Standardiseringen i Sverige (SIS)
Address:

P.O. Box 6455, 11381 Stockholm, Sweden

Telephone:

+ 46 (0)8-6103000

Fax:

+ 46 (0)8-307757

E-mail:

info@sis.se

Internet:

www.sis.se

UNITED KINGDOM
British Standards Institution (BSI)
Address:

389 Chiswick High Road, London W4 4AL,


United Kingdom

Telephone:

+ 44 (0)208 996 90 00

Fax:

+ 44 (0)208 996 74 00

E-mail:

info@bsi.org.uk

Internet:

www.bsi.org.uk

APPENDIX 3 SOURCES OF PRICE INFORMATION


International Trade Centre (ITC)
MNS Medicinal Plants & Extracts
Address:

Palais des Nations, P.O. Box 10,


1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland

Telephone:

+ 41 (0)227300111

Fax:

+ 41 (0)227334439

E-mail:

itcreg@intracen.org

Internet:

www.intracen.org

Agra Europe Ltd.


publisher of 'The Public Ledger'
Address:

80 Calverly Road, Tumbridge Wells, Kent,

TN1 2 UN, United Kingdom


Telephone:

+ 44 (0)1892533813

Fax:

+ 44 (0)1892 544895

E-mail:

marketing@public-Iedger.com

Internet:

www.public-ledger.com

INTERNET
Herb crop shop
(at Herb Growing and Marketing Network)
www.herbworld.com/cropshop
Sites for retail prices for herbal materials include:

www.herbmarket.com/

http://libertynatural.com

APPENDIX 4 TRADE ASSOCIATIONS


AESGP Association of the European Self-Medication Industry
(At the site you can find contact details of EU national organisations)
Address:

7 Avenue de Tervuren, B-I040 Brussels, Belgium

Telephone:

+ 32 (0)2 735 51 30

Fax:

+ 32 (0)2 735 52 22

E-mail:

info@aesgp.be

Internet:

www.aesgp.be

European Federation of Pharmaceucial Industries and Associations


Address:

Avenue Louise, 250, Box 91,


B-1050 Brussels, Belgium

Telephone:

+ 32 (0)26262555

Fax:

+ 32 (0)26262566

E-mail:

info@efpia.org

Internet:

www.efpia.org

The European Pharmaceutical Wholesaler Association (GIRP)


Address:

Avenue de Broqueville 40. B-1200 Brussels,


Belgium

Telephone:

+ 32 (0)2777 9977

Fax:

+ 32 (0)2 777 3601

E-mail:

euro.keys@euro-keys.com

Internet:

www.girp.org or www.euro-keys.com

A source of useful addresses is the Internet site of GIRP


(The European Association of Pharmaceutical Wholesalers)
(http://www.girp.org/).
European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP)
Address:

Argyle House, Gandy Street, Exeter, Devon, EX4 3LS, United Kingdom

Telephone:

+ 44 (0)1392424626

Fax:

+ 44 (0)1392424864

Internet:

www.exeter.ac.uk/phytonet/escop.html

Naredi
Federation
Address:

Zavelput 7, 1000 Brussel, Belgium

Telephone:

+ 32 (0)2 2186679

Fax:

+ 32 (0)2 2177900

Email:

info@naredi.be

Internet:

www.naredi.be

Nehoma
Association of Netherlands producers and importers of phytomedicines
Address:

Uiterwaardenstraat 13,8081 HJ Elburg, The Netherlands

Telephone:

+ 31 (0)525686001

Fax:

+ 31 (0)525685905

Email:

info@nehoma.nl

Internet:

www.nehoma.nl

Neprofarm
Association of the Netherlands Self-Medication Industry
Address:

P.O. Box 27, 1270 AA Huizen, The Netherlands

Telephone:

+ 31 (0)35 6970821

Fax:

+ 31 (0)35 6970822

E-mail:

info@neprofann.nl

Internet:

www.neprofann.nl

Natuur & Gezondheidsproducten Nederlands (NPN)


Address:

P.O. Box 373, 3850 AJ Ermelo, The Netherlands

Telephone:

+ 31 (0)341 554023

Fax:

+ 31 (0)341561772

E-mail:

secretariaat@natuur-gezondheidsproducten.nl

Internet:

www.natuur-gezondheidsproducten.nl/

MEDICINAL PLANTS AND THE DISEASES THAT THEY TREAT

Quinidine, suppresser of out-of-sequence heartbeats from the bark of Cinchona sp.

quinine, antimalarial from Cinchona sp.

pilocarpine, glaucoma treatment from Brazilian Pilocarpus sp.

picrotoxin, used worldwide as a nervous system stimulant from Anamirta sp.

L-Dopa, treating Parkinson's disease from Mucuna sp.

bromelain, anti-inflammatory from pineapple Ananas sp.

scopolamine, sedative from Datura sp.

digitalin and digoxin, heart drugs from foxglove Digitalis sp.

atropine, powerful pupil-dilator from belladonna Atropa sp.

curare, muscle relaxant (notably used in surgery) from Chondrodendron sp.

ephedrine, decongestant from Chinese Ephedra sp.

ipecac, emetic and dysentery cure from Central American Cephaelis spp.

sennosides, laxative from Senna sp.

MEDICINAL PLANTS USED FOR TRADITIONAL TREATMENTS


1. Tuberculosis is the number-one cause of death; traditional treatments include:

Alepidea amatymbica

Helichrysum capitatum with Scabiosa columbaria

Casearia aspera (which is reported to be as psychotropic as Cannabis sativa)


2. Most common diseases:
Upper respiratory tract infections

(Lengana) Artemisia afra for common colds and coughs

Skin infections

Dicoma anomala
Wounds and sores

Geranium caffrum for clean wounds


3. Diarrhoea and vomiting (in children)

.Geranium caffrum and oral

FLUIDS
4. General body aches and pains; arthritis and rheumatism

Malva parviflora
5. Hypertension/diabetes

Sutherlandia frutescens

Trifolium burchelianum

Melolobiun alpinium

Tephrosia semiglabra

Malawi
1. Malaria

Aristolochia petersiana
2. Anaemia

Alternative Eulophia species


3. Respiratory tract infection, e.g., pneumonia

Cassia petersiana bolle


4. Diarrhoea

Acalypha sinensis
5. Childhood diseases, such as measles

Ceratotheca sesamoides
6. Sexually transmitted diseases (general)

Tamarindus indica

Syphilis

Cassia petersiana

Zambia
1. Malaria

Dialiopsis Africana

Pterocarpus angolensis
2. Upper respiratory tract infection(bronchitis)

Mangifera indica
3. Diarrhoea

Mangifera indica with Cassia abbreviate


3. Malnutrition

Pterocarpus angolensis is used to treat mouth ulcers in malnutrition


4. Sexually transmitted diseases (gonorrhoea)

Erythrina abyssinica

United Republic of Tanzania


1. Malaria

Cinchona succirubra

Cinchona ledgeriana

Cinchona hybrid

Artemisa afra

Azadirachta indica
2. Diabetes mellitus

Centella asiatica

Runex urambarensis
3. Epilepsy

Hyptis suaveolens

Vismianthus punctatus

Ficus bursei
4. Gonorrhoea

Ozoroa mucronata

Markhania obtusfolia
5. Asthma

Grewia sulcata

APPENDIX 6 TRADE PRESS


GERMANY
Drogenreport
Addresss:

Artemisia e.V., StraBe am Westbahnhof,


06556 Artern/Thuringen. Germany

Telephone:

+ 49 (0)34663256-14

Fax:

+ 49 (0)3466 3256-20

Zeitschrift fr Arznei- und Gewrzpflanzen


Addresss:

Agrimedia GmbH. Spithal 4,


D- 29468 Bergen/Dumme, Germany

Telephone:

+ 49 (0)58459881-0

Fax:

+ 49 (0)58459881-11

E-mail:

mail@agrimedia.com

Internet:

www.agrimedia.com

ITALY
AGRO food INDUSTRY
Addresss:

Teknoscienze, Via Aurelio Saffi 23,


20123 Milan, Italy

Telephone:

+ 39024818011

Fax:

+ 39024818070

E-mail:

mickycar@tin.it

Internet:

www.teknoscienze.com

Fitoterapia

Addresss:

Indena S.p.A. -Viale Ortles,


12- 20139 Milano, Italy

Telephone:

+ 3902 574961

Fax:

+ 390257404620

E-mail:

indenami@tin.it

Internet:

www.indena.it/fitotrp.htm

UNITED KINGDOM
European Journal of Herbal Medicine
National Institute of Medical Herbalists
Addresss:

56 Longbrook Street, Exeter.


Devon EX4 6AH. United Kingdom

Telephone:

+ 44 (0) 1392 426022

Fax:

+ 44 (0)1392498963

E-mail:

editor@ejhm.co.uk

Internet:

www.ejhm.co.uk

Nutraceuticals International
Addresss:

54-55 Wilton Road, London SWIV IDE,


United Kingdom

Telephone:

+ 44 (0)20 7828 7272

Fax:

+ 44 (0)2078280415

E-mail:

editorial@marketletter.com

Review of Aromatic and Medicinal Plants


Address:

CAB International, Wallingford Oxfordshire,


OX10 8DE, United Kingdom

Telephone:

+44 (0)1491 832111

Fax:

+44 (0)1491 833508

E-mail:

cabi@cabi.org

Internet:

http://hort.cabweb.org/Arornatic/ramphome.htm

INTERNATIONAL
Herbalgram American Botanical Council
Addresss: P.O. Box 144 345, Austin, TX 78714-4345,
USA
Telephone:

1-512-926-4900

Fax:

1-512-926-2345

Internet:

www.herbalgram.org

Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants

Address:

The Haworth Herbal Press, 10 Alice Street,


Binghamton, New York 13904-1580, USA

Telephone:

+ 1 607 722 5857

Fax:

+ 1 6077226362

E-mail:

getinfo@haworthpressinc.com

Internet:

www.haworthpressinc.com

Nutrition Business Journal


Address:

P.O. Box 371769, San Diego, CA 92116-1769,


USA

Telephone:

+ 16192957685

Fax:

+ I 6192955743

E-mail:

info@nutritionbusiness.com

Internet:

www.nutritionbusiness.com

An interesting source of magazines in the field of medicinal herbs


is www.herbnet.com/press_p5.htm
APPENDIX 7 OTHER USEFUL ADDRESSES
CBI/Accesguide
(CBI's database on European non-tariff trade barriers)
Address:

P.O. Box 30009, 3001 DA Rotterdam,


The Netherlands

Telephone:

+31 (0)102013434

Fax:

+31 (0)104114081

Email:

cbi@accessguide.nl

Internet:

www.cbi.nl/accessguide

Committee for the Assessment of Phytomedicines


Address:

Van Hoornestraat 2, 2581 VG Den Haag,


The Netherlands

Telephone:

+ 31 (0)703587528

Fax:

+ 31 (0)703587528

Internet:

www.ctf.nl

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species


of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)
Address:

International Environment House, 15, chemin


des Anemones, CH-1219 Chatelaine-Geneva,
Switzerland.

Telephone:

+41 (0)229178139/40

Fax:

+ 41 (0)22 797 3417

E-mail:

cites@unep.ch

Internet:

www.cites.org

FI Data Services (www.ingridnet.com)


Address:

MK Distribution Centre, Bradbourne Drive,


Tilbrook, Milton Keynes MK7 8BN,
United Kingdom

Telephone:

+ 44 (0)1908365200

Fax:

+ 44 (0)1908265252

E-mail:

fids@btinternet.corn

Internet:

www.ingridnet.corn

Earthscan Publication Ltd.


Address:

120 Pentonville Road, London, N1 9 JN,


United Kingdom

Telephone:

+ 44 (0)20 7278 0433

Fax:

+ 44 (0)207278 1142

E-mail:

earthinfo@earthscan.co.uk

Internet:

www.earthscan.co.uk

European Advisory Services (EAS)


Avisory company specialising in European and international food and nutrition policy (incl.
herbal supplements).
Address:

50, Rue de l' Association, B-I000 Brussels, Belgium

Telephone:

+32 (0)2218 1470

Fax:

+ 32 (0)2219 7342

E-mail:

info@icmap.org

Internet:

www.eas.be

European Directorate for the Quality of Medicine


Address:

Council of Europe, B.P. 907, F-67029Stnlsbourg, France

Telephone:

+ 33 (0)388412883

Fax:

+ 33 (0)38841 2771

E-mail:

info@pheur.org

Internet:

www.pheur.org

Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)


Address:

Ac Avenida Hidalgo 502, 68000 Oaxaca,


Mexico

Telephone:

+ 52 (0)95146905

Fax:

+52(0)95162110

Email:

fscoax@fscoax.org

Internet:

www.fscoax.org

GTZ Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Technische


Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH
Address:

Dag-Hammarskjold-Weg 1-5,
65760 Echborn, Germany

Telephone:

+ 49 (0)619679-0

Fax:

+ 49 (0)619679-1115

E-mail:

postmaster@gtz.de

Internet:

www.gtz.de

International Chamber of Commerce


Address:

38, Cours Albert ler, 75008 Paris, France

Telephone:

+ 33 (0)1 4953 2828

Fax:

+ 33 (0)149532942

E-mail:

icc@iccwbo.org

Internet:

www.iccwbo.org

Netherlands Association for Phytotherapy


Address:

Rijksstraatweg 158,6573 00 Beek-Ubbergen,


The Netherlands

Telephone:

+ 31 (0)246844301

Fax:

+ 31 (0)246844301

Email:

nvf@fyto.nl

Internet:

www.fyto.nl

Skal (internationally operating organisation. inspecting and certifying sustainable


agricultural production methods and products)
Address:

P.O. Box 384, 8000 AJ Zwolle,


The Netherlands

Telephone:

+ 31 (0)384268181

Fax:

+ 31 (0)384213063

E-mail:

info@skal.com

Internet:

www.skal.com

Traffic Europe (Joint wildlife trade monitoring programme of WWF and IUCN)
Address:

Waterloosteenweg 608, 1050 Brussels,


Belgium

Telephone:

+ 32 (0)2 343 8258

Fax:

+ 32 (0)2 343 2565

E-mail:

traffic_europe@cornpuserve.com

Internet:

www.traffic.org

International Council for Medicinal And Aromatic Plants


Address:

51 Boulevard de Montmorency, F-75016 Paris, France

E-mail:

info@icmap.org

Internet:

www.icmap.org

LIST OF MAJOR IMPORTERS FOR MEDICINAL & AROMATIC PLANTS


1. Alfred Galke
Address:

Postfach 1120, 37535 Gittelde, Germany

Telephone:

+ 49 (0)5327 86810

Fax:

+ 49 (0)5327 5420

E-mail:

info@galke.com

Internet:

www.galke.com

2. Bionorica Arzneimittel GmbH


Phytotherapy.
Address:

Kerschensteinerstr. 11-15, 0-92318 Neumarkt,


Germany

Telephone:

+ 49 (0)9181 23190

Fax:

+ 49 (0)9181231265

E-mail:

info@bionorica.de

Internet:

www.bionorica.de

3. Buchler GmbH
Trading house for quinine
Address:

Harxbutteler StraBe 3,
0-38110 Braunschweig, Germany

Telephone:

+ 49 (0)5307 93121

Fax:

+ 49 (0)5307 93131

E-mail:

reineche@buchler-gmbh.com

Internet:

www.guinine-buchler.com

4. Cealo (Caesar & Lorentz)


Address:

Herderstrasse 31, 40721 Hilden, Germany

Telephone:

+ 49 (0)210349940

Fax:

+ 49 (0)228 4220593

E-mail:

info@cealo.des

5. DHU
Homeopathy
Address:

Postfach 410280, 76202 Karlsruhe, Germany

Telephone:

+ 49 (0)721409301

Fax:

+ 49 (0)7214093263

E-mail:

info@dhu.de

Internet:

www.dhu.de

6. Finzelberg
Bio-extracts for the pharmaceutical industry.
Address:

Koblenzer Str. 48-56, Andernach, 56626,


Germany

Telephone:

+ 49 (0)2632 9240

Fax:

+ 49 (0)2632 924040

E-mail:

welcome@finzelberg.de

Internet:

www.finzelberg.de

7. Gehrlicher
Produce all galeric forms of phyto-extracts from more than
400 medicinal and useful plants for the pharmaceutical
cosmetic and food industry.
Address:

Robert-Koch Str. 5, Eurasburg, 82547,


Germany

Telephone:

+ 49 (0)81798015

Fax:

+ 49 (0)8179 778

E-mail:

gehrlicher .extracts@t-online.de

Internet:

www.gehrlicher.de

8. General Extract Products


Manufactures and sells botanical extracts utilised as
ingredients in the production of food, health and
pharmaceutical products.
Address:

Brauereiweg 19, Flensburg, 24939, Germany

Telephone:

+ 49 (0)4614902076

Fax:

+ 49 (0)461 4902077

E-mail:

generalextractproducts@t-online.de

Internet:

www.generalextractQroducts.com

9. Kaden Biochemicals GmbH


Botanical substances, rare sugars and special extracts.
Address:

Porgesring 50, 0-22113 Hamburg, Germany

Telephone:

+ 49 (0)40 736045-0

Fax:

+ 49 (0)40 736045-45

E-mail:

kaden.bio@t-online.de

Internet:

www.kaden.de

10. Henry Lamotte GmbH


Trading house for quinine.
Address:

P.O. Box 103849, 0-28038 Bremen, Germany

Telephone:

+ 49 (0)4215239-0

Fax:

+ 49 (0)4215239-199

E-mail:

info@lamotte.de

Internet:

www.lamotte.de

11. Lichtwer Pharma AG


Pharmaceutical producer, specialising in plant remediesphytopharmaceuticals.
Address:

Wallenroder Str. 8-10, 13435 Berlin, Germany

Telephone:

+ 49 (0)3040370-0

Fax:

+ 49 (0)30 40370103

Internet:

www.lichtwer.de

12. Madaus AG
Development and manufacture of modern
phytopharmaceuticals.
Address:

Ostmerheimer Str. 198,51109 Koln, Germany

Telephone:

+ 49 (0)2218998-0

Fax:

+ 49 (0)2218998- 701

E-mail:

info@madaus.de

Internet:

www.madaus.de

13. Martin Bauer GmbH & Co. KG


Bio-extracts for the pharmaceutical industry.
Address:

Dutendorfer Str. 5- 7,
D-91487 Vestenbergsgreuth, Germany

Telephone:

+ 49 (0) 9163-88-0

Fax:

+ 49 (0) 9163-88-312

E-mail:

welcome@martin-bauer.de

Internet:

www.martin-bauer.de

14. Ratiopharm GmbH


Medicins.
Address:

Graf-Arco-Str. 3,89079 Ulm, Germany

Telephone:

+ 49 (0)73140202

Fax:

+ 49 (0)731402532

E-mail:

info@ratiopharm.de

Internet:

www.ratiopharm.de

15. Salus-Haus
Address:

Bahnhofstrasse 24, D-83052 Bruckmuhl,


Germany

Telephone:

+ 49 (0)8062 9010

Fax:

+ 49 (0)8062 9147

E-mail:

info@salus.de

Internet:

www.salus.de

16. Spreewald-Pharma GmbH


Phytopharmaceuticals.
Address:

Kuschkower StraBe 9, D-15910 Groditsch,


Germany

Telephone:

+ 49 (0)7614909161

Fax:

+ 49 (0)7614909125

E-mail:

info@spreewald-pharma.de

Internet:

www.spreewald-pharma.de

17. Weleda AG
Medicins and skincare products.
Address:

Postfach 1320, 73503 schwabisch Gmund,


Germany

Telephone:

+ 49 (0)7171919-414

Fax:

+ 49 (0)7171919-424

E-mail:

dialog@Weleda.de

Internet:

www.weleda.de

18. Abtswinder Naturheilmittel GmbH & Co. KG


GewurzstraBe 1-3
D-97355
Abtswind
Germany
+49 (09383) 97110
+49 (0 93 83) 22 10
19. Hellmuth Carroux GmbH & Co.
Hamburger StraBe 11
D-20304
Hamburg
Germany
+49 (0 40) 3 55 39 00
+49 (0 40) 35 53 90 33

20.
Finzelberg
Koblenzer
D-56603
Andernach
Germany
+49
(0
+49 (0 26 32) 92 40 40

GmbH
Stra8e

26

32)

&

Co.

24

KG
48-56

00

21. Daniel Groz Soehne KG


GrngrabenstraBe 52-54
D-72458
Albstadt
Germany
+49 (07431) 93540
+49 (0 74 31) 93 54 80
22. ISO-Arzneimlttel GmbH & Co. KG
Bunsenstra8e 6-10
D-76258
Ettlingen
Germany
+49 (0 72 43) 1 06 03
+49 (0 72 43) 10 61 69
23. Kampmann GmbH
Bremer StraBe 23
D-49794
Lingen
Germany
+49 (05 91) 7 10 80
+49 (05 91) 7 10 83 00
24. Nichimen Europe plc
Am Wehrhahn 33/Wehrhahn-CenterD-40090
Dusseldorf
Germany
+49 (02 11) 3 55 10
+49 (02 11) 3 55 11 50

25.
Bosslerweg
D-73087
Bad
Germany

Wala-Heilmittel

GmbH
2
Boll

+49
+49 (0 7164) 9302 96

(07164)

26. WEIMER PHARMA GmbH


Im Steingerust 30
D-76414
Rastatt
Germany
+49 (0 72 22) 50 40
+49 (0 72 22) 5 24 78
APPENDIX 9
LIST OF MOSTIMPORTANT EU IMPORTERS

9300

ITALY
Aboca di V. Mercati s.s. Az. Agraria
Address:

Loc. Aboca 20, 1-52037 Sansepolcro (AR),


Italy

Telephone:

+ 3905757461

Fax:

+ 390575749130

E-mail:

info@aboca.it

Internet:

www.aboca.it

Bonomelli Srl
Address:

Via Mattei 6, 40069 Zola Predosa (Bologna),


Italy

Telephone:

+ 390516170411

Fax:

+ 39051750571

E-Mail:

info@bonomelli.it

Internet:

www.bonomelli.it

Hammer Pharma
Herbal extracts.
Address:

Via Galileo Ferraris 44, Caronno Pertusella,


21042, Italy

Telephone:

+ 39029665121

Fax:

+ 390296651250

E-mail:

hammer@hammerpharma.it

Internet:

www.hammerpharma.it

Indena
Address:

Viale Ortles No.12, Milan 20139, Italy

Telephone:

+ 3902574961

Fax:

+ 3902 57496290

Internet:

www.indena.it

SPAIN
Extractos Natra
Producer of plant extracts, imports raw material
mainly from West Africa.
Address:

Camino de los Hornillos s/n,


46930 Quart de Poblet, Valencia, Spain

Telephone:

+ 34 (0)961920851152

Fax:

+ 34 (0)96 1920445

Internet:

www.natra-group.com

Laboratorios Dr. Vinyals S.A.


Address:

C/Granada, 21-25, ES-08740 Sant Andreu de


la Barca, Spain

Telephone:

+ 34 (0)93 682 06 68

Fax:

+ 34 (0)936821647

E-mail:

lab@vinyals.com

Internet:

www.vinyals.com

UNITED KINGDOM
de Blac and Associates
Interest in trading with primary producers and
refiners of any natural products.
Address:

West Wing, Flint Hill House, Winwick,


Northants NN6 7PA, United Kingdom

Telephone:

+ 44 (0)1788510058

Fax:

+ 44 (0)1788510057

E-mail:

sales@deblac.com

Internet:

www.deblac.com

48
Buckton Scott Group (B.S.G.)
Multi-national organisation active in manufacturing.
Address:

Black Horse House, Bentalls,


Pipps Hill Estate, Basildon, Essex. SS14 3BX,
United Kingdom

Telephone:

+ 44-(0) 1702 560600

Fax:

+ 44 (0) 1702 560606

E-mail:

info@buckton.co.uk

Internet:

www.buckton.com

StanChem International
Trading house for quinine.
Address:

4, Kings Road, Reading, RGI 3AA,


United Kingdom

Telephone:

+ 44 (0)1189580247

Fax:

+ 44 (0)1189589580

E-mail:

info@stanchem.co.uk

Internet:

www.stanchem.co.uk

Vitabiotics Ltd.
Interest in plant extracts.
Address:

Beresford Avenue, Wembley,


Middlesex HAO INU, United Kingdom

Telephone:

+ 44 (0)20 8902 4455

Fax:

+ 44 (0)20 8902 4466

E-mail:

enquiries@vitabiotics.com

Internet:

www.vitabiotics.com

NETHERLANDS
American Sport
Manufacturer of food supplements, interest in plant
extracts.
Address:

P.O. Box 2783, 1000 CT Amsterdam,


The Netherlands

Telephone:

+ 31 (0)204350010

Fax:

+ 31 (0)204350018

E-mail:

info@vitamins.nl

Internet:

www.vitamins.nl

Arnold Suhr Nederland International B.V.


Medicinal and aromatic plants, powdered extracts,
Natural colours.
Address:

P.O. Box 6024,3600 HA Maarssen,


The Netherlands

Telephone:

+ 31 (0)302481010

Fax:

+ 31 (0)30 2414636

E-mail:

sales.dept.purchase@arnoldsuhr.nl

Internet:

www.arnoldsuhr.nl

Banner Pharmacaps Europe B.V.


Manufacturer of food supplements, imports raw
materials via agents
Address:

P.O. Box 5037,5004 EA Tilburg,


The Netherlands

Telephone:

+ 31 (0)134624100

Fax:

+ 31 (0)134624124

E-mail:

info@banpharm.com

internet:

www.banpharm.com

Biohorma
Raw plant material and plant extracts.
Address:

P.O. Box, 8080 AA Elburg, The Netherlands

Telephone:

+ 31 (0)525 687200

Fax:

+ 31 (0)525 683932

E-mail:

info@biohorma.nl

Internet:

www.biohorma.nl

Caldic Chemie B.V.


Works via partnerships and representation, the
natural products part of their business is modest, plant
extracts (ginseng, ginkgo biloba).
Address:

P.O. Box 21122,3001 AC Rotterdam,


The Netherlands

Telephone:

+ 31 (0)'94136420

Fax:

+ 31 (0)104047458

E-mail:

verkoop@caldic.nl

Internet:

www.caldic.nl

Jan Dekker International B.V.


Plant extracts.
Address:

P.O. Box 10,1520 AA Whomerveer,


The Netherlands

Telephone:

+ 31 (0)756479999

Fax:

+ 31 (0)75 6403830

E-mail:

jandekkernl@jandekker.com

Internet:

www.jandekker.com

BELGIUM
ORFFA Belgium Pharma B.V.
Provide a range of value-added specialist products to
the feed industry.
Address:

Industriepark, Ambachtsstraat 6,
B.1840 Londerzeel, Belgium

Telephone:

+ 32 (0)52319519

Fax:

+ 32 (0)52304275

Internet:

www.orffa.be

FRANCE
Arkopharma
Health care with plants.
Address:

Laboratories Pharmaceutiques, BP 28,

F-06511 Carros Cedex. France


Telephone:

+ 33 (0)49329 1128

E-mail:

info@arkopharma.corn

Internet:

www.arkopharma.corn

Barkem
Pure chemistry and vegetable extraction for pharmaceutical.
cosmetical and food industry.
Address:

"Le Marais Quest", F-24680 Gardonne,


France

Telephone:

+ 33 (0)553638106

Fax:

+ 33 (0)5 5327 0345

E-mail:

broken@berkern.corn

Internet:

www.berkern.corn

Guava tropical
Raw material importation, formulations in France,
worldwide trade and exclusive distributions.
Address:

55, Rue Traverse, 75012 Paris, France

Telephone:

+ 33 (0)143465243

Fax:

+ 33 (0)143461898

E-r nail:

info@guayapi.com

Internet:

www.guayapi.com

46
INDIA TRADE PROMOTION ORGANISATION
FRANKFURT
Services to Indian Trade & Industry

Advising regarding the participation in suitable trade fairs in EU countries

Responding to Trade Enquiries, locating Trade Leads, arranging European buyers


profiles, for Indian Producers/suppliers.

Visitor Promotion of Trade Fairs Conferences organized by Export Promotion Councils,


Trade Bodies etc.

Dissemination of trade related information in specific products & services as per the
requirements of Indian manufacturers

Identifying agents, Publicity Consultants, Designers etc. in Europe for specific


requirements of Indian producers

Facilitation services for the Visiting Indian Trade & Industry

Organizing Buyers Seller Meets with 4-5 month prior intimation from EPCs in India