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> From East to West Séquence 2-AN01 41 © Cned – Académie en ligne

> From East to West

Séquence 2-AN01

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C h a p i t r e 1 > C i v i l

Chapitre 1

> Civilisation et culture

 
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Chapitre 2

>

Texte 1: The Encounter

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Chapitre 3

> Prononciation et vocabulaire

 
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Chapitre 4

>

Grammaire

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Chapitre 5

>

Méthodologie : expression écrite

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Chapitre 6

>

Présentation orale du texte

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Chapitre 7

>

Civilisation: the native Americans

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Chapitre 8

> Texte 2 : Talking God

 
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Chapitre 9

>

Commentaire oral: Talking God

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ontenu de la séquence 2
ontenu de la séquence 2

The Myth of the West

C ette seconde séquence continue l’enseignement culturel de la classe de Terminale par l’étude d’un mythe déterminant pour la formation de l’esprit américain : la conquête de l’Ouest.

Alors que sur la côte est, les « Pères Fondateurs » des Etats-Unis, réunis à Philadelphie, s’efforcent de construire les fondations démocratiques du nouvel état, les immigrants quittent la côte est pour s’engager vers l’Ouest.

L’ouest du Mississippi, pays sauvage, peuplé d’Indiens, de trappeurs et de hors-la-loi, voit arriver des colons qui transforment les vastes plaines à bisons en élevages de bétail, repoussant toujours plus loin la frontière entre « sauvagerie et civilisation », tandis que les Indiens meurent et que les bisons disparaissent.

Civilisation et culture

From East to West – Western expansion – The Native Americans

Compréhension orale

The Oregon Trail

Compréhension écrite

The Encounter

Talking God

Expression orale

Présenter un document iconographique An Encounter : présentation orale Talking God : présentation orale Prononciation en groupes de souffle

Expression écrite

Écrire un récit d’un autre point de vue

Méthodologie

Comment utiliser le dictionnaire

Compétence linguistique

Traduction de could, as Le plus-que-parfait Auxiliaires modaux

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Civilisation and culture
Civilisation and culture
Civilisation and culture Task On the East Coast: the ideals of 1789 Read the information and

Task

On the East Coast: the ideals of 1789

Read the information and study the documents

ideals of 1789 Read the information and study the documents 1789 in America: George Washington was

1789 in America: George Washington was elected the first US President.

In the year of the French Revolution, Washington proved to be a man of his time, representing its ideas of freedom and justice.

In 1787, he had been one of America’s Founding Fathers who drafted the First World’s first written constitution in Philadelphia.

The Founding Fathers firmly believed in democracy.

The foundation of the United States is built on 3 written documents: the Declaration of Independence of 1776, the Constitution of the United States in 1787 followed by the amendments of 1789, known

as The Bill of Rights.

Read some extracts below to begin to understand what drives the Americans.

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Déclaration des droits de l’homme et du citoyen,

The Constitution of the United States, 1787

 

The Bill of Rights, 1789

26 August 1789 by the French Assemblée Constituante.

We the People of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America …

Amendment I

Article premier

Congress shall make no law respect- ing an establishment of religion, or

Les hommes naissent et demeurent libres et égaux en droits. Les distinc- tions sociales ne peuvent être fondées que sur l’utilité commune.

prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech,

or

of the press …

Article 2

Amendment II

Le but de toute association politique

 

A

well-regulated Militia, being neces-

est la conservation des droits naturels et imprescriptibles de l’homme. Ces droits sont la liberté, la propriété, la sûreté et la résistance à l’oppression.

sary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.

La Déclaration des Droits de L’Homme et du Citoyen was inspired from the American Declaration of

Independence and the philosophers of the 18th century.

of Independence and the philosophers of the 18th century. Mount Rushmore The four figures carved in

Mount Rushmore

The four figures carved in stone on Mount Rushmore represent the first 150 years of American history. They are the faces of four popular American presidents: George Washington,Thomas Jefferson,Theodore Roosevelt and Abraham Lincoln.

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Lincoln. 48 Séquence 2-AN01 © Cned – Académie en ligne Portrait de Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) Bouch

Portrait de Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) Bouch © Photo RMN- © Daniel Arnaudet

Thomas Jefferson, the third president of the United States (1801-1809) was one of the Founding Fathers. It was he who drafted and signed the Declaration of Independence. He was close to the French, having once lived in Paris in 1785 as minister to France where he succeeded Benjamin Franklin. He is said to have helped draft the Déclaration des Droits de l’Homme, influenced by American, French and European revolutionary ideas of the time.

When the Constitution of the United States was announced he declared that it was a standing monument and a permanent example for other peoples. He

wrote: “It is impossible not to sense that we are acting for all mankind ”.

Answer the following questions

a) Compare the American Declaration of Independence and the French Déclaration des Droits de l’Homme et du Citoyen on page 84. Underline the words that have the same meaning in French and in English. Underline the important element that belongs to the American document and not to the French one.

b) Studying the Amendments to the Constitution would you say that in the United States the State is separated from religion?

c) American people today believe they have a right to own firearms. How do they justify this?

Task

Western expansion from1803: the Manifest Destiny

Read the information and study the illustrations CANADA WASHINGTON MINNESOTA MONTANA NORTH DAKOTA OREGON PACIFIC
Read the information and study the illustrations
CANADA
WASHINGTON
MINNESOTA
MONTANA
NORTH DAKOTA
OREGON
PACIFIC
SOUTH DAKOTA
IDAHO
WYOMING
OCEAN
IOWA
NEBRASKA
NEVADA
UTAH
COLORADO
KANSAS
MISSOURI
CALIFORNIA
OKLAHOMA
ARKANSAS
ARIZONA
NEW MEXICO
TEXAS
LOUISIANA
MEXICO
ARKANSAS ARIZONA NEW MEXICO TEXAS LOUISIANA MEXICO In 1803, Jefferson was quite pleased when Napoléon, in

In 1803, Jefferson was quite pleased when Napoléon, in a surprise move, offered the whole Louisiana territory to the Americans for 15 million dollars. Overnight, the United States territory was doubled, growing by about one million square miles, from Mississippi to the Rockies and from the Gulf of Mexico to Canada.

The Manifest Destiny was a belief that started shortly after the purchase of Louisiana and grew strongly during the war against Mexico (1846-1848). It was believed that the United States were inevitably fated to extend their border to the Pacific Ocean and to expand both north and south as well. It was by divine providence that the destiny of the new country was to be a model of civilisation and democracy for the rest of the world to follow. The war of the democratic United States against the ex-Spanish colony of Mexico, which was always claiming land and creating conflicts on the border, was therefore justified. The USA were victorious and Mexico stayed within its present border. Mexico gave up Nevada, Utah and part of Colorado, the former Mexican territories of Texas, California, Arizona, New Mexico, to the United States.

Meanwhile the immigrants kept flooding in as gold was discovered in California in 1848. Between California and the East Coast remained an awful lot of land.

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Fill in the blanks and answer the question

a) Find and underline the English for the following words:

croyance :

l’achat :

destiné :

frontière :

s’étendre :

arriver en masse :

b) Quote the sentence which may explain why some Americans believe their society is an example for the rest of the world.

Check your answers.

Task

The dream of land made real

Read the information BRITISH NORTH AMERICA Ft. Vancouver Withman's mission UNORGANIZED Astoria Portland
Read the information
BRITISH NORTH AMERICA
Ft.
Vancouver Withman's mission
UNORGANIZED
Astoria
Portland
TERRITORY
MINNESOTA
Willamette
TERRITORY
Valley
OREGON
Ft. Boise
Ft. Hall
TERRITORY
South
pass
IOWA
Ft. Laramie
Ft. Bridger
Ft. Kearny
UTAH TERRITORY
San-Francisco
Independance
CALIFORNIA
OREGON TRAIL
0
100
200 Miles
Independance CALIFORNIA OREGON TRAIL 0 100 200 Miles CURRENT POLITICAL BOUNDARIES Between 1840 and 1865, more

CURRENT POLITICAL BOUNDARIES

Between 1840 and 1865, more than half a million people went west, the Oregon Trail was one of their routes.

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routes. 50 Séquence 2-AN01 © Cned – Académie en ligne Portrait de Abraham Lincoln © AKG-images

Portrait de Abraham Lincoln © AKG-images

The fourth president of the United States: Abraham Lincoln (elected in 1860) was responsible for various Land Acts. Lincoln saw that the Union was fragile. He wanted improvement and expansion. In Séquence 3 we will study his involvement against slavery in the United States.

He also believed that the survival of his nation was westward expansion. While the towns of the East Coast were becoming increasingly crowded and industrialised, Lincoln ensured that settlers would go west and become farm- ers. Land acts were made to avoid land speculation and ensure settlement. The Homestead Act of 1862 gave 160 acres of land to any settler willing to farm western land for a five-year minimum.

Meanwhile, the Transcontinental railroad from the Atlantic to the Pacific was completed in 1864, settlers could now move west in six days.

Answer the question

From what you have read so far give three reasons why the west attracted the American people. Underline the corresponding passages in the short text. Quote the text.

Check your answers.

Task

Pioneers versus Native Americans

Read the information and complete the texts with one of the following words:

(For the text about buffalo): grazing, estimated, food, clothing, bred, zoologist, explorers, areas.

(For the text about Indians): friendly, westward, reservations, Red Skins, extermination, invasion, butch- ered, defeated, massacres.

extermination, invasion, butch- ered, defeated, massacres. Affiche du film “The Oregon Trail“ (1936) © AKG-images.

Affiche du film “The Oregon Trail“ (1936) © AKG-images.

The Western has ensured our vision of the Indians as savages in search of scalps and tortures around totems.

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“Indian hunting buffalos“ wood cut, coloured, after a painting by George Catlin (1796-1872) © AKG-images

“Indian hunting buffalos“ wood cut, coloured, after a painting by George Catlin (1796-1872) © AKG-images

Buffalo

the great plains and the mountain described them as “number-num-

berless” and the country was “one black robe” and the “plains were black and appeared as if in motion”.

Their number was

Buffalo were life for the Native Americans providing them with and spiritual inspiration.

Buffalo once roamed from Canada to Mexico, Their number was so great that early

as 60 million.

, shelter,

By 1893, a

estimated

their number at around 300.

Today they are

for

wildlife parks or for meat. They are some 150,000 bisons.

Indians

They have been called

or Indians. When the Europeans came there were probably

10 million Indians north of present-day Mexico. At first they were

but as the Whites

became more and more numerous they were pushed

European diseases, alcohol,

the

of

the buffalo which was their food supply, the

of their land,

their

through constant fights with soldiers and settlers soon saw their complete

defeat.

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Although the Indians fought back and

after the

American troops (Lilttle Big Horn in 1876).,

of 1890 at Wounded Knee where 300 children, woman and men were

, they accepted their fate realizing their near extermination. They ended in Indian created by the Federal Government.

the

Check your work now.

What’s on the Internet?

http://www.americanwest.com/

Films

Nous vous conseillons vivement de voir et revoir quelques westerns, ainsi que le film de Kevin Costner :

Dances with Wolves (1990)

Voici quelques westerns restés célèbres et les noms de leurs réalisateurs :

Rio Grande, 1950, John Ford High Noon, 1952, Fred Zinnemann Rio Bravo, 1959, Howard Hawks

How the West Was Won, 1962, John Ford A Fistful of Dollars, 1964, Sergio Leone

Jeremiah Johnson, 1972, Sidney Pollack

Task

Listening comprehension

The Oregon Trail, frequently asked questionsTask Listening comprehension CD1 Enr. 10 Anticipation Lisez et surlignez les expressions qui, selon vous, seront

CD1

Enr. 10

Anticipation

Lisez et surlignez les expressions qui, selon vous, seront dans l’enregistrement, ce sont des mots por- teurs de sens.Trail, frequently asked questions CD1 Enr. 10 Anticipation CD1 Enr. 11 Vocabulary help Trail*, streets, roads,

CD1

Enr. 11

Vocabulary help

Trail*, streets, roads, the way*, well-worn paths*, shortcuts*, a wrong turn*, guide, pioneers, settlers, a claim*, frontier, farmland, forests, towns and cities, crowded places, acres, trade*, disease*, alcoholism, gold, reservation, fur* traders, trappers, missionaries, by wagon, to spare the oxen*, horses, cars, on foot, cold, cholera, smallpox*, measles*.

Trail = la route, la piste, le sentier, le chemin ; the way = le chemin, la direction ; paths = sentiers ; shortcuts

= raccourcis ; a wrong turn = un mauvais tournant ; a claim = une concession, un droit à la propriété ;

trade = faire du commerce ; disease = maladie ; fur = fourrure ; trappers = trappeurs ; to spare the oxen

= afin d’épargner les bœufs ; smallpox = la petite vérole ; measles = la rougeole

Task

Imaginez-vous donc au centre des visiteurs de l’Oregon Trail et mêlez-vous à la foule d’Américains venus là pour comprendre.

à la foule d’Américains venus là pour comprendre. CD1 Enr. 12 General Comprehension Sum up the

CD1

Enr. 12

General Comprehension

Sum up the content of the recording in about three lines. Remember to always think of answering these questions: What? Who? Where? When? Why? How?

You may look at the map of the USA (Task ) while you listen.

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Detailed comprehension

Part 1

a) What is the Oregon Trail?

b) How long was the trail?

c) Who used it?(three answers)

d) How long did it take the settlers to reach the end?

d) How long did it take the settlers to reach the end? Part 2 e) Why

Part 2

e) Why did people want to go there?

Tick the correct statements:

1. The frontier was a fixed line guarded by soldiers.

2. The frontier was just an imaginary line.

3. The frontier meant a hazy area between civilisation and barbary.

4. The frontier kept receeding to the east.

5. In 1840, the last frontier was Oregon.

f) Complete the text:

Oregon had a reputation not only for having good

but also for being free of

and vast

, This made the Oregon Country even more attractive since were common in the east, which had become industrialized and crowded.

And little was known about the causes of

Part 3

g) What was the reaction of the Indians?

1. Most Indians from Oregon Country welcomed white settlers.

2. Tribes which traded with whites became rich and powerful compared with their neighbours.

3. Indians often guided settlers.

4. Indians refused to sell tribal lands.

5. The traders and settlers also brought new diseases to the Indians.

6. The Nez Percé were decimated by disease and alcoholism.

7. They continued to trade with the settlers.

8. The Nez Percé were sent on a reservation.

9. Gold had been discovered on their land.

Part 4

h) What was the trip like?

1. Write the five adjectives describing the trip.

2. What was the biggest danger on the way?

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3. What did the travellers fear most?

4.

Why was the Oregon Trail no longer used after 1870?

5. How many people have used the Trail?

Task

Enrich your vocabulary

Relevez les mots nouveaux classés dans différents domaines. Donnez une traduction française ou un équivalent anglais.

Domaine du chemin

Domaine de la violence

Domaine de la maladie

Domaine des idéaux

Trail

Invasion

Disease

Justice

Road

Extermination

Epidemic

Independence

Path

Reservation

Infection

Rights

Way

Massacre

Cholera

Mankind

Street

Exterminate

Smallpox

A belief

Route

Butchered

Measles

Responsible

Shortcut

Decimated

Improvement

Wrong turn

Fight

Involvement

Railroad

Defeat

Survival

To draft

Democracy

Revolution

Equality

Freedom

Liberty

Constitution

Destiny

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Texte 1 : The Encounter
Texte 1 : The Encounter

Ce travail est à faire par tous.

Texte 1 : The Encounter Ce travail est à faire par tous. Task Anticipation Looking at

Task Texte 1 : The Encounter Ce travail est à faire par tous. Anticipation Looking at the

Anticipation

Looking at the title, the subtitle, the date of the events, the title of the novel, the date of publication and the first sentence of the text: what do you expect to find in the text?

Texte Bac pour toutes les séries

Check your work.

The Encounter

John Dunbar, a young cavalry lieutenant finds himself alone in an isolated outpost at the edge of the American frontier with Indian territory in the year 1863. He has just found a wounded Indian woman and he now takes her back to her village.toutes les séries ➠ Check your work. The Encounter Flash bac Ne lisez pas mot à

Flash bac

Ne lisez pas mot à mot, ne vous attachez pas à lire des éléments sans

Ne lisez pas mot à mot, ne vous attachez pas à lire des éléments sans importance. Vous n’avez pas besoin de comprendre tous les mots d’un texte pour en comprendre le sens, la compréhen- sion écrite évalue seulement la compré- hension du sens. Visualisez la scène

The woman screamed as she let go of the water she was *hauling, *scooped up her children, and broke for the village, crying, “White soldier, white soldier,” at the top of her *lungs. Scores of Indian dogs went off like *firecrackers, women shrieked for their children, and horses stampeded around the lodges, neighing wildly. It was full-scale pandemonium.

5 The entire *band thought it was under attack.

As he drew closer to the village Lieutenant Dunbar could see men running everywhere. Those who had got hold of weapons were going for their horses with a whooping that reminded him of game birds in a panic. The village in upheaval was just as *otherwordly as the village in repose. It was like a great nest of *hornet people into which a stick had been poked.

10

The men who had reached their horses were swarming into a force that would momentarily race out to meet him, perhaps to kill him. He had not expected to create such a stir, nor had he expected these people to be so primitive. But there was something else that weighed on him as he moved close to the village, something that blotted out all else. For the first time in his life Lieutenant Dunbar knew what it felt to be an invader. It was a feeling he didn’t like, and it had to do with the action he took next. The last thing he wanted was to

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be regarded as an intruder, and when he reached the bare ground of a clearing at the mouth of the village, when he was close enough to see through the curtain of dust that had been raised by the clamor and into the eyes of the people inside, he squeezed the reins once more and came to a stop.

Then he dismounted, taking the woman into his arms, and walked a pace or two in front of his horse. There he stood still, his eyes closed, holding the wounded girl like some strange traveler bearing a strange gift.

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The lieutenant listened hard as the village, in stages that lasted only a few seconds each, grew oddly quiet. The dusty curtain began to settle, and Dunbar perceived with his ears that the mass of humanity that had raised such a fearful howling only moments before was now creeping toward him. In the eerie quiet he

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could hear the occasional clank of some *item of gear, the rustling of footsteps, the snort of a horse as it pawed and jostled impatiently.

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He opened his eyes to see that the whole band had gathered at the village entrance, warriors and young men in front, women and children behind them. It was a dream of wild people, clothed in skins and colored fabric, a whole separate race of humans watching him breathlessly not a hundred yards away. […]

With an inward *sigh of relief Lieutenant Dunbar saw Wind in His Hair leap off the pony and start across the clearing, a stone war *club swinging loosely in his hand. He was coming over, and if the warrior had

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any fear at all it was well masked, for his face was ungiving and uncaring, set, it seemed, on *doling out

a

punishment.

The assembly fell silent as the space between the immobile Lieutenant Dunbar and the fast-striding Wind In His Hair shrank steadily to nothing. It was too late to stop whatever was going to happen. Everyone stood still and watched. […]

35

When Wind in His Hair was within a few feet and slowing his pace, the lieutenant said in a clear, strong voice : “She’s hurt.”

He shifted his *load a little as the warrior stared into the woman’s face, and Dunbar could see that he recognized her. In fact, Wind in His Hair’s shock was so plain that, for a moment, the awful idea that she might have died flashed through his head. The lieutenant looked down at her, too.

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And as he did, she was *torn from his arms. In one strong, sure motion she’d been *ripped from his *grasp, and before Dunbar knew it, the warrior was walking back toward the village *hauling Stands with A Fist roughly along, like a dog would a pup. As he went he called something out that prompted a collective exclamation of surprise from the Comanches. They rushed forward to meet him.

The lieutenant stood motionless in front of his horse, and as the village swirled around Wind In His Hair, he felt

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the spirit run out of him.These were not his people. He would never know them. He might as well have been

a thousand miles away. He wanted to be small, small enough to *crawl into the smallest, darkest hole.

What had he expected of these people? He must have thought they would run out and throw their arms around him, speak his language, have him to supper, share his *jokes, without so much as a how-do-you- do. How lonely he must be…

Vocabulary help

lungs = poumons haul = porter scoop up = rassembler

firecrackers = pétards

band = communauté otherworldly = impressionnant

haul along = traîner

hornet = frelon

item of gear = harnais

club = massue

Michael Blake, Dances with Wolves (1988) © Michael Blake, Penguin, 1991

sigh of relief = soupir de soulagement dole out = distribuer, infliger load = charge tear = arracher tear = arracher rip = arracher, enlever

grasp = bras haul along = traîner

crawl = ramper joke = plaisanterie

haul along = traîner crawl = ramper joke = plaisanterie Task Pronunciation CD1 Enr. 13 The

Task

Pronunciationalong = traîner crawl = ramper joke = plaisanterie Task CD1 Enr. 13 The following words

CD1

Enr. 13

ramper joke = plaisanterie Task Pronunciation CD1 Enr. 13 The following words and expressions may cause

The following words and expressions may cause problems. Listen to the CD and repeat them out loud in the spaces provided several times.

Dunbar, Lieutenant, Comanches, screamed, hauling, scooped, shrieked, stampeded, neighing, whooping, weighed, squeezed, dismounted, creeping, eerie, rustling, pawed, jostled, clothed, breathlessly, sigh of relief, fast-striding, roughly, swirled

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Task Read the text. DO NOT USE YOUR DICTIONARY, READ right to the end. Task

Task

Read the text.

DO NOT USE YOUR DICTIONARY, READ right to the end.

Task

Understanding the text.

Do the following work WITHOUT USING A DICTIONARY.

Structure of the text

Skim the text (parcourez rapidement le texte) to put the following events into their correct order:

1. A threatening arrival

2. An Indian warrior’s initiative

3. Both sides waiting

4. Dunbar’s feeling of solitude

5. Commotion in the village

Check your answers right now.

A summary

Sum up the text in one sentence.

Check your answers right now.

The characters

Find the names of the white soldier, of the Indian warrior and of the wounded woman.

Judging from their names, what might the personality of these two last Indian characters be?

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Part one from the beginning to line 5

a) Complete the grid.

People or animals

Their noises

Their movements

The woman

went off like firecrackers

Women

The horses

b) Find the sentence which sums up the events occuring in this part.

c) Find the sentence which expresses the Indians’ fear.

Part two from line 6 to line 19

a) Dunbar made some strategic movements in this passage, which ones? Justify by quoting from the text.

b) The Indians made four defensive movements. Put them into the correct sequence.

1. They picked up their weapons.

2.They formed a group to attack Dunbar.

3. They ran for their horses.

4. They mounted their horses.

c) Find the English for the following words and expressions

hurlement : ; branle-bas : ; nid : ; bâton : ; s’agglutiner : ;
hurlement :
;
branle-bas :
;
nid :
;
bâton :
;
s’agglutiner :
;
peser sur lui :
;
effacer tout le reste :
;
le sol nu :
;
une étendue déserte :
;
le rideau de poussière :
;
Il tira sur les rênes :
;

d) Right or wrong? Justify your answers by quoting from the text.

1. Dunbar was expecting such a welcome. Yes

No

2. Dunbar had hoped the Indians would feel he was like them. Yes

No

3. Dunbar wanted the Indians to regard him as a friend and he took the decision to reassure them.

Yes

No

4. He closed his eyes because he saw death coming towards him. Yes

No

Part three from line 20 to line 28

a) Find synonyms in this passage for the following words or expressions:

in steps:

strangely silent:

awesome:

come slowly closer:

worrying silence:

dressed in:

keep back one’s breathing:

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b) Pick out three verbal expressions showing that Dunbar, who had closed his eyes, could only hear the Indians.

c) Find, line 24, three words expressing noises:

Part four from line 29 to line 44

a) Find words or expressions in this passage showing that the atmosphere was tense.

b) What does the pronoun “he” refer line 43: “As he went

c) Find words and expressions indicating that Wind In His Hair treated the wounded woman

brutally.

d) Right or wrong? Justify by quoting from the text.

1. Wind In His Hair seemed fearless. Yes

No

2. Dunbar was scared and spoke in a shaken voice. Yes

No

3. The Comanches knew that the woman had been hurt. Yes

Part five from line 45 to the end

No

a) What sentences show that Dunbar felt a complete stranger among the Indians.

b) What sentence shows he had failed to communicate with his fellowmen?

shows he had failed to communicate with his fellowmen? ➠ Check your answers now. Task Analysing

Check your answers now.

Task

Analysing the text

Cet exercice est fortement conseillé pour les élèves de L, ES, S (LV1) se présentant à l’écrit et pour les élèves de ES LV2 se présentant à l’oral. Les élèves se préparant à l’oral doivent faire cet exercice à l’écrit en répondant sous forme de notes puis oralement en faisant des phrases complètes et s’enregistrer même si aucun correcteur ne les évaluera cette pratique est essentielle pour s’entraîner.

The point of view of a narration

What point of view is expressed in this passage? Justify in your own words.

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The atmosphere and the suspense

a) Describe the atmosphere in the village created by Dunbar’s arrival.

b) At lines 10 and 11 what element of suspense is mentioned so that the reader fears for Dunbar’s safety.

c) What actions does Dunbar undertake to calm the situation and lessen the suspense? (from lines 17 to 19)

d) At line 34 quote the sentence which shows once more that the inevitable may happen. Explain in your own words the new suspense and the atmosphere at that point in the story.

e) Wind In His Hair did not kill Dunbar, why?

The characters and their feelings

a) Explain Dunbar’s surprise in part 2. Support your answers with quotes from the text.

b) Explain why Dunbar “felt to be an invader ” (line 13). What was his reaction towards this impression?

c) What is the symbolism of “the curtain of dust ”, line 16?

d) Why do you think Wind In His Hair took the woman so roughly from Dunbar’s arms? (lines 41 to 44)

e) Why do you think Dunbar felt like crawling “into the smallest, darkest hole ” at the end of the passage? Does the point of view chosen by the narrator add to this?

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f) Tick the adjectives which best describe Dunbar’s personality:

brave

peace-loving

sociable

proud

human

impatient

shy

spirited

enthusiastic

courageous

naïve

skilful

solitary

adventurous

determined

g) Do you relate to this story and if so, why? Why do you think “Dances with Wolves ” (either the novel or the film) was so successful? (80 words)

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Check your answers right now.

Pronunciation and vocabulary
Pronunciation and vocabulary

Task

Prononciation

À faire par toutes les sériesPronunciation and vocabulary Task Prononciation L’anglais, ça ne s’écrit pas comme ça se prononce et ça

L’anglais, ça ne s’écrit pas comme ça se prononce et ça ne se prononce pas comme ça s’écrit !Task Prononciation À faire par toutes les séries CD1 Enr. 14 Répétition des mots difficiles du

se prononce et ça ne se prononce pas comme ça s’écrit ! CD1 Enr. 14 Répétition

CD1

Enr. 14

Répétition des mots difficiles du texte

Répétez à nouveau quelques mots difficiles du texte.

Écoutez le CD et répétez dans les blancs :

Screamed, hauling, scooped, shrieked, stampeded, neighing, whooping, reached, swarming, weighed, squeezed, dismounted, creeping, eerie, rustling, pawed, jostled, clothed, breathlessly, sigh of relief, fast-striding, roughly, swirled.

Lecture expressive : lecture d’un passage du texte

Lecture expressive : lecture d’un passage du texte CD1 Enr. 15 Écoutez les instructions sur le

CD1

Enr. 15

Écoutez les instructions sur le CD.

a) Écoutez un passage du texte, surlignez les mots accentués qui se détachent du texte : le lecteur les accentue car ils sont porteurs de sens.

The men who had reached their horses were swarming into a force that would momentarily race out to meet him, perhaps to kill him. He had not expected to create such a stir, nor had he expected these people to be so primitive. But there was something else that weighed on him as he moved close to the village, something that blotted out all else. For the first in his life Lieutenant Dunbar knew what it felt to be an invader. It was a feeling he didn’t like, and it had to do with the action he took next. The last thing he wanted was to be regarded as an intruder, and when he reached the bare ground of a clearing at the mouth of the village, when he was close enough to see through the curtain of dust that had been raised by the clamor and into the eyes of the people inside, he squeezed the reins once more and came to a stop.

b) De plus, à l’intérieur du mot, prêtez attention à l’accent de mot. Un accent tonique mal placé rend un mot incompréhensible pour celui qui vous entend.

Dans les mots suivants soulignez la syllabe accentuée : momentarily, expected, primitive, village,

invader, regarded, intruder

Vérifiez vos réponses et écoutez le CD.expected, primitive, village, invader, regarded, intruder CD1 Enr. 16 Séquence 2-AN01 63 © Cned – Académie

CD1

Enr. 16

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c) Les groupes de souffle Séparez les phrases longues en groupe de souffle. Indiquez les pauses dans le texte par des barres obliques (/ ou //).

Vérifiez vos réponses dans les “model answers“.

Répétez le passage du texte. Respirez entre les groupes de souffle et accentuez les temps forts.➠ Vérifiez vos réponses dans les “model answers“. CD1 Enr. 17 Enregistrez-vous et écoutez-vous. Enrich your

CD1

Enr. 17

Enregistrez-vous et écoutez-vous.groupes de souffle et accentuez les temps forts. CD1 Enr. 17 Enrich your vocabulary Task Ce

Enrich your vocabulary

Task

et écoutez-vous. Enrich your vocabulary Task Ce travail est à faire par les élèves dans toutes

Ce travail est à faire par les élèves dans toutes les séries au baccalauréat.

Deux domaines de vocabulaire se rencontrent dans cette séquence jusqu’à présent :

les mouvements et les bruits.

Relevez les mots du texte que vous ne connaissiez pas et classez-les selon les techniques apprises dans la première séquence.

Complétez les bulles suivantes.Vous pourriez par exemple faire des sous-bulles pour d’autres animaux tels les mouvements et bruits des chiens et des oiseaux. Mais n’allez pas plus loin.

Of people Of animals Let go Haul Scoop up Break for Draw closer Get hold
Of people
Of animals
Let go
Haul
Scoop up
Break for
Draw closer
Get hold of
Go for
Swarm
Race out
Horses stampede
Horses …
MOVEMENTS
Horses …
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Comment utiliser le dictionnaire

Pour comprendre les mots d’un texte n’ouvrez pas le dictionnaire avant d’avoir fait les exercices de compréhension. Ce n’est que s’il reste des mots dont vous voulez apprendre le sens exact que vous pouvez, après la compréhension, vous servir du dictionnaire.

Encore faut-il savoir se servir du dictionnaire !

Exemple : The men … were swarming into a force …

Vous avez décidé de chercher le sens exact de swarming dans le dictionnaire.

Déterminez sa nature : utilisé après un sujet : the men, dans une forme en be+-ing, il s’agit d’un verbe.

Recherchez donc le sens du verbe swarm.

Voici l’entrée de swarm dans le dictionnaire Collins Robert.

La première entrée porte : 1 n [bees, flying insects] essaim (Elle ne nous concerne pas puisque n indiquait un nom.)

La seconde entrée porte : 2 vi (a) [bees] essaimer. (Il s’agit d’un verbe intransitif mais l’explication ne nous concerne pas puisqu’elle indique l’action des abeilles (bees).

La troisième entrée porte : (b) [crawling insects] fourmiller, pulluler, grouiller, [people] to – in/out etc en masse ; they –ed round or over or through the palace ils ont envahi le palais en masse ; the children –ed round his car les enfants s’agglutinaient autour de sa voiture.

Nous rencontrons ici le second sens du verbe, celui qui concerne ce qui suit [people] nous intéresse.

Remarquons que suivi de prépositions telles round, over, through, le verbe s’applique à des mouve- ments de personnes.

Dans notre texte, la préposition est into : swarm into a force. Il faut garder en tête le sens de into : en, dedans, à l’intérieur. Décidons de traduire swarm into a force par s’agglutiner en une force.

The men who had reached their horses were swarming into a force that would momentarily race out to

meet him = Les hommes qui avaient atteint leurs chevaux s’agglutinaient en une force qui s’élancerait bientôt à sa rencontre.

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Enjoy your grammar
Enjoy your grammar
Enjoy your grammar Le plus-que-parfait ou past perfect ou pluperfect Task Ce premier point grammatical est

Le plus-que-parfait ou past perfect ou pluperfect

grammar Le plus-que-parfait ou past perfect ou pluperfect Task Ce premier point grammatical est à faire

Task grammar Le plus-que-parfait ou past perfect ou pluperfect Ce premier point grammatical est à faire par

Ce premier point grammatical est à faire par tous les candidats au baccalauréat.

a) Complétez le tableau avec les verbes prélevés dans les phrases suivantes :

As he drew closer to the village Lieutenant Dunbar could see men running everywhere. Those who had got hold of weapons were going for their horses with a whooping that reminded him of game birds in a panic. The village… was like a great nest of hornet people into which a stick had been poked.

The men who had reached their horses were swarming into a force that would momentarily race out to meet him, perhaps to kill him. He had not expected to create such a stir, nor had he expected these people to be so primitive.

… What had he expected of these people? He must have thought they would run out and throw their arms around him…

prétérit

prétérit en be +-ing

plus-que-parfait

plus-que parfait à la voix passive

modaux

drew

 

had got

   
       

would race out

Corrigez vos réponses

b) Emploi du plus-que-parfait (pluperfect ou past perfect en anglais)

Observez

Répondez

past perfect en anglais) O b s e r v e z Répondez Those who had

Those who had got hold of weapons were going for their horses… Ceux qui avaient mis la main sur leurs armes couraient à leurs chevaux…

Ces deux actions se déroulent dans un récit passé. Le moment de parole de l’énoniateur est le passé. La première action (mettre la main) est antérieure à la seconde (courir). La première action est décalée d’un cran vers le passé.

Oui

Oui

Oui

Oui

Non

Non

Non

Non

Dans un récit au passé, une action antérieure à une autre est au plus-que-parfait, que ce soit en français ou en anglais. Le plus-que-parfait situe l’événement dans un passé antérieur au passé du récit.décalée d’un cran vers le passé. Oui Oui Oui Oui Non Non Non Non 66 Séquence

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c) Formation du past perfect had + reached auxiliaire have au prétérit + participe passé

c) Formation du past perfect

had

+

reached

auxiliaire have au prétérit + participe passé du verbe conjugué

Souvenez-vous que le prétérit de have, HAD, reste le même à toutes les personnes. La forme contractée est ’d+ participe passé : hed reached

Complétez le tableau suivant :

Past perfect

à la forme négative

à la forme interrogative

à la forme interro-négative

He had expected

They had not reached

Had not the band gathered?

Corrigez vos réponses.

d) Le past perfect en be + -ing

Souvenez-vous qu’il s’agit d’un même temps que le past perfect simple mais l’action est envisagée par

l’énonciateur sous un autre aspect.

When he stared into the woman’s face he realized that Dunbar had been holding a wounded Indian all that time.

Quand il regarda le visage de la femme, il se rendit compte que pendant tout ce temps Dunbar avait porté une Indienne blessée.

He had been holding est une activité passée, qui avait débuté plus tôt qu’une autre activité passée (realized) et qui se poursuivait encore à ce moment là.

Le narrateur fait le bilan commenté d’une activité passée antérieure à une autre action passée, l’aspect qui commente le past perfect, marquant la surprise du guerrier.

e) Le past perfect à la voix passive

Observez : A nest in which a stick had been poked. Un nid dans lequel un bâton avait été enfoncé.

Souvenez-vous de la formation du passif : be + participe passé.

Au past perfect : be est conjugué au past perfect : had been On lui ajoute le participe passé nécessaire au passif : poked Comme tous les emplois de la forme passive, le sujet passif est mis en valeur en début d’énoncé, ici : a stick.

f) Mettez les verbes au temps approprié.

1. He hoped they wouldn’t believe that he (hurt)

2. Once they (see)

3. It wasn’t the first time they (been attacked)

the woman.

the girl, they understood why he (come)

by soldiers. for a while when he found her. hope of reviving her.

g) Mettez les verbes du texte suivant au prétérit, simple ou en be+-ing, ou au pluperfect, simple ou en be + -ing, à la voix active ou passive.

that it (be

4. The woman (been bleeding)

5. After many attempts, he (give up)

1. All throughout his months of solitude, Dunbar (often think)

time)

2. Previously, when he (live)

to make the acquaintance of the tribe. in the barracks, Dunbar (hear)

tales of soldiers describing the cruelty and bravery of the Indians but now he on without fear.

by his own law and nobody (guess) human contacts.

(walk)

3. So far, Dunbar (always live)

how much he (long for)

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4. When Dunbar (arrive) (think)

in the Indian village carrying a wounded woman, he that he would be welcome. He (not believe) they (be savages)

5. This time he (think)

a wounded girl.

Check your work.

hard before starting and he (dare) to approach the village because he (carry)

Might, must

Task

Révision des auxiliaires modaux

Cette partie est particulièrement recommandée aux candidats inscrits en séries L, ES, S (LV1)

a) Observez et surlignez les auxiliaires modaux :

… the awful idea that she might have died flashed through his head. He might as well have been a thousand miles away. He must have thought they would run out and throw their arms around him…

Vérifier vos réponses dans les “Models answers“.

b) Le possible au passé : MIGHT + have + participe passé

Observez la différence entre :

a)… the awful idea that she might have died flashed through his head.

… l’horrible idée qu’elle aurait pu mourir lui traversa l’esprit.

et b)… the awful idea that she could have died flashed through his head. et c) … the awful idea that she may have died flashed through his head.

Entre a) He might as well have been a thousand miles away.

Il aurait pu tout aussi bien se trouver à mille miles de là.

et b) He could as well have been a thousand miles away. et c) He may as well have been a thousand miles away.

Dans les deux exemples, might, may et could sont possibles mais avec might l’énonciateur est plus hésitant qu’avec may. Avec could est plus près du constat.

Les modaux COULD, MAY et MIGHT + have + participe passé, indiquent que quelque chose aurait pu se produire dans le passé.

Ils sont pratiquement interchangeables, selon le degré de probabilité.

c) Le quasi-certain au passé : MUST + have + participe passé

Observez :

What had he expected of these people? He must have thought they would run out and throw their arms around him…

Qu’avait-il espéré de ces gens? Il avait dû penser qu’ils accourraient pour l’étreindre…

Cet énoncé se situe dans un passé antérieur au moment de la prise de parole puisqu’il s’agit des pensées de Dunbar avant sa rencontre avec les Indiens. Nous le voyons avec le past perfect : What had

he expected…

L’énonciateur est quasiment certain que Dunbar avait rêvé d’un accueil chaleureux de la part des Indiens :

he must have thought = il avait dû penser.

Avec must, l’énonciateur est quasiment certain de ce qu’il déduit. Avec may, might et could, ce qu’il avance est simplement une éventualité, une possibilité.

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d)

La formation d’un modal au passé

Comparez le past perfect d’une affirmation :

He had been a thousand miles away. had + participe passé du verbe conjugué, ici être,

avec le modal might au passé :

He might have been a thousand miles away. might+ have+ participe passé du verbe conjugué.

Ici, c’est le verbe et non le modal qui porte la marque du passé.

Exercices

a) Complétez ces phrases en utilisant un modal.

1. You never know, he (succeed)

2. It’s a pity they didn’t welcome him, he (bring)

3. She said she would be back soon, she (have)

4. Impossible! He (not become)

5. They (misunderstand)

and become accepted by the tribe. them a lot. an accident. one of them, he was too different. his intentions.

b) Réécrivez la phrase en utilisant un modal au passé.

Exemple : It was impossible for them to welcome him. He was a white soldier. They couldn’t have welcome him because he was a white soldier.

1. Perhaps the warrior thought he had killed her.

2. It was necessary for him to bring her back to the village.

3. We can suppose that he paid a lot for his solitude.

4. I am sure they didn’t do that intentionally.

c) Traduisez en français les phrases suivantes :

1. He must have thought people would consider him like a saviour.

2. There might have been a massacre.

3. Dunbar must have hesitated a lot before making a decision.

4. In the village, he could have been killed.

5. Dunbar and Wind In His Hair might have exchanged greetings.

d) Traduisez en anglais en utilisant des modaux.

1. Il aurait pu réussir, mais il prenait de gros risques.

2. Il se pouvait que John fût trop naïf.

3. Il avait dû penser qu’ils seraient surpris de le voir.

4. Il aurait pu tout aussi bien être un Extra-Terrestre.

1. Il aurait pu gagner leur confiance mais c’était trop tôt.

Corrigez votre travail maintenant.

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Méthodologie: expression écrite
Méthodologie: expression écrite

Ce chapitre est plus spécialement destiné aux candidats aux épreuves écrites.

spécialement destiné aux candidats aux épreuves écrites. Task Vous allez vous entraîner en écrivant un devoir

Task

Vous allez vous entraîner en écrivant un devoir dont l’intitulé est :

Imagine the same scene of the extract “Encounter” related from the point of view of the Indians. (250 words)

Devant toute rédaction avez-vous les bonnes réactions ? Faites le test suivant, entourez la bonne réponse. Ensuite faites le devoir du mieux possible même si personne ne vous corrige ce sera un bon entraînement. Un exemple de réponse est proposé dans les “Model Answers“.

Test (Complétez le texte suivant ou entourez la bonne réponse.)

Je repére la nature de l’écrit et le niveau de langue. Ici, il s’agit d’écrire un

Je fais un “brainstorming“ sur le vocabulaire, les structures les

Les idées me viennent en écrivant mon “

Encounter” pour décrire ce qui s’est passé mais comme la caméra est maintenant dans les mains des Indiens et non dans celles de Dunbar je ne vois évidemment pas les événements de la même façon, j’en vois d’autres qu’il n’a pas remarqué ou je vois les mêmes.

Je m’inspire du texte “The

“.

Je fais un

Je ne rédige pas d’introduction ni de conclusion mais entre tout de suite dans le sujet. Par contre je fais

des

afin que le lecteur ait peur pour les

personnages et veuille continuer à lire. Certains passages narratifs incluent beaucoup d’adjectifs. Je peux me servir de certains adjectifs rencontrés dans le texte étudié et surtout montrer que j’en connais d’autres.

Pour intéresser le lecteur j’utilise des éléments de

détaillé en classant le produit de mon “brainstorming“.

bien visibles.

Je sais que le temps du récit est le au

+ passé, might, etc. puisque je connais ces formes grammaticales assez sophistiquées, je m’en sers.

Je relis mon brouillon, je le recopie proprement, je me relis encore. OUI NON

J’indique le nombre approximatif de mots (je sais que j’écris 10 mots par ligne, je ne perds pas mon

temps à compter mes mots toutes les cinq minutes, j’écris 20 lignes).

Je me relis encore, je vérifie si j’ai bien utilisé les divers temps du passé.

Une action antérieure à une action passée est Je n’hésite pas à mettre des structures de supposition (must

OUI

NON

Task

Rédigez votre production

Un exemple de rédaction se trouve dans les “Model answers“.

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Présentation orale du texte : The Encounter
Présentation orale du texte :
The Encounter

Ce travail est recommandé seulement pour les candidats aux épreuves orales.Présentation orale du texte : The Encounter Enregistrez votre exposé. Il n’y a pas de corrigé.

seulement pour les candidats aux épreuves orales. Enregistrez votre exposé. Il n’y a pas de corrigé.

Enregistrez votre exposé. Il n’y a pas de corrigé.seulement pour les candidats aux épreuves orales. Lecture Vous vous êtes entraîné à lire au moins

Lecture

Vous vous êtes entraîné à lire au moins une partie du texte à haute voix en arrêtant le CD après chaque phrase ou élément de phrase et à répéter.

Préparation de l’exposé

Complétez la grille de travail ci-dessous. Remarquez que l’exposé oral du cours porte sur une analyse de l’histoire qui est racontée en cinq parties. À chaque fois le suspense est mis en avant. Ensuite l’inté- rêt du texte doit occuper une bonne partie de votre temps de parole car vous devez faire vos propres réflexions sur cet instant magique du roman.

La grille ne comporte que quelques rubriques. C’est à vous de la remplir à l’aide d’éléments du cours ou issus de votre réflexion. Vous pouvez l’adapter à vos besoins. Surlignez les citations sur le texte même. Écrivez vos notes sur votre propre papier.

Je détermine la nature du document et son origine. Je le situe dans le temps et géographiquement.

Je présente brièvement la situation initiale de Dunbar d’après le sous-titre.

Je n’oublie pas de décrire l’image brièvement (la description de document iconogra- phique du cours m’aide).

Je donne le sujet, j’explique le titre. Ceci me donnant la possibilité de résumer le texte.

Je rédige les deux ou trois premières phrases pour me mettre en confiance ensuite je ne mets que des notes.

This is an extract from a novel by from it by

written by

A film was made

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J’en arrive à la plus grande partie de mon exposé qui rend compte des diverses étapes du récit en décrivant une série de scènes. J’annonce mon plan. Je m’aide des réponses à l’exercice de compréhension écrite.

I will now give you my commentary. First, I’ll relate the story which may be divided into 5 parts.

Part one goes from the beginning to line val.

, we can call it: a threatening arri-

Je continue à expliquer les événements du début. J’insiste sur l’atmosphère chaoti- que, je cite des exemples.

Part two goes

Je procède de la même façon pour chaque partie en éclairant mon exposé sous l’angle du suspense. J’insiste sur le fait que le point de vue est celui de Dunbar et tous les événements sont vus comme s’il tenait une caméra entre ses mains.

Je termine en parlant du film éventuellement si je l’ai vu pour expliquer ce qui se passe ensuite.

J’élargis le sujet par exemple : la rencontre entre deux mondes entraîne-t-elle nécessairement un conflit. Je trouve d’autres sujets à aborder dans les réponses aux questions de compréhension.

J’anticipe les questions que pourrait poser un examinateur et les prépare, par exemple : l’histoire des Indiens d’Amérique, les Westerns, la situation des Indians aujourd’hui etc.

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Civilisation: The Native Americans
Civilisation:
The Native Americans
Civilisation: The Native Americans Lecture Ce travail de lecture est réservé aux candidats dans les séries

Lecture

Ce travail de lecture est réservé aux candidats dans les séries L, ES, S et ES LV2. Lisez les informations suivantes concernant l’auteur Tony Hillerman et son œuvre dont vous étudierez un extrait au prochain chapitre.

Tony Hillerman and the Navajos

Tony Hillerman is a best-selling mystery writer who has brought the landscape of the Southwest and the Navajo culture into mainstream America’s reading.

Born in the heart of the United States, in Oklahoma, in 1925, he attended school at Sacred Heart together with Native American children. He was one of several farm boys who enrolled there. The school was near a mission to the Potowatomie Tribe. Later he went to the University of Oklahoma and graduated in journalism.

In 1943, he joined the U.S. army and served in combat in World War I.

In August 1945, back home, he witnessed a Navajo ceremonial curing. He was deeply marked by this event. This curing ceremony, called The Enemy Way, was performed by elders onto some Indian marines who had been wounded or affected by the war. It helped them become reconciled with the harmony of the world around them.

In the early sixties Hillerman became a university teacher at the University of New Mexico. In 1970 his first detective novel comes out: ‘The Blessing Way’, translated into French by ‘La Voie de l’Ennemi’. He has won several literary awards. His books are studied in schools including those of Native Indians.

Mysteries among the Mesas

Hillerman has created stories of unpredictable intrigues and characters of remarkable depth. The same two detectives return in each book: Jim Chee and Joe Leaphorn. They have special talents and sensitivi- ties necessary for exceptional detective work.You may find that you wish to read more of the Hillerman books in order to see the characters develop and change over time.

The two detectives are Navajos and work for the Navajo Tribal Police. The stories are set in Hopi and Zuni pueblos as well as in the hogans of the wide Navajo territory.

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Texte 2 : Talking God
Texte 2 : Talking God

Ce travail est un entraînement à la compréhension écrite des séries du baccalauréat écrit. Il sert aussi de texte à présenter par les candidats à l’oral.

aussi de texte à présenter par les candidats à l’oral. Texte Bac Task Anticipation Looking at

Texte Bac

Task

Anticipation

Looking at the title, the subtitle, the title of the novel, the date of publication and the first sentence of the text: what do you expect to find in the text?

Yeibichai

Inspector Jim Chee of the Navajo Tribal Police starts an investigation on Henry Highhawk, a white man turned Indian, who is accused of desecrating white people’s graves.

From behind him in the medicine *hogan, Officer Jim Chee could hear the chanting of the First Dancers as they put on their ceremonial paint. Chee was interested. He had *picked a spot from which he could see through the hogan doorway and watch the personifiers preparing themselves. They were eight middle-aged men from around the Naschitti Chapter House in New Mexico […] they had painted their right hands first,

5 then their faces from the forehead downward, and then their bodies, making themselves ready to represent the Holy People of Navajo mythology, the yei, the powerful spirits.

This Night Chant ceremonial was one that Chee hoped to learn himself someday. Yeibachi, his people called it, naming it for Talking God, the maternal grandfather of all the spirits. The performance was nine days long and involved five complicated sand paintings and *scores of songs. Learning it would take a long, long time,

10 as would finding a hataalii willing to take him on as a student. When the time came for that, he would have to take leave from the Navajo Tribal Police. But that was somewhere in the distant future. Now his job was watching for the *Flaky Man from Washington. Henry Highhawk was the name on the federal *warrant.

“Henry Highhawk,” Captain Largo had said, handing him the *folder. “Usually when they decide to turn Indian and call themselves something like Whitecloud or Squatting Bear, or Highhawk, they decide they are

15 going Cherokees. Or some dignified tribe that everybody knows about. But this *jerk had to pick Navajo.”

Chee was reading the folder. “Flight across state lines to avoid *prosecution,” he said. “Prosecution for what?”

“*Desecration of graves,” Largo said. He laughed, shook his head, genuinely amused by the irony. “Now ain’t that just the ideal criminal occupation for a man who decides to declare himself a Navajo?”

20 Chee had noticed something that seemed to be even more ironic than a white grave robber declaring him- self to be a Navajo- a tribe which happened to have a fierce religious aversion to corpses and everything associated with death.

“Is he a pot hunter? Chee asked. “Is the FBI actually trying to catch a pot hunter?” *Digging up graves to steal pre-Columbian pottery for the collector’s market had been both a federal crime and big business on

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the Colorado plateau for generations, and the FBI’s apathy about it had been both unshakable and widely known. Chee stood in front of Largo’s desk trying to imagine what would have stirred the federals from such historic and monolithic inertia.

“He wasn’t hunting pots, “ Largo said. “He’s a politician. He was digging up belagaana skeletons back East.” Largo explained what Highhawk had done with the skeletons. “So not only were they white skeletons, they

30 were Very Important People belagaana skeletons.

“Oh,” Chee said.

“Anyway, all you need to know about it is that […] you find out where they are holding this Yiebaichi. […] If he is there, bring him in. And if he is not there yet, then *stick around and wait for him.”

Tony Hillerman, Talking god, 1989, Happertorch, D.R.

Vocabulary help

Talking god , 1989, Happertorch, D.R. Vocabulary help the hogan = the hut, the cabin to

the hogan = the hut, the cabin to pick a spot = choisir un endroit

scores of = a lot of

the flaky man = le drôle de type to dig up = déterrer desecration of graves = profanation de tombes

Task

Read the whole text.

a jerk = un abruti a warrant = un mandat d’arrêt the folder = le dossier prosecution = poursuite judicière to stick around = rester dans le coin

General comprehension

a) Read the text again without stopping at details and fill in the grid.

Who? Identify the Indian people:

Identify the white people turned Indian:

Who is the main character? What’s his job? Justify from the text.

Who is the narrator? Whose point of view is given?

When and where? Three different moments are referred to. Explain briefly their content. Now (from lines 1 to 6)

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In the future (from line 7 to line 11):

In the past (from line 12 to the end):

What is the main character’s mission?

12 to the end): What is the main character’s mission? b) The local colour 1. The

b) The local colour

1. The yei are the spirits

the singers

2. Yeibichai means grandfather Talking God

3. An hataalii is a wise man who transmits traditions an Indian school

4. Belagaana means Very Important People white people

c) Why do you think the writer is using Indian words? What effect does it have on the

reader?

Check your work now.

Detailed comprehension

a) Read again the first two paragraphs and do the following work:

1. The detective has chosen a good strategic point. Which one and why?

2. Explain in your own words what is a Night Chant Ceremonial describing it step by step.

3. Why do you think it has been described in so many details?

4. Quote the passage when we see Jim returning to the present.

b) Read down to line 22 and do the following work.

1. Explain “when they decide to turn Indian”. Who does the pronoun “they“ refer to?

2. The reader learns the situation at the same time as Jim Chee. Give two examples of this.

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3. What is Highhawk being accused of?

4.

Why does Largo find the situation ironical? Why does Jim find the situation even more ironical? Who is the most astute of the two policemen?

c) Read from line 23 to line 30.

1. What is Chee’s opinion of the FBI? What does this imply as to his own character?

2. What is strange in this particular case?

d) Read the last three lines.

1. What does Jim’s interjection “Oh!” imply?

2. What do we learn about detective work in this last part?

3. Tick the adjectives that best describe Jim Chee’s personality.

understanding

spiritual

hateful

patient

cunning

astute

curious

knowledgeable

apathetic

hopeful

lazy

lonely

e) Do you think reading detective stories set in the Navajo Territory makes us more under- standing of the Native Americans? What are the advantages of the genre and of the set- ting? (80 words)

the advantages of the genre and of the set- ting? (80 words) ➠ Check your work

Check your work now.

Task

Vocabulary

Relevez dans le texte le vocabulaire que vous ne connaissiez pas, ne relevez pas les mots en langue navajo bien évidemment.ting? (80 words) ➠ Check your work now. Task Vocabulary Créez une nouvelle catégorie de vocabulaire

Créez une nouvelle catégorie de vocabulaire concernant le monde du roman policier. En voici le début :

folder, to call oneself, flight, prosecution, desecration, robber, a pot hunter, steal, a federal crime.

Relevez dans le dictionnaire tous les sens du mot anglais crime.

Mémorisez ce travailRelevez dans le dictionnaire tous les sens du mot anglais crime. Séquence 2-AN01 77 © Cned

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Task Traduction – méthodologie Ce travail concerne surtout les candidats se présentant à l’épreuve écrite.

Task

Traduction – méthodologie

Ce travail concerne surtout les candidats se présentant à l’épreuve écrite.Task Traduction – méthodologie Souvenez-vous des conseils donnés précédemment : pas de blancs (car vous utilisez

Souvenez-vous des conseils donnés précédemment : pas de blancs (car vous utilisez vos capacités de déduction) et pas de mot à mot systématique (l’anglais ne se détecte pas sous votre traduction : vous êtes devenu un écrivain français).

Observez quelques techniques de traduction de phrases extraites de Yeibachi ou The Encounter.

La traduction de could

Observez les deux traductions et choisissez la meilleure.

He could hear the chanting of the First Dancers.

Il pouvait entendre le chant des Premiers Danseurs. Il entendait le chant des Premiers Danseurs.

Si vous avez choisi la seconde option, vous avez eu raison. Utilisé devant les verbes de perception (see, hear) ou devant les verbes remember, imagine, could ne se traduit généralement pas.

La traduction de as

Traduisez les phrases anglaises. Choisissez la meilleure traduction pour as en choisissant parmi ces alternatives :

1. comme, en qualité de, en tant que (préposition)

2. aussi…que (adverbe)

3. comme, étant donné que (conjonction de subordination)

4. au moment où, tandis que, alors que, au fur et à mesure que (conjonction de coordination)

a) The woman screamed as she let go of the water.

b) The last thing he wanted was to be regarded as an invader.

Attention

thing he wanted was to be regarded as an invader. Attention Pour éviter le calque :

Pour éviter le calque : « La dernière chose qu’il voulait », faites une transposition. Le groupe nominal “The last thing” est transposé en groupe verbal : « Il ne voulait surtout pas ». De plus attention au faux-ami “regarded”.

c) And as he looked down she was torn from his arms.

d) He was as tall as Jim.

e) Learning it would take a long, long time as would finding a hataalii willing to take him on as a student.

Corrigez votre travail.

Pratique de la traduction

Traduisez le premier paragraphe de Talking God.

Corrigez votre travail.

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Commentaire oral: Talking God
Commentaire oral: Talking God

Ce travail ne concerne que les candidats à l’oral.Commentaire oral: Talking God Préparez votre exposé sous forme de notes puis enregistrez-vous. Je présente brièvement

God Ce travail ne concerne que les candidats à l’oral. Préparez votre exposé sous forme de

Préparez votre exposé sous forme de notes puis enregistrez-vous.God Ce travail ne concerne que les candidats à l’oral. Je présente brièvement la situation initiale

Je présente brièvement la situation initiale de Jim Chee d’après le sous-titre.

Je n’oublie pas de décrire brièvement les illustrations.

Je donne le sujet, j’explique le titre. Ceci me donne la possibilité de résumer le texte.

J’en arrive à la plus grande partie de mon exposé qui rend compte des trois diverses étapes du récit en décrivant une scène : le premier paragraphe, une projection vers l’avenir : le second paragraphe et un flash-back : le reste du texte. J’annonce mon plan. Je m’aide des réponses à l’exercice de compréhension écrite. J’éclaire mon exposé sous deux angles : la personnalité de Jim Chee et la vie des Indiens. Je n’oublie pas de citer des exemples de couleur locale.

J’élargis le sujet par exemple : la rencontre entre deux mondes entraîne-t-elle néces- sairement l’exploitation des colonisés. Les Blancs ont-ils le droit de spolier les restes humains d’autres cultures ? Je peux parler aussi du roman policier comme outil de connaissance d’un monde étranger au lecteur.

J’anticipe les questions que pourrait poser un examinateur et les prépare, par exem- ple : l’histoire des Indiens d’Amérique, les Westerns etc.

Je détermine la nature du document et son origine. Je donne quelques informations sur l’auteur. Je situe le texte dans le temps et géographiquement.ple : l’histoire des Indiens d’Amérique, les Westerns etc. ■ Séquence 2-AN01 79 © Cned –

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