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Chapter 17

Kelarutan dan Keseimbangan

Brady and Senese
5th Edition
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Fenomena garam sukar larut dalam air
Fakta-fakta menunjukkan terdapat sejumlah garam
yang mudah larut (... NaCl dan AgNO3, ...) dan yang
tidak larut (... AgCl dan CaCO3, ...).
Kenyataannya: pada garam-garam tidak larut, ketika
dimasukkan ke dalam air, terdapat sejumlah kecil
garam yang larut dan membentuk suatu keseimbangan
ion-ion terlarut, contoh:
AgCl(s)

Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq)

Kajian lebih lanjut menunjukkan setiap garam “tidak
larut” memiliki karakteristik “kelarutan” masing-masing,
yang ditunjukkan oleh nilai keseimbangan Ksp.
17.1. An insoluble salt is in equilibrium with the solution around it

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Fenomena garam sukar larut dalam air
Fakta-fakta menunjukkan terdapat
sejumlah garam yang mudah larut
(... NaCl dan AgNO3, ...) dan yang
tidak larut (... AgCl dan CaF2, ...).
Kenyataannya: pada garam-garam
tidak larut, ketika dimasukkan ke
dalam air, terdapat sejumlah kecil
garam yang larut dan membentuk
suatu keseimbangan ion-ion terlarut,
contoh:
CaF2(s)

Ca2+(aq) + 2F-(aq)

17.1. An insoluble salt is in equilibrium with the solution around it

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yang ditunjukkan oleh nilai keseimbangan Ksp.Konstanta hasil kali ion terlarut Contoh: AgCl(s) Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq) ⇒ Ksp = [Ag+][Cl–] = 1.1.8 × 10-10 konstanta hasil kali ion terlarut 17. An insoluble salt is in equilibrium with the solution around it Kajian lebih lanjut menunjukkan setiap garam “tidak larut” memiliki karakteristik “kelarutan” masingmasing. 4 .

8 × 10-10 Kelarutan AgCl = 1.34 x 10-5 M Nilai yang tetap pada suhu tetap ⇒ penambahan salah satu ion ke dalam air akan mengurangi kelarutan (efek ion senama) Apabila dalam suatu larutan hasil kali ion-ion terlarut (Q) melebihi Ksp ⇒ garam akan diendapkan ⇒ digunakan sebagai dasar pada pemurnian dengan cara kristalisasi Q > Ksp ⇒ lewat jenuh Q = Ksp ⇒ jenuh Q < Ksp ⇒ tidak jenuh 17.Arti konstanta hasil kali ion terlarut Contoh: AgCl(s) Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq) ⇒ Ksp = [Ag+][Cl–] = 1.1. An insoluble salt is in equilibrium with the solution around it 5 .

Efek ion senama Contoh: 6 .

1.Learning Check Write the reactions and mass action expressions for the dissolution of the following substances in water: •Ag2CO3 Ag2CO3(s) 2Ag+(aq) + CO32-(aq) Ksp = [Ag+]2[CO32–] •(NH4)2SO4 (NH4)2SO4(s) 2NH4+(aq) + SO42-(aq) Ksp = [NH4+]2[SO42–] 17. An insoluble salt is in equilibrium with the solution around it 7 .

1.8 × 10-10 x2 = 1. An insoluble salt is in equilibrium with the solution around it 8 .8 × 10-10 molar solubility = 1.3 × 10-5 M 17.Learning Check What is the molar solubility of AgCl at 25 °C? AgCl(s) Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq) I C N/A -x 0 +x 0 +x E N/A x x AgCl Ksp 1.

0 × 10-29 > (3x)3(2x)2 = Ksp > molar solubility = 7. An insoluble salt is in equilibrium with the solution around it 9 .1.Learning Check What is the molar solubility of Ca3(PO4)2 at 25 °C? Ca3(PO4)2(s) I C E 3Ca2+(aq) + 2PO43-(aq) N/A -x N/A 0 +3x 3x 0 +2x 2x Ca3(PO4)2 Ksp 2.1 × 10-7 M 17.

1. 6.Your Turn! What is the molar solubility of Ba3(PO4)2? Ksp = 1.17 × 10-20 M C. None of these 17.55 × 10-7 M D.1.30 × 10-29 A.17 × 10-7 M B. 2. An insoluble salt is in equilibrium with the solution around it 10 .

what is its Ksp? 6. An insoluble salt is in equilibrium with the solution around it 11 .1.0 × 10-5 M. we can find Ksp • The solubility of an salt. is found to be 3. is found to be 2.Learning Check Given solubilities.3 × 10-17 17.6 × 10-21 • If the solubility of a salt.5 × 10-6 M. A2B3. AB2. What is the value of Ksp? 2.

1 M +2x 0.ionized at the start Na3PO4 → 3Na+(aq) + PO43-(aq) 0. An insoluble salt is in equilibrium with the solution around it 12 .1 + 2x ≈ 0.3 M 0.1)2 = Ksp > molar solubility 4.1 > (3x)3(0.0 × 10−29 1. Ca3(PO4)2 I C E N/A -x N/A 3Ca2+(aq) + 2PO43-(aq) 0 +3x 3x 0.1 M Na3PO4? Ksp= 2.2 × 10-10 M 17.Learning Check: Common Ion Effect What is the molar solubility of Ca3(PO4)2 in 0.1 M 2. Na3PO4 is strong electrolyte .1.1 M → 0.

BaCl2 → Ba2+(aq) + 2Cl-(aq) 0.1 M 0 +x +x 0.1 + x ≈ 0.1 M 0.1 × 10-10 1.1 x > x(0. BaCl2 is a strong electrolyte.Learning Check: Common Ion Effect Calculate the molar solubility of BaSO4 in 0. BaSO4(s) I N/A C -x E N/A Ba2+(aq) + SO42-(aq) 0.1 × 10-9 M 17.1) = Ksp > 1. An insoluble salt is in equilibrium with the solution around it 13 .1 M → 0.1 M BaCl2.1. Ksp = 1.2 M 2.

It decreases C. It does not change D.Your Turn! What will happen to the solubility of Ba3(PO4)2 if solid BaCl2 is added? A. An insoluble salt is in equilibrium with the solution around it 14 . It increases B.1. Not enough information given 17.

1 M Pb(NO3)2 + 10.3 × 10–9 = [Ca2+][C2O42–] Qsp = 0.00025 Ksp = 2.1 M CaCl2 + 20.00 mL of 0.00 mL of 0.00 mL 0.001 M CaCl2 PbCl2(s) Pb2+(aq) + 2Cl-(aq) Ksp = 1. An insoluble salt is in equilibrium with the solution around it 15 .1.01 M Na2CO4 Ca2+(aq) + C2O42-(aq) CaC2O4(s) Ksp = 2.7 × 10–5 Qsp < Ksp no precipitate will form 17.00 mL of 0.7 × 10–5 = [Pb2+][Cl-]2 Qsp = 1.Learning Check Will the following form a precipitate? • 20.3 × 10-8 Ksp = 1.3 × 10–9 Qsp > Ksp a precipitate will form • 10.

No B.1 M in Pb2+ and 0.Your Turn! Pb(NO3)2 is added to a solution of HCl until the mixture is 0. Not enough information is given 17.7 × 10-5 A. Will a precipitate form? Ksp = 1. An insoluble salt is in equilibrium with the solution around it 16 .1.005 M in Cl-. Yes C.

5 x 10-9 K2 (H2CO3) = 4.7 x 102 = 2.Meningkatkan kelarutan garam atau oksida Garam-garam atau oksida yang sukar larut dalam air. dapat ditingkatkan kelarutannya dengan penambahan asam Contoh: ⇒ Ksp (CaCO3) ⇒ 1/K2 (H2CO3) Ktotal = Ksp (CaCO3)/K2 (H2CO3) Ksp (CaCO3) = 4.5 x 4.7 x 10-11 jauh lebih besar dari Ksp Ktotal = 4.1 x 103 Ktotal = kelarutan semakin besar jika [H3O+] semakin tinggi [Ca2+] [HCO3-] [H3O+] ⇒ [Ca2+] [HCO3-] = [H3O+] 2.1 x 103 17 .

Meningkatkan kelarutan garam atau oksida Kelarutan CaCO3 semakin bertambah pada kondisi larutan yang lebih asam 18 .

dapat ditingkatkan kelarutannya dengan penambahan basa Lewis ⇒ senyawa kompleks Contoh: AgCl dalam air AgCl dalam air dan ditambahkan NH3 19 .Meningkatkan kelarutan garam Garam-garam yang sukar larut dalam air.

dapat ditingkatkan kelarutannya dengan penambahan basa Lewis ⇒ senyawa kompleks Contoh: 20 .Meningkatkan kelarutan garam Garam-garam yang sukar larut dalam air.

dapat ditingkatkan kelarutannya dengan penambahan basa Lewis ⇒ senyawa kompleks Contoh: 21 .Meningkatkan kelarutan garam Garam-garam yang sukar larut dalam air.

atau S2bersifat sangat basa.2. sehingga bereaksi dengan air membentuk OHContoh: + 2Ag2O(s) ↔ 2 Ag (aq) + O(aq) − 2O(aq) + H2O(l) ↔ 2 OH (aq) Ksp Kb - + Ag2O(s) + H2O(l) ↔ 2 Ag (aq) + 2OH(aq) Ag2S(s) ↔ 2Ag+(aq) + S2-(aq) Knet Ksp S2-(aq) + H2O ↔ OH-(aq) + HS-(aq) Kb Ag2S(s) + H2O ↔ OH-(aq) + HS-(aq) + 2Ag+(aq) Knet 17.Kelarutan oksida dan sulfida Kelarutan oksida atau sulfida dalam air bisa terjadi karena O2. Solubility equilibria of metal oxides and sulfides involve reaction with water 22 .

3 × 10−7 Ka2 = 4.47 × 1010 1.2.50 M 17.Learning Check What is the molar solubility of BaCO3 in 3 M HCl? BaCO3 H2CO3 Ksp = 5.3 × 10 −9 × 4.0 × 10 −9 ) ( 4.47 × 1010 ) = 2.0 × 10−9 Ka1= 4.7 × 10−11 BaCO3(s) + 2H+(aq) ↔ H2CO3(aq) + Ba2+(aq) I N/A 3 0 0 C -x -2x +x +x E N/A 3 . Solubility equilibria of metal oxides and sulfides involve reaction with water 23 .2x x x K net = K sp K a1 K a 2 x2 ( 3 − 2x ) 2 = ( 5.7 × 10 −11 = 2.

Your Turn! What is Knet for the molar solubility of Ba3(PO4)2 in 6 M HCl? Ba3(PO4)2(s) + 6HCl(aq) ↔ 2H3PO4(aq) + 3BaCl2(aq) A.2. D. K sp Ka 2 Ka 2 K sp K a1 2 K a 2 2 K a 2 2 K sp K sp K a1 2 K a 2 2 K a 2 2 17. C. B. Solubility equilibria of metal oxides and sulfides involve reaction with water 24 .

Pengendapan garam secara selektif Suatu ion dapat berkompetisi dalam mengendapkan suatu garam dari campuran ion-ion ⇒ karena nilai Ksp yang berbeda-beda Contoh: penambahan ion Cl. Metal ions can be separated by selective precipitation 25 .3.ke dalam campuran garam nitrat dari Ag dan Pb. akan mengendapkan AgCl ketika nilai Ksp-nya terlampaui 17.

jenuh AgI dan PbI2 tidak mengendap AgI mengendap PbI2 tdk mengendap AgI dan PbI2 mengendap PbI2 .9 × 10-9 [I-] = 8.3 × 10-16 M AgI tdk mengendap AgI mengendap AgI batas konsentrasi I.3 × 10-17 PbI2(s) ↔ Pb2+(aq) + 2I-(aq) Ksp = [Pb2+][I-]2 = 7.jenuh [I-] = 2.8 × 10-4 M PbI2 tdk mengendap PbI2 mengendap batas konsentrasi I.1 M Ag+? AgI(s) ↔ Ag+(aq) + I-(aq) Ksp = [Ag+][I-] = 8.is needed to precipitate one ion but not the other in a mixture of 0.Learning Check What concentration of I.1 M Pb2+ and 0.

Learning Check At what pH will one ion ppt but not the other in a mixture of 0.3.1 M Mn2+. 0.10 pH 17.6 × 10-13 Mn: pH = 8.6 × 10-39 Fe: pH = 1.40 Mn(OH)2(s) ↔ Mn2+(aq) + 2OH-(aq) Ksp = [Mn2+][OH-]2 = 1. Metal ions can be separated by selective precipitation 27 .1 M Fe3+? Fe(OH)3(s) ↔ Fe3+(aq) + 3OH-(aq) Ksp = [Fe3+][OH-]3 = 1.

01 M Mg2+. All of these will do E. 5 × 10-7 CaCO3 4.will precipitate one but not the other? A.Your Turn! When a solution containing 0. Metal ions can be separated by selective precipitation 28 .0 × 10-5 D. 5 × 10-6 MgCO3•3H2O 4. what concentration of CO32. None of these will do 17.3. 5 × 10-8 Ksp B.1 M Ca2+ and 0.8 × 10-9 C.

and 0.Learning Check What pH will prevent the precipitation of any metal ions in 0. 0.3.61 PbS pH= -2.26 pH 17.1 M H2S.1 M Pb2+? Cu2+(aq) + H2S(aq) ↔ 2H+(aq) + CuS(s) Kspa = 6 × 10–16 6 × 10−16 ⎡Cu 2+ ⎤ [ H 2S] ⎦ =⎣ 2 ⎡H+ ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ Pb2+(aq) + H2S(aq) ↔ 2H+(aq) + PbS(s) Kspa = 3 × 10–7 3 × 10 −7 ⎡ Pb 2+ ⎤ [ H 2S] ⎦ =⎣ 2 ⎡H+ ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ CuS pH= -6.1 M Cu2+. Metal ions can be separated by selective precipitation 29 .

17. Kinst M(L)nm+(aq) ↔ Mm+(aq) + nL(aq) • When we reverse an equation. L • Complex ions are soluble. hence complexation is a means of dissolving some solids • Complexes are governed by the instability constant. thus Kform = 1/Kinst.4 Complex ions participate in equilibria in aqueous solutions 30 . we invert K.Complexation and Kinst • Complex ions are charged particles in which a metal ion is surrounded by anions or molecules called ligands.

4 Complex ions participate in equilibria in aqueous solutions 31 . ions are dissolved in water through ion-dipole interactions • Water acts as a ligand.Aqueous Metal Ions are Complex Ions • In the solvation of ionic compounds. the Lewis base that forms a coordinate covalent bond with the metal 17.

1 × 1013 Cu2+(aq) + 4NH3(aq) [Cu(NH3)4]2+(aq) 0.01 M NH3? Kform = 1.1 M Cu2+ are combined with 10.048 M 17.4 Complex ions participate in equilibria in aqueous solutions 32 .Learning Check What is the concentration of Cu2+ available when 10.0 mL 0.0 mL of 0.

0 × 10-51 Ag2S(s) + 4NH3(aq) [Ag(NH3)2+] Kinst= 6.5 Complex ion formation increases the solubility of a salt 33 . Ag2S Ksp = 6.Learning Check Calculate the molar solubility of Ag2S in 2 M NH3.8 × 10-12 M 17.3 × 10−8 2[Ag(NH3)2]+ + S2-(aq) 1.

37 × 10 x = 1.6 ×10 -124 17.61 × 10-10 [Co(NH3)6]3+ Co2S3 Kinst = 2.5 Complex ion formation increases the solubility of a salt 34 .6 × 10 M (2x)2 (3x)3 Ksp −57 = = × 5.3 × 10-3 M (6 − 12x)12 Kinst D. 1.8 × 10-11 M Co S + 12NH ↔2Co(NH ) 3+ + 3S22 3 3 3 6 -57 B.0 M NH3 A.2 × 10-34 Ksp = 2. 4. None of these 108x 5 −57 12 6 = 5.37 10 2 C.Your Turn! What is the molar solubility of Co2S3 in 6. 2.