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Prepared under

QIP-CD Cell Project

Lecture - 30

Jet Propulsion

Ujjwal K Saha, Ph. D.


Department of Mechanical Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati


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Rocket Engines

Space Shuttle Columbia

Ariane 5
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Thrust Vector Control

A rocket propulsion system not


only provides the propulsive
force but also means of
controlling its flight path by
redirecting its thrust vector to
provide directional control. This
is known as Thrust Vector
Control (TVC).

Reasons for TVC


to change a flight path/trajectory
to rotate a vehicle or change its attitude during flight
to correct for deviation from the intended path
to correct for thrust misalignment.

Pitch/Yaw -Simple deflection of thrust vector


Roll Rotary vanes/separate nozzle.

Control of Thrust Vector

Pitch
Yaw
Roll

Pitch Moments: Nose up/down


Yaw Moments: Move left/right
Roll Moments: Roll/turn sideways
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Choosing a TVC Method

TVC Methods:
1. Gimbaled Engine:
In this case, the engine
has a hinge or a gimbal
(a universal joint) that
allows rotation about its
axis that is the whole
engine is pivoted on a
bearing.

2. Flexible Laminated Bearing:


3. Flexible Nozzle Joint:

The swiveled nozzle changes


the direction of throat and
nozzle. It is similar to
gimbaled engine. The main
drawback in using this
method is the difficulty in
fabricating the seal joint of
the swivel since the swivel is
exposed to extreme high
pressure and temperatures.
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4. Jet Vanes: Jet


vanes are small airfoils
located at the nozzle
exit plane, and behave
like
ailerons
or
elevators
on
an
aircraft, and cause the
vehicle to change
direction. This control
system causes a loss of
thrust (2 to 3 %), and
erosion of vanes.
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5.
Jetavators:
The
system has rotating airfoil
shaped collar, and gives
an
unsymmetrical
distribution of gas flow.
This provides a side force
thereby changing the
direction of flight.

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6. Jet Tabs: The system


has tabs rotated by
hydraulic
actuators.
Power is supplied from
compressed
nitrogen.
Usually, this type of TVC
methods are used in
military missiles.

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7. Side Injection: A secondary


fluid (gas or liquid) is injected into
the exhaust stream to deflect it
and thereby changing the thrust
vector. The gas is either vented
from the main combustion
chamber or from an auxiliary gas
generator. For liquids, catalyzed
monopropellant (e.g., hydrazine,
nitrogen tetra-oxide) is used.
8. Vernier Rockets: These are
small auxiliary rocket engines, and
can provide all attitude control,
or just roll control for single
engine stages during the main
engine burn, and means of
controlling the rocket after the
main engine shut off.
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TVC Methods & Examples


Gimbal
or hinge

Universal
joint
suspension
for thrust
chamber

Flexible
laminated
bearing

Nozzle is
held by ring
of alternate
layers of
elastomer
and metal

Flexible
nozzle
joint

Sealed
rotary joint

Jet vanes

Four rotating
aerodynamic
vanes in jet

Jetavator

Rotating
airfoilshaped
collar
gimballed
near nozzle
exit

Jet tabs

Four
paddles
rotate in
and out of
hot gas
flow

Side
injection

Secondary
fluid
injection on
one side at
a time

Small
control
thrust
chambers

Two or
more
gimbaled
auxiliary
thrust
chambers

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TVC Power Supply Categories


TVC needs an onboard power source during flight
Two basic implementations - Recirculating & Blowdown
Recirculating

Working fluid (oil, electricity, gas) is recirculated in a


closed loop system
Ex: Hydraulic pump, Electric generator, gas compressor
Pros - Never runs out (until onboard power supply
does, which usually means the end of the flight
anyway); easier pre-flight testing
Cons - Heavier, more complex

Blowdown

Working fluid is dumped overboard after use


Ex: Hydraulic accumulator, Electric batteries, gas
pressure vessel, thrusters
Pros - Lighter, simpler
Cons - Limited duration (must estimate total fluid
requirement, add margin)
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References
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Hill, P.G., and Peterson, C.R., (1992), Mechanics


and Thermodynamics of Propulsion, Addison
Wesley.
Oates, G.C., (1988), Aerothermodynamics of Gas
Turbine and Rocket Propulsion, AIAA, New York.
M.J.L.Turner, (2000), Rocket and Spacecraft
Propulsion, Springer.
Sutton, G.P. and Biblarz, O., (2001), Rocket
Propulsion Elements, John Wiley & Sons.
Zucrow, M.J., (1958), Aircraft and Missile
Propulsion, Vol. II, John Wiley.
Barrere, M., Jaumotte, A., Veubeke, B., and
Vandenkerckhove, J., (1960), Rocket Propulsion,
Elsevier.

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Web Resources
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http://www.soton.ac.uk/~genesis
http://www.howstuffworks.co
http://www.ae.gatech.edu
http://www.ueet.nasa.gov/Engines101.html
http://www.aero.hq.nasa.gov/edu/index.html
http://home.swipnet.se/~w65189/transport_aircraft
http://howthingswork.virginia.edu/
http://www.allison.com/
http://wings.ucdavis.edu/Book/Propulsion
http://www.pilotfriend.com/
http://www.aerospaceweb.org/design/aerospike
http://www.grc.nasa.gov
http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History
http://membres.lycos.fr/bailliez/aerospace/engine
http://people.bath.ac.uk/en2jyhs/types.htm
http://roger.ecn.purdue.edu/~propulsi/propulsion/rockets
http://www.waynesthisandthat.com/ep2.htm
http://www.answers.com/main
http://www.astronautix.com
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