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FireEngineeringResearch:KeyIssuesfortheFuture

PosttensionedConcreteStructuresinFire

JohnGales
Supervision:LukeBisby,
Cosupervision:MartinGillie modelling,Phase1and3
TimStratford experimentation,Phase2and3

Whatareposttensionedbuildings?
ConventionalsteelrebarPrestressing(PS)steel

AdvantagesofposttensioningconcretewithPSsteelforload
balancing
Thinfloors(highceilings)
Highly
Increasedspanlengths
Reducesbuildingmaterials
optimized
Rapidconstruction

Typicalposttensionedbuildings

ModernBPT
building,UK

ModernUPT
building,USA

Antiquated(1960s)
UPTbuilding,USA

Novelbuildingoptimization
Currentguidance isdated andhasnot
keptupwithmodernoptimizationtrends
Todaysflatslabposttensionedbuildings,for
example,withcolumnsspaced(12m)oncenter
andspandepthratiosof40aremorecomplex
andrequiremoreengineeringattentionthan
typicalflatslabbuildingsof40yearsago,with
columnsspacedat(6m)oncenterandspan
depthratiosof20. RandallPoston(chairACI
318)

RealPTslabbehaviourinfireisdebatable
PToptimization increases
susceptibilitytofire:

PSsteelmoresensitivetostrengthlossinhigh
temperature
Spallingofconcretecover(HSconcrete,
precompressionofslab)
Unbondedtendonsruncontinuous,localdamageWILL
effecttheentirefloor(KeyBiscaynedemolition)

Codeguidanceisbasedon(often
dated)standardfurnacetestsofsimple
span slabs:
modernconstruction?,buildingmaterials?,realfires?

PTStandardfiretest(Kellyand
Purkiss,2008)

SideprojectswhileIwaitforPhase3
tobegin(curingtimedelayed)

Tertiary
Creep

Secondary
Creep

Creep strain (ecr)

Phase1 Fire codeassessment for


unbondedPSsteelrupture(spalling,
andvariableheatinglength)
Phase2 Hightemperature
mechanicalbehaviour ofmodern
PSsteel (softening,strengthand
creep)
Phase3 threelargescale
continuousPTslabtests under
localisedheating

Primary
Creep

ThePhD

ecr
ecr,0

Secondary Creep rate=Z= ecr

Temperature compensated time ()

Phase1:Localizedfiredamagetounbonded
PSsteel
2009TestsdemonstratedunbondedPSsteelrupture is more
probableunderlocalizedheating influencedbycreep
Localizedfiresmaybedueto spalling,travelling,ceilingjets

LocalizedheatedUPTtendontests
(strongbacktests)conductedinmy
masters

Lowerratioofheating,failedtendons
atequivalenttemperatures

Phase1:Localizedfiredamagetounbonded
PSsteel
IBC,andEC2analyzedwithsimple tendonrupture
modelling withcreep(time,temp,loaddependent)
relationandheattransfer(ASTME119curve)

Parametricanalysis:Heatedlengthratio,spalling,specifiedconcretecover

Phase1results
1000.00

Cover (0mm)

900.00

Cover (1mm)
Cover (2mm)

800.00

Cover (3mm)
Cover (4mm)

700.00
Temperature (C)

Cover (5mm)
600.00

Cover (6mm)
Cover (7mm)

500.00

Cover (8mm)
Cover (9mm)

400.00

Cover (10mm)
300.00

Cover (11mm)
Cover (12mm)

200.00

Cover (13mm)

100.00

Cover (14mm)
F|IR|E

0.00
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Time (hr)
1000

Cover (0mm)

900

Cover (1mm)
Cover (2mm)

800

Cover (3mm)
Cover (4mm)

Temperature (C)

700

Cover (5mm)
600

Cover (6mm)
Cover (7mm)

500

Cover (8mm)
Cover (9mm)

400

Cover (10mm)
300

Cover (11mm)
Cover (12mm)

200

Cover (13mm)

100

Cover (14mm)
F|IR|E

0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

Time (hr)

0.8

Performancebasedguidancenot
clearlyspecifiedincodes withrespect
tolosingunbondedPSsteelinafire
Considerationstomade;restraint,
bondedreinforcing,spallingmitigation
AmericanIBCcodewasunconservative
RealunbondedPSsteelbehaviourmore
severethanPhase1modelling,new
modellingparametersneeded(Phase
2)
Resultshavetiedindirectlyorinspired
relatedPhDprojectsatEdinburgh
(spalling,concretecoverinfluenceusing
FEM)

Exampleheattransfercompensatedforspallinginput(200mmslab)

Phase2:ModernPSsteelbehaviourinhigh
temperature

UsedDigitalImageCorrelation (DIC)inuniaxialtensileteststo
measuredeformationandcrosssectionreduction

Phase2:ModernPSsteelbehaviourinhigh
temperature
DICpatchcorrelationsbasedonHTpaintspecklepattern
750Px gauge length = 37.5mm

Patch A

Patch B

Stress = 0 MPa

Pixel (y)
Stress = 1950 MPa

Pixel (x)
Patch A

Patch B

Methodneededvalidationforcurrentuse.

Phase2:ModernPSsteelbehaviourinhigh
temperature
DICto bondedfoilstraingaugesandextensometer
DICcrosssectionto Poissonconstantvolumetheory
DICto theoreticalthermalexpansioncalculation(EC2)

Phase2:ModernPSsteelbehaviourinhigh
temperature
Creepbehaviourusingtemperaturecompensatedtime.
PSsteeltypesconsidered;ASTM4211970,ASTM416
2008,andBS58962011 (allofdifferentcomposition,but
consideredstructurallyequivalent)

Phase2results
UniaxialcreeptestsatSteadystate andTransient
investigatingequivalency
Resultsappearedsimilar
(creepparameterswere
identicalmagnitudes;at
690MPaand1000MPa
stresslevels)
Changeintransienttest
heatingratehadsame
magnitudes

Phase2results
Tertiarycreepasmanifestationoflocalizedyielding
0.12
690 MPa
Virtual creep
strain (steady
state)

0.10

cr

0.08
Harmathy
equation
w/ASTM 416
params and area
reduction

0.06

0.04

0.02

0.00
1E-19

2E-19

3E-19

4E-19

3
3E-19

4
4E-19

5E-19

6E-19

Area (mm )

0
16
15
14

Necking region

13

3300Px distance

12
0

1
1E-19

2
2E-19

Temperature compensated time, (x 10

5
5E-19
-19

hrs)

6
6E-19

Creepcurveinitiates
runaway(tertiary)failure
whenalocalnecking
regiondevelops
Resultappearsin
transienttest
Possibletomodel,but
relationsproduceerror

Phase2results
Strengthtests withtruestress insteadystate;Implicit
creepstrengthtestscomparisonunderway(postpeak
softening).
Reductionratiosmatchedwell
toEurocode
Loadingratedecrease,
decreasedyieldpoint
Truestrengthretentionat
elevatedtemperaturebetter
thanEC2untilpostpeak
softeningoccurs

2500

100C (true)
100

2000

Stress (MPa)

300C (true)

300C

1500

400C (true)

1000

400C

500C
(true)

500

500C

0.05

0.1

0.15
Strain

0.2

0.25

0.3

Phase2results
Creepmodels werecomparedwith theresultsofthe
locallyheatedstrongbacktests (variedtransientand
steadystateheatingwithcooling)
1050

Transient heating (2C/min)

1000

Steady
heating
(400C)

Cooling (natural)

Unbonded PS stress level (MPa)

950
900

850
800

ASTM 416 (2008)


actual stress
ASTM 416 (2008)
model
ASTM 421 (1970)
model
BS 5896 (2011)

750
700

650
600
0

Test duration (hrs)

Creepmodelaccuracy
functionofheatingrate
andmetallurgy
Errorat2%for2C/min
growingto7%errorat
30C/min
Thirdcreepphasenot
consideredyet

Phase3:Continuousposttensioned
concreteslabsunderlocalizedfire
TwoUPTandOneBPT,1hourratedEC2slabs

Testsplannedforthissummer(6+months,lowMC%)
Restrainingforcesmeasuredfromsteelcolumns(stiffnessbasedon
representativeconcretecolumns
Appliedloading
Realisticspantodepthratio(>40)
Bondedsteelprovided
Thermocouples(x24),LinearPotentiometers(x8),Loadcells(x2)
Radiantpanelheating(locallyheated)

Phase3:Continuousposttensioned
concreteslabsunderlocalizedfire
IssuesandproblemswithPhase3:
Whatdowewanttodowiththeresults..
AprioriandAposterioriroundrobinmodelling?
Inhousemodelling(FEMpackages)?
Instrumentation
Whatshouldwebemeasuringandwhatdoesitmean?
Motionimaging?(2DDIC,3Dtracking?)
Pretesting
Ambienttestsbeforeheating?
Intangibles;prestressingtheslabs?

Currentcollaborativesideprojects
Project1: TheHistoryofFireSafety
Engineering (Thefullstoryisnotrecorded)
Traditionalandnontraditionalconstruction
Largescaletesting(Modernandantiquated)
ICEM15conferencethisJulyinPorto
Firebehaviour,dynamicsanddesignphilosophy
Project2: Axisdistancevs.clearcover of
miniaturePSslabsexposedtoISO834.Should
thisdesignrulechange?
Project3: Openaccessrepositories for
historicalfireengineeringphotographsand
articles

Thankyou
Foradditionalinformation

Email:j.gales@ed.ac.uk
Furtherreading:
http://www.eng.ed.ac.uk/fire/2009phdjohn.html
ResultsofPhase1canbeconsultedintheJournalofStructuralFireEngineeringand
FireSafetyJournal(seeweblinkforreferences)
SomepreliminaryresultsofPhase2willbepresentedatSIF2012conferenceinZurich
Phase3iscurrentlyinprogresstargeting2013forcompletion.