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DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE LAW OF WAR MANUAL
DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE
LAW OF WAR MANUAL
JUNE 2015
JUNE 2015
OFFICE OF GENERAL COUNSEL DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE
OFFICE OF GENERAL COUNSEL
DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE

FOREWORD

The law of war is of fundamental importance to the Armed Forces of the United States.

The law of war is part of who we are. George Washington, as Commander in Chief of the Continental Army, agreed with his British adversary that the Revolutionary War would be “carried on agreeable to the rules which humanity formed” and “to prevent or punish every breach of the rules of war within the sphere of our respective commands.” During the Civil War, President Lincoln approved a set of “Instructions for the Government of the Armies of the United States in the Field,” which inspired other countries to adopt similar codes for their armed forces, and which served as a template for international codifications of the law of war.

After World War II, U.S. military lawyers, trying thousands of defendants before military commissions did, in the words of Justice Robert Jackson, “stay the hand of vengeance and voluntarily submit their captive enemies to the judgment of law” in “one of the most significant tributes that Power has ever paid to Reason.” Reflecting on this distinctive history, one Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff observed that “[t]he laws of war have a peculiarly American cast.” And it is also true that the laws of war have shaped the U.S. Armed Forces as much as they have shaped any other armed force in the world.

The law of war is a part of our military heritage, and obeying it is the right thing to do. But we also know that the law of war poses no obstacle to fighting well and prevailing. Nations have developed the law of war to be fundamentally consistent with the military doctrines that are the basis for effective combat operations. For example, the self-control needed to refrain from violations of the law of war under the stresses of combat is the same good order and discipline necessary to operate cohesively and victoriously in battle. Similarly, the law of war’s prohibitions on torture and unnecessary destruction are consistent with the practical insight that such actions ultimately frustrate rather than accomplish the mission.

This manual reflects many years of labor and expertise, on the part of civilian and military lawyers from every Military Service. It reflects the experience of this Department in applying the law of war in actual military operations, and it will help us remember the hard- learned lessons from the past. Understanding our duties imposed by the law of war and our rights under it is essential to our service in the nation’s defense.

Stephen W. Preston General Counsel of the Department of Defense

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PREFACE

This manual is a Department of Defense (DoD)-wide resource for DoD personnel – including commanders, legal practitioners, and other military and civilian personnel – on the law of war.

This manual has many distinguished antecedents that have provided important guidance to the U.S. Armed Forces. For example, General Order No. 100, the Instructions for the Government of Armies of the United States in the Field, commonly known as the Lieber Code, was prepared by Professor Francis Lieber and approved by President Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War in 1863. 1 A similar code related to naval warfare titled The Law and Usages of War at Sea: A Naval War Code was prepared by then-Captain Charles H. Stockton and approved by President William McKinley in 1900. 2 The War Department published instructions for the armed land forces of the United States in a 1914 manual titled Rules of Land Warfare, which was updated in 1917, 1934, and 1940. 3

After World War II, in connection with U.S. ratification of the 1949 Geneva Conventions, the Department of the Navy published Naval Warfare Information Publication 10- 2, Law of Naval Warfare, in 1955, 4 and the Department of the Army published Field Manual 27- 10, The Law of Land Warfare, in 1956, which was updated in 1976. 5 The Department of the Army also published pamphlets on international law applicable in peace and war in the 1960s, and, in 1979, an updated version of the pamphlet on the law of peace. 6 The Department of the Air Force published in 1976 Air Force Pamphlet 110-31, International Law – The Conduct of Armed Conflict and Air Operations, which was updated in 1980. 7 More recently, the Judge Advocate General of the Air Force’s School has published a manual titled Air Force Operations and the Law in 2002, with new editions in 2009 and 2014. 8 The Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast

  • 1 E. D. Townsend, Assistant Adjutant General, General Orders No. 100, Instructions for the Government of Armies of the United States in the Field, Apr. 24, 1863, reprinted in INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF ARMIES OF THE UNITED STATES IN THE FIELD (Government Printing Office, 1898).

  • 2 John D. Long, Secretary of the Navy, General Orders No. 551, The Laws and Usages of War at Sea, Jun. 27, 1900, reprinted as Appendix I in U.S. Naval War College, International Law Discussions, 1903: The United States Naval War Code of 1900, 101 (1904).

  • 3 War Department, Office of the Chief of Staff, Rules of Land Warfare (Apr. 25, 1914); War Department, Office of the Chief of Staff, Rules of Land Warfare (Apr. 25, 1914 with Changes Nos. 1 and 2, corrected to Apr. 15, 1917); War Department, Basic Field Manual, Volume VII, Military Law, Part Two: Rules of Land Warfare (Jan. 2, 1934); War Department Field Manual 27-10, Rules of Land Warfare (Oct. 1, 1940).

  • 4 Department of the Navy, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, Naval Warfare Information Publication 10-2, Law of Naval Warfare (Sept. 1955), reprinted as Appendix in ROBERT W. T UCKER, T HE LAW OF WAR AND NEUTRALITY AT SEA (U.S. Naval War College International Law Studies, Volume 50, 1955).

  • 5 Department of the Army Field Manual 27-10, The Law of Land Warfare (Jul. 18, 1956 with Change 1, Jul. 15,

1976).

  • 6 Department of the Army Pamphlet 27-161-2, II International Law (Oct. 23, 1962); Department of the Army Pamphlet 27-161-1, I International Law: The Law of Peace (Sept. 1, 1979).

  • 7 Department of the Air Force Pamphlet 110-31, International Law – The Conduct of Armed Conflict and Air Operations (Nov. 19, 1976).

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Guard have published several editions of The Commander’s Handbook on the Law of Naval Operations starting in 1987 and most recently in 2007. 9 Helpful annotated supplements have also been published. 10

In addition to these major publications, DoD components have produced many other publications that have supported DoD lawyers in giving advice on the law of war. For example, since 1895, the Naval War College has published its International Law Studies journal. 11 The Judge Advocate General of the Army’s Legal Center & School has published many editions of a Law of Armed Conflict Deskbook, a Law of Armed Conflict Documentary Supplement, and an Operational Law Handbook. 12

The preparation of this manual also has benefited greatly from consulting foreign experts and resources – for example, the 2004 edition of the Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict by United Kingdom Ministry of Defence. 13 In this way, the preparation of this manual is no different from its predecessors. For example, the 1956 Army Field manual benefited from considering a draft of what ultimately became the 1958 United Kingdom law of war manual, and the preparation of the 1914 War Department manual benefited from the Rules of Land Warfare prepared by officers of the English Army and Professor Lassa Oppenheim. 14 The law of war

8 Department of the Air Force, The Judge Advocate General’s School, Air Force Operations and the Law (3rd ed., 2014); Department of the Air Force, The Judge Advocate General’s School, Air Force Operations & the Law: A Guide for Air, Space, and Cyber Forces (2nd ed., 2009); Department of the Air Force, Office of the Judge Advocate General, Air Force Operations & the Law (1st ed., 2002).

9 Department of the Navy, Naval Warfare Publication 9, The Commander’s Handbook on the Law of Naval Operations (Jul. 1987); Department of the Navy, Naval Warfare Publication 1-14M / Marine Corps Warfighting Publication 5-2.1 / Commandant Publication P5800.1, The Commander’s Handbook on the Law of Naval Operations (Oct. 1995); Department of the Navy, Naval Warfare Publication 1-14M / Marine Corps Warfighting Publication 5-12.1 / Commandant Publication P5800.7A, The Commander’s Handbook on the Law of Naval Operations (Jul. 2007).

  • 10 Department of the Navy, Office of the Judge Advocate General, Annotated Supplement to the Commander’s Handbook on the Law of Naval Operations, NWP (Rev.A)/FMFM 1-10 (1989); U.S. Naval War College, Center for Naval Warfare Studies, Oceans Law and Policy Department, Annotated Supplement to the Commander’s Handbook on the Law of Naval Operations (1997).

  • 11 See, e.g., U.S. Naval War College, International Law Studies, Vol. 88, Non-International Armed Conflict in the Twenty-first Century (2012).

  • 12 See, e.g., The Judge Advocate General’s Legal Center and School, U.S. Army, International and Operational Law Department, Law of Armed Conflict Deskbook (2014); The Judge Advocate General’s Legal Center and School, U.S. Army, International and Operational Law Department, Law of Armed Conflict Documentary Supplement (2014); The Judge Advocate General’s Legal Center and School, U.S. Army, International and Operational Law Department, Operational Law Handbook (2014).

  • 13 United Kingdom Ministry of Defence, Joint Service Publication 383, The Joint Service Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict (2004).

  • 14 See War Department, Office of the Chief of Staff, Rules of Land Warfare, Preface 7 (Apr. 25, 1914) (“Especial use was made of the Rules of Land Warfare, prepared by officers of the English Army and Prof. L. Oppenheim, LL.D., and of Prof. Nagao Ariga’s book, ‘La Guerre Russo-Japonaise,’ which deals so carefully and thoroughly with the laws and usages of war during one of the greatest wars of recent times.”).

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manuals of Germany, Australia, and Canada were also helpful resources in the preparation of this manual. 15

The preparation of this manual has also benefited from the participation of officers from the United Kingdom’s Royal Air Force and the Australian Royal Air Force on exchange assignments with the U.S. Air Force. In addition, military lawyers from Canada, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, and Australia reviewed and commented on a draft of the manual in 2009 as part of review that also included comments from distinguished scholars.

Promulgating a DoD-wide manual on the law of war has been a long-standing goal of DoD lawyers. Memoranda and meeting notes from the 1970s reflect that the international law offices of the Department of the Army’s Office of the Judge Advocate General and the Department of the Navy’s Office of the Judge Advocate General generally agreed on a concept plan for a new all-Services law of war manual that would be a resource for implementing the

  • 1977 Additional Protocols to the 1949 Geneva Conventions. 16 At the time, it was anticipated

that the United States would ratify the Protocols, which has not occurred.

The origin of this manual may be traced to work in the late 1980s to update Department of the Army Field Manual 27-10, The Law of Land Warfare. 17 Then, in the mid-1990s, work

began on an all-Services law of war manual to reflect the views of all DoD components. It was envisioned that the manual would provide not only the black letter rules, but also discussion, examples of State practice, and references to past manuals, treatises, and other documents to provide explanation, clarification, and elaboration. The present manual has sought to realize that vision and thus it falls within the tradition of the 1914 War Department manual, as well as the

  • 1989 and 1997 Commander’s Handbook on the Law of Naval Operations, which also adopted

this general approach of an annotated manual.

This manual is an institutional publication and reflects the views of the Department of Defense, rather than the views of any particular person or DoD component. An effort has been made to reflect in this manual sound legal positions based on relevant authoritative sources of the law, including as developed by the DoD or the U.S. Government under such sources, and to show in the cited sources the past practice of DoD or the United States in applying the law of war.

This manual primarily has been prepared by the DoD Law of War Working Group, which is chaired by a representative of the DoD General Counsel and includes representatives of the

  • 15 Germany, Federal Ministry of Defence, Joint Service Regulation (ZDv) 15/2, Law of Armed Conflict Manual (May 1, 2013); Australian Defence Force, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Law of Armed Conflict (May 11, 2006); Canada, Department of National Defence, Joint Doctrine Manual B-GJ-005-104/FP-021, Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels (Aug. 13, 2001).

  • 16 Captain Bruce A. Harlow, JAGC, U.S. Navy, Memorandum for Mr. Waldemar H. Solf (DAJA-IA), Preparation of New Law of War Manual (Dec. 28, 1976).

  • 17 Remarks by W. Hays Parks, Customary Law and Additional Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions for Protection of War Victims: Future Directions in Light of the U.S. Decision Not to Ratify, 81 AMERICAN SOCIETY OF INTERNATIONAL LAW PROCEEDINGS 26 (Apr. 9, 1987) (“I have the job of writing the new U.S. Army Field Manual 27-10, The Law of Land Warfare, so this panel is of particular interest to me.”).

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Judge Advocates General of the Army, Navy, and Air Force; the Staff Judge Advocate to the Commandant of the Marine Corps; the offices of the General Counsels of the Military Departments; and the Legal Counsel to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. 18 This manual has been reviewed by principals of these offices. The preparation of this manual has also benefited significantly from the participation of experts from the Department of State, Office of the Legal Adviser, and the Department of Justice, Office of Legal Counsel, although the views in this manual do not necessarily reflect the views of those Departments or the U.S. Government as a whole.

Comments and suggestions from users of the DoD Law of War Manual are invited. All such correspondence should be addressed by email to:

osd.pentagon.ogc.mbx.ia-law-of-war-manual-comments@mail.mil.

18 Department of Defense Directive 2310.01E, DoD Law of War Program ¶5.1.4 (May 9, 2006, Certified Current as of Feb. 22, 2011) (providing for a “DoD Law of War Working Group, consisting of representatives, at the election by each of the GC, DoD; the General Counsel of each Military Department; the Counsel to the Commandant of the Marine Corps; the Judge Advocate General of each Military Department; the Staff Judge Advocate to the Commandant of the Marine Corps; and the Legal Counsel to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The DoD Law of War Working Group shall develop and coordinate law of war initiatives and issues; support the research, preparation, review, and updating of the DoD Law of War Manual; manage other law of war matters as they arise; and provide advice to the General Counsel on legal matters covered by this Directive.”).

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Foreword .........................................................................................................................ii Preface .............................................................................................................................iii Table of Contents ...........................................................................................................vii List of Abbreviations .....................................................................................................xvii

I – General Background ............................................................................................................1

  • 1.1 Purpose and Scope of This Manual ...........................................................................1

  • 1.2 Use of Footnotes, Sources, Cross-References, and Signals in This Manual .............2

  • 1.3 Definition of the Law of War .....................................................................................7

  • 1.4 Object and Nature of War ..........................................................................................15

  • 1.5 “War” as a Legal Concept ..........................................................................................18

  • 1.6 Law of War Distinguished From Certain Topics .......................................................20

  • 1.7 Treaties .......................................................................................................................27

  • 1.8 Customary International Law ....................................................................................29

  • 1.9 Subsidiary Means of Determining International Law ................................................34

    • 1.10 Legal Force of the Law of War ................................................................................36

    • 1.11 Jus ad Bellum ...........................................................................................................39

II – Principles .............................................................................................................................50

  • 2.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................50

  • 2.2 Military Necessity ......................................................................................................52

  • 2.3 Humanity....................................................................................................................58

  • 2.4 Proportionality ...........................................................................................................60

  • 2.5 Distinction ..................................................................................................................62

  • 2.6 Honor .........................................................................................................................66

III – Application of the Law of War ........................................................................................70

  • 3.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................70

  • 3.2 Situations to Which the Law of War Applies ............................................................73

  • 3.3 Status of the Parties and the Law of War ...................................................................73

  • 3.4 When Jus in Bello Rules Apply .................................................................................78

  • 3.5 Relationship Between Jus in Bello and Jus ad Bellum ..............................................86

  • 3.6 Reciprocity and Law of War Rules ............................................................................89

  • 3.7 Applying Rules by Analogy.......................................................................................92

  • 3.8 End of Hostilities and the Application of the Law of War ........................................94

  • 3.9 Law of War Duties Also Applicable in Peace ...........................................................96

IV – Classes of Persons ..............................................................................................................98

  • 4.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................98

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4.2

The Armed Forces and the Civilian Population .........................................................100

  • 4.3 Lawful Combatants and Unprivileged Belligerents ...................................................103

  • 4.4 Rights, Duties, and Liabilities of Combatants ...........................................................106

  • 4.5 Armed Forces of a State .............................................................................................112

  • 4.6 Other Militia and Volunteer Corps ............................................................................118

  • 4.7 Levée en Masse ..........................................................................................................125

  • 4.8 Rights, Duties, and Liabilities of Civilians ................................................................127

  • 4.9 Military Medical and Religious Personnel ................................................................129

    • 4.10 Rights, Duties, and Liabilities of Military Medical and Religious Personnel .........133

    • 4.11 Authorized Staff of Voluntary Aid Societies ...........................................................134

    • 4.12 Staff of a Recognized Aid Society of a Neutral Country .........................................135

    • 4.13 Auxiliary Medical Personnel ...................................................................................136

    • 4.14 Personnel Engaged in Duties Related to the Protection of Cultural Property .........138

    • 4.15 Persons Authorized to Accompany the Armed Forces ............................................142

    • 4.16 Crews of Merchant Marine Vessels or Civil Aircraft ..............................................148

    • 4.17 Spies, Saboteurs, and Other Persons Engaging in Similar Acts Behind Enemy Lines ........................................................................................................150

    • 4.18 Private Persons Who Engage in Hostilities .............................................................157

    • 4.19 Rights, Duties, and Liabilities of Unprivileged Belligerents ...................................162

    • 4.20 Children....................................................................................................................166

    • 4.21 Mercenaries ..............................................................................................................170

    • 4.22 AP I Provisions on Civil Defense Personnel ...........................................................172

    • 4.23 Law Enforcement Officers .......................................................................................172

    • 4.24 Journalists ................................................................................................................173

    • 4.25 Delegates or Representatives of the Protecting Powers ...........................................175

    • 4.26 ICRC and Other Impartial Humanitarian Organizations .........................................176

    • 4.27 Determining the Status of Detainees in Cases of Doubt ..........................................179

  • V – The Conduct of Hostilities ..................................................................................................183

    • 5.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................183

    • 5.2 Principles for the Conduct of Hostilities ....................................................................185

    • 5.3 Overview of Rules for the Protection of Civilians.....................................................185

    • 5.4 Assessing Information Under the Law of War ..........................................................192

    • 5.5 Rules on Conducting Assaults, Bombardments, and Other Attacks ..........................194

    • 5.6 Discrimination in Conducting Attacks .......................................................................203

    • 5.7 Military Objectives ....................................................................................................205

    • 5.8 Combatants ................................................................................................................216

    • 5.9 Civilians Taking a Direct Part in Hostilities ..............................................................222

      • 5.10 Persons Placed Hors de Combat ..............................................................................232

      • 5.11 Feasible Precautions in Conducting Attacks to Reduce the Risk of Harm to Protected Persons and Objects .............................................................................237

      • 5.12 Proportionality in Conducting Attacks ....................................................................241

      • 5.13 Attacks on Facilities, Works, or Installations Containing Dangerous Forces .........247

      • 5.14 Feasible Precautions to Reduce the Risk of Harm to Protected Persons and Objects by the Party Subject to Attack ................................................................248

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5.15

Undefended Cities, Towns, and Villages .................................................................253

  • 5.16 Prohibition on Using Protected Persons and Objects to Shield, Favor, or Impede Military Operations .................................................................................258

  • 5.17 Seizure and Destruction of Enemy Property ............................................................261

  • 5.18 Protection of Cultural Property During Hostilities ..................................................269

  • 5.19 Sieges and Encircled Areas ......................................................................................288

  • 5.20 Starvation .................................................................................................................291

  • 5.21 Overview of Good Faith, Perfidy, and Ruses ..........................................................294

  • 5.22 Treachery or Perfidy Used to Kill or Wound...........................................................296

  • 5.23 Use of Enemy Flags, Insignia, and Military Uniforms ............................................298

  • 5.24 Improper Use of Certain Signs ................................................................................300

  • 5.25 Ruses of War and Other Lawful Deceptions ...........................................................302

  • 5.26 Non-Forcible Means and Methods of Warfare ........................................................307

  • 5.27 Prohibition Against Compelling Enemy Nationals to Take Part in the Operations of War Directed Against Their Own Country ...................................310

VI – Weapons .............................................................................................................................312

  • 6.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................312

  • 6.2 DoD Policy of Reviewing the Legality of Weapons .................................................313

  • 6.3 Other Practices to Help Implement Law of War Obligations With Respect to Weapons ...............................................................................................................316

  • 6.4 Prohibited Weapons ...................................................................................................317

  • 6.5 Lawful Weapons ........................................................................................................318

  • 6.6 Weapons Calculated to Cause Superfluous Injury.....................................................334

  • 6.7 Inherently Indiscriminate Weapons ...........................................................................340

  • 6.8 Poison, Poisoned Weapons, Poisonous Gases, and Other Chemical Weapons .........343

  • 6.9 Biological Weapons ...................................................................................................350

    • 6.10 Certain Environmental Modification Techniques ....................................................352

    • 6.11 Weapons Injuring by Fragments Not Detectable by X-Rays...................................355

    • 6.12 Landmines, Booby-Traps, and Other Devices .........................................................356

    • 6.13 Cluster Munitions.....................................................................................................380

    • 6.14 Incendiary Weapons.................................................................................................382

    • 6.15 Laser Weapons .........................................................................................................387

    • 6.16 Riot Control Agents .................................................................................................389

    • 6.17 Herbicides ................................................................................................................392

    • 6.18 Nuclear Weapons .....................................................................................................393

    • 6.19 Explosive Ordnance .................................................................................................395

    • 6.20 Explosive Remnants of War ....................................................................................400

VII –Wounded, Sick, Shipwrecked, Dead, and the Medical Services ...................................410

  • 7.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................410

  • 7.2 Application of the Protections of the GWS and GWS-Sea........................................413

  • 7.3 Respect and Protection of the Wounded, Sick, and Shipwrecked .............................415

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7.4

Search, Collection, and Affirmative Protection of the Wounded, Sick, Shipwrecked, and Dead .......................................................................................420

  • 7.5 Humane Treatment and Care of Enemy Military Wounded, Sick, and Shipwrecked in the Power of a Party to the Conflict ...........................................424

  • 7.6 Accountability Information From the Enemy Military Wounded, Sick, Shipwrecked, and Dead .......................................................................................428

  • 7.7 Treatment and Handling of Enemy Military Dead ....................................................430

  • 7.8 Respect and Protection of Categories of Medical and Religious Personnel ..............435

  • 7.9 Captured Medical and Religious Personnel ...............................................................438

    • 7.10 Military Medical Units and Facilities ......................................................................444

    • 7.11 Ground Transports of the Wounded and Sick, or of Medical Equipment ...............451

    • 7.12 Hospital Ships, Sick-Bays in Warships, and Coastal Rescue Craft .........................453

    • 7.13 Chartered Medical Transport Ships .........................................................................465

    • 7.14 Military Medical Aircraft .........................................................................................466

    • 7.15 Display of the Distinctive Emblem to Facilitate Identification ...............................470

    • 7.16 Protection of Civilians Who Are Wounded, Sick, Infirm, or Expectant Mothers ................................................................................................................477

    • 7.17 Civilian Hospitals and Their Personnel ...................................................................478

    • 7.18 Land and Sea Civilian Hospital Convoys ................................................................481

    • 7.19 Civilian Medical Aircraft .........................................................................................482

    • 7.20 AP I Provisions on the Wounded, Sick, and Shipwrecked ......................................483

VIII – Detention: Overview and Baseline Rules ....................................................................486

  • 8.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................486

  • 8.2 Humane Treatment of Detainees ...............................................................................492

  • 8.3 Security

Measures ......................................................................................................495

  • 8.4 Interrogation ...............................................................................................................496

  • 8.5 Adequate Food, Drinking Water, and Clothing .........................................................497

  • 8.6 General Conditions of Detention Facilities ................................................................497

  • 8.7 Segregation of Detainees ...........................................................................................498

  • 8.8 Medical Attention ......................................................................................................499

  • 8.9 Administration and Discipline in Detention Facilities...............................................500

    • 8.10 Contacts With the Outside World ............................................................................500

    • 8.11 Religious Exercise ...................................................................................................501

    • 8.12 Intellectual, Physical, and Recreational Activities ..................................................502

    • 8.13 Adequate Working Conditions ................................................................................503

    • 8.14 Procedures for Detention .........................................................................................503

    • 8.15 National Accountability for Detention.....................................................................506

    • 8.16 Criminal Procedure and Punishment .......................................................................508

IX – Prisoners of War (POWs) .................................................................................................511

  • 9.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................512

  • 9.2 General Principles Applicable to the Treatment of POWs ........................................515

  • 9.3 POW Status ................................................................................................................517

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9.4

National-Level GPW Implementation Measures .......................................................522

  • 9.5 Humane Treatment and Basic Protections for POWs ................................................524

  • 9.6 Security Measures With Respect to POWs ................................................................529

  • 9.7 POW Effects and Articles of Personal Use................................................................530

  • 9.8 Interrogation

of POWs ...............................................................................................532

  • 9.9 Evacuation From Combat Areas ................................................................................534

    • 9.10 Transit or Screening Facilities .................................................................................536

    • 9.11 General Conditions in POW Camps: Location, Safety, Hygiene, and Living Conditions ............................................................................................................538

    • 9.12 Segregation of POWs ...............................................................................................544

    • 9.13 Food, Water, Tobacco, and Clothing for POWs ......................................................545

    • 9.14 Medical Attention for Interned POWs .....................................................................548

    • 9.15 Religious Exercise by POWs ...................................................................................550

    • 9.16 Intellectual, Physical, and Recreational Activities ..................................................551

    • 9.17 Canteens

for POWs ..................................................................................................553

  • 9.18 Financial Resources of POWs .................................................................................555

  • 9.19 POW Labor ..............................................................................................................562

  • 9.20 POW Correspondence and Relief Shipments ..........................................................569

  • 9.21 Private Legal Matters of POWs ...............................................................................577

  • 9.22 Internal Discipline of POW Camps .........................................................................578

  • 9.23 POW Requests, Complaints, and Reports About Conditions of Captivity ..............582

  • 9.24 POW Representatives ..............................................................................................584

  • 9.25 POW

Escapes ...........................................................................................................591

  • 9.26 General Principles Applicable to POW Discipline ..................................................595

  • 9.27 Disciplinary Proceedings and Punishment ...............................................................598

  • 9.28 Judicial Proceedings and Punishment ......................................................................603

  • 9.29 Transfer of POWs From the POW Camp ................................................................610

  • 9.30 Transfer of POWs to the Custody of Another Detaining Power .............................611

  • 9.31 National Accounting of the Detention of POWs .....................................................613

  • 9.32 Role of the Protecting Power in the GPW ...............................................................618

  • 9.33 Access to POWs by the Protecting Powers, ICRC, and Relief Organizations ........621

  • 9.34 Death of POWs ........................................................................................................622

  • 9.35 Exchanges and Other Release and Repatriation of POWs During Hostilities .........626

  • 9.36 Direct Repatriation and Accommodation in Neutral Countries During Hostilities .............................................................................................................627

  • 9.37 Release and Repatriation After Hostilities ...............................................................632

  • 9.38 Procedure on Release and Repatriation After Hostilities ........................................638

  • 9.39 Code of Conduct for U.S. Armed Forces .................................................................640

X – Civilians in the Hands of a Party to the Conflict .............................................................644

  • 10.1 Introduction ..............................................................................................................645

  • 10.2 National-Level GC Implementation Measures ........................................................647

  • 10.3 Protected Person Status ............................................................................................648

  • 10.4 Derogation for Security Reasons .............................................................................654

  • 10.5 Humane Treatment and Other Basic Protections for Protected Persons ..................655

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10.6

Measures of Control and Security............................................................................659

  • 10.7 General Treatment of Protected Persons in a Belligerent’s Home Territory ...........662

  • 10.8 Expulsion From Areas Within a Belligerent’s Home Territory and Departure

and Transfers of Protected Persons From a Belligerent’s Home Territory .........664

  • 10.9 Internment ................................................................................................................667

    • 10.10 Segregation of Internees ........................................................................................671

    • 10.11 Safety, Hygiene, and Living Conditions in Places of Internment ..........................672

    • 10.12 Canteens for Internees............................................................................................675

    • 10.13 Food, Water, Tobacco, and Clothing for Internees ................................................677

    • 10.14 Medical Attention for Internees .............................................................................678

    • 10.15 Religious Exercise by

Internees .............................................................................680

  • 10.16 Intellectual, Physical, and Recreational Activities ................................................682

  • 10.17 Internee Labor ........................................................................................................683

  • 10.18 Internees’ Articles of Personal Use ........................................................................685

  • 10.19 Financial Resources of Internees ...........................................................................686

  • 10.20 Administration of Places of Internment and Discipline .........................................689

  • 10.21 Internee Petitions, Complaints, and Reports About Conditions of Internment ............................................................................................................690

  • 10.22 Internee Committees ..............................................................................................692

  • 10.23 Internee Correspondence and Relief Shipments ....................................................696

  • 10.24 Private Legal

Matters of Internees .........................................................................703

  • 10.25 Internees and Visits of Family and Friends ...........................................................705

  • 10.26 Internee Escapes.....................................................................................................706

  • 10.27 General Provisions Applicable to Both Judicial and Disciplinary Sanctions Regarding Internees .............................................................................................707

  • 10.28 Disciplinary Proceedings and Punishment.............................................................708

  • 10.29 Judicial Proceedings Regarding Protected Persons in Occupied Territory or Internees in a Belligerent’s Home Territory ........................................................713

  • 10.30 Transfers of Internees From the Place of Internment ............................................717

  • 10.31 National Accounting for Protected Persons in Its Power .......................................720

  • 10.32 Role of the Protecting Power in the GC.................................................................725

  • 10.33 Access to Internees by Protecting Powers, ICRC, and Other Relief Organizations .......................................................................................................727

  • 10.34 Death of Internees ..................................................................................................729

  • 10.35 Release, Return, Repatriation of Internees After the Close of Hostilities .............732

XI – Military Occupation ..........................................................................................................735

  • 11.1 Introduction ..............................................................................................................735

  • 11.2 When Military Occupation Law Applies .................................................................744

  • 11.3 End of Occupation and Duration of GC Obligations ...............................................750

  • 11.4 Legal Position of the Occupying Power ..................................................................752

  • 11.5 Duty of the Occupying Power to Ensure Public Order and Safety ..........................754

  • 11.6 Protection of the Population of an Occupied Territory ............................................756

  • 11.7 Authority of the Occupying Power Over Inhabitants ..............................................758

  • 11.8 Administration of Occupied Territory .....................................................................761

xii

11.9

Local Law and Legislation.......................................................................................763

  • 11.10 Ordinary Courts in Occupied Territory..................................................................767

  • 11.11 Criminal Law in Occupied Territory .....................................................................769

  • 11.12 Movement of Persons in Occupied Territory.........................................................777

  • 11.13 Protection of Children in Occupied Territory ........................................................780

  • 11.14 Food and Medical Supplies for the Civilian Population ........................................781

  • 11.15 Public Health and Hygiene ....................................................................................782

  • 11.16 Spiritual Assistance ................................................................................................784

  • 11.17 Relief Efforts and Consignments ...........................................................................785

  • 11.18 Enemy Property During Occupation ......................................................................788

  • 11.19 Protection of Cultural Property During Occupation ..............................................798

  • 11.20 Labor of Protected Persons in Occupied Territory ................................................800

  • 11.21 Judges and Other Public Officials ..........................................................................806

  • 11.22 Public Finances and Taxes .....................................................................................807

  • 11.23 Other Economic Regulation of Occupied Territory ...............................................817

XII – Non-Hostile Relations Between Belligerents .................................................................822

  • 12.1 Introduction ..............................................................................................................822

  • 12.2 Principle of Good Faith in Non-Hostile Relations ...................................................825

  • 12.3 Methods for Communication Between Belligerents ................................................826

  • 12.4 The White Flag of Truce to Initiate Negotiations ....................................................827

  • 12.5 Rules for Parlementaires ..........................................................................................829

  • 12.6 Military Passports, Safe-Conducts, and Safeguards ................................................834

  • 12.7 Cartels ......................................................................................................................839

  • 12.8 Capitulations – Negotiated Instruments of Surrender ..............................................839

  • 12.9 Capitulations – Subjects Usually Addressed ...........................................................843

    • 12.10 Capitulations – Violations and Denunciation ........................................................845

    • 12.11 Armistices

and

Other Cease-Fire Agreements .......................................................847

  • 12.12 Armistices – Subjects Usually Addressed .............................................................852

  • 12.13 Armistices – Violations and Denunciation ............................................................856

  • 12.14 U.N. Security Council Cease-Fires ........................................................................858

XIII – Naval Warfare ................................................................................................................860

  • 13.1 Introduction ..............................................................................................................860

  • 13.2 Legal Boundaries of the Oceans ..............................................................................862

  • 13.3 Overview of Rules for Naval Engagements.............................................................870

  • 13.4 Enemy Warships ......................................................................................................873

  • 13.5 Enemy

Merchant Vessels .........................................................................................874

  • 13.6 Enemy Vessels Exempt From Capture or Destruction ............................................877

  • 13.7 Submarine Warfare ..................................................................................................879

  • 13.8 Belligerent Control of the Immediate Area of Naval Operations ............................880

  • 13.9 Maritime and Airspace Zones: Exclusion, War, Operational, Warning, and Safety ...................................................................................................................882

    • 13.10 Blockade ................................................................................................................886

xiii

13.11

Naval Mines ...........................................................................................................892

  • 13.12 Torpedoes ...............................................................................................................898

  • 13.13 Deception by Naval Forces, Including the Use of Enemy or Neutral Flags ..........898

XIV – Air and Space Warfare ..................................................................................................900

  • 14.1 Introduction ..............................................................................................................900

  • 14.2 Legal Boundaries of Airspace ..................................................................................904

  • 14.3 Aircraft Status ..........................................................................................................909

  • 14.4 Status of Aircrew on Military Aircraft .....................................................................912

  • 14.5 Measures Short of Attack: Interception, Diversion, and Capture ...........................914

  • 14.6 Belligerent Control of Aviation in the Immediate Vicinity of Hostilities ...............916

  • 14.7 Airspace Zones.........................................................................................................916

  • 14.8 Attacks Against Military Objectives in the Air .......................................................917

  • 14.9 Air Attacks Against Military Objectives on the Ground .........................................920

    • 14.10 International Law And Warfare in Outer Space ....................................................922

  • XV – The Law of Neutrality ......................................................................................................929

    • 15.1 Introduction ..............................................................................................................929

    • 15.2 Application of the Law of Neutrality .......................................................................933

    • 15.3 Overview of the Neutrality Law’s Framework of Reciprocal Rights and Duties ...................................................................................................................939

    • 15.4 Remedies for Violations of Neutrality Law .............................................................943

    • 15.5 Prohibition on the Use of Neutral Territory as a Base of Operations ......................946

    • 15.6 Neutral Persons ........................................................................................................950

    • 15.7 Neutral Waters .........................................................................................................954

    • 15.8 Passage of Belligerent Vessels and Aircraft Through International Straits and Archipelagic Sea Lanes........................................................................................957

    • 15.9 Additional Rules Applicable to Neutral Ports, Roadsteads, and Internal Waters ..................................................................................................................959

      • 15.10 Neutral Airspace ....................................................................................................964

      • 15.11 Belligerent Right of Angary...................................................................................965

      • 15.12 Neutral Commerce and Carriage of Contraband ...................................................967

      • 15.13 Belligerent Right of Visit and Search of Merchant Vessels and Civil Aircraft .................................................................................................................973

      • 15.14 Acquisition of Enemy Character by Neutral-Flagged Merchant Vessels and Neutral-Marked Civil Aircraft .............................................................................977

      • 15.15 Capture of Neutral Vessels and Aircraft ................................................................979

      • 15.16 Belligerent Forces Taking Refuge in Neutral Territory .........................................984

      • 15.17 POWs or Internees Brought to, or Received by, a Neutral State ...........................989

      • 15.18 Authorized Passage of Wounded and Sick Combatants Through Neutral Territory ...............................................................................................................991

XVI – Cyber Operations ...........................................................................................................994

xiv

16.1

Introduction ..............................................................................................................994

  • 16.2 Application of the Law of War to Cyber Operations ...............................................996

  • 16.3 Cyber Operations and Jus ad Bellum .......................................................................998

  • 16.4 Cyber Operations and

the Law of Neutrality ...........................................................1002

  • 16.5 Cyber Operations and Jus in Bello...........................................................................1003

  • 16.6 Legal Review of Weapons That Employ Cyber Capabilities ..................................1008

  • XVII – Non-International Armed Conflict (NIAC) ................................................................1010

    • 17.1 Introduction ..............................................................................................................1010

    • 17.2 Application of International Law to NIACs ............................................................1015

    • 17.3 Special Agreements Between Parties to the Conflict ..............................................1023

    • 17.4 A State’s Use of Its Domestic Law and NIAC ........................................................1025

    • 17.5 Principle of Distinction in NIAC .............................................................................1029

    • 17.6 Respect and Humane Treatment of Persons Taking No Active Part in Hostilities in NIAC ..............................................................................................1032

    • 17.7 Rules on Conducting Attacks in NIAC ....................................................................1033

    • 17.8 Impartial Humanitarian Organizations and Humanitarian Activities During NIAC ....................................................................................................................1035

    • 17.9 Protection of the Civilian Population in NIAC ........................................................1035

      • 17.10 Protection of Children in NIAC .............................................................................1037

      • 17.11 Protection of Cultural Property in NIAC ...............................................................1038

      • 17.12 Use of Captured or Surrendered Enemy Personnel in NIAC ................................1039

      • 17.13 Weapons in NIAC ..................................................................................................1041

      • 17.14 Protection of the Wounded, Sick, Shipwrecked, and Dead in NIAC ....................1042

      • 17.15 Protection of Medical and Religious Personnel and Medical Transports in NIAC ....................................................................................................................1044

      • 17.16 Display of the Distinctive Emblem in NIAC .........................................................1045

      • 17.17 Detention in NIAC .................................................................................................1046

      • 17.18 Non-Intervention and Neutral Duties in NIAC ......................................................1047

XVIII – Implementation and Enforcement of the Law of War .............................................1052

  • 18.1 Introduction ..............................................................................................................1052

  • 18.2 Prudential Reasons Supporting the Implementation and Enforcement of the Law of War ..........................................................................................................1055

  • 18.3 Duties of Individual Members of the Armed Forces ...............................................1057

  • 18.4 Commanders’ Duty to Implement and Enforce the Law of War .............................1059

  • 18.5 Role of Judge Advocates and Legal Advisers .........................................................1061

  • 18.6 Dissemination, Study, and Other Measures to Facilitate Understanding of Duties Under the Law of War ..............................................................................1063

  • 18.7 Instructions, Regulations, and Procedures to Implement and Enforce the Law of War ..................................................................................................................1066

  • 18.8 Considering Law of War Obligations in the Planning of Military Operations ........1069

  • 18.9 States’ Obligations With Respect to Violations of the Law of War ........................1070

    • 18.10 Methods for Responding to Violations of the Law of War by the Enemy ............1077

xv

18.11

Protests and Demands to the Offending Party .......................................................1078

  • 18.12 U.N. Security Council and Enforcement of the Law of War .................................1078

  • 18.13 National Investigations of Alleged Violations of the Law of War ........................1082

  • 18.14 International Mechanisms to Investigate Alleged Law of War Violations............1084

  • 18.15 Protecting Power and Other Neutral Intermediaries ..............................................1085

  • 18.16 Compensation for Violations of the Law of War ...................................................1089

  • 18.17 Retorsion ................................................................................................................1092

  • 18.18 Reprisals .................................................................................................................1093

  • 18.19 Discipline in National Jurisdictions of Individuals for Violations of the Law of War ..................................................................................................................1100

  • 18.20 Prosecution in International and Hybrid Courts ....................................................1108

  • 18.21 Limits on the Punishment of Individuals Under the Law of War ..........................1113

  • 18.22 Principles of Individual Criminal Responsibility for Crimes Under International Law .................................................................................................1118

  • 18.23 Theories of Individual Criminal Liability ..............................................................1122

XIX Documentary Appendix – Notes on Treaties and Other Relevant Documents............1131

  • 19.1 Introduction ..............................................................................................................1131

  • 19.2 Lists of Treaties and Other Documents ...................................................................1131

  • 19.3 Lieber Code ..............................................................................................................1138

  • 19.4 1856 Paris Declaration Respecting Maritime Law ..................................................1139

  • 19.5 1864 GWS ................................................................................................................1140

  • 19.6 1868 St. Petersburg Declaration ..............................................................................1140

  • 19.7 1899 and 1907 Hague Declarations on Weapons ....................................................1141

  • 19.8 1899 Hague II and 1907 Hague IV Conventions and Annexed Regulations Regarding Land Warfare......................................................................................1143

  • 19.9 1907 Hague X ..........................................................................................................1146

    • 19.10 1922 Washington Treaty on Submarines and Noxious Gases ...............................1146

    • 19.11 1923 Hague Air and Radio Rules ..........................................................................1147

    • 19.12 1925 Geneva Gas and Bacteriological Protocol ....................................................1148

    • 19.13 1929 Geneva Conventions .....................................................................................1150

    • 19.14 1930 London Treaty for the Limitation and Reduction of Naval Armament and 1936 London Protocol ...................................................................................1151

    • 19.15 1935 Roerich Pact ..................................................................................................1151

    • 19.16 1949 Geneva Conventions .....................................................................................1152

    • 19.17 1954 Hague Cultural Property Convention............................................................1157

    • 19.18 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties ...........................................................1159

    • 19.19 Biological Weapons Convention ...........................................................................1159

    • 19.20 1977 Additional Protocols to the 1949 Geneva Conventions ................................1160

    • 19.21 CCW, CCW Amended Article 1, and CCW Protocols ..........................................1164

    • 19.22 Chemical Weapons Convention .............................................................................1172

    • 19.23 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court .................................................1174

    • 19.24 1999 U.N. Secretary General’s Bulletin for U.N. Forces ......................................1175

    • 19.25 2005 ICRC Study on Customary International Humanitarian Law .......................1175

    • 19.26 AP III .....................................................................................................................1176

xvi

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

To make the manual easier to read, the use of abbreviations has often been avoided, especially in the main text. Nonetheless, the following abbreviations of the titles of documents have been used for frequently cited documents.

Abbreviation

 

Long Form

  • 1899 Hague II

Convention with Respect to the Laws and Customs of War on Land, Jul. 29, 1899, 32 Stat. 1803

  • 1899 Hague II Reg.

Regulations Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land, annexed to Convention with Respect to the Laws and

Customs of War on Land, Jul. 29, 1899, 32 Stat. 1803,

1811

  • 1909 Declaration of London

Declaration Concerning the Laws of Maritime War, Feb.

26, 1909, reprinted in James Brown Scott, The Declaration of London, February 26, 1909: A Collection of Official

Papers and Documents Relating to the International Naval Conference Held in London, December, 1908—February,

1909

(1919)

  • 1914 Rules of Land Warfare

War Department, Office of the Chief of Staff, Rules of Land Warfare (Apr. 25, 1914)

  • 1925 Geneva Gas and

Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of

Bacteriological Protocol

Asphyxiating, Poisonous, or Other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare, Jun. 17, 1925, 94 LNTS 65

  • 1928 Pan American Maritime

Pan American Maritime Neutrality Convention, Feb. 20,

Neutrality Convention

1928, 47 Stat. 1989

  • 1929 GPW

Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, Jul. 27, 1929, 47 Stat. 2021

  • 1929 GWS

Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick of Armies in the Field, Jul. 27, 1929, 47 Stat. 2074

  • 1940 Rules of Land Warfare

War Department, Field Manual 27-10, Rules of Land Warfare (1940)

  • 1944 Chicago Convention

Convention on International Civil Aviation, Dec. 7, 1944, 61 Stat. 1180

  • 1954 Hague Cultural Property

Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the

Convention

Event of Armed Conflict, 249 UNTS 240

  • 1955 NWIP 10-2

Department of the Navy, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, Naval Warfare Information Publication 10-2, Law of Naval Warfare (Sept. 1955), reprinted as Appendix in Robert W. Tucker, The Law of War and Neutrality at Sea (U.S. Naval War College International Law Studies, Volume 50, 1955)

  • 1956 FM 27-10 (Change No. 1

Department of the Army Field Manual 27-10, The Law of

1976)

Land Warfare (Jul. 18, 1956 with Change 1, Jul. 15, 1976)

xvii

Abbreviation

Long Form

  • 1958 UK Manual

United Kingdom War Office, Manual of Military Law, Part III: The Law of War on Land (1958)

  • 1976 Air Force Pamphlet 110-31

Department of the Air Force Pamphlet 110-31, International Law – The Conduct of Armed Conflict and Air Operations (Nov. 19, 1976)

  • 1989 NWP 9

Department of the Navy, Office of the Judge Advocate General, Annotated Supplement to the Commander’s Handbook on the Law of Naval Operations, NWP (Rev.A)/FMFM 1-10 (1989)

  • 1997 Multi-Service Detention

Army Regulation 190-8 / Office of the Chief of Naval

Regulation

Operations Instruction 3461.6 / Air Force Joint Instruction 31-304 / Marine Corps Order 3461.1, Enemy Prisoners of War, Retained Personnel, Civilian Internees and Other Detainees (Oct. 1, 1997)

  • 1997 NWP 9

U.S. Naval War College, Center for Naval Warfare Studies, Oceans Law and Policy Department, Annotated Supplement to the Commander’s Handbook on the Law of Naval Operations (1997)

  • 2001 Canadian Manual

Canada, Department of National Defence, Joint Doctrine Manual B-GJ-005-104/FP-021, Law of Armed Conflict at the Operational and Tactical Levels (Aug. 13, 2001)

  • 2004 UK Manual

United Kingdom Ministry of Defence, Joint Service Publication 383, The Joint Service Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict (2004)

  • 2006 Australian Manual

Australian Defence Force, Australian Defence Doctrine Publication 06.4, Law of Armed Conflict (May 11, 2006)

  • 2007 NWP 1-14M

Department of the Nav y, Naval Warfare Publication 1-14M / Marine Corps Warfighting Publication 5-12.1 / Commandant Publication P5800.7A, The Commander’s Handbook on the Law of Naval Operations (Jul. 2007)

  • 2013 German Manual

Germany, Federal Ministry of Defence, Joint Service Regulation (ZDv) 15/2, Law of Armed Conflict Manual (May 1, 2013)

AJIL

American Journal of International Law

AP I

Protocol (I) Additional to the Geneva Conventions of

August 12, 1949, and Relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts, Jun. 8, 1977, 1125 UNTS

3

AP II

Protocol (II) Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and Relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts, Jun. 8, 1977, 1125 UNTS 609

xviii

Abbreviation

Long Form

AP III

Protocol (III) Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and Relating to the Adoption of an Additional Distinctive Emblem, Dec. 8, 2005, 2404 UNTS

1

Appendix to 1985 CJCS Memo on AP I

Appendix to John W. Vessey, Jr., Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, Review of the 1977 First Additional Protocol to the Geneva Conventions of 1949, May 3, 1985.

Bevans

Charles I. Bevans, Assistant Legal Adviser, Department of State, Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America, 1776-1949 (13 Volumes, 1968-

1976)

Biological Weapons Convention

Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction, Apr. 10, 1972, 1015 UNTS 163

Bothe, Partsch, & Solf, New Rules

Michael Bothe, Karl Josef Partsch, & Waldemar A. Solf, New Rules for Victims of Armed Conflicts (1982)

CCW

Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May be Deemed to be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, Oct. 10, 1980, 1342 UNTS 137

CCW Amended

Amendment to Article I of the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May be Deemed to be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, Dec. 21, 2001,

  • 2260 UNTS 82

CCW Amended Mines Protocol

Protocol (II) on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps and Other Devices, as Amended on May 3, 1996, Annexed to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May be Deemed to be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, May 3, 1996,

  • 2048 UNTS 93

CCW Protocol I

Protocol (I) on Non-Detectable Fragments, Annexed to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May be Deemed to be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, Oct. 10, 1980, 1342 UNTS 137

CCW Protocol III on Incendiary Weapons

Protocol (III) on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Incendiary Weapons, Annexed to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May be Deemed to be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, Oct. 10, 1980, 1342 UNTS 137

xix

Abbreviation

Long Form

CCW Protocol IV on Blinding Laser Weapons

Protocol (IV) on Blinding Laser Weapons, Annexed to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May be Deemed to be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, Oct. 13, 1995, 1380 UNTS 163

CCW Protocol V on Explosive Remnants of War

Protocol (V) on Explosive Remnants of War, Annexed to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May be Deemed to be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, Nov. 28, 2003, 2399 UNTS 100

Chairman’s Commentary to the Copenhagen Process: Principles and Guidelines

The Copenhagen Process on the Handling of Detainees in International Military Operations, Chairman’s Commentary to the Copenhagen Process: Principles and Guidelines

(Denmark, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Oct. 19, 2012)

Chemical Weapons Convention

Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, Jan. 13, 1993, 1974 UNTS 317

Copenhagen Process: Principles and Guidelines

The Copenhagen Process on the Handling of Detainees in International Military Operations, The Copenhagen Process: Principles and Guidelines (Denmark, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Oct. 19, 2012)

Digest of United States Practice in International Law

Digest of United States Practice in International Law (Department of State, Office of the Legal Adviser)

ENMOD Convention

Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques, Dec. 10, 1976, 1108 UNTS 151

Final Record of 1949 Geneva Diplomatic Conference

Diplomatic Conference of Geneva, Final Record of the Diplomatic Conference of Geneva of 1949 (Switzerland, Federal Political Department, 1949)

Final Report on the Persian Gulf

Department of Defense, Conduct of the Persian Gulf War:

War

Final Report to Congress (1992)

GC

Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, Aug. 12, 1949, 75 UNTS 287

GC Commentary

Jean S. Pictet, Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War:

Commentary (International Committee of the Red Cross,

1958)

GPW

Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, Aug. 12, 1949, 75 UNTS 135

GPW Commentary

Jean S. Pictet, Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War: Commentary (International Committee of the Red Cross, 1960)

Greenspan, Modern Law of Land

Morris Greenspan, The Modern Law of Land Warfare

Warfare

(1959)

xx

Abbreviation

Long Form

Grotius, Law of War & Peace

Hugo Grotius, The Law of War and Peace: De Jure Belli ac Pacis Libri Tres (translated by Francis W. Kelsey, 1925)

GWS

Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field, Aug. 12, 1949, 75 UNTS 31

GWS Commentary

Jean S. Pictet, Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field: Commentary (International Committee of the Red Cross, 1952)

GWS-Sea

Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea, Aug. 12, 1949, 75 UNTS 85

GWS-Sea Commentary

Jean S. Pictet, Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea: Commentary

(International Committee of the Red Cross, 1960)

Hague IV

Convention (IV) Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land, Oct. 18, 1907, 36 Stat. 2277

Hague IV Reg.

Regulations Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land, Annex to Convention (IV) Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land, Oct. 18, 1907, 36 Stat. 2295

Hague IX

Convention (IX) Concerning Bombardment by Naval Forces in Time of War, Oct. 18, 1907, 36 Stat. 2351

Hague V

Convention (V) Respecting the Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers and Persons in Case of War on Land, Oct. 18, 1907, 36 Stat. 2310

Hague VIII

Convention (VIII) Relative to the Laying of Automatic Submarine Contact Mines, Oct. 18, 1907, 36 Stat. 2332

Hague X

Convention (X) for the Adaptation to Maritime Warfare of the Principles of the Geneva Convention, Oct. 18, 1907, 36 Stat. 2371

Hague XI

Convention (XI) Relative to Certain Restrictions with Regard to the Exercise of the Right of Capture in Naval War, Oct. 18, 1907, 36 Stat. 2396

Hague XIII

Convention (XIII) Concerning the Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers in Naval War, Oct. 18, 1907, 36 Stat. 2415

ICJ Statute

Statute of the International Court of Justice (Annex to the Charter of the United Nations), Jun. 26, 1945, 59 Stat. 1055

ICRC AP Commentary

Jean S. Pictet et al., Commentary on the Additional Protocols of 8 June 1977 to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 (International Committee of the Red Cross,

1987)

xxi

Abbreviation

Long Form

ICTR

International Criminal Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Genocide and Other Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of Rwanda and Rwandan Citizens Responsible for Genocide and Other Such Violations Committed in the Territory of Neighbouring States, between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 1994

ICTR Statute

Statute of the ICTR, Annex to U.N. Security Council Resolution 955 (1994), U.N. Doc. S/RES/955(1994) (Nov. 8, 1994).

ICTY

International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991

ICTY Statute

Statute of the ICTY, Annex to Report of the Secretary- General Pursuant to Paragraph 2 of Security Council Resolution 808 (1993), U.N. Doc. S/25704 (May 3, 1993), adopted by U.N. Security Council Resolution 827 (1993), U.N. Doc. S/RES/827(1993) (May 25, 1993).

J.A.G.S. Text No. 11, Law of Belligerent Occupation

U.S. Army, The Judge Advocate General’s School Text No. 11, Law of Belligerent Occupation (Jun. 1, 1944, reissued Jul. 2, 1945)

Lauterpacht, II Oppenheim’s International Law

Lassa Oppenheim, International Law, Volume II: Disputes, War and Neutrality (edited by H. Lauterpacht, 7th ed.,

1952)

Levie, Documents on POWs

Howard S. Levie, Documents on Prisoners of War (U.S. Naval War College International Law Studies, Volume 60,

1979)

Levie, POWs

Howard Levie, Prisoners of War in International Armed Conflicts (U.S. Naval War College International Law Studies, Volume 59, 1978)

Lieber Code

E. D. Townsend, Assistant Adjutant General, General Orders No. 100, Instructions for the Government of Armies of the United States in the Field, Apr. 24, 1863, reprinted in Instructions for the Government of Armies of the United States in the Field (Government Printing Office, 1898).

LNTS

League of Nations Treaty Series

LOS Convention

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, Dec.10, 1982, 1833 UNTS 396.

Message from the President Transmitting AP II

Message from the President of the United States Transmitting the Protocol II Additional to the Geneva Conventions of August 12, 1949, and Relating to the Protection of Victims of Noninternational Armed Conflicts, Concluded at Geneva on June 10, 1977, Treaty Doc. 100-2

(1987)

xxii

Abbreviation

Long Form

Message from the President Transmitting AP III, CCW Amended Article 1, and CCW Protocol V on Explosive Remnants of War

Message from the President of the United States transmitting Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and Relating to the Adoption of an Additional Distinctive Emblem (The “Geneva Protocol III”), Adopted at Geneva on December 8, 2005, and Signed by the United States on that date; The Amendment to Article 1 of the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects (“The CCW Amendment”); and The CCW Protocol Explosive Remnants of War (The “CCW Protocol V”), Treaty Doc. 109-10 (2006)

Message from the President Transmitting LOS Convention

Message from the President of the United States transmitting the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, with Annexes, and the Agreement Relating to the Implementation of Part XI of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, with Annex, Adopted at New York on July 28, 1994 and signed by the United States, Subject to Ratification on July 29, 1994, Treaty Doc. 103-09 (1994)

Message from the President Transmitting the 1925 Geneva Gas and Bacteriological Protocol

Message From the President of the United States Transmitting The Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous, or Other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare, Signed at Geneva June 17, 1925, Executive J (1970)

Message from the President Transmitting the 1954 Hague Cultural Property Convention

Message from the President of the United States Transmitting the Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict (the Convention) and, for Accession, the Hague Protocol, Concluded on May 14, 1954, and Entered into Force on August 7, 1956 with Accompanying Report from the Department of State on the Convention and the Hague Protocol, Treaty Doc. 106-1 (1999)

xxiii

Abbreviation

Long Form

Message from the President Transmitting the CCW Amended Mines Protocol, Protocol III on Incendiary Weapons, and Protocol IV on Blinding Laser Weapons

Message From the President of the United States Transmitting Protocols to the 1980 Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the use of Certain Conventional Weapons which may be deemed to be excessively injurious or to Have Indiscriminate effects:

The Amended Protocol on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby-traps or other devices (Protocol II or the Amended Mines Protocol); The Protocol On Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Incendiary Weapons (Protocol III or the Incendiary Weapons Protocol); and the Protocol on Blinding Laser Weapons (Protocol IV), Treaty Doc. 105-1 (1997)

Message from the President Transmitting the Chemical Weapons Convention

Message from the President of the United States Transmitting the Convention on the Prohibition of Development, Production, Stockpiling, and use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction, Opened for Signature and Signed by the United States at Paris on Jan. 13, 1993, Treaty Doc. 103-21 (1993)

Message from the President Transmitting the VCLT

Message from the President of the United States Transmitting the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties Signed for the United States on April 24, 1970, Executive L

(1971)

Moore’s Digest

John Bassett Moore, A Digest of International Law (8 Volumes, 1906)

Official Records of the CDDH

Official Records of the Diplomatic Conference on the Reaffirmation and Development of International Humanitarian Law Applicable in Armed Conflicts, Geneva 1974-1977 (16 Volumes, 1978)

Outer Space Treaty

Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, Jan. 27, 1967, 610 UNTS 205

Public Papers of the Presidents

Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States (National Archives and Records Administration, Office of the Federal Register)

Regulations for the Execution of the 1954 Hague Cultural Property Convention

Regulations for the Execution of the Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, Annexed to the Hague Cultural Property Convention, May 14, 1954, 249 UNTS 270

Roerich Pact

Treaty between the United States of America and other American Republics on the Protection of Artistic and Scientific Institutions and Historic Monuments, Apr. 15, 1935, 49 Stat. 3267

Rome Statute

Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, July 17, 1998, 2187 UNTS 90

xxiv

Abbreviation

Long Form

Spaight, Air Power and War Rights

James Maloney Spaight, Air Power and War Rights (3rd ed., 1947)

Spaight, War Rights on Land

James Maloney Spaight, War Rights on Land (1911)

Stat.

United States Statutes at Large

Technical Annex to CCW Amended Mines Protocol

Technical Annex to Protocol (II) on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps and Other Devices, as Amended on May 3, 1996, Annexed to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May be Deemed to be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, May 3, 1996, 2048 UNTS 144

Technical Annex to CCW Protocol V On Explosive Remnants of War

Technical Annex to Protocol (V) on Explosive Remnants of War, Annexed to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May be Deemed to be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, Nov. 28, 2003, 2399 UNTS

132

Trial of the Major War Criminals Before the IMT

Trial of the Major War Criminals Before the International Military Tribunal (42 Volumes, 1947-1949)

Trials of War Criminals Before the NMT

Trials of War Criminals Before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals Under Control Council Law No. 10 (15 Volumes,

1949-1953)

Tucker, The Law of War and Neutrality at Sea

Robert W. Tucker, The Law of War and Neutrality at Sea (U.S. Naval War College International Law Studies, Volume 50, 1955)

U.N. Charter

Charter of the United Nations, Jun. 26, 1945, 59 Stat. 1031

U.N. Law Reports

United Nations War Crimes Commission, Law Reports of the Trials of War Criminals (15 Volumes 1947-1949)

U.S. Response to ICRC CIHL Study

John B. Bellinger, III, Legal Adviser, Department of State, & William J. Haynes II, General Counsel, Department of Defense, Letter to Dr. Jacob Kellenberger, President, International Committee of the Red Cross, Regarding Customary International Humanitarian Law Study, Nov. 3, 2006, reprinted in 46 International Legal Materials 514

(2007).

U.S.C.

United States Code (as of the date of publication of this manual)

UNTS

United Nations Treaty Series

Vattel, The Law of Nations

Emer de Vattel, The Law of Nations, or the Principles of the Law of Nature, Applied to the Conduct and Affairs of Nations and Sovereigns (translated by Charles Fenwick,

1916)

VCLT

Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, May 23, 1969, 1155 UNTS 331

xxv

Abbreviation

Long Form

Von Glahn, The Occupation of

Gerhard von Glahn, The Occupation of Enemy Territory

Enemy Territory

(1957)

Whiteman’s Digest

Marjorie M. Whiteman, Assistant Legal Adviser, Department of State, Digest of International Law (15 Volumes, 1963-1973)

Winthrop, Military Law &

William Winthrop, Military Law and Precedents (2nd. ed.,

Precedents

1920)

xxvi