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PREFACE

The main purpose of this book is to introduce readers to the world of LNG. The book
generally describes whole chain of LNG: production, transport and delivery to
consumers. The book is assigned, in the first place, to the officers and crew sailing on
these most challenging merchants ships and then to all others whose wonder to know
what these three letters really means.
A ship at sea depends upon the knowledge, skills and self-reliance of the crew to carry
out necessary operation and maintenance. One of the most important skills is a prompt
respond to any problem. To achieve that you first must to be well informed.
Intention of this book is not to be operation manual than to be reading matter about
LNG and LNG ships written by someone who sail on this ships.
For the onboard specific problems you must read ship operation manuals. This
English edition of the book builds upon earlier Croatian edition. Some chapter has
been expanded to include many news and updated information. The author would be
glad to hear about all objections.
The author express his deeply grateful to all persons helped him in preparation and
review of this book.
BIOGRAPHY
Bruno Bronzan was born on April 28, 1957.in Dubrovnik, Republic of Croatia. The
primary school education he completed in Sarajevo, Republic of Bosnia and
Herzegovina. The secondary marine school (marine engineering) he completed in
Dubrovnik. He sailed as an Assistant Marine Engineer on the ships of "Atlantska
plovidba - Dubrovnik, and thereupon passed an examination for a Marine Engineer.
In 1978 he enrolled the Sarajevo University School Of Machinery. He graduated from
this School of Machinery, major in Motors and Motor Vehicles. He graduated from
this School in 1982 by defending his graduate thesis titled: "Functional Parameters
Analyze of Motor Valve Gear Distributor System."
Since June, 1984 until October 1997 he sailed on ships for transport of Liquid Natural
Gas of the Algerian company Societe Nationale du Transport Maritime des
Hydrocarbures et des Produits Chimiques. In June, 1986. in Zadar, Republic of
Croatia, he passed a First Class Marine Engineer examination. Since, 1989 he has
been in a charge as Chief Engineer.
To the postgraduate courses of study for scientific improvement, Major In: Marine
Engineering, Module: Marine Power Units he was enrolled in Rijeka, 1993. In
December, 1987 he received Masters Degrees in Marine Engineering from University
Of Rijeka, with Master of Science Thesis "The Analyze Of Cargo System On LNG
Ships and Selection of a Power Unit Type".
Today he has been sailing on LNG carriers of Golar Ship Management London.

INTRODUCTION
According world biggest energy companies and world energy strategy burning natural
gas is something we shall do more and more in 21st century. The natural gas as a clean
energy is way to keep running present level of industrial production, increase
industrial production in less developed countries and in same time decrease level of
air pollution. Air pollution is one of essential alarms that switch on gas burning
instead oil and coal burning. CO2 emission control is recognized as the essential issue
related to the greenhouse effect. Use of natural gas must be expanded because it
produces less CO2 emission than any other fossil fuel. The countries and the
companies that recognized this fact and invested in LNG business enjoy today
advantage of that good decision.
Transporting natural gas over long distance by pipeline is very costly. LNG transport
by ships provide cheaper and more flexible link between resources and markets.
Demand for LNG is expected to increase more than double over the next decade. In
this book you can find general introduction to LNG world.
The book is divided in four main parts:
general introduction about natural gas and LNG production, consumption and trade
production of LNG including preparation of row gas for liquefaction, liquefaction
process and storage
transportation by ships,
LNG receiving terminals including re-gasification and distribution to consumers.
In first part readers are generally informed about natural gas, composition and
formation, reasons for liquefactions, chains of LNG and LNG trade. There are more
and more production plants and receiving terminals in the world. LNG carriers
coming out from shipyards without long term contracts. LNG production and
transportation reduction cost has become major topic.
In second part are described: properties of methane , natural gas and liquefied natural
gas; how to prepare natural gas for liquefaction; theoretical and real process of
liquefaction. The different types of LNG storage tanks are presented.
In third part reader can find everything about LNG transport by ships including; cargo
containment systems, cargo and machinery equipment, cargo operation, gas burning,
propulsion plant. One of the most important parameter in LNG carriers exploitation is
coefficient of evaporation or so called boil- off. It is interesting to see how this
parameter change with change of cargo tanks insulation thickness and what is optimal
insulation thickness. Analyses of optimal system parameters and calculation of cargo
tanks optimal insulation thickness is presented in this part.
In forth part are described: receiving terminals with base process characteristics,
future floating receiving terminals, peak shaving plants, LNG satellite stations and
actual and future consumers of natural gas. One of the most important potential
consumers are natural gas vehicles NGV what can have great impact on LNG trade.
The industrialised world suffer from heavy air pollution, especially in big cities and
mainly from exhaust gases from vehicles. Nowadays practically every car company
has one or more types of NGV developed although not yet available on the market.

CONTENTS
Preface
Biography
Introduction

I
1.1. Composition and natural gas formation.8
1.2. Natural gas sources8
1.3. Natural gas use..9
1.4. Reasons for liquefaction .....11
1.5. Production plants 11
1.6. LNG carriers12
1.7. Receiving terminals and consumers..12
1.8. LNG trade.12

II
1. METHANE, NATURAL GAS AND LNG PROPERTIES.14
1.1. The methane properties..14
1.2. The natural gas properties...15
1.3. Physical properties, composition and characteristics of LNG.16
2. TRANSPORT OF NATURAL GAS FROM GAS WELLS..18
TO LIQUEFACTION PLANT
3. LIQUEFACTION PLANTS19
4. HISTORY DEVELOPMENT OF GAS LIQUEFACTION..20
4.1. First liquefaction plant, storage and vaporising of natural gas.21
4.2 History production of LNG in Algeria ...21
4.3. History of LNG transportation.22
5. PREPARATION OF NATURAL GAS FOR LIQUEFACTION22
5.1. Removal of liquids, solids and mercury.22
5.2. Acid gases removal.23
5.2.1.Chemical absorption.23
5.2.2.Physicall absorption..24
5.2.3. Physical-chemical absorption..24
5.2.4.Adsorption.24
5.3.Drying..24
6.LIQUEFACTION OF NATURAL GAS.25
6.1. Theoretical work for liquefaction25
6.2. Liquefaction by Joule Thompson expansion valve.27
6.3. Liquefaction by Claude.29
3

6.4.Cascade cycles of liquefaction natural gas29


6.4.1. Classical cascade cycle...29
6.4.2. Integrated cascade cycle.31
6.4.3.APCI process...32
6.5. Separation 0f heavy products contained in natural gas to be liquefied..33
6.6. Denitrogenation of liquefied natural gas34
7. LNG STORAGE TANKS34
7.1.History of LNG storage34
7.2.General requirements for LNG storage tanks...35
7.3.Different types of LNG storage tanks...36
7.3.1. LNG storage in frozen ground..36
7.3.2. Self-supporting tanks37
7.3.3. Membrane tanks38
7.4. Pipelines and equipment of LNG tanks39
7.5. Behaviour of LNG inside the tank40
8. LNG LOADING AND UNLOADING ARMS41

III
1.CARGO CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS ON LNG SHIPS44
1.1. Construction rules..44
1.2. Types of cargo containment systems.46
1.3. System with self-supporting spherical tanks.47
1.4. Cargo containment system with membrane tanks.48
1.4.1. Membrane system GazTransport, No96-2..49
1.4.2. Membrane system Technigaz Mark I..51
1.5.4. Membrane system Technigaz Mark III52
1.5. Characteristics of membrane systems.53
1.6. Membrane systems leak test..53
1.6.1. Method for checking the effectiveness of the barriers.53
1.6.2. In service global tightness test..54
1.7. Comparison of different cargo containment systems56
2. MATERIALS IN LNG INDUSTRY.56
2.1. Materials for systems construction56
2.2. Double hull material selection58
2.3. Insulation materials for containment systems58
2.3.1.Types of insulating materials .59
3. INSTALLATION COMMON TO ALL SYSTEMS60
3.1. Cargo piping system.60
3.2. Relief system62
3.2.1. Cargo tanks relief valves62
3.2.2. Primary and secondary insulation spaces relief valves .63
3.2.3. Lines relief valves..63
3.3. Cargo Valves63

3.4.
3.4.1.
3.4.2.
3.5.
3.6.
3.7.
3.7.1.
3.8.

Cargo pumps..64
Stripping or spray pumps65
Emergency cargo pump.65
Cargo Compressor room66
Gas heaters..66
LNG vaporizer.66
Forcing LNG vaporizer67
Cofferdam heating system67

4. CARGO OPERATIONS..69
4.1.Cargo control room..69
4.2. Drying and aeration.70
4.3. Inerting 70
4.3.1. Inert gas and dry air generator...71
4.4. Gas filling..74
4.5. Cooling down75
4.6. Loading..76
4.7. Loaded passage , Boil off gas burning...77
4.8. Unloading78
4.9. Ballast voyage79
4.10. Warming up..80
4.11. One tank operation81
4.12. Nitrogen distribution.82
4.13. Emergency operation84
4.13.1. Emergency cargo pump installation...84
4.13.2. Water leakage.84
4.13.3. Gas leakage.85
4.13.4. Liquid leakage85
5. CUSTODY TRANSFER SYSTEM AND MEASURING EQUIPMENT86
5.1. Level measurement..87
5.1.1. Radar type gauge..87
5.1.2. Capacitance level gauge87
5.1.3. Float level gauge88
5.2. Temperature measurement89
5.3. Pressure measurement89
5.4. Volume calculation..89
5.5. Density..89
5.6. Gross calorific value..90
5.7. Sampling of LNG90
5.8. Gas detection90
5.8.1. Infrared gas analyser.90
5.8.2. Catalytic gas analyser91
6. FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENT 91
6.1. Fire detection equipment .91
6.2. Fire extinguishing equipment...91
6.2.1.Main fire sea water system.91

6.2.2. Water spray system92


6.2.3. Dry powder system92
6.2.4. CO2 system92
7. PROPULSION PLANTS ON LNG CARRIERS.94
7.1. Steam-turbine propulsion plants94
7.1.1. Boiler fuel oil system..97
7.1.2. Boiler fuel gas system97
7.1.3. Damp system .99
7.2. Review of alternative propulsion plants..101
7.2.1. Diesel engine propulsion plants 101
7.2.2. Dual fuel low speed diesel engine..101
7.2.3. Propulsion plants with gas turbine..101
7.2.4. Diesel-electric propulsion plant...102
7.3. Ship re-liquefaction units103
7.3.1. Unit for complete boil off re-liquefaction104
7.3.2. Unit for partial boil off re-liquefaction105
8. ANALYSE OF OPTIMAL SYTEM PARAMETERS..105
8.1. Boil off105
8.2. Use of boil off.105
8.3. Analysis of energetic needs for steam propulsion plants106
8.3.1. Analysis of energetic needs for full ahead steaming106
8.3.2. Analysis of energetic needs on anchorage107
8.3.3. Analysis of energetic needs for unloading.108
8.4. Analysis of fuel and gas consumption for different loads propulsion plant.108
9. CALCULATION OF OPTIMAL CARGO CONTAINMENT
SYSTEM INSULATION THICKNESS.109
9.1. Heat exchange theoretical thesis.109
9.1.1. Heat exchange by conduction..110
9.1.2. Exchanging heat by convection114
9.1.3. Exchanging heat by radiation..115
9.2. Calculation of vaporization gas coefficient116
9.2.1. Calculation of isolation conductivity..116
9.2.2. Defining characteristic tank surface120
9.2.3. Double hull characteristic surface temperature calculation.121
9.2.4. Spherical tanks characteristic areas temperature calculation126
9.2.5. Membrane tanks characteristic areas temperature calculation127
9.3. Insulation system total heat flow calculation ..128
9.3.1. Spherical tanks insulation heat flow calculation128
9.3.2. Membrane tanks insulation heat flow calculation. 129
9.4. Boil off coefficient calculation..129
9.5. Evaporated gas quantity calculation129
9.6. Available steam quantity calculation 130
9.6.1. Available steam calculation, by burning of minimal quantity of fuel oil.130
9.6.2. Available steam calculation, by burning of evaporated gas..130
9.7. Required steam quantity calculation..130
9.7.1. Required steam quantity calculation at full speed..130

9.7.2. Required steam quantity calculation at anchor131


9.8. Required and available steam quantity difference calculation131
9.9. Required fuel oil quantity calculation.131
9.10. Damp steam quantity calculation132
9.12. Forcing vaporization gas quantity calculation.132
9.13. Insulation cost calculation.132
9.14. Calculation results..133

IV
1. RECEIVING TERMINALS..138
2. BASIC PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS OF TERMINAL139
2.1. Quantity of vaporized gas139
2.2. Storage capacity..140
2.3. Process of gas vaporization.140
2.4. LNG heat exchangers..142
2.4.1. Sea water heat exchangers142
2.4.2. LNG evaporation by gas firing.143
2.5. Calorific value adjustment144
3. FLOATING TERMINAL..145
4. PEAK SHAVING PLANT.145
5. LNG SATELLITE STATIONS..145
6. CONSUMERS OF NATURAL GAS AND LNG146
6.1.
Electric power plants with gas
turbines.146
6.2. Natural gas for air condition and heating147
6.3. Vehicles on natural gas and LNG147
6.3.1. Fuel cell cars 148
6.4. Projects of alternative natural gas transport148
Literature
List of illustrations
List of tables
List of symbols
Greek symbols
Non dimensional symbols of similarity
Shortcuts

I
1.1. COMPOSITION AND NATURAL GAS FORMATION
Natural gas is mixture of gases which are on atmospheric pressure and temperature
in gaseous state. Composition of natural gas is different and depending of finding
place. The most part in that mixture of hydrocarbons has methane with smaller parts
of ethane , propane and butane. The natural gas contains small parts of gases which
are not hydrocarbons and those are CO2 , hydrogen, helium, mercury vapour etc.
About formation of natural gas exist two theories. According organic theory natural
gas originate from remains of plants, bacterium, seaweeds, zooplankton and
phytoplankton. The biomass was deposited by millions of years on the bottom of the
rivers, lakes and seas and then covered by layers of mud. By movement of earth crust
biomass moved deeper inside of earth where it was decomposed under high pressure
and temperature. The pure methane was created by depth to 1000 m. On the bigger
depths the biomass first decomposed to organic substances. Then hydrocarbon
decomposition led to creation of petroleum and gas.
The inorganic theory of the natural gas formation suppose insertion of huge quantity
of methane from of that time atmosphere to the earth crust during earth crust
formation. According this theory the considerable larger quantities of natural gas lies
deeper inside of earth.
1.2. NATURAL GAS SOURCES
The biggest natural gas reserves are in USA, Russia, Canada, Middle East, Indonesia,
Nigeria and Algeria. Estimated natural gas world accumulations are 130x1012 mn3.
These large quantities put natural gas in leading position of energy supply for this
century.
According USA geological institutes huge quantities of natural gas lies on the sea
bottom in form of gas hydrate. The methane hydrates is natural gas frozen on the
ocean floor by high pressure and freezing temperature. Methane hydrates come from
natural gas formed mainly by decaying plant material. The gas seeps up through
sediments to the ocean floor, where it escapes in small amounts. Over time the gas,
mixed with sea water, is frozen and forms outcroppings.
Worldwide natural gas hydrate in marine is growing interests in potential energy
resources in the future. The gas corporations investigates the formation and
decomposition of the natural gas hydrate for the technological development of gas
storage and transportation.
Natural gas hydrate, which is a non-conventional type of natural gas, distributes
worldwide, especially enormous amounts in marine and permafrost. It would become
a target of natural gas resources in near future. Therefore most recently many
countries such as Japan, U.S.A., India, South Korea have researched natural gas
hydrate as national project. Japan had recognized the existence of natural gas hydrates
around the Nankai region. Especially significant amounts of natural gas hydrates are
expected to be located in the East Sea around Korea Peninsular. Considering the
above circumstances, natural gas hydrate has the possibility to become one of the

most important energy resources.


1.3. NATURAL GAS USE
Since the 1940 natural gas has been recognized as one of the most useful products of
natures chemistry. Thanks to advance in technology, the natural gas become
important as versatile fuel and excellent source of raw material.
Natural gas and petroleum on the earth surface was noticed by humans long time ago.
Before more than 2000 years ago Chinese transported natural gas by bamboo wood to
the temples for lighting. First commercial use of natural gas in Europe was in Genova
in 1802, when city streets were lightened by natural gas. From that time consumption
of natural gas is in constant increase. In the beginning of petroleum exploitation
natural and petroleum gas were vented to the atmosphere, only small part of that gas
was used as fuel. By the time gas networks were built what improved use of natural
gas as high efficient fuel .
In USA natural gas was used first time in Pittsburgh where it was transported by
pipeline. Till 1950 USA was only important natural gas producer. After second half of
last century production of natural gas begins to increase in the others countries.
(Europe, Russia and Canada.)According world energy planning forecasts natural gas
will take the most important place in this century. Figure 1. shows share of natural gas
in world energy consumption.
30
25
20
15

Natural gas %

10
5
0
1940

1960

1980

2000

2020

Figure 1.
Share of natural gas in world energy consumption
Reasons for sudden natural gas consumption increase are:
- perfect fuel with high calorific value,
- public opposition to nuclear energy,
- air friendly fuel,
- energy strategic and political reasons.
Natural gas has advantage in regard to others primary forms of energy because it
can be used directly. Other primary forms of energy must be transformed to the
others energy forms what means higher investments and losses. Because of very small
emission of noxious combustion exhaust gases and better efficiency burning of
9

natural gas increase in domestic and industry use. Natural gas, beside as fuel, is basic
raw material in the petrochemical industry. Figure 2. shows increase of natural gas
production.
3500
3000
2500
2000

Natural gas x
bil. m3

1500
1000
500
0

1960

1980

2000

2020

Figure 2.
Increase of natural gas production
Figure 3. shows increase of natural gas trade.
700
600
500
400
Natural gas x bil.
M3

300
200
100
0
1960

1980

2000

2020

Figure 3.
Increase of natural gas trade
By consumption increase of natural gas transport to the consumers become a
problem. The natural gas is transported by land and sea pipeline D= 1500mm under
pressure up to 100 bars in gaseous state. Because of friction between gas and pipeline
walls pressure in the line drops. For transport by this way to long distance pressure in
the pipeline need to be increased. This is accomplished by the compressors in
10

compressor stations. To the overseas countries gas is transported by the ships in liquid
state.
1.4. REASONS FOR NATURAL GAS LIQUEFACTION
Reasons for liquefaction and transport by ships in liquid state are:
- high cost of construction, maintenance and exploitation of land and under sea
pipelines. There is limit distance above that transport by ships is cheaper,
- by liquefaction natural gas volume decrease six hundred times what open
possibility to transport large quantity of energy,
- world trade and increase of natural gas consumption create more consumers
all around the globe so transport by sea is only possible way,
- political and strategic reasons.
On figure 4. is shown augmentation of LNG trade .

100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1965

Natural gas x
bil m3

1980

1995

2010

2025

Figure 4.
International LNG trade increase
Natural liquefied gas business include:
-preparation for liquefaction, liquefaction and storage in production plants,
- loading and transport by ships,
-receiving, storage, evaporation and delivery to the consumers by receiving terminals.
1.5. PRODUCTION PLANTS
There are more and more production plants in the world. Each production plants
consists of three main units. Unit for preparation of raw gas for liquefaction ,
liquefaction unit and storage. The biggest world LNG exporter is Indonesia with 30 %

11

of world LNG trade. Other LNG producers are Alger, Malaysia, Brunei, Australia,
Abu Dhabi, Qatar, Nigeria, Trinidad, Oman and Egypt.
1.6. LNG CARRIERS
World LNG fleet has about 140 ships. In 2005 seven ships will be older than 35 years.
Between 2005 and 2010 forecasts are 40 new ships more. In same time 17 ships will
be older than 35 years, what is considered as maximum ships exploitation life.
Liquefied natural gas with temperature of 161 C and pressure 1100 mbar is
transported in ships tanks that can have different shape. The most known design are
Moss Rosenberg spherical tanks and GazTransport&Technigaz membrane tanks.
Heat transfer to the liquid cargo from the insulation spaces cause the liquid to boil and
vapor to be formed. The cargo tank boil-off and it must be removed in order to
maintain equilibrium within the tanks at the designed operating pressure. The volume
of boil-off is also increased on passage due to the energy dissipated by the agitation of
the cargo caused by the motion of the ship. The boil off coefficient is between 0.15%
and 0.25% of total gas quantity on board and per day.
All ships have steam turbine propulsion plants because of easiest way to burn boil off
in the ship steam boilers.
1.7. RECEIVING TERMINALS AND CONSUMERS
More than half receiving terminals are in Japan. Japan is biggest importer and
consumer of LNG. Receiving terminals consists of storage tanks and unit for regasification. Liquefied natural gas is supplied by low pressure pumps to suction of
high pressure pumps which increase pressure up to 100 bars, what is in same time
delivery line pressure. LNG enters in heaters heated by sea water circulation or by
burning one part of received gas. The evaporation of liquid is performed in range
above critical pressure what considerably reduce costs of re-gasification.
1.8. LNG TRADE
In 1999, over 97% of LNG production was sold to customers under long-term
contract. But it seems that the part of business is going to change to short term
trading. Demand is expected to double from 90 mtpa in 1999 to 170 mtpa by 2010
with new buyers and sellers entering the market. Buyers are looking for more flexible
contracts. Change in production plant costs can be reduced and competition between
shipyards has resulted in a reduction of LNG tanker costs.
The main limitation to the growth of short term trading is lack of shipping capacity.
The lack of shipping capacity became evident at a time when the cost of new ships
reached a historically low level as shipyards competed for new orders. Low costs and
shortage of capacity have resulted in several companies ordering new build
vessels not committed to a particular project or trade.
LNG pricing formula usually links pricing of LNG to the price of crude oil. The
exact formula are usually considered commercial secrets, typical formula have the
following structure:
P = Base Price x [ (S/ C) + K]
Where:
12

-S is the market price of specified cocktail of crude oils imported on a specific day .
-C is the market price of the specified cocktail of crude oils imported on day one of
the contract,
-K is an adjustment factor often with specified limits.
Price is determined by finding acceptable or competitive price when considering
possible use of an alternative fuel. The sum of natural gas price should be equal to
sum of a substitute fuel price. This result in different prices depending on various
categories of customers according to their various uses of natural gas.
Natural gas has a curious position in the international energy market since it
can fulfill a wide range of energy needs. There is no world price of natural gas.
LNG business characteristics are: large and diverse reserves, ability to develop
markets, great financial strength, willingness to invest.
LNG compete with alternative fuels on a total cost basis in addition to
being more environmentally friendly. For example coal and fuel oil is a competing
fuel for power generation. Also LNG competes with pipeline gas in several markets
technological innovations enabled LNG plants to run safely, efficiently and cost
effectively.
Estimated LNG chain cost are as follows
- field development 10-20%,
- liquefaction 25-35%,
- shipping 15-25 %,
- receiving terminal 5-15%,
- gas distribution or power generation 25-35 %.
All three LNG chain parts, production, transport and re-gasification plant are trying to
reduce operating costs.
Half the cost of whole LNG chain refer to production plants. Improve of liquefaction
process is best way to reduce overall costs.
LNG transport companies are looking at diesel electric propulsion as one of potential
possibilities to reduce operating costs. Increased vessel capacity generates an overall
reduction of the transporting costs. LNG receiving terminals and re-gasification plants
include electricity production plant.
Electricity production plants, powered by burning natural gas in gas turbines, grows
all around globe. These plants with improved efficiency (gas turbine cooling down
system is used to heat LNG) provide low priced and clean energy.
Potential cost reductions remains in all elements of LNG chain

13

II
1. METHANE, NATURAL GAS AND LNG PROPERTIES
The main task before handling natural gas and natural liquefied gas is to determine
- which thermo- physical characteristics need to be known,
- which mathematical method are available for determination of these
characteristics,
- which measurement method enable direct determination of these
characteristics.
Natural gas and natural liquefied gas handling include: liquefaction, storage, loading,
transport, unloading, re-gasification and delivery to consumers. All these operations
are taken out on different temperatures and pressures and generally include formation
of two state, liquid and gaseous. The most important property of liquefied gas is its
saturated vapor pressure and temperature relationship . To design pipeline, separators,
heat exchangers etc. one should know:
-phase diagrams,
-enthalpy,
-density,
-viscosity,
- thermal conductivity.
Phase diagrams are different for different gas wells because of different gas mixtures.
Above characteristics are determine by using mathematical models for different
components of gas mixture. Thermo dynamical functions expressed by state equation
with p, V and T parameters are basic method for understanding of properties and
behavior of liquefied natural gas.
The most used method is analogy with referent fluid. The methane as main
component of natural gas and liquefied natural gas is used as referent fluid.
1.1. THE METHANE PROPERTIES
The methane is first in the group of saturated hydrocarbons and consists of one atom
of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen. On atmospheric pressure and temperature
methane is in gaseous state and it is very difficult to be liquefied.
Boiling point at 1 bar absolute. -161.5 C
Liquid density at boiling point. 426.0 kg/m3
Vapor relative density. 0.554 619
Gas volume/liquid volume ratio at -161.5 C at 1 bar absolute 619
Flammable limits in air by volume .. 5.3 to 14%
Auto-ignition temperature 595 oC
Higher specific energy(Gross Heating value at 15 C)..5550 kJ/kg
Critical temperature.. - 82.5 C
Critical pressure 44.7 bars

14

The auto-ignition temperature of methane is the lowest temperature to which the gas
needs to be heated to cause self-sustained combustion without ignition by a spark or
flame. The flammable limits is a range between minimum and maximum
concentration of gas vapor in air which form a flammable mixture. Minimum ignition
energy for flammable gas vapor mixtures is less than one milijoule. This is an energy
level which is substantially exceeded by any sparks or electrostatic discharges.
The vapor of methane have not toxic properties but when present in sufficient
concentration, excludes oxygen and leads to asphyxia. The asphyxia is condition
when the blood is deprived of an adequate supply of oxygen so loss of consciousness
may follow. Methane is a greenhouse gas and as such a pollutant.
1.2. PROPERTIES OF NATURAL GAS
Since natural gas include not only methane, before mentioned characteristics differ
from pure methane. Table 1. shows natural gas from different sources.
Table 1. Natural gas from different wells
Natural gas
Methane

Alger
86,3

Libya
68,8

Brunei
88,0

Ethane

7,8

19,4

5,1

Propane

3,2

9,1

Butane

0,6

Pentane
Hexane

North sea
85,9

Iran
96,3

Alaska
99,5

8,1

1,2

0,1

4,8

2,7

0,4

3,5

1,8

0,9

0,2

0,1

1,2

0,2

0,3

0,1

0,1

0,5

1,3

0,4

Natural gas contains methane, ethane , propane, butane and pentane. Beside these
saturated hydrocarbons natural gas contains nitrogen, carbon dioxide, sulphur
hydrogen, helium, water vapor and mercury vapor. For determining way of
production it is important to know state of phase of that particular natural gas mixture.
Natural gas mostly appear as one phase system determined by pressure and
temperature of that wells or as two phase system including gas and liquid.
Figure 5. shows two phase diagram for gas and liquid

15

pc

100
75
liquid %
50
35
20

Tc

Figure 5.
Phase diagram of hydrocarbons mixture
In diagram two phase range is separated form one phase range by boundary curves of
evaporation and condensation. Boundary curve of evaporation and condensation
represent group of points of equilibrium states (p, T) at which gas- liquid phase
changes happen. The evaporation and condensation curve join together in point C
which is called critical point and which is defined by critical pressure pc and critical
temperature Tc. The critical temperature of a gas is the temperature above which a gas
can not be liquefied however great is pressure. The critical pressure of gas is pressure
at which gas exists in a liquid state at its critical temperature.
1.3. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES, COMPOSITION
AND CHARACTERISTICS OF LNG
Natural gas is a mixture of hydrocarbons which, when liquefied, form a clear
colorless and odorless liquid. LNG is transported and stored at a temperature very
close to its boiling point at atmospheric pressure (approximately -160C).
The actual LNG composition of each loading terminal will vary depending on its
source and on the liquefaction process, but the main constituent will always be
methane; other constituents will be small percentages of heavier hydrocarbons, .
ethane, propane, butane, pentane, and a small percentage of nitrogen.
For most engineering calculations it can be assumed that the physical properties of
pure methane represent those of LNG. However, for custody transfer purposes when
accurate calculation of the heating value and density is required, the specific
properties based on actual component analysis must be used.
During a normal sea voyage, heat is transferred to the LNG cargo through the cargo
tank insulation, causing vaporization of part of the cargo ( boil-off.)
The composition of the LNG is changed by this boil-off because the lighter
components, having lower boiling points at atmospheric pressure, vaporize first.
Therefore the discharged LNG has a lower percentage content of nitrogen and
methane than the LNG as loaded, and a slightly higher percentage of ethane, propane
and butane, due to methane and nitrogen boiling off in preference to the heavier gases.
The boil-off vapor from LNG is lighter than air , therefore when vapor is vented to
16

atmosphere, the vapor will tend to rise above the vent outlet and will be rapidly
dispersed. When cold vapor is mixed with ambient air the vapor-air mixture will
appear as a readily visible white cloud due to the condensation of the moisture in the
air. It is normally safe to assume that the flammable range of vapor-air mixture does
not extend significantly beyond the perimeter of the white cloud.
When spilled on water:
- Boiling of LNG is rapid, due to the large temperature difference between
the
product and water,
-LNG continuously spreads over an indefinitely large area, it results in a
magnification of its rate of evaporation until vaporization is complete,
- No coherent ice layer forms on the water,
- The flammable cloud of LNG and air may extend for large distances downward
(only methane when warmer than -100C is lighter than air) because of the absence of
topographic features which normally promote turbulent mixing.
If there is no immediate ignition of an LNG spill, a vapor cloud may form. The
vapor cloud is long, thin, cigar shaped and, under certain meteorological conditions,
may travel a considerable distance before its concentration falls below the lower
flammable limit. This concentration is important, for the cloud could ignite, with the
flame traveling back towards the originating pool. The cold vapor is denser than air
and thus, at least initially, hugs the surface. Weather conditions largely determine the
cloud dilution rate, with a thermal inversion greatly lengthening the distance traveled
before the cloud becomes nonflammable.
The major danger from an LNG vapor cloud occurs when it is ignited. The heat from
such a fire is a major problem. A deflagrating (simple burning) is probably fatal to
those within the cloud and outside buildings but is not a major threat to those beyond
the cloud.
Low explosion limits (LEL) is gas concentration in air under which heat quantity
generated by combustion is not enough for self sustain of combustion reaction.
Upper explosion limit(UEL) represent too high concentration of gas in air above that
is no more enough of air for combustion.
Table 2. shows explosion limits for other components of natural gas mixture. It may
conclude that with higher concentration of heavier components Low Explosion Limit
tend to decrease.
Table 2. LEL for heavier components of natural gas
Natural gas
Methane
Ethane
Propane
Butane

Gas composition
80
15
4
1

LEL %
5.24
3.22
2.37
1.86

Contact with LNG or with materials chilled to its temperature of about -160C will
damage living tissue. The symptoms of cold burns are painful in the affected area
Most metals lose their ductility at these temperatures; LNG may cause the brittle
fracture of many materials. In case of LNG spillage on the ship's deck, the high
thermal stresses generated from the restricted possibilities of contraction of the plating
will result in the fracture of the steel.
17

When loaded in the cargo tanks, the pressure of the vapor phase is maintained
substantially constant, slightly above atmospheric pressure. The external heat passing
through the tank insulation generates convection currents within the bulk cargo,
causing heated LNG to rise to the surface and is then boiled-off.
The heat necessary for vaporization comes from the LNG, and as long as the vapor is
continuously removed by maintaining the pressure as substantially constant, the LNG
remains at its boiling temperature. If the vapor pressure is reduced by removing more
vapor than generated, the LNG temperature will decrease. In order to make up the
equilibrium pressure corresponding to its temperature, the vaporization of LNG is
accelerated, resulting in an increased heat transfer from LNG to vapor. By varying the
pressure above the liquid it is possible to boil liquid at different temperatures.
Decreasing the pressure above the liquid lowers the boiling point temperature and
increase boil off quantity. Increasing pressure above liquid raises the boiling point
temperature and decrease boil off quantity.
The properties of the LNG, i.e. the boiling point, density and heating value, have a
tendency to increase during the voyage.
2. TRANSPORT OF NATURAL GAS
FROM WELLS TO LIQUEFACTION PLANTS
Transport of natural gas from gas wells to the terminals, usually situated at the
seaside, need some preparation. The heavier component and water can condensate in
pipeline during transport because of temperature drop. Therefore these components
need to be removed from natural gas. Removal is perform in primary separation units.
After primary separation gas pass through unit which contains separations units,
dehydration unit and compressors stations. This unit components depend of
composition, pressure and temperature of natural gas and for what specific purpose
gas is designated. If natural gas is designated to liquefaction plants then dew points of
gas need to be lowered just to avoid problems of condensation and corrosion in
pipeline. There are several ways to natural gas dew point lowering:
- cooling down by external refrigeration plant is used for gas coming from wells
with low pressure,
- by Joule-Thompson expansion process, based on gas temperature drop effect
passing through expansion valves,
- by gas expansion through turbo expanders.
Water separation from natural gas is important to avoid condensation and corrosion of
pipelines. Condensation and hydrate formation can stop flow through pipeline.
There are two ways to remove humidity from natural gas:
- absorption by hydroscopic liquids,
- adsorption by hydroscopic solids.
These process are perform in dehydration units of liquefaction plants too.
If dynamic pressure of gas wells is too low and not enough to transport then gas need
to pass through compressors stations. Compressor stations contains centrifugal
compressors and numbers depend of desired gas pressure and quantity.

18

3. LIQUEFACTION PLANTS
Natural gas liquefaction process perform in very complex plants. These plants are
usually situated at seaside. These huge plants spread on few square kilometers
contains:
-units for preparation and liquefaction,
-storage tanks,
-units for loading LNG to the ships,
-units for common purposes.
Common purpose units include:
- sea water pumping stations,
- electric power generating units,
- steam generating units,
- control air compressor station,
- nitrogen production units,
- workshops,
- firefighting and safety department.
LNG production plants can be organized by two way:
-centralized arrangement of units,
-modular arrangement of units distribution.
LNG production plant with centralized arrangement has only one unit for
gas preparation, steam power plant, sea water station, one control unit, one workshop
etc. Only liquefaction unit are separated on modular way.
Modularly arranged plants can be operating independently. In Figure 6. schematically
is described chain of operations for production of LNG.

19

Raw feed gas

Condensate removal
Acid gases
Acid gas removal
Water
Dehydration

Fractination

Gas fuel to
plant

Liquefaction

LNG storage

NGL storage

Pentane storage

Figure 6.
LNG liquefaction plant flow diagram
LNG production plant in GL2 at Bethioua in Algeria produce 10 bcm of LNG
annually include six same units for gas preparation and liquefaction. Each units has
dimension 250x 50 m and can receive 27000 m 3 /h. Total plant inlet flow is 160000
m3 /h.
The energy for the plant is generated by burning 13% of mentioned gas flow in 22
steam boilers, three boiler for each unit and four auxiliary boilers. These steam
boilers generate 2000 t/h steam , 60 bar and 510 C. Steam is used for run of cycles
compressors, turbo generators for electric power production and for some smaller
consumers. Units are connected by steam collector.
Production of plant is 50000 m3 of LNG per day. Plant produces 1300 t of propane ,
1000 t of butane per day too.
The new production plants use gas turbines as refrigerant compressor drivers and for
electric power generation. Diesel units are used as back up for the start up process.
The cooling media used in heat exchangers is air, driven by fans of 3 m diameter. This
solutions offer high flexibility of operation and maintenance.
4. HISTORY DEVELOPMENT OF GAS LIQUEFACTION
In 1863 Andrews defined conception of critical point and

determined its
20

characteristic by methodical drawing diagrams for carbon dioxide in pV coordinates.


On basis of this diagrams it is possible to define condition of liquefaction.
In 1877 Cailletet in Paris and Pictet in Geneve
had published process of air
liquefaction using Andrews results.
1883 Olzewski continued based on works of Cailletet and Pictet. He use evaporation
of ethylene, under low pressure, to achieve temperature of 150 C. This was used
for liquefaction of methane, nitrogen and carbon monoxide
On the end of 19 century C. Linde use contra flow heater exchanger and Joule
Thompson effect to liquefaction of air.
G. Claude in the beginning of 20th century improve the Linde process by adding one
more heat exchange and expander.
Liquefaction of different gases and development of low temperature technology
resulted by development of different branches of industries. Separation of gas
mixtures on their main components is the most important application of this
technology.
One of the first application was treatment of gas obtained from coke. By liquefaction
of this gas mixture is possible to have almost pure hydrogen. Hydrogen was then used
to get mixture N2 + 3H2 what was used for sensitizing of ammoniac. This type of plant
spread all around world in period between two world wars.
Second example of application was production of helium from natural gas . USA
natural gas contain 0.5 1 % of helium. During the first world war in 1917 in Texas
first such plant was built. This helium was used for the military air balloon .
4.1. FIRST PLANT FOR LIQUEFACTION, STORAGE
AND EVAPORATION OF NATURAL GAS
In 1939 East Ohio Gas Co. was supplying natural gas to city of Cleveland by two
pipeline long 250 km and diameter of 300mm. As this was not enough during winter
they decided to build plant for liquefaction, storage and evaporation in the city.
Reason for such decision was: it is cheaper to liquefy and storage a natural gas, during
summer when consumption is low, than to build new pipeline.
Plant production rate was 200 m3/h by cycle ammoniac-ethylenemethane.
Compressor station contains 6 reciprocating compressors using about 2400 kW.
Storage capacity was 3 x 2500 m3 in three spherical tanks. Evaporation unit rate was
115 m3 /h .
4.2. HYSTORY OF LNG PRODUCTION IN ALGERIA
In 1956 huge wells of natural gas was found in HassiRmel 500 km south from Alger.
Gas quantity over passed needs of Algeria so it was decided to export natural gas to
Europe. At that time was impossible to make pipeline under sea. Only way to export
that gas was liquefaction and transport by ships. In 1962 Shell and Continental Oil Co
started to build first liquefaction plant. Plant was named CAMEL (Compagnie
Algeriene du Methane Liquide). Plant was opened 1964 and first LNG delivery was
to UK 1965.
Today plant name is GL4-Z with production rate about 1.4 G m 3 of gas. The length of
pipeline is about 500 km.
Second plant was built in Skikda and is connected with same well in HassiRmel by
pipeline length 600km. First three unit were built in 1972 and 1982 three unit more.
total production rate is about 8.5 G m3.
21

Third and fourth production plants in Algeria were built in 1982 near Bethiua with
production rate of 10 G m3.
4.3. HYSTORY OF LNG TRANSPORTATION
The first LNG carrier was a converted dry cargo ship, the Normarti renamed the
Methane Pioneer. In this conversion, the cargo was carried in five self supporting
aluminum tanks, fitted into two holds internally insulated with a balsa. First shipment
was from Lake Charles to Canvey Island UK. The success of the Methane Pioneer
experiment pointed the way to commercialization of the sea transportation of LNG.
In October 1964, the first commercial LNG scheme came into operation when the
Methane Princess carried first cargo of LNG from Arzew to Canvey Island.
The Methane Princes and her sister ship Methane Progress each had nine prismatic
self supporting aluminum tanks, fitted into three holds. Each of these holds was
internally insulated with a balsa plywood panel system, based on that used earlier in
the Methane Pioneer.
These ships were joined in 1965 by the Jules Verne, which carried LNG from Arzew
to Le Havre for Gaz De France.
4.

PREPARATION OF NATURAL GAS FOR LIQUEFACTION

The natural gas requires treatment to remove heavier hydrocarbons and non
hydrocarbon constituent to ensure the gas is in a technically acceptable for
liquefaction. The part of liquefaction plant where raw natural gas has to be prepared
is very important for whole process. Natural gas from wells contains methane, small
quantities of heavy hydrocarbons pentane and hexane , light hydrocarbons ethane ,
propane and butane and changeable quantities of humidity, carbon dioxide, hydrogen
sulphur , nitrogen, mercury and small quantities of different impurities. Impurities
and some raw natural gas components which have unfavorable influence to
liquefaction process can be divided on:
- components which became liquids during liquefaction( CO2, H2O and heavy
hydrocarbons),
- toxically components,
- corrosive and erosive components( mercury and hard particles),
- inert components( nitrogen and helium).
Raw natural gas treatment can be divided in three main parts
- separation of mercury and hard particles,
- removal of acid gases,
- drying.
After treatment natural gas must contain
- less than 1 ppm of water,
- less than 50 ppm of CO2,
- less than 4 ppm of H2S.
Natural gas that satisfy above requirements is considered ready for liquefaction.
5.1. REMOVAL OF LIQUIDS, SOLIDS AND MERCURY
Liquid removal is insured by separators large enough to handle the most of liquid

22

carry over. Solids and dust removal is insured by :


- oil bath scrubbers (10 15 microns size), disadvantage is liquid carry over,
- centrifugal separators,
- gas filters.
Liquid and solid removal is usually combined in separators achieving both and solid
removal. The separators are installed ahead of the liquefaction plant in the metering
unit where pressure control is performed.
In order to protect the aluminum and aluminum alloys from corrosion caused by
mercury it is necessary to bring down the mercury content to a very low level.
The mercury removal units include of a fixed bed of adsorbent. Adsorbing mass is a
sulpfur impregnated coal based activated carbon.
5.2. ACID GASES REMOVAL
Acid gases removal include:
- chemical absorption,
- physical absorption,
- physical-chemical absorption,
- adsorption.
5.2.1. Chemical absorption
In feed gas pretreatment units acid gas are removed by monoethanolamine process.
This process use 15% aqueous solution which reacts with the acid gas components.
By temperature increase and pressure reduce the acid gas are released. Figure 7.
shows the principle of unit. Raw gas enters at bottom of absorber and leaves the top
after acid gas removal. Lean amine at ambient temperature is fed on top tray while
rich amine after acid gas pickup leaves the bottom and is flashed in a drum. After
heat exchange with lean amine the warmed up rich amine feeds the regenerator. Acid
gas is vented at reflux drum. Lean amine is cooled against rich amine and cooling
water and pumped from amine surge tank to the absorber.
Treated gas
Fuel gas

Acid gases
Regenerator

Reflux drum

Absorber
Raw gas
Expansion tank
steam

Pump
Amine tank

23

Figure 7.
Chemical absorption
5.2.2 Physical absorption
These process use organic solvents to perform acid gas removal. One of the process is
Selexol used for raw gas with high content of CO2 and H2S.
5.2.3.Physical-chemical absorption
Sulfinol process uses a mixture solvents which allows it to behave as both a chemical
and physical process. The mixture is composed of sulfolane acting as the physical
solvent and DIPA (diizopropanolamine).
5.2.4. Adsorption
Process of adsorption use molecular sieves to remove water and acid gases from raw
gas.
5.3. DRYING
During acid gas removal feed gas is saturated with water. One part of water is
removed by cooling the gas stream. For complete dehydration there are two process:
- absorption by glycol solution
- adsorption on solid dessicant
First process use hygroscopic property of glycol solution. The glycol unit consists of
an absorber, regenerator, separator, filter, compressor and cooler.
Second process consists of molecules attraction on the surface of solid adsorbant. For
gas dehydration usually are used next products:
- silica gel,
- activated alumina,
- molecular sieves.
Silicagel is obtained by neutralizing soda silicate solutions by mineral acids. This
product is washed, dryed and activated by thermal treatment. Used in form of hard
granules, it is very hygroscopic and thus very effective as an absorbent of fluids. It
can be re-generated by heating to drive off the absorbed matter.
Alumina trihydrate is the purified product obtained from bauxite. Activated alumina is
desiccant medium which operates by the absorption of water molecules. Molecular
sieves are crystalline, alkali-metal aluminosilicates. First molecular sieves were
zeolithes which are natural crystals.

24

compressor

cooler

separator

Natural gas

Water
dryers

Filter

dry gas

regenerator

Figure 8.
Natural gas drying
6. LIQUEFACTION OF NATURAL GAS
The natural gas to be liquefied is usually available at pressure 30-70 bars and at
ambient temperature. In order to liquefy natural gas it has to be cooled to a
temperature of -161 C, so it can be stored at pressure little above atmospheric
pressure. The exact temperature depend on the composition of liquefied natural gas.
Heavier hydrocarbons like butane, propane and ethane are extracted during the
process of liquefaction. Nitrogen content can be reduced in order to increase the
heating value of the liquefied gas and prevent transmission of useless mass of
nitrogen. There are three real ways of natural gas liquefaction:
- Joule Thompson expansion method,
- Claude expansion method with external work,
- Cascade methods.
All liquefaction plants in LNG industry use cascade cycles because it is most
economical process. Other two methods are included in cascade cycles. For
determining cycles efficiency and comparing different methods one must know work
to be done for liquefaction.

6.1. THEORETICAL WORK FOR LIQUEFACTION


When natural gas is available under atmospheric condition with pressure p = 1bar

25

and temperature t=25 C presented by point Mo in h-s diagram. To liquefier natural


gas under atmospheric pressure gas have to be cool down to boiling temperature t s
presented by point M in h-s and T-s diagrams.
In T-s diagram is presented reversible liquefaction process. The gas defined with
initial state of surroundings Mo by isothermal process going to state defined by point
N. By adiabatic expansion gas take liquid state defined by point M.
h
Mo
t1
p1
tk
ts
1
M
1
ef

Figure 9.
Theoretical work for gas liquefaction in h-s diagram

Mo

ef
K
M

p1, TS
1

1
r1

s1

s1
s1 s1 = r1/TS

s1

s1 s1 = cp ln (T/TS)

Figure 10.
Theoretical work for gas liquefaction in T-s diagram
Work needed for liquefaction is equal or higher than theoretical work of liquid state
1 ef =h ho T(s-so)

(6.1)

26

By applying index from h-s diagram have next expression


1 ef =h1 h1 T(s1-s1) = T(s s1) (h-h1)

(6.2)

Theoretical work ef can be red from h-s diagram and by help of the tangent line at
point Mo on isobar p1 . It can be calculated assuming natural gas as ideal gas.
Expression (h1- h1) can be written as
h1 h1 = r1 + (T Ts)cp

(6.3)

r1 heat of evaporation at p1(kJ/kg)


cp specific heat (kJ/kg K)
Difference of entropies s1 s1 according T-s diagram is equal
s1 s1 = (s1 s1) + (s1 s1) = cp ln T/Ts) + (r1/Ts)

(6.4)

For methane at atmospheric pressure evaporation heat is r1 = 548,47 kJ/kg


Specific heat cp = 2,177 kJ/kg K, boiling temperature Ts
By expression (6.2) at atmospheric temperature To = 298,15 K minimal work for 1 kg
of natural gas liquefaction can be calculated
1 ef =1150kJ/kg
Equal sign would be for reversible process. Because of irreversibility of process, work
for liquefaction is much more higher. Main irreversibility producing losses are
- loss of pressure in pipeline,
- throttling in J-T valves,
- fluid temperature difference in heat exchangers,
- imperfection of engines.
6.2. LIQUEFACTION BY JOULE THOMPSON EXPANSION VALVE
The main characteristic of ideal gases is simple dependence internal energy of thermal
condition. That means that internal energy (u) and enthalpy (h) of ideal gases depend
only of temperature , not of pressure and density. So temperature of ideal gases does
not change when gas expand from pressure p2 to pressure p1.
However, by expansion of real gases from high pressure, temperature change take
place. This temperature change was found by Joule. For liquefaction processes of
gases it became very important.

p1, T1, h1

p2, T2, h2

Figure 11.
Joule -Thompson valve

27

The simplest liquefaction cycle based on the production of cold by free expansion
is shown in Figure 12. In order to achieve a maximum thermal effect it is preferable to
use high pressures and low temperature.
compressor
5
heat exchanger
1

Joule Thompson valve

Natural gas 60 bar 25 C


4

separator

4
Liquefied gas 1.1 bar -160 C

Figure 12.
Liquefaction process by J-T valve
Natural gas enter liquefaction unit under pressure of 60 bar and temperature of 25 C.
Gas from initial state ( 2) pass through heat exchanger and cool down to the state of
point 3. Expansion through expansion valve is shown by curve from 3 to state (4 )
defined by 1.1 bar and -160 C. Part of gas is liquefied and saturated part of gas pass
through heat exchanger up to state 5. See T-s diagram, Figure 13. Position of point 5
depend of heat exchanger efficiency.
Liquefaction by this simple process use to much energy, about 10300 kJ/kg of
liquefied gas. The specific energy is too high because of:
- the temperature differential at the cold end is too high,
- expansion through valve is irreversible process.

T
p2

pk

p1
1

2
3

28

Figure 13.
Liquefaction process by J-T valve in T-s diagram
6.3. LIQUEFACTION BY CLAUDE
G. Claude developed cold production by expansion with external work. It is universal
process that can be used with all gases. Process is shown in Figure 14. This process
has two a heat exchangers what improve overall efficiency. In expanding through
turbo expander a gas is capable to develop certain amount of energy. The maximum
value is obtained for expansion that obeys an isentropic curve. Cold production by
expansion with external work considerable decrease quantity of energy needed for
liquefaction process. In this case specific energy is 1817 kJ/kg.

Compressor

1bar, 23 C

60 bar
-158 C

J-T expansion valve

Natural gas
60 bar , 25 C
Heat exchanger I

Heat exchanger II
separator

Turbo expander
1.1 bar, -160 C
1.1 bar , -160 C

Figure 14.
Claude liquefaction process
6.4.CASKADE CYCLES FOR LIQUEFACTION
For the liquefaction of natural gas, specially in large size units, the cascade cycles are
used. These cycles use hydrocarbons obtained from natural gas as cooling media.
There are two cascade cycles:
- classical cascade cycle,
- integrated cascade cycle.
6.4.1.Classical cascade cycle

29

The classical cascade cycle consists of three identical units in cascade;


- propane stage operating between atmospheric pressure and 9.5 bars,
- ethylene stage operating between atmospheric pressure and 15.5 bars,
- methane stage operating between atmospheric pressure and 26 bars.
By heat exchange with natural gas, which is going to be liquefied, cooling media
(refrigerant) evaporates. The refrigerant vapor is the compressed and re-liquefied by
heat exchange first against cooling water and subsequently against mixed refrigerant.
After last series of heat exchangers with methane natural gas expand to 0.6 bars. By
that way temperature of natural gas is decreased to -160 C. The number of cascades
and the choice of fluids are such that condensation pressures remain the critical
pressures in order to make it possible to operate in a zone of high latent condensation
heat. Part of gas which evaporates in process of liquefaction is used as fuel for plant.
Specific energy needed for liquefaction by this cycle is 1400 kJ/kg.

propane
compressor

water

water
25 C
5 9bar
23 C

Natural gas 60 bar, 25 C


ethylene

1,1 bar

compressor

23 C

-40

water

-38

25 C
15,5 bar
-40 C

methane
compressor

1,1 bar

23 C

-103 C

water

-101 C

26 bar
-85 C

-104 C

Liquefied gas -161,5 C

30

Figure 15.
Classical cascade cycle
6.4.2.Integrated cascade cycle
This cycle is made up of succession of pressurized condensations followed by low
pressure vaporizations. In this case the cascade is not formed with one fluid having
fixed condensation temperature when pressure is given. Cooling fluid is a mixture of
several fluids whose temperature varies continuously as a function of quantity
condensed. A mixed refrigerant cycle works between 2.5 and 44 bars abs. with only
one stage. The fluid composition of the cycle is as follows:
- nitrogen 3%,
- methane 31%,
- ethylene 18%,
- ethane 28%,
- propane 16%,
- n. butane 4%.
Specific energy needed for liquefaction by this cycle is 1438 kJ/kg. Main difference
between integrated and classical cascade cycle is in fact that cooling fluid
temperature changes all the time during the integrated process. By that way heat
exchange in contra flow heat exchangers is much easier.
Liquefaction by cascade cycles need less specific energy than in other processes..
Shown schemas are simplified because of easier understanding of process. Real
plants consists of considerable more heat exchangers, so for example classical
cascade cycle has 50 heat exchangers connected by very complex line system.

31

Natural
gas

compressor

Compressor of
refrigerant

Compressor of
propane

expansion
valves

Heat exchanger

separator
Heat exchanger

Liquid -161C; 1,1 bar

Figure 16.
Integrated Cascade cycle
6.4.3. APCI PROCESS
The process is an APCI patent (Air Products and chemical Inc.) and uses a mixed
refrigeration system MCR which contains
- 3% nitrogen,
- 40 % methane,
- 54 % ethane,
- 3% propane.
Natural gas (42 bar, 30C) is cooled against propane down to -31C and then against
MCR down to -148C. At that point, it is flashed from 24 bars down to 1.3 bars in a
32

drum and in nitrogen stripper to remove helium and nitrogen. The LNG is flashed
again from 1.3 bars to 1.03 bars before sending to storage tanks.
MCR is compressed from 3 to 44 bars by two compressors and the cooled down and
partly condensed in a sea water cooler and propane condenser. Liquid and vapor
phases are separated and cooled down in main heat exchanger. These two multi
components fluids are then expanded through J-T valve to get another temperature
drop and injected into exchanger at the proper temperature level to cool down natural
gas.
To expansion drum
LNG 24 bar, -148 C
MCR
Heat Exchanger
J-T valves
Heavy components
Separation of
heaviercomponents
heavier

Propane system

35 bar, -70 C
-31 C

Natural gas
42 bar, 31C

25 bar, -35 C
-31 C

MCR system

44bar, 32 C

3 bar, 32 C

Figure 17.
APCI liquefaction process
6.5. SEPARATION OF HEAVY PRODUCTS CONTAINED IN NATURAL GAS
TO BE LIQUIFIED
The principle of separation is simple. After being cooled to a temperature of about
-60 C the partially liquefied natural gas is extracted from the liquefaction plant and
sent to a distilling column. Obtained hydrocarbons are ethane, butane, propane and
gasoline. Ethane is always re-injected in LNG
Gasoline is sent to storage while butane and propane can be:
- sent to storage, or
- used as make up for MCR cooling fluid or can be injected back to LNG.

33

6.6. DENITROGENATION OF LIQUFIED NATURAL GAS


Natural gas to be liquefied can contain large quantities of nitrogen. In order to lower
LNG transport costs and avoid waste of energy needed to liquefy nitrogen it is useful
to eliminate N2 before liquefaction process.
There are two ways to eliminate N2:
- by simple flashing on dispatch to storage,
- by processing in a distilling column.
By the first way it is suffice to adjust the temperature before expansion. The most of
nitrogen occurs in the flash mixed with fixed quantity of methane.
By second way the nitrogen is extracted at the top of column along with the quantity
of methane used as a fuel of the plant.
Elimination is not complete but usually adequate.

7. LNG STORAGE
7.1. HYSTORY OF LNG STORAGE
In 1940 in Cleveland OHIO USA LNG storage was implemented for first time. At
that time LNG storage was intended to regulate gas consumption during the winter.
Design and requirements for construction at that time were:
- gas tight of containment system at -161 C,
- insulation good enough to limit evaporation,
- external protection of insulation to avoid damaging effects of moisture.
Three storage tanks were built of 3.5% of Ni steel with double wall. Capacity of each
tank was 2500 m3. Insulation material was cork and implemented between two tanks
wall. After three year of satisfactory operation of these three storage tanks it was
decided to build fourth tank( 4500 m3) with a different shape. Material of the walls
was same 3.55 Ni and insulation was made from mineral wool. After 3 years of
exploitation there were some cracks on the wall of the fourth tank. This was repaired
by welding and tank put in service.
On Oct. 20, 1944 a leakage of this tank led to first disaster in the history of LNG. The
inflammation of the gases caused 4500 m 3 tank to collapse. Explosion in city caused
very considerable damage.
This accident caused slow down of LNG industry and considerably increase
requirements for building new storage tanks in particular: free zones around tanks,
liquid recovery, cooling down requirements, materials etc.
In 1949 the Moscow region was provided with 100 of 75m 3 storage cylinders. Only
8 cylinders were used. This storage concept was accepted later for Chicago peak
shaving plant.
In 1959 Methane Pioneer unloaded its first cargo from Lake Charles to two 2500 m 3
storage tanks of Convey Island in Great Britain.
Apart from accident in Cleveland there were some others reported:
- cracks in tanks operated in frozen ground USA 1970,
- external gas leakage from double wall tank in DAS Island in 1979,
- the MHI membrane was found cracked in Sodegaura,
- tank explosion in Staten Island in 1973, due to poor degassing.
34

All accidents can be distinguished as:


- construction accidents,
- operation accidents,
- repair accidents.
7.2. GENERAL RULES FOR LNG STORAGE TANKS
LNG storage facilities development can be considered by:
- capacity,
- safety standards,
- technology of building and applied materials,
- control of construction.
With increase of LNG trade storage capacity increase too. From 2000 m3 in the
beginning it increase to 125000 m3.
A LNG storage tanks should fulfill the following requirements:
- full sealing,
- to withstand loads resulting from fluid stored,
- to retain liquid in case of exceptional condition,
- to maintain insulation integrity,
- to resist external aggressions,
- to ensure in service check of tanks integrity.
There are various existing international standards for design of LNG installations,
design and construction of low pressure, low temperature tanks, storage and handling
of LNG etc. While some of these adequately cover about the design aspects of the
storage tanks, some of them cover the safety aspects of the LNG handling. As a
specific instance, the hydrostatic test of the storage tanks and the duration of such test
specified differently in various codes. The site for LNG Terminal must provide ease
of access to the personnel, equipment, materials etc. from offsite locations to reach the
site for fire fighting or controlling spill associated hazards or for the evacuation of the
personnel.
As per the norms laid in the standard, storage or any process equipment handling
LNG, with a capacity more than 50m3 shall not be located in buildings.
Basic design considerations for storage tanks are discussed in next sentences.
A single containment tank shall be surrounded by a bund wall or dyke to contain any
leakage. Gas detection system is used to monitor the natural gas concentration in the
insulation space.
Dyke is provided for the following tanks : single containment tank, double
containment with metallic outer tank, full containment with metallic outer tank and
membrane tank. The containment volume of the dyke is equivalent to 110 % capacity
of the largest tank within the dyke.
Adequate number of cold detectors for monitoring leakage of LNG at the tank roof
should be provided. Tanks with an open annular space and not filled with perlite
insulation should have a pump to remove the liquid.
Pressure relief valve should be entirely separate from the vacuum relief valve. In
35

order to take care of mal-function of any of the relief valves due to blockage in the
sensor line, one extra relief valve is installed. Necessary provision is provided to
protect the tank from overpressure as well as to take care of the safe discharge.
Nitrogen or dry chemical powder injection provided at the mouth of safety relief
valve discharge.
Rollover Protection. Inlet piping must be designed to avoid stratification of LNG (by
providing top and bottom fill lines). Provision for density measurement on tank must
be provided for the entire height of the tank. For taking care of over pressurization
due to roll over, one of the following options are provided:
- flare system,
- rupture disc to be provided on the tank with isolation valve (lock open
condition) releasing to atmosphere.
Density meters and temperature sensors along the height of the storage tanks is
provided.
Overfill Prevention. Two independent type level measuring instruments are provided
for the tank. The level instrument is equipped to provide remote reading and high
level alarm signals in the control room. In addition, independent switches for highlevel alarm and high-high-level alarm with cut off are provided. The high-high-Level
instrument should be hard wired directly to close the liquid inlet valves to the tank.
The design level of the storage tank must be the maximum liquid level specified by
the designer or manufacturer or 0.5 m below the top of the shell, whichever is lower.
Safety requirements. Tanks should be tight enough to prevent any evaporation losses
and also to avoid ingress of air and moisture.
For the storage tanks, water sprays must be provided on the tank shell including the
roof and the appurtenances on the tank. For single containment tanks as well as
double or full containment tanks having metallic outer tank, and membrane tank
which are having a dyke, high expansion foam systems must be provided.
The possibility of an adjacent tank fire must be taken into consideration when
designing insulation for LNG storage tanks.
If electrical heating system is provided to the tank, it shall consist of a number of
independent parallel circuits so designed that electrical failure of anyone circuit does
not affect power supply to the remaining circuits.
7.3.

DIFFERENT TYPES OF LNG STORAGE TANKS

There are three major types of LNG storage tanks: storage tanks in frozen ground,
storage tanks with self supporting internal tanks and membrane storage tanks.
7.3.1. LNG STORAGE IN FROZEN GROUND
In regions where the earthquake is often or where the environment does not permit
very elevated construction, tanks are often buried.
In the frozen ground storage, the ground has to be frozen to make it impervious and to
make it strong structurally. On being cooled to below 100 C it becomes as strong as
concrete and is maintained indefinitely in this condition by the cold in the stored
liquid. The vaporizing rate for these tanks are very high at the beginning and remain
close to 3 to 4% a day what is much more
than the rate of the other tanks. Other problems experienced with this system are
36

related to ground displacement and to the frost progression what can be hazardous for
peripheral installations.
filling line

Relief valve

Frozen ground
Insulation of mineral wool

40 m

Frozen ground

pump

Figure 18.
LNG Storage in frozen ground
7.3.2. SELF SUPPORTING TANKS
Self supporting LNG storage tanks have double wall. Internal tank in contact with
liquid is independent of the external container and has the mechanical characteristics
required to retain liquid on its own. Material of internal tank is 9% Ni or aluminum
alloy. The external tank is carbon steel. Insulation material is perlite and glass wool.
Insulation for the bottom is foamglass with mechanical characteristic that provide
satisfactory load distribution. The insulation space is under nitrogen pressure.
LNG output is from tank bottom.
Improved version of double metallic tank wall include:
- internal and external cryogenic steel wall,
- intermediate aluminum foil,
- reinforced concrete wall around tank as high as the tank wall.
Pressure in the tank is 1.1 bar. Boil off coefficient for the tank capacity of 12000m3 is
0.1 % per day. Evaporated gas quantity depend of insulation thickness and tank
capacity. The consideration of terrorist attack or aircraft impact led to a closed prestressed concrete tank.
Reinforced or double integrity self supporting tank are different from previous ones
due to presence of an external pre-stressed concrete container which can be used to
retain LNG in case of internal container leakage.

37

Tank
9% nickel
Or aluminum

Carbon steel
Outer tank
Perlite
Insulation

bund
Insulation

foundation

Figure 19.
Double wall LNG storage tank

Tank
9% nickel
Or aluminum

9% Nickel outer tank


Perlite
Insulation

Concrete bund
Insulation

foundation

Figure 20.
Reinforced double integrity self supporting tank
7.3.3 MEMBRANE TYPE TANKS
The main characteristic is that the sealing efficiency and mechanical strength function
are separated. Sealing efficiency is provided by a membrane that is not submitted to
stresses. Liquid weight is transferred by insulation to the concrete envelope.
Membrane material is 304 or 304 L stainless steel or invar. Insulation material are:
polyurethane (PU) foam panels, perlite boxes or balsa wood. The main advantage of
this tanks is that membrane in contact with LNG is only subjected to low in service
stresses and that the separation of the insulation spaces from gaseous phase enables
continuous in service check of the membrane integrity. There are two types of
38

membrane LNG storage tanks:


- Technigaz membrane tanks,
- GazTransport membrane tanks.
The Technigaz membrane is a 1.2 mm thick stainless steel corrugated sheet welded to
the TIG process with no filler material. Corrugations of the membrane are press
formed. This structure provides the membrane deformation capabilities of 5 m
deflection along 20 m in length. The insulation is associated to the external concrete
wall constitutes the second cryogenic barrier. Insulation panels are glued to the
concrete. The cold face of the panel incorporates playwood ensuring satisfactory
seating of the membrane. The membrane is punctually secured to the installation by
metallic anchor points inserted in the insulation.
The GazTransport technique include invar membrane (36% Ni) having a very low
expansion coefficient and thickness a 0.7 mm. Insulation is made of playwood boxes
filled with perlite and glued into external structure.
Because of often earthquake Japanese storage tanks of the membrane are all buried.
These tanks need water protection what is accomplished by concrete envelope with
draining possibilities or by frozen envelope.
7.4 PIPING AND ACCESSORIES OF LNG STORAGE TANK
Piping which are run to the bottom of storage tank are grouped and are connected to a
very light system of braces. This system secure the assembly in position over the tank
height and make it possible for each piping to contract independently.
The main pipes are
- evaporation pipes,
- filling lines,
- stirring up line,
- cooling down line,
- discharge line,
- overflow line,
- draining line of insulation spaces.
At lower third of tanks height an filling piping is fitted with a system of jets to stir up
the storage tanks. This piping must be so located that movements of liquid do not
disturb other equipments.
Each tank is provided with four pumping wells. Each pump is provided with
recycling system and non return valve.
The overflow function is ensured by a pipe which crosses the concrete of the tank
wall above liquid level and which discharge LNG into the primary pit of the retention
basin. This piping is provided with a rupture disk which is designed to burst.
Control instruments are usually doubled. Pressure is controlled in a standard manner
by pressure transmitters. Pressure safety valves are set to 230 mbar. De-pressure
safety valves are set to -2.5 mbar. These valves are pilot operated valves.
Level monitoring is ensured by two independent level gauges which are fitted with
alarms. Tanks are fitted with temperature probes at next positions: under steel dome,
under suspended deck, at the bottom, over the height of the internal tank and the slab
concrete. Control and safety of insulation spaces are similar to one which exists on
methane carriers of integrated tank type.
LNG storage are surrounded by retention basin which is capable of the LNG capacity.

39

The retention basin is provided with a primary pit which receives the overflowing
LNG. Both primary pit and channels are covered in colloidal concrete intended to
limit evaporations in case of LNG overflow.
Fire fighting means are:
- a water system constantly under pressure designed to water sprinkle the whole
tank,
- powder stations,
- foam generators capable to fill the basin over 2 meters in height in 15 minutes.
Surveillance of the tanks is ensured by cameras and sensors which detect cold, smoke
and flames.
Prior to starting up a sequence of operations must be conducted in order to:
- cancel the risk of explosion,
- lower the moisture content in order to limit the risks of icing.
These operations include: nitrogen inerting of the tank, gassing up and cooling down
of the tank.
7.5. BEHAVIOR OF LNG IN STORAGE TANKS
In LNG storage tanks sometimes forms different density liquid layers. This mainly
happens when in tank with certain quantity of liquid was added LNG with different
density. Stratification is stable if heavier liquid is under lighter liquid.
Rollover is phenomenon where the stability of two stratified layers of liquid is
disturbed by a change in their relative density resulting in a spontaneous rapid mixing
of the layers. This is accompanied by sudden increased of vaporization that can
increase pressure in the tanks rapidly causing relief valves to open.
To avoid the stratification of LNG layers in storage tanks there are next facilities
- filling line on top and bottom of tank,
- filling through nozzles on different levels of tank,
- filling of tank through perforated pipes.
Frequent filling and discharging of the tank contribute to better liquid mixing so
avoiding rollover.

40

8. LNG LOADING & UNLOADING ARMS


When handling with LNG safety is on first place. LNG loading and unloading
equipment is considered as most potentially dangerous equipment. LNG transfer from
ship to the terminal and vice versa is accomplished using hard loading arms.
A typical marine hard arm used for LNG is shown in Figure 21.
The shore fixed connection part of equipment on jetty and movable arms are
connected by swivel joints. The swivel joint provide the required range of movement
between ship and shore connection. A counter balance weight is provided to reduce
deadweight of the arm on the ship side and to reduce the power to manoeuvre the
arms. The range of movement is determined by:
- tidal variation,
- ships draft and trim,
- allowance to range fore and aft and drift away from berth.
The hard arms design has manual or automatic emergency disconnect arrangements in
the event that the operating limits are approached or some others emergency occurs.
The hard arms and ship lines can be connected by:
- bolted flanges,
- quick connect and disconnect coupling.
Quick connect/disconnect coupling can be under manual control or remotely
hydraulically operated. During cargo transfer the joint is maintained by a positive
lock, independent of the hydraulic power supply.
Main parts of equipment are:
- base plate with connection to dockside piping,
- inboard and outboard leg,
- counterweights,
- swivel joints,
- hydraulic control system,
- Powered emergency release system including two ball valves,
- hydraulic couplings to the ship piping,
- nitrogen purging system,
- portable remote control system.
The Powered emergency release coupling system is located at lower end of the arm. It
consists of a hydraulically released coupling flanked above and below by a
hydraulically operated ball valve. In emergency the two ball valves first close, then
coupling release. The lower ball valve remains attached to the ships manifold. The
upper ball valve with arm is free to luff clear of the ship.
The swivel joints are most important parts of this equipment. This characteristic way
of sealing was developed by USA space program ATLAS for nitrogen supply.

41

Figure 21.
Loading/unloading arm
1- base, 2 swivel joint, 3- inboard pipe, 4-swivel joint, 5-outboard line, 6-coupling
7-counterweights, 8-counterweights, 9-sheave, 10- cable.

42

Figure 22.
Powered emergency release coupling

43

III
1. CARGO CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS ON LNG SHIPS
1.1. CONSTRUCTION RULES
The main intention of all international norms and rules for the ships carrying LNG is
to provide safe carriage of liquefied natural gas. These rules prescribe design and
constructional solutions of ships and installed equipments to minimize risks to ships,
crew and the environment.
Since the introduction of liquefied gas carriers into the merchant shipping, it was
recognized that there was a need for an International code for the carriage of liquefied
gases in bulk.
At the beginning of the 1970's The Marine Safety Committee (MSC) of the
International Maritime Organization (IMO), known then as the International
Consultative Maritime Organization (IMCO), started work on a Gas Carrier Code
with the participation of the major country delegations representing Gas Carrier
owners, the International Association of Classification Societies, the United States
Coast Guard and several other International associations.
It was resulted by the 'Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying
Liquefied Gases in Bulk' introduced under Assembly Resolution A328 (IX) in
November 1975.
This was the first code developed by IMO having direct applicability to Gas Carriers.
The basic philosophy behind the codes requirements is safety. All rules and
requirements can be classified by three main groups:
- to avoid contact between LNG and non-cryogenic materials,
- to avoid formation of explosive mixture,
- to move away all ignition sources from spaces where gas and air can be in
contact.
First group of requirements concern construction of the containment systems and use
of the cryogenic materials. The cryogenic materials (alloys) have excellent
mechanical properties at low temperatures. All containment system must be provided
with a partial or complete secondary barrier to ensure overall system integrity in the
event of primary barrier leakage. The LNG carriers with spherical tanks have reduced
secondary barrier which consists of drip tray at bottom of the tank.
The membrane LNG ships must always be provided with complete secondary barrier.
Second group of rules require use of tight piping, use of double wall pipes, inert gas
use and gas detection system use in spaces near cargo.
Third group of rules define danger areas in which can be installed only intrinsic safety
electrical equipment. Intrinsic safe equipment is incapable of releasing sufficient
electrical or thermal energy to cause ignition of hazardous atmosphere with easily
ignited concentration.
As all conventional LNG carriers are also subjected to risk of collision and grounding.
To avoid effects of these situations it is formulated certain number of requirements.
These rules define dimension and position of cargo tank in regard to ships hull. The

44

cargo tanks are moved away from hull creating by that way additional space for
ballast tanks.
LNG carriers can be subjected:
- to different dynamical stresses due to cargo load,
- to thermal stress due to low cargo temperature.
Therefore these ships have the double hull which:
- limits effects of hypothetic damage,
- improve the ship rigidity what is favourable specially in regard the membrane
containment system, because of flexure stresses, and in case of containment system
with spherical tanks, because of torsion stresses,
- creates ballast space what is very important on this kind of ships because of
unloaded voyage.
During normal exploitation heat exchange through insulation can produce double hull
temperature drop of 5C to 10 C in regard to ambient temperature. For referent
ambient temperature of -18 C double hull temperature can drop to 28 C. It
requires use of alloyed steel for double hull and cofferdams walls heating.
Due to real danger of contact between LNG and double hull it was logical to built
secondary barrier around the cargo tanks. The membrane containment system is based
on thin primary barrier so these systems must be always provided by complete
secondary barriers. The secondary barrier must be capable to keep LNG in event of
primary barrier leakage. The secondary barrier significantly complicates and increase
cost of construction these ships. Therefore for membrane containment system rules
require two membranes while for containment system with spherical tanks rules
requires only partial secondary barrier.
As for all tankers for liquid cargo so for LNG tankers it was necessary to study cargo
motions in the tanks. Ship motions cause cargo motion that can become synchronized
(sloshing) and damage specially the membrane and equipment in the tanks. For the
sloshing problem was necessary to:
- reduce free surface of top of the membrane tanks,
- limit loading levels of cargo, so in exploitation loading level is maximum level
of the tank while on return ballast voyage in tanks remain minimum of cargo
to maintain the tanks temperature at required values.
The top part of membrane tanks is chamfered at 45 deg. to minimize free surface
effects. The bottom part is also chamfered to enable the tank to follow the shape of the
ship.
The containment systems with spherical tanks have no sloshing problem because of
their design shape.
The successful operation of the LNG tankers depend of ships hull structure, cargo
containment system, equipment and crew skill. Different types of cargo containment
systems and unusually dimensions require highest technical expertise and research to
solve all technical problems .

45

1.2.TYPES OF CARGO CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS


Various cargo containment systems have been proposed and designed. Due to their
economy and reliability only two cargo containment systems are adopted:
- self supporting system
- systems with membrane tanks.
Self supporting tanks do not form part of ships hull and do not contribute to the hull
strength. Self supporting tank type B is applied for LNG carriers. This type of
containment system is subjected to a much accurate type of stress analyses that
include fatigue and crack propagation analyses.
Cargo containment system with membrane tanks are not self supporting, they are
supported through the insulation by the hull of the ship. The membrane is designed in
such way that thermal expansion or contraction is compensated of the membrane
itself.
There are three LNG cargo containment systems proven in exploitation and existing
on world market. They are:
- system with spherical tanks,
- GazTransport membrane system,
- Technigaz membrane system.
1.3. CARGO CONTAINMENT SYSTEM WITH SPHERICAL TANKS
The cargo containment system with spherical tanks consists of single wall insulated
spherical tank supported by cylindrical vertical skirt. There were several different
design in regard how the tanks are founded to double hull.
The most successful commercial design is Moss Rosenberg. The spherical tank is
supported by equatorial ring and cylindrical skirt which transmits dynamic forces to
double hull. The equatorial ring is connection between tank and skirt, that is most
delicate part of system.
First generation of that designed LNG carries had the tanks made by 9% Ni stainless
steel. All new construction have aluminium (5083-0) tanks. Upper part of skirt is
made of aluminium and connected to lower part of skirt by specially alloyed
intermediate ring.
Thermal dilatation is compensated by elastic deformation of skirt upper part.
For this kind of containment system requirements allow reduced secondary barrier.
Secondary barrier is limited around lower part of the spherical tanks and contains of
drip tray and splash barrier. A drip tray is designed to collect and evaporate a
theoretical LNG leak which is drained by the insulation drain system.
Insulation contains of polyurethane foam panels and erected to the tank wall without
being continuously adhered to the metal. The insulation is free to expand and to
contract with variance in temperature and is kept in place by numerous stiffeners.
The annular space between the cargo tank and the insulation leads possible leaks to
drip tray.

46

cover plate

insulation
tank
wall

ballast tank

cylindrical

support

ballast tank

insulation

Figure 23.

Spherical system Moss Rosenberg


The dilatation joints between foam panels are made of compressed mineral wool.
On the warm side insulation is equipped with aluminium foil. The foil protects the
insulation from humidity present in atmosphere surrounding the tank.
x1

x2

x3
Tank wall
dilatation joints

R1

Polyurethane panels
R2
R3
R4

insulation
stifeners
Insulation cover

Figure24.
Spherical tank insulation
To reduce heat conduction through skirt new buildings have thermal brake consists of
a bimetal transition piece inserted between aluminium and stainless steel part of skirt.

47

Table. 3. Spherical tanks thickness by different zone

zone
7
6
5
4U
equator
4L
3
2
1
tank
support
total

height
mm
1 568
6 013
9 058
2 485
1 200
2 486
9 058
6 013
1 568

thickness
mm
30
28,5
36
46
170
55
46
44
47

weight
t

607
201
808
zone 7
zone 6
zone 5
zone 4U
equator
zone 4L
zone 3
zone 2
zone 1

Figure 25.
Spherical tank zone
1.4. CARGO CONTAINMENT SYSTEM WITH MEMBRANE TANKS
By conception, membrane-type cargo tanks are integrated with the ship's double hull,
enabling optimum use of available space.There are two different membrane LNG
containment systems: GazTransport and Technigaz. These two systems were
developed by two different companies. Today they are united in one company GTT.
Main difference of these two systems is material of membrane. GazTransport has
membrane made from invar and Technigaz has membrane from stainless steel.
Unified company have today two improved systems based on previous containment
systems. The containment system with invar membrane is Cargo containment No 96.
The system with stainless steel membrane is Mark III.
United company launched new LNG containment system called CS1- combined
system 1. The new system CS1 uses the reinforced polyurethane foam insulation of

48

Mark III system and the membrane of NO 96. The second membrane is made of
composite aluminium glass fibre called Triplex issued from Mark III system.
1.4.1. GAS TRANSPORT CARGO CONTAINMENT No 96
The Cargo Containment System consists of four double insulated cargo tanks encased
within the inner hull and situated in-line from forward to aft. The spaces between the
inner hull and outer hull are used for ballast and will also protect the tanks in the
event of an emergency situation, such as collision or grounding. The cargo tanks are
separated from other compartments, and from each other, by five transverse
cofferdams which are all dry compartments.
The ballast spaces around the cargo tanks are divided into two double bottom wing
tanks, port and starboard for each cargo tank. The double bottom tanks extend to the
side of the cargo tanks as far up as the trunk ways.
Between the two transverse bulkheads, each tank is composed of a prism placed in a
direction parallel to the keel plate. Cargo tank No.1 is slightly different in shape due
to its position in the ship.
The cargo containment system consists of a thin, flexible membrane called the
primary membrane, which is in contact with the cargo, a layer of plywood boxes filled
with perlite called the Primary insulation, a second flexible membrane similar to the
first one called the secondary membrane and a second layer of boxes also filled with
perlite in contact with the inner hull called the Secondary insulation. The double
membrane system meets the requirement of the relevant regulations on the Cargo
Containment System to provide two different 'barriers' to prevent cargo leakage.
This system ensures that the whole of the cargo hydrostatic loads are transmitted
through the membranes and insulation to the inner hull plating of the ship.
The function of the membranes is to prevent leakage, while the insulation supports
and transmits the loads and, in addition, minimizing heat exchange between the cargo
and the inner hull. The secondary membrane, sandwiched between the two layers of
insulation, not only provides a safety barrier between the two layers of insulation, but
also reduces the convection currents within the insulation.
The primary and secondary insulation spaces are under a pressure controlled nitrogen
atmosphere. The primary space's pressure must never exceed the cargo tank pressure
in order to prevent the primary membrane from collapsing inwards. In normal
operation, the pressure in the primary and secondary insulation spaces shall be
maintained between 2 mbar and 4 mbar.
The primary and secondary barriers are identical and are fabricated from cryogenic
invar, a 36% nickel steel, with a very low coefficient of thermal expansion, 0.7 mm
thick.
The coefficient of thermal expansion is low enough to enable flat, rather than
corrugated sheets, to be used. The entire surface area of the membrane is thus in
contact with the supporting insulation, so that the load which the system is able to
carry is limited only by the load bearing capacity of the insulation.
The primary and secondary insulation spaces are made up of boxes fabricated from
plywood and filled with expanded Perlite. This insulation system allows free
circulation of nitrogen and therefore permits gas freeing or inerting to be carried out
in the barrier spaces without difficulty.
The secondary insulation is 300 mm thick, whereas the primary insulation is 230 mm
is thick. The designed boil-off rate i.e. 0.15% of the total cargo tanks volume per day
governs the thickness.

49

The plywood boxes forming the secondary insulation are laid on the ship's inner hull
through the transition of a hard epoxy bearing product deposited on the box in the
shape of ropes by means of an automatic depositing machine. These ropes are of
adjustable thickness and compensate for the flatness defects of the inner hull. The
boxes are held in position by stainless steel coupler rods anchored to the inner hull
through their welded sockets. To absorb the ship's hull deformation, each coupler is
fitted with an elastic coupling made up of several spring washers tightened down on
the setting plates for secondary boxes by securing nuts.
The primary boxes are secured in position by collar studs. The collar studs are
screwed into setting (clamp) plates for collar studs linked to the setting plate for
secondary boxes by two securing screws. A plywood bridge is installed between the
two setting plates to limit any thermal conduction through the box fixations.

2nd membrane
1st insulation space
ballast tanks

1st membrane
TANK

2nd insulation space


double hall

ballast tanks

Figure 26.
Scheme of GazTransport membrane cargo containment system
first membrane (invar 0.7mm) insulation boxes

x7
x6
x5
x4

x3
x2
x1

Hard epoxy
epoepoxymola

Double hull

insulation boxes

second membrane invar 0.7


mmmmmmmmmmm)mm)

Figure 27.

Insulation of GazTransport membrane cargo


containment system

50

1.4.2. MEMBRANE SYSTEM MARK I


The Technigaz membrane originated from Norway, patent of Lorentzen and Bennett
group. In the early 1960s Technigaz acquired the patent rights and after testing first
Membrane tank design system was installed in methane/ethylene tanker Pythagore
which entered in exploitation in 1964. In same time CONCH was developing stainless
steel membrane with balsa and plywood insulation. CONCH and TECHNIGAZ
formed united company CONCH-OCEAN what resulted with membrane tank design
known as Technigaz Mark I.
In view from double hull to the tank the cargo containment system consists of :
- Wooden frame grounds fastened to double hull, the space between grounds is
filled with mineral wool,
- Insulation panels of thick plywood, three layers of balsa and sugar maple form
secondary barrier. The continuity of insulation and secondary barrier is
achieved by PVC wedges and sugar maple plywood scab splices,
- Pads of balsa wood upon which the primary membrane is fixed,
- The corrugated stainless sheets, thick 1.2 mm, attached to the insulation panels
forming primary barrier.

2nd membrane
1st insulation space
ballast tanks

1st membrane
tank

2nd insulation space


double hull

ballast tanks

Figure 28.
Scheme of Technigaz membrane cargo containment system Mark I
The first commercial ship built with this design was LNG carrier Descartes with
capacity of 50 000 m3.

51

First membrane (inox 1.2mm)

PVC joint

Second membrane ( balsa and sugar maple layers)

X5
X4
X3

X2
X1

Double hull

mineral wool

wooden support

balsa panels

Figure 29.

Insulation of Technigaz membrane cargo


containment system Mark I
1.4.3. MEMBRANE SYSTEM MARK III
Technigaz developed the MARK III design with reinforced polyurethane foam instead
of balsa as insulation and Triplex instead of plywood as secondary barrier. Triplex is a
bonded composite material consists of an aluminium foil between two glass cloth
layers. Main improvements in regard to Mark I are:
- better insulation thermal efficiency and,
- secondary barrier is tight for liquid and gas.
First membrane (inox 1.2mm)

Second membrane- Triplex

X5
X4
X
X3
X2
X1

Double hull

Wooden panels

Mastic

Polyurethane foam

Figure 30.

Insulation of Technigaz membrane cargo


containment system Mark III
MARK III containment system consists of:
52

the corrugated stainless steel primary barrier , same as in MARK I, which


compensate thermal contraction and mechanical deflections,
top plywood panels,
load bearing insulation of rigid polyurethane foam,
the secondary barrier Triplex, for tightness, which is inserted in the insulation,
polyurethane foam,
back plywood panels,
mastic patches.

Second insulation space is space between double hull and secondary barrier.
First insulation space is space between secondary barrier and primary barrier.
1.5. CHARACTERISTICS OF MEMBRANE TANKS
Cargo tanks for carrying LNG are integrated to the structure of the ship and are
contained in cargo holds situated between the engine room and fore deep tank
bulkheads. The holds are separated by transverse cofferdams and are bounded by a
side longitudinal double hull and double bottom. Each tank is fitted with rectangular
insulated access liquid dome situated near its aft. This dome is used for connecting the
cargo handling equipment into tanks, which consists mainly of the loading and
unloading lines and means for access to the tank. The electric submerged pumps are
fixed on a separate support at the bottom of the tanks.
Each tank is also fitted with a similar small forward gas dome for vapour line and
safety valves.
The operating conditions of the tanks are assumed to be as follows:
- service temperature 162 C,
- Maximum service pressure, corresponding to the opening of safety valves,
225 mbar
- admissible depression, corresponding to the opening of the safety valves
5 mbar,
- the tanks are loaded in service at 98% of their full volume,
- the ship is not allowed to sail with partial fillings between 10% of the tank
length and 85% of the height.
The security of the membrane tank depends mainly of a sufficient resting of the
membrane on the insulation. It is obvious that beyond a certain limit a vacuum in the
tank or an excessive pressure in inter-barrier spaces may pull the membrane off the
anchoring pieces. The minimum pressure difference between the cargo tank and the
inter-barrier space (first insulation space) to obtain this application of the membrane is
80 to 100 mbar.
1.6. MEMBRANE CARGO CONTAINMENT SYSTEM LEAK TESTS
Classification society requires that the barriers of a membrane tank are checked
periodically for their effectiveness.
There are some precautions which should be taken during e periodical examination of
the primary and secondary membranes.
Measuring equipment that may be damaged, must be isolated prior to the
commencement of the test. The barrier spaces must at all times be protected against
53

over pressure, which might otherwise result in membrane failure.


1.6.1. Method for Checking the Effectiveness of the Barriers
Primary Membrane
Since each primary insulated space is provided with a permanently installed gas
detection system capable of measuring gas concentration at intervals not exceeding
thirty minutes, any gas concentration in excess, with regard to the steady rates, would
be the indication of primary membrane damage. It results that each primary
membrane is, in terms of tightness, continuously monitored and a special test would
not be required to check its effectiveness. However that may be, each primary
membrane can be tested according to the method described below for the secondary
membrane.
Secondary Membrane
In order to check its effectiveness, the secondary (or primary) membrane is submitted
to a global tightness test. Procedure include reducing the insulated space pressure at
the back of the membrane to be tested to 200 mbar abs.
After a stabilizing period of about 8 hours, record by means of an accurate measuring
device, the vacuum decay over the next 24 hour period.
1.6.2. In Service Global Tightness Test
The global test is carried out either during a maintenance period, or when the cargo
tanks have been warmed up and gas freed.
To overcome any doubtful results arising from possible leaks through equipment
connected with the insulated spaces i.e. valves, pressure relief valves, electric cable
glands etc, their effectiveness must be carefully checked, and eventually replaced with
blank joints, in so far as the spaces remain protected against any over-pressure.
Test Of Secondary Membrane
The pressure of the secondary space is reduced to 200 mbar, while the primary space
is maintained at a slight vacuum.
Under these conditions, the secondary membrane is submitted by one side to the
atmospheric pressure existing inside the primary space, by the other to the reduced
pressure existing inside the secondary space.
In spite of the precautions taken for providing against leaks of the equipment, it is
important to check whether the vacuum decay of the secondary barrier space
corresponds with a pressure reduction of the primary space .
If this is not the case, there may be an external leak which must be located and
rectified before another test is conducted.
Primary Membrane Test Procedure
The pressure of the primary and secondary barrier spaces is reduced to 200 mbar a
simultaneously, in communication, in order to prevent the potential collapse of the
secondary barrier due to a higher pressure than that of the primary space.
The primary and secondary spaces are isolated and the vacuum decay procedure is
followed on the primary space only.
Under these conditions, the primary membrane is submitted by one side to the
atmospheric pressure existing inside the tank and by the other to the reduced pressure
existing inside the primary space.

54

Since both faces of the secondary membrane are in an equal pressure system, no flow
can be generated through any eventual leak of this membrane; therefore the measured
vacuum decay is the correct figure of the tightness of only the primary membrane.
Mark I Secondary barrier test
The secondary barrier made of balsa wood is tight for liquid but not for vapor. The
tightness of this barrier need to be tested regularly.
The pressure of the secondary space is reduced to 530 mbar a, while the primary
space is maintained at atmospheric pressure. The test consists of :
- secondary space pressure changes in time measurement, presented by
figure 31,
- Normalized Porosity Area (NPA) factor calculation.
p mbar

300

450

t1

t2

time

Figure 31.
Mark I secondary barrier tightness measurement diagram
NPA 121
, 103

V
Asb t

(1.1)

NPA normalized porosity area factor


V secondary space volume
Asb secondary barrier surface
t time in that vacuum drop from 450 mbar to 300 mbar
The obtained NPA factor value must be less than maximum NPA factor.
Max. NPA factor is 14.15 cm2 for cargo tank with surface of 5000m2.
Periodical survey procedure include checking NPA increase in regard to total number
of thermal cycles from beginning of ship exploitation. Thermal cycles is tanks
temperature change from 20 C to 160 C and back to 20C. Periodical survey
diagram is presented in Figure 32.
The NPA factor values under USCG curve are in acceptable range.

55

NPA

USCG

m2

tank 3
tank 2
tank 1

10

20

30

40

50

Number of thermal cycles

Figure 32.
Mark I system periodical NPA survey diagram
1.7. COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT CARGO CONTAINMENT SYSTEM
Experience of all system during exploitation is very good. There were no important
damages. By comparison of spherical and membrane cargo containment systems one
can see that each type has some specific advantages and disadvantages in regard to
other one.
The membrane system better fit in ship hold space. The spherical tanks need less
insulation because of less tanks surface area. But spherical tanks are much heavier and
have much more wind area so need more power for propulsion. That means more fuel
consumption and weaker manoeuvring capabilities. In case of grounding or collision
ships with spherical tanks have obvious advantage. Considerable advantage of cargo
containment system with spherical tanks is that cargo tanks are built in parallel with
ship construction. This reduce ship delivery time. Another advantages of spherical
tanks are: better construction quality control, bigger tank pressure what in case of
pumps failure can be used for unloading of the cargo and these tanks can be loaded to
any level without problem in regard to sloshing.

2. MATERIALS IN LNG TECHNOLOGY


2.1. MATERIALS FOR SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION
The development of LNG industry, marine transport and storage depend of choice of
materials that have excellent mechanical properties to low temperatures. The
mechanical behaviour of most materials, when they are in contact with LNG, is
modified and some of them become exceptionally brittle. These materials lose their
plasticity and may fracture under very low dynamic stresses.
The world first LNG storage facility at Cleveland was completely destroyed after two
years of operation. The disaster had been due to the fracturing of an LNG storage tank
which had been built using steel with low nickel content.
The dynamic strength testing at very low temperature shows that the best mechanical
properties have metals which crystallize in the face-centered cubic system. These
metals are aluminium, copper, silver and gold. All these metals are exceptionally

56

malleable metals, capable of extensive plastic deformation. This is due to the fact that
this type of lattice posses numerous slip planes.
Physical properties of metallic materials, which are in use for LNG industry, are
coefficient of expansion and thermal conductivity. The coefficient of expansion
varies enormously from one material to another when temperature change from room
temperature to 200C. One must emphasize the importance of this characteristic in
cryogenic applications.
The thermal conductivity of alloys usually decrease with decreasing temperature. The
metals like aluminium and copper find this characteristic diminishing gradually and
then increasing sharply at temperatures in the region of 200C. This phenomenon,
still imperfectly understood, occurs at temperature which depend on the purity of the
metals.
Metals which are in use in LNG industry are:
- copper and copper alloys,
- aluminium and aluminium alloys,
- nickel and nickel alloys,
- austenitic steels.
Types and chemical composition of some alloys in LNG use are:
- monel ( Ni 70, Cu 30),
- inconel (Ni 78, Cr 15, Fe7),
- AG4MC (Al 95, Mg 4, Mn 0.4, Cr 0.2),
- Cupro - aluminium (Cu 91, Al 9),
- cupro nickel ( Cu 70, Ni 30).
The most employed austenitic steels in LNG industry is inox (Cr 18, Ni 8
Chemical composition of Cr-Ni steel which is used for fabrication of Technigaz
membrane is:
C < 0,030%,
Ni 9 - 12%,
S < 0,020%,
Si < 1%,
P < 0,040%,
Mn < 2%,
Cr 17 - 20%,
Cu < 1%.
Invar, (Ni 36) has very low coefficient of expansion and used for membranes of
GazTransport cargo containment system.
The composition of invar of GazTransport membrane is :
Ni 35 36.5%,
C < 0.04%,
Si < 0.25 %,
Mn < 0.4 %,
S < 0.0015%,
P < 0.008 %.
Cryogenic steel 316 L, containing 2% molybdenum has high resistance to corrosion,
used for valves together with 9% Nickel steel is applied for equipment involving high
mechanical stresses.
Chemical composition of aluminium foil which is used for secondary barrier of
Technigaz - Mark III is:
Al > 99,2%,
Cu < 0,05%,
Fe < 0,6%,
Zn < 0,03%,
Si < 0,25%,
Mn < 0,03%.
57

The foil thickness is 60 - 80 micron and mass 190 g/m2.


High costs of copper alloys limits their use to highly sophisticated equipment in
which cost of the metal is small in relation to overall cost. Their use is mainly for
LNG pumps.
2.2. DOUBLE HULL MATERIAL SELECTION
Double hull material selection is based on the lowest temperature to which
double hull can be exposed, as reference is taken:
ambient temperature od -18C,
sea water temperature 0C.
The temperature distribution obtained by requested conditions is shown in Figure 33.
Ambient temperature
o
-18 C

insulation
thickness

LNG on 2nd membrane


-27

temperature
cofferdam without
o
heating -65 C

-17

530 mm
-23

LNG

temperature
cofferdam

-44

-12

- 162 C

-5
Sea water

LNG on 1st membrane

-6.5

-3.7

-3

temperature
o

0C

Figure 33.
Cargo tank temperature distribution

Temperature distribution diagram shows lowest possible cofferdam temperatures in


case of LNG leaks. It requires use of alloyed steel for double hull and cofferdams
walls what would increase cost of construction considerably. The compromise
solution is use of conventional carbon steel and cofferdam heating system.
2.3. INSULATION MATERIAL OF CARGO CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS

Insulation materials is formed of gas bubbles which are closed in rigid base insulation
material with low coefficient of thermal conductivity. Insulation materials formed by
this way have the best insulation characteristics. More gas bubbles cells in base
material reduce insulation volume and by that way reduce thermal bridge. Smaller gas
bubbles cells have smaller temperature gradient and smaller gas velocity in the
stations. The gas can be air which naturally exists in some materials or it can be
produced during insulation material manufacture. For synthetic insulation materials
the most used gases are freons.
58

Main insulation material characteristics requested by classification societies are:


- compatibility with cargo,
- low thermal conductivity,
- fireproof with self extinguishing characteristic,
- load bearing capability and rigidity,
- low weight,
- waterproof is one of the most important characteristics because of progressive
condensation and ice formation that can damage insulation system.
The materials used in LNG industry can be divided by origin:
- mineral: asbestos, glass wool, mineral wool and perlite.
- organic: cotton, cork and wool,
- synthetic: polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride and expanded polyurethane foam.
The most used insulation material in LNG industry is polyurethane foam.
2.2.1. INSULATION MATERIAL TYPES
Polyurethane foam (PU)
Polyurethane results from chemical reactions of two liquid components-isocyanates
and polyols in presence of expansion agent (freon) , various catalysts and additives
among which is fire retardant agent.
Rigid polyurethane foam has cells enclosed in base material whose % depends of
density and expansion agent. Polyurethane foam has lowest thermal conductivity
coefficient, =0.02 W/(mK). A properly made polyurethane foam is composed almost
only of closed cells. However, a low percentage of open cells lets humidity slightly
penetrate the material thus reducing the conductivity coefficient.
The density of the foam determines its mechanical capacities. A relationship between
density and thermal conductivity is: the higher the density, the less effective is the
insulation.
Polyurethane is a combustible organic compound. Self-extinguishable foam is
obtained by incorporation of various additives.
Foam is waterproof and can be used between -196C i 100C . The coefficient of
dilatation is 7 10-5 .
Characteristics of rigid polyurethane foam which is used for Technigaz system Mark
III are:
- density 120 kg/m3,
- enclosed cells 97 %,
- mineral wool contents 10 %.
Perlite
The perlite is obtained from a vitreous rock of volcanic origin which, when heated to
a high temperature (above 800 C), is transformed into very small balls. These balls
have diameters that measure between a few hundredths to a few tenths of a millimeter.
The cellular structure so obtained from the process gives the expanded perlite its
lightness and thus its excellent insulation properties. The water repellency of the
Perlite is reduced by a silicon treatment. The thermal conductivity coefficient = 0,04
W/(m K). The perlite as insulation material is used for GazTransport system. The
thermal insulation space is kept under low absolute pressure. The purpose is to protect
the perlite from humidity.
59

Expanded polystyrene
Polystyrene is insulation material cells type obtained form ethylene and benzene.
Expansion agent which cause cells forming is air. Polystyrene is stable until
temperature of 200C, deforming at 85C, acid resistant, but not resistant to oil and
minerals. With additives can not burn easily and resistant to oil and hydrocarbons. It is
odourless and does not degrade. The coefficient of thermal conductivity of
polystyrene is variable with temperature , = 0,036 W/(m K).
Polyvinyl Chloride PVC
This thermoplastic material is molded under 200-300 bars of pressure at a temperature
o 175 C. Expansion agent is nitrogen. Main characteristic of Polyvinyl Chloride is
waterproof. Coefficient of thermal conductivity is = 0,025 ... 0,035 W/(m K).
Others materials
Others materials used in LNG industry are:
- Minearl wool = 0,03 W/(mK),
- balsa = 0,05 W/(mK),
- cork used initially in LNG industry.

3. INSTALLATION COMMON TO ALL SYSTEMS


3.1. Cargo Piping System
Liquid cargo is loaded and discharged through the two crossover lines at midships and
is delivered to and from each cargo tank through the liquid header which runs fore
and aft along the trunk deck. Each crossover line at midships separates into two
loading and discharging connections, port and starboard, making a total of four
loading and discharge connections on each side of the ship.
The cargo tank vapor are maintained in communication with each other by the vapor
header running fore and aft along deck. The vapor main also has a cross connection at
the midship manifold for use in regulating tank pressures when loading and
discharging.
The stripping or spray line can be connected to the liquid crossover lines and can be
used to drain or to cool down each cargo tank, and also to spray during discharging if
the return vapor is insufficient.
The vapor header connects the tanks to each other for the venting of boil off gas,
which discharges to atmosphere through vent mast. The vapor main also directs the
boil-off gas to the engine room for gas burning, by compressors and boil-off warm-up
gas heaters.
The Inert Gas and Dry-Air System located in the Engine Room, is used to supply inert
gas or dry air to the cargo tanks via piping which connects with the main cargo system
through a double, non-return valve to avoid gas returning to the engine room.
All of the cargo piping are welded to reduce the possibility of joint leakage. Flanged
connections are electrically bonded by means of straps provided between flanges to
ensure that differences in potential, due to static electricity between cargo and other
deck piping, tanks, valves and other equipment, are avoided.
Both liquid and vapor systems have been designed in such a way that expansion and
contraction are absorbed in the piping configuration. This is done by means of

60

expansion loops and bellows on liquid and vapor piping respectively.


Fixed and sliding pipe supports and guides are provided to ensure that pipe stresses
are kept within acceptable limits.
During cooling down of pipeworks, the flanges cool down and consequently contract
faster than the bolts. The tightening torque of the bolts decreases down to a minimum
value, and increases again to reach a final value lower than its initial value. Three type
of solutions are possible: increase tightening, maintain tightening when assemblies are
cold or improve gasket quality.
All sections of liquid piping that can be isolated, and thus possibly trapping liquid
between closed valves, are provided with safety valves which relieve excess pressure
to the nearest vapor dome. This is a safety measure, although normal working practice
is to allow any remaining liquid to warm up and boil off before closing any such
valves.
All major valves are remotely power operated from Cargo Control Room.
When an ESD is activated, the manifold valves are closed, discontinuing loading or
unloading operations.
A non-return valve is fitted at the discharge flange of each cargo pump. A 6 mm hole
is drilled in the valve disc to allow the tank discharge lines to drain down and be gas
freed. Non-return valves are also fitted at the discharge flange of the compressors. The
spray/stripping and emergency cargo pump discharge lines have non-return valves
located directly after the hydraulically operated discharge valves.
Emergency Shutdown system is designed to protect ship and shore in the event of
dangerous conditions developing during cargo transfer.
In the event of fire or other emergency condition, the entire cargo system, gas
compressors and master boil-off gas isolating valve to the engine room may be shut
down by a single control. Shut down of the cargo system is actuated either manually
or automatically when sensing equipment registers certain off limit conditions such
as fire or gas detections and tank overfill. Initiation can be from ship or from shore.
The system should isolate ship and shore facilities in a sequential fashion minimizing
risk of surge. The operators should keep in mind that in any case is desirable to reduce
maximum cargo flow rate before ESD initiation to avoid excessive surge pressure.
The manual emergency shutdown push buttons are usually located as follows:
-Cargo Control Room,
-Wheelhouse,
-Fire control station,
-Each tank dome,
-Deck forward area,
-Port and starboard manifold platforms.
Automatic shutdown for fire is controlled by twelve fuse plugs located as follows:
Each tank liquid dome,
Each tank vapor dome,
Port and starboard manifold platforms,
Cargo compressor room,
Electric motor room.
There are three ESDS interface connections made to the shore facility, i.e. electrical,
optical and pneumatic. In port, the optical link and pneumatic systems will inform the
shore of any ship's ESDS actuation and will stop the loading or discharge pumps and
close the shore liquid valves.

61

3.2. RELIEF SYSTEMS


Each cargo tank is fitted with two pressure or vacuum relief valves. The primary and
secondary insulation spaces are each protected by two pressure relief valves per cargo
tank. The valves are designed specifically to work on LNG systems.
3.2.1. Cargo Tank Relief Valves
Safety valves are designed to limit pressure raises in LNG cargo tanks, by ensuring
automatic purging of excess gas.
The cargo tank relief valves are fitted at the vapor domes of each tank and vent to
their associated vent mast riser. The relief valves are of the pilot operated relief valve
type. A cargo tank pressure sensing line relays the pressure directly to the pilot
operating valve. In this manner, accurate operation at low pressures prevailing inside
the tank are assured.
pilot valve

Pa

Pa

P
P
P < opening pressure

P = opening pressure

Figure 34.

Relief valves high pressure


openings
weight

Pa

Pa

P > opening pressure

P = opening pressure

Figure 35.

62

Relief valves low pressure openings


The IMO Codes require two pressure relief valves of equal capacity to be fitted to any
cargo tank. Operation conditions of these valve changes, when open valve operate
first at ambient temperature, then the gas steam becomes colder and colder. The major
operating problem encountered is jamming when closing due to penetration of
moisture on the valve seat, therefore valve is not completely tight in closed position.
3.2.2. Primary and Secondary Insulation Space Relief Valves
The primary and secondary insulation spaces, on membrane ships, are protected by
two relief valve.
The primary insulation relief valve vapor outlet is led to a separate vent line, which
runs up alongside the associated vent mast. This is in order to prevent any counter
pressure or back flow from the main vent mast should the cargo tank relief valves lift,
or from the nitrogen snuffing system.
It is extremely important the vent line is checked on a regular basis and drained of any
accumulation of water. The purpose of which is to ensure that the relief valves operate
at their correct settings, which would otherwise be altered if water were to accumulate
in the vent mast and flow onto the valve assembly.
The secondary insulation space relief valves vent directly to deck.
The primary and secondary insulation spaces valves are set up initially by the
manufacturer's for the requirements on the ship. If overhaul of the valves by ship's
staff is carried out, the valves must be checked and reset to the original
3.2.3. Line Relief Valves
Each section of the cargo pipe work, except the vapor line that can be isolated by two
valves, has an over pressure relief valve fitted. The cargo manifold relief lines, the
cargo machinery space relief lines and cargo tanks relief lines are led to the tanks.
3.3. CARGO VALVES
The types of isolation valve usually found on LNG tankers are ball, globe, gate and
butterfly valve. These valves are operated manually or remotely by pneumatic or
hydraulic actuators. Cryogenic valves for LNG use have specific characteristics.
These valves have modifications to prevent entrapment of LNG in the valve body
where it would warm up, thus creating overpressure incompatible with the mechanical
characteristic. Usually it is small drilled hole toward downstream side of valve.
Second characteristic is remote positioning at the end of an extension secured to the
valve body, of the sealing systems encasing the actuation stem. This arrangement
allows warming up and vaporization of LNG in between the actuation stem and its
sleeve. The gas buffer thus created counters the progression of the liquid.
The globe valves are used in small diameters.
The gate valves are used for a wide range of diameters, from 50mm to 800mm and
pressures. The bigger gate valves consists of two gates with hinged articulation and
small valves have single-piece gate. When fully opened the gates retreats entirely into
its housing and creates no obstacle to fluid circulation.
The ball valves are used when pipe diameter is not too large, primarily on purge or

63

instrument circuits.
The butterfly valves are used in low pressure conditions in a wide range of diameters,
from 50mm to 800mm.
3.4. CARGO PUMPS
The tanks are fitted with submerged, electric, single-stage centrifugal cargo pumps.
They are installed at the bottom of each tank. The stripping or spray pumps are twostage.
Each tank, on membrane ships, has possibility to introduce an emergency cargo pump
in case of total cargo pump failure. The cargo pumps are started and stopped from the
Cargo Control Room They will also be automatically stopped in the event of various
shut down trips being activated both in relation to the cargo system and the pumps
themselves.
Each cargo pump electric motor is protected from:
- Overload (over current),
- Low-current (no load operation),
- Imbalance between phases (single-phasing),
- Too long starting.
The cargo pumps may be run in closed circuit on their own tanks by opening the
loading valve. This may be required if the discharge is temporarily halted when the
tanks are at low level, thereby avoiding the problems of restarting with low level and
low discharge pressure.

Figure 36.

Cargo pump
3.4.1. Stripping or Spray Pumps
A stripping or spray pump are installed in each tank for cooling purposes and for
forced vaporization of LNG. Some old ships with spherical tanks have spray pumps in
Two tanks only.
The pumps are started and stopped from the CCR. In an emergency all pumps will be
stopped by activation of the Emergency Shut Down System trip.
The instances when these pumps can be used are:
- To cool down the liquid header prior to discharging,
To cool down the cargo tank during ballast voyage prior to arrival at the
loading
terminal by discharging LNG to the spray rails in the tanks,
- To pump LNG from the tanks to the forcing vaporizer or LNG Vaporizer

64

(emergency case) when forced vaporization of LNG in the boilers is required,


- To enable each cargo tank to be stripped as dry as possible for reasons such as
technical stop involving cargo tank entry.
Whenever possible the stripping or spray pump should be started early enough to
avoid possible starting problems due to very low tank levels (about 0.5 m minimum).
3.4.2. Emergency Cargo Pump
Each cargo tank, on membrane ships, is equipped with an emergency pump well or
column.
This pump well has a foot valve which is held in the closed position by highly loaded
springs.
Should a failure of either one or both main cargo pumps in one tank require the use of
the emergency pump, the emergency pump is lowered into the emergency pump well
after the well has been purged with nitrogen.
The weight of the emergency pump overcomes the compression of the springs to open
the foot valve.
A small flow of nitrogen should be maintained whilst the pump is being installed.

Nitrogen

cable

Weight

valve

springs

Figure 37.

Emergency pump lowering equipment

65

3.5. CARGO COMPRESSOR ROOM


Cargo compressor room is usually situated in the middle of the ship on starboard
side. Depending of ship design there usually are:
- two low duty (LD)gas compressors and one or two high duty(HD) gas
compressors,
- two boil-off gas heaters,
- LNG vaporizer,
- warm up heater,
- forcing vaporizer,
- vacuum pumps (membrane ships).
3.5. GAS HEATERS
There are two steam-heated boil-off/warm up heaters located in the cargo compressor
room. The heaters are tube type.
The heaters are used for the following functions:
-Heating the LNG vapor which is delivered by either of the HD compressors at the
specified temperature for warming up the cargo tanks before gas freeing,
-Heating inert gas supplied from inert gas generator for inerting operation and
warming up with inert gas,
-Heating boil-off gas supplied to the main boilers or venting to atmosphere via the LD
compressors (or free flow).
When returning heated vapor to the cargo tanks, the temperature at the heater outlet
should not exceed +85C, to avoid possible damage to the cargo piping insulation and
safety valves.
3.7. LNG VAPORIZER
The LNG vaporizer is used for:
- vaporizing LNG liquid, to provide gas when displacing inert gas from the
cargo tanks,
- for maintaining the pressure in the tanks when LNG is being discharged and
vapor is not supplied from shore,
- for initial inerting in the insulation spaces with N2,
- Discharging cargo at the design rate without the availability of a vapor return
from the shore.
Both LNG and forcing vaporizers are situated in the cargo compressor room.
If the shore is unable to supply vapor return, liquid LNG is fed to the vaporizer by
using one stripping pump or by bleeding from the liquid header. The vapor produced
leaves the vaporizer at approximately -140C and is then supplied to cargo tanks
through the vapor header. Vapor pressure in the cargo tanks will normally be
maintained at 1100 mbar abs. during the whole discharge operation. Additional vapor
is generated by the tank sprayer rings, the LNG being supplied by the stripping/spray

66

pump.
If the back pressure in the discharge piping to shore is not sufficient to have a
minimum of 300 mbar at the inlet to the vaporizer, a stripping/spray pump will be
used to supply liquid to the vaporizer.
Purging of cargo tanks with vapor after inerting with inert gas and prior to cool down.
LNG is supplied from the shore to the vaporizer via the stripping/spray line. The
vapor produced at the required temperature +20C is then passed to the cargo tanks.
The LNG vaporizer can function as the forcing vaporizer when the forcing vaporizer
has failed.
3.7.1. Forcing Vaporizer
The forcing vaporizer is used for vaporizing LNG liquid to provide gas for burning in
the boilers to supplement the natural boil off. Both the LNG and forcing vaporizers
are situated in the cargo compressor room.
The forcing vaporizer is used to supplement boil-off gas for fuel gas burning up to
105% of maximum continuous running (MCR).
The LNG is supplied by a stripping/spray pump. LNG flow is controlled by an
automatic inlet feed valve which receives its signal from the Boilers Gas Management
System.
Forcing vaporizer is equipped with a temperature control system to obtain a constant
and stable discharge temperature for various ranges of operation.
The temperature of the gas produced is adjusted by spraying a certain amount of
bypassed liquid into the outlet side of the vaporizer through a temperature control
valve and liquid injection nozzles.
3.8. COFFERDAM HEATING SYSTEM FOR MEMBRANE LNG CARRIERS
On LNG ships with membrane containment system exists system for cofferdam
heating by Glycol Water Heaters.
The glycol water heating system is usually located in the engine room or cargo
electric motor room. The system heats glycol water which is pumped around the
cofferdam system to maintain the temperature inside those spaces, when loaded, at
approximately +5c.
An additional circuit branched off the main and standby circuits circulate glycol
around each of the liquid domes.
The system comprises:
- two glycol water centrifugal circulating pumps,
- two steam heaters rated high and low steam demand regulating valves,
- standby electric glycol water heater 80kW,
- glycol expansion tank ,
- glycol storage tank and glycol mixing tank .

67

Expansion tank

Return line

To cofferdams

filter
glycol water supply line port side

pump 1
heater 1

cofferdam
TANK

pump 2

heater 2
glycol water supply line stbd side

Return line

Figure 38.
Cofferdam heating system

4. CARGO OPERATIONS
68

4.1. CARGO CONTROL ROOM


Cargo control room on LNG tankers usually is incorporated in superstructure or
situated on the deck above compressor room. In cargo control room there are all
control, communication and safety equipment. All operations for the loading of cargo
are controlled and monitored from the cargo control room. The loading of LNG cargo
and simultaneous de-ballasting are carried out in a sequence. During the loading
operations, communications must be maintained between the ship's CCR and the
terminal: telephone and signals for the automatic actuation of the Emergency
Shutdown from or to the ship.
New ships are equipped with automation integrated system. This Systems include:
-cargo and ballast operations,
-machinery and electric generation plant operations,
-some others independent control systems are interfaced with the Cargo or
Machinery Systems.
Cargo System is capable of control and monitoring of the cargo and ballast auxiliaries
and valves. Automatic sequence control logic programs are provided for each cargo
and ballast operation. Displays are composed of overviews, operational graphics,
monitoring graphics, operational guidance graphics and alarm displays.
Emergency shutdown (ESD), cargo tank protection, and machinery trip and safety
systems are totally independent from main system.
Independent systems are:
- Loading Computer,
- Custody Transfer System,
- Shipboard Management System.
User Stations (US) are interfaces to the main system. The realistic graphics operate in
Windows operational system , so operators can navigate easily between displays and
invoke new displays or other applications directly by clicking a button, or selecting
from a list.
US are located in:
- cargo control room,
- wheelhouse,
- engine control room.
Cargo operations include:
- aeration,
- inerting,
- gas filling,
- cooling down,
- loading,
- boil off gas burning,
- unloading,
- warming up,
- drying,
- one tank operations,
- emergency operations.

69

4.2. DRYING AND AEARATION


Prior to entry into the cargo tanks the inert gas must be replaced with air. The Inert
Gas and Dry-Air System produces dry air with a dew point of -45C.
The dry-air enters the cargo tanks through the vapor header, to the individual vapor
domes.
The inert gas and dry-air mixture is exhausted from the bottom of the tanks to the
atmosphere at vent mast by the tank filling pipes, the liquid header, and spool piece
During aerating, the pressure in the tanks must be kept low to maximize a piston
effect.
The operation is complete when all the tanks have a 20% oxygen value and a methane
content of less than 0.2% by volume, and a dew point below -40C.
Before entry, test for traces of noxious gases, carbon dioxide less than 0.5% by
volume, and carbon monoxide less than 50 ppm, which may have been constituents of
the inert gas. In addition, take appropriate precautions as given in the Tanker Safety
Guide and other relevant publications. Aeration carried out at sea as a continuation of
gas freeing will take approximately 20 hours.
Take precautions to avoid concentrations of inert gas or nitrogen in confined spaces,
which could be hazardous to personnel. Before entering any such areas, test for
sufficient oxygen and for traces of noxious gases.
4.3. INERTING
This operation is undertaken to ensure a non-flammable condition with the vapor of
the cargo. Inerting of the cargo tanks and piping system are performed before
preparation ship for commercial exploitation or before going to dry dock. In figure 39.
is shown inerting operation diagram.
Dry air from tank is displaced by inert gas by line OA until oxygen drop to about 4%.
Then gassing up operation can start by line AB.
The heated gas from the cargo tanks is replaced by inert gas by line CD until . Dry air
is accomplished by line D0.
In this operation it is important to use reasonable margins of safety since the precise
shape of flammable zone cannot be known for mixtures.

70

% gas
50

40

30

20

10

zone
of explosion

0
21

18

15

12

% oxygen

Figure 39.
Inerting operation diagram

4.3.1. Inert Gas and Dry Air Generator


The dry air and inert gas plant, installed in the engine room, produces dry air or inert
gas which is used for the tank and piping treatments prior to and after a dry docking
or an inspection period. The operating principle is based on the combustion of a low
sulphur content fuel and the cleaning and drying of the exhaust gases.
The inert gas plant includes an inert gas generator, a scrubbing tower unit, two
combustion-air blowers, a fuel injection unit, dryer unit of refrigeration type, a final
dryer unit (adsorption type) and an instrumentation and control system.
The connection to the cargo piping system is made through two non-return valves and
a spool piece.
Inert gas is produced by the combustion of oil with air, followed by further treatments
in order to obtain the required qualities and properties. Gas oil is supplied to the
combustion chamber by the fuel oil pump and air from the air blowers.

71

steam
air
Sea water
main
burner

INERT GAS GENERATOR

Washing

pilot
burner

regulator
inert gas to cargo

tower

tanks
dryer 1

Root

blowers

dryer 2
freon
Compressor

V - regeneration air fan


Z regeneration air heater

Figure 40.
Inert gas production plant
Good combustion is essential for the production of a good quality, soot free, low
oxygen inert gas.The products of the combustion are mainly carbon dioxide, water
and small quantities of oxygen, carbon monoxide, sulphur oxides and hydrogen. The
nitrogen content is generally unchanged during the combustion process and the inert
gas produced consists mainly of 86% nitrogen and 14% carbon dioxide.
Initially, the hot combustion gases produced are cooled indirectly in the combustion
chamber by a sea water jacket. Thereafter, cooling of the gases mainly occurs in the
scrubber section of the generator where the sulphur oxides are washed out. The sea
water for the inert gas generator is supplied by one of the ballast pumps.
Before delivery out of the generator, water droplets and trapped moisture are
separated from the inert gases by a demister. Further removal of water occurs in the
intermediate dryer stage, where the refrigeration unit cools the gas to a temperature of
about 5C. The bulk of the water in the gas condenses and is drained away with the
gas leaving this stage by demister. In the final stage, the water is removed by
absorption process in a dual vessel desiccant dryer.
The desiccant dryer units work on an automatic change over cycle, where the out of
line desiccant unit is first reactivated with warm dry air which has gone through the
reactivation dryer system.
A pressure control valve located at the outlet of the dryer unit maintains a constant
pressure throughout the system, thus ensuring a stable flame at the generator.
Dew point and oxygen content of the Inert Gas produced are permanently monitored.
The oxygen level controls the ratio of the air/fuel mixture supplied to the burner. The
oxygen content must be below 1 % by volume and the dew point of -45C. Both
parameters are displayed locally and remotely.
For delivery of inert gas to the cargo system, two combined remote air-operated
control valves operated through solenoid valves are fitted on the distribution system,
the purge valve and the delivery valve.
The inert gas generator can produce dry-air instead of inert gas with the same
72

capacity, however, for the production of dry air:


- there is no combustion in generator,
- there is no measure of oxygen content,
- the oxygen signal is overridden when the mode selector is on dry-air production.
After the processes of cooling and drying and, if the dew point is correct, the dry air is
supplied to the cargo system through the delivery valve.
The combustion air is supplied to the main burner by two 'roots' type blowers, each
supplying 50% of the total capacity of the generator. The quantity of combustion air
to the burner can be manually adjusted by a regulating valve in the excess air
discharge line. Fuel (Light Diesel Oil) is supplied at a constant pressure by the gas oil
electric pump which has a built-in pressure overflow valve.
Before ignition or start up of the unit, and with the pump running, all the fuel is
pumped back via this fuel oil overflow valve which also serves to regulate the
delivery pressure of the pump.
The main burner is ignited by a pilot burner. The main fuel oil burner is of the high
pressure atomizing type. The fuel is directed to the burner orifice through tangential
slots, which imparts a rotation motion ensuring that the fuel leaves the burner as a thin
rotating membrane which is atomized just after the nozzle.
Figure 41. show schematically inerting operation.

Vent mast
vent mast

Spool
piece

liquid line

gas line
Cooling line

vaporizer

gas
heater

TANK

pumps
gas
compressor

To boilers
inert gas

Figure 41.
Schematic diagram of cargo tanks inerting operation
4.4. GAS FILLING OF THE CARGO TANKS

73

After lay up or dry dock, the cargo tanks are filled with inert gas or nitrogen. If the
purging has been done with inert gas, the cargo tanks have to be purged and cooled
down when the vessel arrives at the loading terminal. This is because, unlike nitrogen,
inert gas contains 15% carbon dioxide (CO2), which will freeze at around -60C and
produces a white powder which can block valves, filters and nozzles.
During purging, the inert gas in the cargo tanks is replaced with warm LNG vapor.
This is done to remove any freezable gases such as carbon dioxide, and to complete
the drying of the tanks.
LNG liquid is supplied from the terminal to the liquid manifold. It is then fed to the
LNG vaporizer and the LNG vapor produced is passed at +20C to the vapor header
and into each tank.
The LNG vapor is lighter than the inert gas, which allows the inert gases in the cargo
tanks to be exhausted up the tank filling line to the liquid header. The inert gas then
vents to the atmosphere. This operation can be done without the compressors.
The operation is considered complete when the methane content, as measured at the
top of the cargo filling pipe, exceeds 80% by volume.
The target values for N2 gas and inert gas CO2 is equal or less than 1 %. These values
should be matched with the LNG terminal requirements.
This normally entails approximately two changes of the volume of the atmosphere in
the cargo tank.
Vent mast
spool
piece

Liquid line

vent mast

Gas line
Cool down line

vaporizer

gas
heater

TANK

pumps

gas
compressor To boilers
inert gas

Figure 42.
Gassing up operation

4.5. COOLING DOWN OF CARGO TANKS

74

After the cargo tanks has been purge-dried and gassed up, the headers and tanks must
be cooled down before loading can commence. The cool down operation follows
immediately after the completion of gas filling, using LNG supplied from the
terminal.
The rate of cool down is limited for the following reasons:
-to avoid excessive pump tower stress,
-vapor generation must remain within the capabilities of the compressors to maintain
the cargo tanks at normal working pressure,
-to remain within the capacity of the nitrogen system to maintain the primary and
secondary insulation spaces at the required pressures.
LNG is supplied from the terminal to the manifold cool down line and from there
directly to the spray header which is open to the cargo tanks. Once the cargo tank cool
down is nearing completion, the liquid manifold crossovers, liquid header and loading
lines are cooled down.
Cool down of the cargo tanks, on membrane ships, is considered complete when the
mean temperature s of -130C or lower.
Cool down of the spherical cargo tanks is considered complete when the mean
temperatures of equator is -125C or lower.
When these temperatures have been reached, and the custody transfer system (CTS)
registers the presence of liquid, bulk loading can begin. Vapor generated during the
cool down of the tanks is returned to the terminal by compressors (or free flow) and
the vapor manifold, as in the normal manner for loading.
During cool down, nitrogen flow to the primary and secondary spaces, on membrane
ships, and to annular space of spherical tanks will significantly increase. It is essential
that the rate of cool down is controlled so that it remains within the limits of the
nitrogen system to maintain the primary and secondary insulation space pressures
between 2 and 4 mbar. In annular space of spherical tanks pressure is set at 5 mbar.
Once cool down is completed and the build up to bulk loading has commenced, the
tank membrane will be at, or near to, liquid cargo temperature and it will take some
hours to establish fully cooled down temperature gradients through the insulation.
Consequently boil-off from the cargo will be higher than normal.
Cooling down the cargo tanks, on membrane ships, from +40C to -130C, will
require a total of about 800 m3 of LNG. Cooling rate is 12C per hour.
Maximum permissible cooling rate for spherical tanks is 8 C per hour for the first
100 C cool-down period and 4 C for the rest of period. In order to protect the tank
shell against high thermal stresses recommended temperature difference of tank,
equator and skirt must be respected.

75

Vent mast
Vent mast

spool
piece

Liquid line

Gas line
Cooling line

vaporizer

gas
heater

TANK

pumps

compressor

To boilers
Inert gas

Figure 43.
Cooling down operation
4.6. LOADING
The preoperational procedures must be discussed with the terminal operators. The
information exchange between terminal and ship is required and relevant check list
should be completed. ESD test must be carried out. (ESDS emergency shut down
system). LNG is taken through liquid line and directed into cargo tanks. Normally
when loading cargo, generated vapor is returned to the terminal by means of the
compressors or shore compressor. The pressure in the ship's vapor header is
maintained by adjusting the compressor flow. Ships tank pressure must be observed.
Loading rates should be reduced if difficulties are experienced in maintaining correct
tank pressure.
On membrane ships the pressurization system of the insulation spaces must be in
operation with its automatic pressure controls. The secondary Level Indicating system
should be maintained ready for operation. The temperature recording system and
alarms for the cargo tank barriers and double hull structure should be in continuous
operation.
The gas detection system and alarms must be in continuous operation.
On the end of loading operation loading rates must be reduced as previously agreed
with terminal in order to topping off tanks.
The liquid remaining in headers can be blown into the ships tanks by injecting
nitrogen into the loading arms.
The maximum allowable filling limits of cargo tanks are given and must be respected
without hesitation.

76

Vent mast
Vent mast

spool
piece

Liquid line

Gas line
Cooling line

vaporizer

gas
heater

TANK

pumps

compressor to boilers
inert gas

Figure 44.
Loading operation
4.7. LOADED PASSAGE, BOIL-OFF GAS BURNING
During a sea passage when the cargo tanks contain LNG, the boil-off from the tanks is
burned in the ship's boilers. The cargo tank boil-off gas enters the vapor header. It is
then directed to one of the compressors, which deliver the gas to the boil-off or
warm-up heater. The heated gas is delivered to the boilers at a temperature of +25C.
The compressors speed and inlet guide vane position is governed by fuel gas demand
from the boilers and cargo tank's pressure. The system is designed to burn all boil-off
gas normally produced by a full cargo and to maintain the cargo tank pressure at a
predetermined level.
If the propulsion plant steam consumption is not sufficient to burn the required
amount of boil-off, the tank pressure will increase and eventually the steam dump will
open, dumping steam directly to the main condenser. The main dump is designed to
dump sufficient steam to allow the boiler to use all the boil-off produced, even when
the ship is stopped.
The steam dump is designed to open when the normal boil-off value is 5% above the
original selected value and when the tank pressure has reached the pre-selected dump
operating pressure.

77

1
2

TANK

Gas heaters

gas
compressors

Compressor room
vent mast regulating valve

engine room
Port boiler

Stbd boiler

Figure 45.
Boil off to boilers
The cargo and gas burning piping system is arranged so that excess boil-off can be
vented should there be any inadvertent stopping of gas burning in the ship's boilers.
The automatic control valve vent the excess vapor to atmosphere.
If the gas header pressure falls to less than 40 mbar above the primary insulation
space pressure, an alarm will sound.
In the event of automatic or manual shut down of the gas burning system or if the
cargo tanks pressure falls to 5 mbar above the insulation space's pressure), valve will
close and the gas burning supply line to the engine room will be purged with nitrogen.
4.8. UNLOADING
When the ship arrives at the LNG receiving terminal and when ships and terminal
lines are connected preoperational tests can be carried out. Unloading operation
begins with one cargo pump and low rate to cool down ships and terminals lines.
Cooling down operation lasts about one hour when others pumps can be started and
unloading rate increased. Cargo centrifugal pumps should be started against partially
open valve in order to minimize starting load. Thereafter the discharge valve should
be open gradually until pump load is operating within design parameters.
Cargo discharging takes about 15 hours. All pumps run in parallel. The tank pressures
tend to fall as cargo is being removed from tanks. Vapors produced by remaining
cargo boil off are insufficient to balance the liquid removal rate. To maintain normal
tanks pressure the gas may be provided from terminal via main gas line or can be
produced by using the ship forced vaporizer. In second case liquid is taken from the
liquid line and diverted through the vaporizer.

78

Towards the end of discharging unloading rate should be reduced ( usually by


stopping one pump of each tank). On completion of cargo discharge liquid line must
be drained and manifold valve closed. Then terminal loading arms can be
disconnected from ships manifold.
From that moment ship takes care of tanks pressure by burning gas in ship propulsion
boilers.
I vent mast
vent mast

spool
piece

Liquid line

Gas line
Cooling line

vaporizer

gas
heater

TANK

pumps

gas
compressor

to boilers
Inert gas

Figure 46.

Unloading operation
4.9. BALLAST PASSAGE
On LNG carriers it is usual practice to retain some liquid in tanks after discharge.
This liquid is used to maintain tanks in cold condition in order to be ready for next
loading. Quantity of retained liquid depend of:
- size of the ship,
- type of cargo containment system,
- and of the length of voyage.
All LNG vessels, with spherical or membrane tanks, are equipped with spray cool
down pumps. The frequency of this operation is much more demanding on LNG
tankers with spherical cargo containment system in order to have equator temperature
at 125C what is required before loading operation .
A characteristic of the cargo tanks of the membrane type is that as long as some
quantity of LNG remains at the bottom of the tanks, the temperature at the top will
remain below -50C.
However, if the ballast voyage is too long, the lighter fractions of the liquid will
evaporate. Eventually most of the methane disappears and the liquid remaining in the
tanks at the end of the voyage is almost all LPG with a high temperature and a very

79

high specific gravity, which precludes pumping. Thus operator should consider heel
ageing for coolant when ballast voyage is too long
Due to the properties of the materials and to the design of the membrane cargo
containment, cooling down prior to loading is, theoretically, not required for the tanks.
However, to reduce the generation of vapor and to prevent any thermal shock on the
heavy structures, loading takes place when the tanks are in a 'cold state'.
The remaining liquid level of membrane tanks must never be above 10% of the length
of the tank and the quantities can be calculated by considering a boil-off of
approximately 45% of the boil-off rate under laden voyage condition and the need to
arrive at the loading port with a minimum layer of 10 cm of liquid spread over the
whole surface of the tank bottom (with the ship even keel).
Additional cool down should be carried out at the LNG terminal, when the cargo tank
temperature is higher than 130 C.
Maintain the cargo tanks at cold during the ballast voyage by periodically spraying
the LNG so that the average temperature inside the tanks does not exceed -130c.
It is obvious that spraying will generate more boil-off than without tanks cooling
down. The quantity of LNG to be retained on board will have to be calculated with
enough margin to avoid the situation at mid-voyage where the residual is too heavy
for the pump to operate. If conservation of bunkers is requested it is essential to
ensure as much boil-off gas as possible to supply boiler fuel demand, thus keeping
fuel oil consumption to a minimum.
4.10. TANKS WARMING UP
Tank warm up is part of the gas freeing operations carried out prior to a dry docking
or when preparing tanks for inspection purposes.
The tanks are warmed up by heated LNG vapor. The vapor is recirculated with the
compressors and heated with the cargo heaters to 70C.
In a first step, hot vapor is introduced through the filling lines to the bottom of the
tanks to facilitate the evaporation of any liquid remaining in the tanks. In a second
step, when the temperatures have a tendency to stabilize, hot vapor is introduced
through the vapor piping at the top of the tanks. Excess vapor generated during the
warm up operation is vented to atmosphere when at sea, or burning in the boiler.
The warm up operation continues until the temperature at the coldest point of the
secondary barrier of each tank reaches 5C.
The warm up operation requires a period of time dependent on both the amount and
the composition of liquid remaining in the tanks and the temperature of the tanks and
insulation spaces. Generally, the warm up will require about 48 hours after vaporizing
the remaining liquid.
Initially, the tank temperatures will rise slowly as evaporation of the LNG
Rolling and pitching of the vessel will assist evaporation.
Gas burning should continue as long as tank pressures start to fall.

80

vent mast
spool
piece

Liquid line

Vent mast

Gas line
Cooling line

vaporizer

gas
heater

TANK
pumps

compressor

to
boilers

Figure 47.

Warming up operation diagram


4.11. ONE TANK OPERATION
It may be necessary for in-tank repairs to be carried out with the vessel in service.
Then tank need to be warmed up, inerted, aerated, entered and work undertaken on
the tank internals, change cargo pump, investigate and cure problems with tank
gauging systems etc. The warm up, inerting and aeration can be carried out with the
remaining cold tanks providing boil-off gas for burning in the boilers.
Aeration should be continued throughout the repair period to prevent ingress of humid
air to the cargo tank.
Tank venting is carried out by means of the gas header line. At the discharge port, the
tank to be discharged to the lowest measurable level. Normal gas burning is
continued during this operation using vapor from all four tanks. In the first instance,
normal boil-off gas procedures are followed until this operation has stabilized, then
the operation for warming up one tank using a compressor can be carried out.
Normal gas burning is continued during this operation using vapor from others tanks.
Inert gas is supplied to the tank by the Inert Gas plant. Dry air is introduced at the
bottom of the tank through the filling piping. The air is displaced from the vapor
dome into the gas header by the fitted spool piece and is discharged from vent mast.

81

4.12. NITROGEN DISTRIBUTION


Membrane systems
The primary and secondary insulation spaces are filled with dry nitrogen gas which is
automatically maintained by alternate relief and make-up valves as the atmospheric
pressure or the temperature rises and falls, under a pressure of between 2 mbar and 4
mbar above atmospheric.
The nitrogen provides a dry and inert medium for the following purposes:
-to prevent formation of a flammable mixture in the event of an LNG leak,
-to permit easy detection of an LNG leak through a barrier,
-to prevent corrosion.
Both primary and secondary insulation spaces of each tank are provided with a pair of
pressure relief valves which open at a pressure, sensed in each space, of 10 mbar
above atmospheric.
Nitrogen produced by generators and stored in a pressurized buffer tank, is supplied to
the pressurization headers through make-up regulating valves.
From the headers, branches are led to the insulation spaces of each tank. Excess
nitrogen is vented through exhaust pressure control valves to vent mast from the
primary and secondary insulation spaces.
Two nitrogen generators, installed in the engine room, produce gaseous nitrogen
which is used:
- for the pressurization of the barrier insulation spaces,
- as seal gas for the HD and LD compressors,
- fire extinguishing in the vent mast and,
- for purging the fuel gas system and various parts of the cargo piping.
The two high capacity units are able to produce 240 m3h of nitrogen.
The operating principle is based on the hollow fibre membranes through which
compressed air flows and is separated into oxygen and nitrogen. The oxygen is vented
to the atmosphere and the nitrogen stored in a about 30 m3 buffer tank ready for use.
The each units consists:
- screw compressor, cooled from fresh water cooling system,
- single stage air/water separator,
- three air filters arranged in series,
- electric heater, before passing into the membrane units,
- an oxygen analyzer, after the membrane, monitors the oxygen content, and if
out of range, above 4%, redirects the flow to the atmosphere.

82

vent
heater

water separator

air filters

Buffer
tank
3.5 bar

Nitrogen
generator 1

Air Compressors
O2 analyser

water separator

Nitrogen
generator 2
heater
air filters

Figure 48.

Nitrogen generator system


On the older generation of LNG vessels nitrogen is stored as liquid in double shell
tank and vacuum and perlite insulated. This nitrogen storage usually include one or
two storage tanks with vaporizer and heater. Vaporized and heated nitrogen is
distributed to above mentioned consumers.
To boilers
To others tanks

Nitrogen line 3 bar


Measuring line

Line to insulating spaces

To gas compressors

heater
Liquid nitrogen tank

TANK 4

TANK 5

vaporizer

Figure 49.
Liquid nitrogen system
LNG tanker of 125 000 m3 capacity, has N2 storage tank of 70m3. Tank pressure is 3
bars, liquid temperature is 196 C. Tank is double wall container with insulation in
83

between. Insulation is additionally improved with vacuum. Nitrogen evaporation


coefficient is 0.3% per day. Nitrogen storage control box contains: pressure control
valve, level and pressure gauging. When pressure in tank drop bellow service
pressure regulating valve open. Liquid pass through vaporizer and increase pressure
in tank. Before delivery to consumers nitrogen pass through heater. Nitrogen leaving
the heater has temperature of 15 C.
4.13. EMERGENCY OPERATION
4.13.1.Emergency Cargo Pump Installation
In the event that both main pumps have failed in a cargo tank on membrane ships the
emergency cargo pump is used. The pump is lowered into the emergency cargo pump
column for that tank. Cables and a connection to the local junction box are used to
power the pump. The pump, when lowered to its final position, opens the foot valve in
the column and the LNG can be pumped out. The pump discharges into the column
and to the liquid line.
When all equipment, pump, cables, electrical connection box and accessories are in
position near the tank in which the pump is to be installed, prepare the derrick to lift
the pump and start the pump installation. The cargo tank will inevitably contain LNG,
therefore the column into which the emergency pump is being lowered must be
evacuated. This is achieved by injecting nitrogen into the column. In the case of a full
cargo tank, a pressure of between 20 and 30 mbar is required. The nitrogen forces the
liquid out through the foot valve located at the bottom of the column.
In the case of cargo pumps failing on a spherical tanks, the unloading can be carried
out by pressurizing the tank and forcing the liquid into one or more others tanks.
Spray pump can be used to create the pressure that is required for the unloading.
4.13.2.Water Leakage to Barrier, Inner Hull failure
Ballast water leakage from the wing tanks to the insulation spaces can occur through
fractures in the inner hull plating. If the leakage remains undetected and water
accumulates in these spaces ice will be formed. Ice accumulation can cause
deformation and possible rupture, of the insulation. The resultant cold conduction
paths forming in the insulation will cause cold spots to form on the inner hull.
The pressure differential caused by the head of water building up in the insulation
space may be sufficient to deform or even collapse the membrane into the cargo tank.
To reduce the risk of damage from leakage, each cargo insulation space has been
provided with water detection units. At the bottom of cofferdams there is a bilge well
for each tank insulating space. Each of these wells is fitted with water detection units.
Each detector is of the conductivity cell type, which causes a change in resistance due
to the presence of humidity from the ingress of sea water and activates an alarm. The
bilge well serves as the inlet for the nitrogen supply pipe to the insulation space. This
supply pipe also acts as a manual sounding pipe to the bilge well.
Each bilge well is connected to draining pipe system with a pneumatic pump situated
in the forward and aft pipe duct for discharging the water to deck level and then
overboard by means of a flexible hose.
After the maximum possible water has been discharged from this insulation space,
appreciable moisture will remain in the insulation and over the bottom area.
84

Increasing the flow of nitrogen through the space can assist drying out the insulation.
This should be continued until the moisture level is below that detected by the water
detection system before any cargo is carried in the affected tank.

4.13.3. Gas Leakage Detection


Fatigue fractures in the primary insulation membrane are generally small and will
pass either vapor only, or a sufficiently small amount of liquid, which will vaporize as
it passes through the fracture.
It is possible, however, that a larger failure of the membrane could occur, allowing
liquid to pass through and eventually gather at the bottom of the primary insulation
space.
A small leakage of vapor through the membrane may not be readily obvious.
However, indications are likely to be a sudden rise in the percentage of methane vapor
in one primary insulation space. Some porosity in the primary barrier weld will allow
the presence of methane vapor in the primary insulation space. The amount of this
vapor should be kept to a minimum by the nitrogen purging.
If a fracture occurs in the primary insulation barrier below the level of the liquid in the
tank, the vapor concentration will increase slowly and steadily.
If the fracture is above the liquid level, the concentration will exhibit a fluctuating
increase. The vapor concentration in each primary insulation space is recorded daily,
to detect any small and steady change.
A fracture above the liquid level in a cargo tank will allow a direct flow of vapor into
the primary insulation space what will cause increase in pressure in primary
insulation space. This flow will vary according to the pressure in the tank.
A fracture below the liquid level in a cargo tank, resulting in a small amount of liquid
vaporizing as it passes through the fracture, will cause a small increase in pressure
This increase is dependent upon the height of liquid above the fracture and the
pressure in the tank.
No temperature change will be obvious, unless the fracture is in the immediate
vicinity of the sensors below the cargo tank.
Leakage of methane vapor into the primary insulation space presents no immediate
danger to the tank or vessel. As much information as possible concerning the fracture
and leak should be obtained and recorded.
4.13.4. Liquid Leakage
A major failure in the primary membrane, allowing liquid into the primary insulation
space, will be indicated as follows:
- rapid increase in the methane content of the affected space,
- rise in pressure in the primary insulation space nitrogen header, accompanied
by continuous increased venting to atmosphere,
- low temperature alarms at all temperature sensors in the insulation below the
damaged cargo tank,
- general lowering of inner hull steel temperatures.

85

If a major failure of the membrane occurs, liquid from the tank will flow into the
primary insulation space until the levels in both compartments are equal. When the
contents of the cargo tank are discharged, unless the LNG in the primary insulation
space can drain sufficiently quickly to the cargo tank, a differential liquid head will
build up, tending to collapse the membrane of the tank.
Before discharging a tank with major failure in the primary membrane, it is essential
that the primary membrane is punched so that liquid can freely flow back into the tank
from the primary insulation space. In this way no hydrostatic head occurs in the
primary insulation space which could cause damage to the primary membrane
support. The punching device is a 30 kg messenger which is dropped down the float
gauge tube so as to punch a hole in the primary membrane at the base.
The base of the float gauge tube is fitted with a split perforated base to allow the
messenger to penetrate through to the membrane. The membrane is fitted with a thin
diaphragm and the plywood insulation boxes are thinner than normal to allow the
messenger to penetrate fully.

5. CUSTODY TRANSFER SYSTEM AND CARGO MEASURING


EQUIPMENT
All LNG vessels are equipped with custody transfer system which consists of a
calibrated and approved cargo measurement equipment including data logging and
calculation facilities. For safe cargo handling and for commercial reasons following
measurements are usual on LNG tankers:
- level measurement,
- temperature measurement,
- pressure measurement.
The volume, density, gross calorific value and energy transferred are calculate on
basis of previous measurements and chemical composition of gas.
LNG trading differs from other liquefied gas trading in several aspects in regard cargo
quantification. Natural gas trade usually is long-term project. The boil off during
loaded and ballast voyage is used as fuel for propulsion plant. Usually a quantity of
LNG remains on board to keep the tanks cold.
Commercial cargo quantification, sometimes depends of particular project
circumstances and contract agreements, is usually on the basis of cargo energy
delivered.
The energy transferred (E) from the terminal to LNG vessel or from LNG vessel to
unloading terminal is
E = ( V d GCV) E gas displaced
E energy [kJ] or [MMBTU]
V - volume of LNG loaded or unloaded [m3]
d density of LNG [kg/m3]
GCV gross calorific value of LNG [kJ/kg] or [MMBTU/kg]
E gas displaced energy of vapor which is sent onshore when loading or received when

86

loading

5.1. LEVEL MEASUREMENT


There are three main level gauges methods:
- radar type,
- capacitance, and
- float gauge.
5.1.1 Radar type gauge
New ships are equipped with Tank radar type systems. The system normally consists
of workstations, level unit, communications interfaces, temperature and pressure
sensors.
Non contact level gauging with radar is achieved by transmitters emitting radar waves
toward surfaces of the LNG. The reflected signal is received and processed
electronically. The incoming signal is compared with the outgoing signal. The
difference between these two signals is low frequency signal. Its frequency is directly
proportional to the distance from the transmitter to the surface of LNG. This is
frequency modulated frequency wave. With this method is possible to achieve a very
high accuracy.

antenna
Radar
Frequency

difference in frequency
Transmitted
Signal

reflected
signal

Time

Figure 50.
The radar level measurement principle
The difference in frequency between the transmitted signal and reflected signal is
directly proportional to the ullage.
5.1.2. Capacitance level gauge
The gauge consists of two concentric aluminum tubes. Assembly forms a series of
cylindrical capacitors, having the total height as the cargo tank.

87

signal line

Junction box

capacitance

control room

computer

tube
display

TANK

Figure 51.

Capacitance level gauge system


The liquid will fill the space between the concentric tubes, affecting the dielectric
characteristics such that, by measuring the change in capacitance, level in tank can be
determined.
5.1.3. Float level gauge
The cargo tanks are provided with secondary level measurement system for the event
of failure of radar measurement. Float level gauge system consists of:
- float well installed vertically within cargo pump tower,
- float assembly,
- perforated wire or tape,
- gauge head including mechanical local read out and electronic transmitter to
remote level reading,
- isolating valve and float inspection chamber,
- remote level indicator fitted in cargo control room.
To reduce risk of tape failure the floats should be stowed all the times except when
taking sounding.

88

counter

springs

drum

perforated tape

floater

Figure 52.
Float level gauge
5.2 TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT
The temperature of LNG and vapor in the cargo tanks is measured by the platinum
resistance temperature sensors. These probes are usually provided at different levels
in the tanks. It is important that all these temperature readings are taken in account.
Temperature measurement is very important for determination of LNG density and
cargo quantification.
There are usually five per tank. The sensors are tested and calibrated regularly.
5.3. PRESSURE MEASUREMENT
The LNG cargo tanks pressure measurements is provided by pressure transmitters and
local and remote gauging.
5.4. VOLUME CALCULATION
The natural liquefied gas is transported at boiling point in equilibrium with vapor in
closed containment system. This method of transport involves somewhat more
complicated measurement and calculations than is in case of other bulk liquids.
The method of measuring volume is based on LNG carriers level gauges and
calibration tables, including trim and list corrections. Determination of the volume
transferred requires measurements of the ships tanks content before and after loading
and unloading. The difference between represent the volume of liquid transferred.
5.5. DENSITY
The density is determined by laboratory calculation from composition of LNG and the
temperature of LNG from measurement in the ships tanks.
89

There are a variety of density calculation methods. Density calculation from analysis
of liquid composition is the most accurate method and is used in modern terminals.
5.6. GROSS CALORIFIC VALUE (GCV)
GCV of gas corresponds to the quantity of heat produced by complete combustion in
air of a unit of volume or mass of the gas at a constant absolute pressure. The method
of determination of the calorific value is by computation on the basis of the
composition of gas and the reference data.
5.7 SAMPLING OF LNG
In order to determine the quality of the LNG it is sampled at ship manifold. The
sampling system can be continuous and discontinuous sampling.
The continuous sampling process involve collecting of LNG during whole loading or
unloading operation.
The discontinuous sampling process involve collecting of LNG at regular intervals.
5.8.

GAS DETECTION

There are two means of gas detection on LNG ships, that covers all the cargo,
machinery and accommodation spaces. These systems are:
- The infrared gas analyzer system monitors the cargo areas,
- Gas detection by catalytic combustion method
for
the machinery,
accommodation and forward area.
5.8.1. INFRARED GAS ANALYZER SYSTEM
This system is used for gas detection in the insulating spaces of membrane cargo
containment system. The principle of operation of the analyzer is based on the
infrared absorption characteristics of methane gas. Samples for analysis from
insulating spaces what is mostly a mixture of methane and nitrogen, are drawn from
sample points to control unit by small vacuum pumps.
In order to ensure a proper sample, from a space, each sample line has two way
solenoids, which are operated sequentially by the control unit. One of the sample lines
is connected to the sampling pump , while the other line is connected to the bypass
line pump. The bypass line pump discharges the samples not being analyzed directly
to atmosphere, while the sampling pump discharges the gas through the analyzing unit
before being discharged to atmosphere. As each point is being analyzed the
corresponding indicator lights up, each point is analyzed for approximately 60
seconds.
The analyzer works on the principle that infrared light is absorbed by the methane
gas. Methane gas has a distinctive absorption band in the infrared spectrum. Therefore
if a sample of gas is compared against a reference sample of air, the difference in out
put from an infrared sensor will be in proportion to the gas concentration.
When the methane concentration of any sample point reaches preset limits an audible
alarm is sounded in the main panel in the cargo control room (CCR) and the
corresponding indicator lamp is lit.

90

5.8.2. CATALYTIC COMBUSTION ANALYSER SYSTEM


This system consists of:
- sensing heads or detectors,
- alarm indicating units.
The system monitors the atmosphere continuously at the points where sensing heads
are fitted, and detect presence of any combustible gas. The sensors provide electrical
outputs, proportional to the amount of gas present, to alarm and indicating units in
cargo control room, engine control room and wheelhouse.
Gas is detected by detector which consists of two platinum wires. One wire is
cathalizator and other one is compensator to compensate changes because of
temperature and humidity. The contact gas and wire produce egzoterm reaction .
This reaction produce the temperature change of the wire and so the resistance of
wire.The resistance change is proportional of the gas concentration.
The detectors are usually distributed as follows:
- engine room,
- gas compressor room,
- accommodation entrance,
- bow- thruster area.

6. FIRE FIGHTING SYSTEM


SOLAS contains rules for firefighting equipment on LNG Carriers. Requirements
for firefighting equipment on LNG ships are described in chapter XI Code For The
Construction And Equipment Of Ships Carrying gases In Bulk edited by IMO.
Firefighting equipment can be divided to:
- equipment for fire detection,
- equipment for fire extinguishing.
6.1. FIRE DETECTION EQUIPMENT
Main purpose of fire detectors is to detect and signalize the fire in time as short as
possible. The fire detectors can be divided on:
- heat effect detectors,
- flame detectors,
- smoke detectors.
6.2. FIRE EXTINGUISHING EQUIPMENT
6.2.1. Main Fire Sea Water System
Advantage of this system are unlimited quantity of sea water for extinguishing and
possibility of cooling down of fire area. The fire main system is supplied from the
engine room, by fire and general service pumps. They are single speed centrifugal
pumps, with a delivery capacity of 120 m3/h at 10 bar.
The emergency fire pump can be located in the steering gear or forward compartment
91

This pump is a self-priming centrifugal pump with its own direct sea suction. The
pump is supplied from the emergency switchboard. The emergency fire pump can be
started locally, from the bridge or the fire station.
The fire main also serves the water curtain below the port and starboard manifold
areas during loading and unloading conditions.
There are fire hydrants situated along the cargo deck, each with its fire hose mounted
adjacent. Under normal operating conditions the fire main will be under pressure
during port time, supplying the manifold water curtain and with hoses run out as a fire
precaution.
6.2.2.Water Spray System
The accommodation, compressor room, cargo tank liquid and vapor domes and
manifold areas are protected by water spray from the effects of fire, gas leakage, or
liquid spill. Usually there is a high capacity spray pump, mounted in the engine room,
delivering water to accommodation front, lifeboat embarkation areas port and
starboard, compressor house sides and deck manifolds.
6.2.3. Dry Powder System
This system consisting of:
- tank units supplying,
- monitors port and starboard,
- hand hose nozzles, forward and aft,
- sodium bicarbonate with anti-caking agent,
- line hose (33m).
Discharge time is 60 seconds with 1 monitor and 4 hoses in operation at their
specified discharge rates, this is for each dry powder tank
Monitor System comprises two tanks containing the sodium bicarbarbonate connected
to a battery of N2 cylinders which are operated from either the cargo control room,
the fire control station or locally.
The monitors are situated aft of the cargo discharge manifold and aligned to face and
cover the liquid and vapor lines and valves at either the port or starboard manifold.
Hand Hose System comprises two tanks containing the dry powder feeding four hose
reels each. Operation is the same as for the monitors.
6.2.4. CO2 system
The CO2 flooding system consists of high pressure cylinders. These are contained in
the CO2, room, situated on the upper deck.
The deck CO2 system covers the following areas:
- Cargo machinery room,
- Electric motors room,
- Forward pump room,
- Em'cy Gen. Room,
- Paint store,

92

Incinerator room.

The engine room CO2, system covers the following areas:


- Engine room,
- MSBD room,
- Purifier room.
Flooding the protected areas is achieved by the operation of the ball valves from their
respective cabinets in the fire control station, or CO2 room, and the release of the pilot
CO2 cylinders. Upon opening the control cabinet door, the CO2 alarm is activated and
the ventilation fans for that area are stopped. The pilot gas is directed by the operation
of the respective ball valve, onto the gang release line (having first operated the time
delay switch down stream of the HP cylinders) and master valve for the selected area.

7. PROPULSION PLANT ON LNG CARRIERS


The steam turbine plant has been adapted to most LNG carriers. The reasons why
LNG carriers use steam propulsion plant with steam turbines and boilers are:
- Ability to burn boil-off gas from the cargo,
- Reliability of gas burning in the steam boilers,
- Propulsion plant redundancy with 2 boilers and 2 turbines,
- Use of steam energy for both propulsion and electrical power production,
- Ability to burn boil-off when main propulsion is stopped,
- Long exploitation life of the propulsion plant,
- Possibility to burn gas only so became air friendly ships and comply with
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more and more strict requirements in regard of air pollution,


No lube oil consumption,
No important spare parts consumption for the main turbines, main boilers and
turbo generators.

In regard on above mentioned reasons none of the alternative solutions proposed


during the last decades has been able to convince owners to change their technology.
However, the steam plant efficiency, about 30% compared to 45-50% for diesel
engines, make diesel engine propulsion to be considered as alternative.
Burning gas only future propulsion plants solutions means that a extra amount of
LNG cargo will be used for propulsion. However this amount can be taken into
account when designing the ship. Ship displacement shall not be increased as LNG
fuel with high calorific value will be used instead of HFO.
7.1. STEAM PROPULSION PLANT
LNG ships use steam propulsion plants with steam boilers and steam turbines
because it is easiest way to burn evaporated gas from cargo tanks and so no need to
install expensive installation for re-liquefaction of boil-off. These steam plants differ
from classical steam plant since have:
- Main boiler gas burning equipment,
- Damping system for excess of steam produced by gas burning.
Here will be presented steam plant with power of 26000 kW used on LNG ships with
capacity of 138000 m3.
The steam requirements for the vessel are generated within the two main boilers. The
steam flow of 49 T/h per each boiler.
The steam from main boilers by a common line supplies the main turbine. Each boiler
by manifold line supplies the main boiler feed water pumps and both turbo generators.
The circuit is designed to supply the auxiliary machinery from either side of the
manifold, giving greater flexibility for maintenance. Warming through by pass valves
are provided at all the principal stop valves.
Steam from the super heater outlet is led to the internal desuperheater which is
distributed to the various steam service.

94

Port boiler

Stbd boiler

Po

Main steam collector 60 bar


To dump system
To collector 13 bar
Main throttle valves

Turbo feed pump 2

Turbo feed pump 1


Astern turbine

Turbo generator 2

Turbo generator 1
Low pressure turbine

High pressure turbine

Figure 53.
Superheated steam distribution
The main propulsion unit consists of one high pressure turbine, one low pressure
turbine including astern turbine, condenser, maneuvering valve unit and reduction
gear. Steam from the maneuvering valve is admitted to the high pressure turbine
through the nozzles. The turbine glands are steam sealed, and the seal is spring backed
labyrinth type. The high pressure turbine is of impulse type.
The astern turbine is located at the exhaust end of the low pressure turbine, and
consists of two curtis stages. The astern turbine casing is separated from the low
pressure turbine casing and arranged to protect from excessive heat when the astern
turbine is in operation. Satellite pieces are brazed on the last two stage blades of the
low pressure turbine in order to prevent from damage by wet steam.
The maneuvering valve consists of an ahead throttle valve, an astern throttle valve and
a hydraulic cylinder which are mounted on the same girder of HP turbine. Throttle
valves are actuated by the hydraulic cylinder. The mechanical gear is arranged for an
emergency operation of throttle valves on failure of the hydraulic system. The main
reduction gear is double reduction type.
Turning gear installed on the after-side of HP 1st reduction upper casing is planetary
gear type.
The main condenser is straight tube, surface cooling type arranged for single pass of
circulating water and provided with an air cooling section and condensate hot well.
The tubes are expanded into the tube plate at both ends.
Generator turbine exhaust steam line, steam dump line and auxiliary exhaust spill line
are connected to the main condenser.
Protection steel plates are provided to protect condenser tube plate from corroding.
95

Figure 54.
Main engine of steam propulsion plant
Steam generation usually consists of two drum water tube type marine boiler with oil
and gas combination burners located in the furnace roof. The unit is composed of a
steam drum and a water drum connected by a bank of inclined generating tubes. In
this welded wall construction the tubes form a gas-tight envelop three side of the
furnace. A superheater, internal-desupetheater, a superheated steam control
desuperheater, the economizer, steam air heater casing include the remaining principal
components of construction. Since fuel and gas burners, are located in the furnace
roof, the gas flow from the furnace is evenly distributed across the front bank, super
heater, and generating banks, discharging trough the economizer located at uptake of
boiler.
Steam generated in the boiler tubes enters the steam drum where it is forced to pass
through a baffle located at the normal water-level before entering the upper part of
steam drum. Before leaving the boiler through the outlet nozzle the steam must pass
through the dry box located at the top of the drum. Water cooled walls are provided by
lining the furnace side, floor and roof with a single row of tubes, and front and rear
with a single row of tubes. External down-comers provide circulation to water drum,
bottom header and front & rear water wall headers. The water cooled floor consists of
tubes traversing the furnace floor from the bottom header, then bending to form the
furnace side and roof, which terminates in the steam drum. Furnace front and rear
wall tubes arranged from the lower to the upper water ,wall headers cover front and
rear furnace walls. Upper front and rear water wall headers are connected to the
steam drum by riser pipe. Because water wall are jointed to their adjacent tubes in a
welded wall construction, they form a gas tight envelops lining the furnace.
Saddles are provided under the water drum and front and rear water wall headers to
support the weight of boiler. Rear saddle under the water drum is fixed and the front
saddle has fittings to allow easy movement and lubrication. The grooved saddles are
free to slide to allow for expansion of the boiler.
The multi loop superheater elements can arranged as vertical or horizontal.
The vertical superheater, convection type, is arranged for multipass steam flow.
Superheater elements are arranged in groups of six concentric hair pair pin loop
elements, the end of which are welded into the inlet outlet headers and intermediate
headers. The superheated steam temperature control system is provided to maintain
the superheated steam temperature at 515C. A part of steam leaving the four pass of
superheater is directed to the temperature control desuperheater and lowered its
temperature mixed with the steam flowing the by pass line thence enters the five pass
of the superheater.
The multi -loop superheater, horizontal type, elements are arranged in line with
primary(upper) and secondary( lower) pass. The steam flow in primary pass is

96

counterflow, that in the secondary pass is parallel to the gas stream. The final steam
temperature is controlled by attemperation between the superheater primary and
secondary passes. A proportion of the steam flow from the primary pass is diverted
through desuperheater, located in steam drum. The desuperheated steam is mixed,
before entry into secondary pass, with remainder of the steam flow which has bypassed the desuperheater.
Economizer elements are straight carbon steel tubes with spiral steel fin connected by
U bends forming internal loop.
Figure 55.
Steam boiler
7.1.1. BOILER FUEL OIL SYSTEM
Fuel oil is normally supplied to the three burners of each boiler by one of the two fuel
oil service pumps. Diesel oil may be used for flushing through lines or for flashing the
boilers from cold when no heating steam is available.
The system pressure is controlled by a recirculation valve which allows oil to
recirculate to the suction side of the pumps, and maintains a constant set pressure. The
pressure is set as part of the automatic combustion control system.
At each burner there are three solenoid-operated valves. When the burner operation is
initiated, the first valve closes, stopping fuel from passing through the recirculation
line to the pump suctions. The other two valves open, allowing fuel into the burner.
These last two form a double shut off when the burner is not in use. Also fitted to the
line is another solenoid operated valve which opens for a set time when the burner is
first taken out of use, and allows steam to pass through the burner, preventing any fuel
in the line from turning to carbon and blocking the burner.
7.1.2. BOILER FUEL GAS SERVICE SYSTEM
The boil off gas system enables fuel gas to be supplied to the boilers. The boilers are
equipped with three sets of fuel oil and gas combination burners to allow burning fuel
oil, fuel gas and fuel oil/fuel gas combination mode.
The gas is produced by three different methods; first by natural boil-off during the
voyage, secondly from boil-off produced by spraying during cargo tank cooling down
during ballast passage, and lastly by forcing boil-off using a forcing vaporizer in
conjunction with either of the first two methods.
The gas is supplied to the boilers from cargo tanks by the following equipment:
- low duty compressor,
- two steam-heated boil-off warm-up heaters,
- one steam heated forcing vaporizer.
Master gas valve isolate engine room gas burning system from cargo part in case of
emergency situations such as Emergency Shut Down System (ESDS) activate.
Boiler gas valve shut-off fuel gas supply in an emergency situation of each boiler
and to secure boiler from gas burning entirely. The following safety devices stop gas

97

burning:
- non operation one of two hoods extraction fans,
- flame failure,
- low gas pressure,
- maximum steam output,
- gas detection,
- fuel oil low pressure,
- closure of fuel oil valve,
- closure of the air register,
- atomizer steam low pressure,
- emergency stop.
Burner gas valves control the operating burner numbers during gas burning.
According to the boiler load, the burner gas valves shall be operated to increase or
decrease the operating gas burner numbers automatically or manually.
Gas flow control valve is operating to control gas flow by fuel demand signal from
boiler .
Upon closure of the gas supply valves, each gas line is automatically N 2 purged
internally. Also, master gas line and boiler gas header line can be manually given
master N2 purging or gas header N2 purging if the master gas valve and boiler gas
valve are in the closure position.

Nitrogen

Methane

To vent mast

N2

N1

N3

N3

N1

N2

FO and gas Burners


Port boiler

Starboard boiler

Figure 56.
Gas distribution to boilers
Gas normally taken from the vapor header, is compressed by compressor trough boiloff/warm-up heater before being delivered to the boilers.
The gas management system includes:
98

- compressor control,
- tank pressure control ,
- vent mast control,
- forcing vaporizer control,
- steam dump control.
The compressor's capacity control is dependent on the boiler fuel gas control valve
position and the vapor header pressure. The compressor capacity is controlled by inlet
guide vanes position and motor speed.
In the event of automatic or manual shut down of the gas burning system will close
gas valves and the gas burning supply line to the engine room will be purged with
nitrogen.
If need the forced vaporization will be used to complement gas burning up to 100% of
the boiler's fuel requirement. The normal gas burning arrangement is maintained and
the forcing vaporizer is brought into operation.
A spray pump is used to pump LNG to the forcing vaporizer. The excess flow from
the pump is returned to the tank. In normal operation the controlled return is directed
back to the same tank where the liquid is being drawn from.
After vaporization, the LNG vapor produced passes through the demister where the
possibility of liquid LNG carryover is eliminated. The vapor then combines with the
natural boil-off gas from the vapor header before being drawn into the suction of the
compressors.
The flow of gas through the compressors is controlled via the boiler combustion
control unit by adjusting the opening of the inlet guide vanes or compressor speed.
The boiler combustion control has to be switched to Forced Boil-off (FBO) mode.
The amount of forced boil-off to be produced is controlled by the throttling to the
forcing vaporizer operated by the Boiler Combustion Control.
When changing over to 100% gas burning, the fuel oil flow through the FO rails is
adjusted to minimum. The FO supply to the burners will then be cut out and the FO
system put on re-circulation. The FO combustion control loops are maintained
energized to enable re-lighting of FO burners in an emergency.
7.1.3. STEAM DUMP SYSTEM
If the propulsion plant steam consumption is not sufficient to burn the required
amount of boil-off, the tank pressure will increase and the steam dump will open,
dumping steam directly to the main condenser. The main dump is designed to dump
excess of steam to allow the boiler to use all the boil-off produced, even when the
ship is stopped.
The normal boil-off in the boiler combustion control has to be selected as well as the
maximum and minimum allowed tank pressures and the tank pressure at which the
main dump operates.
If the tank pressure continues to increase because the steam consumption is not
sufficient to burn all the required boil-off, the steam dump will open.
The steam dump is designed to open when the normal boil-off valve is 5% above the
original selected value and when the tank pressure has reached the pre selected dump
operating pressure.
The main boilers burn excess boil-off gas which is produced from the cargo. If the

99

boil-off gas produced exceeds the requirements for normal steam production, then the
steam production is increased and the excess steam produced is dumped to the main
condenser or atmospheric condenser via the main dump external desuperheaters. The
spray water for the desuperheater sprays are supplied from the discharge of main
condensate and the drain pump.
Desuperheaters can discharge to the atmospheric condenser whenever the main
condenser is unavailable. The temperature at the outlet from the desuperheater is
measured and a corresponding signal is transmitted to the spray control valve, which
alters the water supply accordingly.
The control valve to the desuperheater will open when the boiler pressure exceeds its
normal set point. It provides stability during periods of fluctuation where the burners
are reduced to minimum flow, when big lead changing such as during maneuvering,
crash astern/ahead and emergency stop of the main turbine. The dump will control
any excess steam pressure generated during these periods.
Steam to the desuperheater is supplied via main valve. The desuperheater has its own
control valve. The main valve closes if following conditions are detected: Main
condenser pressure high, condenser temperature high, dump steam high pressure,
dump steam temperature high, manual dump trip.

Cooling water injection

Reducing valve 62/2 bar

Main dump valve


main condenser

Main steam line


o
60 bar 510 C

Figure 57.
Steam dump system

7.2. REVIEW OF ALTERNATIVE PROPULSION PLANTS

100

Boil off can not be avoided therefore any installed propulsion plant on LNG carrier
has to deal with evaporated gas. All research shows that re-liquefaction of evaporated
gas from cargo tanks on LNG carriers is not worth of it. There are three main reasons:
-

if the boil off is liquefied the propulsion plant have to pollute much more by
burning HFO instead,

boil off gas is high quality fuel with higher heating value than HFO,

re-liquefaction unit need a large amount of energy.

The LNG carriers transport a fuel that is perfect for their propulsion and ideal to
satisfy the air pollution requirements (green ship). Using only gas, natural boil off
and forced vaporization, opens the way to modern, efficient and well-proven
propulsion plants. Thanks to power reduction and efficiency gains, the additional gas
consumption in an ALL GAS solution remains limited and is economically justified.
Further reduction of boil-off level from present standards, with its extra cost for
tanks insulation and loss in cargo volume, is no longer justified. The diesel electric
solution using several diesel generators running only in carburated mode with lowpressure gas appears as only alternative to steam plants. All the components of this
solution are well proven. It offers redundancy, reliability, flexibility qualities at least
equal to steam plants.
7.2.1. DIESEL MOTOR PROPULSION PLANT
This propulsion plant without gas burning is one of many solutions. Main points of
this plant are:
- boil-off is re-liquefied on board and sent back to cargo tanks,
- 100% of the cargo is delivered,
- it is no longer necessary to use boil-off as fuel.
So propulsion plant may consist of one or several diesel engines running with HFO,
such as: low speed engine, geared medium speed engines, diesel electric propulsion .
Main disadvantage of this plant are:
- there has been no successful implementation of liquefaction plants on ships,
- they require a lot of power (at least 20% of the energy which could be
obtained from the combustion of the boil-off), reducing the overall efficiency,
- need big size of the re-liquefaction plants,
- the tank insulation has to be increased, which reduces the cargo tank volume,
This volume reduction is much larger than the boil-off volume saved through
reliquefaction.
7.2.2. DUAL FUEL LOW SPEED DIESEL ENGINE
These engines have efficiency about 50% and could burn simultaneously HFO
and high-pressure gas. They operate in diesel mode. Gas has to be compressed at 350
bar, which requires compression power of about 7 to 8% . Thus the overall efficiency
is reduced.
7.2.3. PROPULSION PLANTS WITH GAS TURBINES

101

LNG carriers with propulsion plants with gas turbines alone do not bring a
significant gain in efficiency unless they are topped by heat recovery plants. This
makes the solution complex and expensive. For ships of standard size and speed, the
power requirement (about 25MW) could be supported by only one gas turbine of
acceptable efficiency. For safety reasons at least two gas turbines of smaller size and
lower efficiency are needed. A system including two large size gas turbines with heat
recovery could be a solution for fast and large size LNG carriers requiring power
above 45MW. In case one turbine is out of operation, the ship could still be operated
at low speed. For port operation, small size diesel generators could fit.
Control and safety
valve

High pressure
i
compressor
Low pressure compressor

Buffer tank

heater

To gas turbine

tank

Figure 58.
Gas preparation for gas turbine

Gas turbines

generators

Damp system
Main switch board

Fuel gas
Diesel oil
Diesel generators
Main gear Electro motors

Figure 59.
Propulsion plant with gas turbines
7.2.4. DIESEL ELECTRIC PROPULSION PLANT

102

One of real alternative plants to steam propulsion on LNG carriers could be diesel
electric propulsion plant. These propulsion plants have been successfully
implemented on cruise liners and onshore plants. This includes:
- Gas burning diesel engines of power plants.
- Electric propulsion with two pod propulsion offering full redundancy. With two
pods, the propulsion power can be doubled and speed increased
Medium speed diesel engines are able to burn gas either:
- in diesel mode, injection at 350bar, or
- in carburated mode, gas feeding at a few bar only.
For cost, simplicity and efficiency reasons, carburated engines are to be
preferred. They have been largely used in power plants. These engines can burn:
- only gas,
- gas and DO, pilot fuel,
- only DO for emergency operation.
Same lube oil quality will be used for both liquid and gas fuels. Forced LNG
vaporization can be used as already possible on steam plants. Excess boil-off when
sailing at reduced speed or during waiting periods is burned in a totally enclosed flare.
DO storage is provided for pilot DO (less than 1 % of energy consumption) and for
take home, when no gas is available.
Wear and maintenance are decreased due to the high quality fuels. Cargo tanks do not
have to be over insulated. Insulation shall be chosen to avoid excess of available
energy. Standard insulation levels (0. 15%/day) are well adapted.

Diesel oil

Main switchboard
Damp system

Propulsion
Electric motors

Main gear

Diesel generators

gas

Figure 60.
Diesel electric propulsion plant

7.3. SHIP GAS RELIQUEFACTION UNITS

103

These units are supposed to be applied on LNG carriers with diesel propulsion and
can be divided:
-

units for complete boil-off reliquefaction,

units for partial boil off reliquefaction.

7.3.1. Units for complete boil-off re-liquefaction


In spite of all studies showed non economical investment one of the new ships trading
to Japan got re-liquefaction plant.
The system comprised a re-liquefaction plant with closed Brayton cycle. The BOG
is remove, from the tanks, compressed, cooled and condensed to LNG in a cryogenic
heat exchanger. Non-condensable, mainly nitrogen, are removed and LNG is returned
to the tanks. The cryogenic temperature in the heat exchanger is produced by means
of a nitrogen compression-expansion cycle. The plant requires about 3.5 MW
electrical power.
compressor

heat exchanger

compressors

Heat exchanger

separator

tank
pump

Figure 61.
Unit for complete boil off reliquefaction

104

7.3.2Unit for partial boil off re-liquefaction


Main idea of partial boil-off re-liquefaction is use of low temperature of evaporated
gas for its own re-liquefaction.
gas
compressor
ciklus compressor

to boilers

Heat hanger
Expan.
valve

separator

Tank

Figure 62.
Unit for partial reliquefaction

8. ANALYZE OF OPTIMAL SYSTEM PARAMETERS


Distribution of natural gas in liquid state is relatively costly compared to fuel
distribution. Same is in regard to distribution of natural gas by pipeline up to 4000
km. Choice of optimal system (containment & propulsion) for LNG transport due to
reducing cost of transport include several parameters.
Boil off is inevitable so the most logical solution is to burn it in boilers and use that
energy for ship propulsion. Ship re-liquefaction units are not economically justified
These units would complicate already complex ship plants. By increasing cargo tanks
insulation thickness boil-off can be reduced but it increase HFO consumption,
decrease quantity of transported cargo and increase cost of whole containment
system.
8.1. BOIL OFF
Quantity of boil off depend on thickness and quality of cargo tanks insulation. Old
LNG tankers are constructed with rate of evaporation around 0.25%. New LNG ships
have this coefficient around 0.15 %. Coefficient of evaporation is defined as boil off
% per day in regard to total cargo volume.
Gas evaporation rate also depend of:

105

gas mixture composition,


external temperature,
thermo-dynamical stability of gas in liquid state,
cargo tank pressure.

On the sea during voyage evaporation rate increase and depend of:
- weather condition,
- cargo tank pressure change,
- movement of liquid in the tanks.
8.2.

USE OF BOIL OFF

As mentioned before all quantity of boil off is burned in the boilers and produced
steam is used for ship propulsion. There are three characteristic situation in
exploitation of the ship:
- Full navigation speed when all produced steam is used for ship propulsion,
- Reduced navigation speed when produced steam is used partially for
propulsion and one part is damped in main condenser,
- Manoeuvring speed or anchorage when most of produced steam, by burning
boil off and min fuel oil, is damped in main condenser.
8.3.

ANALYSE OF ENERGY NEEDS FOR PROPULSION PLANT

The typical LNG carrier steam propulsion plant is considered in this analyses.
For 130000 m3 LNG carrier main engine power is around 26 000kW. Dimension of
these ships are: length 280 m, width 45m, height 45 m.
There are three characteristic plant disposition:
- full navigation speed,
- on anchorage,
- in unloading port.
8.3.1. ENERGY NEEDS FOR FULL NAVIGATION SPEED
Steam propulsion plant heat balance gives steam flow for main consumers as follows:
- main turbine 84 420 kg/h,
- turbo generator 9300 kg/h,
- turbo feed pump 4200 kg/h,
- losses 600 kg/h.
Total steam flow needs for full speed is 98 520 kg/h. On the basis of this flow
capacity of steam generators can be selected. Usually two installed boilers have next
parameters:
- superheated steam outlet pressure 60 bars,
- superheated temperature 515 C,
- steam flow output 49000 kg/h.

106

Port

Boilers

Stbd

Dump valve
TFP

1
TG
Main conden.

LPT
TBP

HPT

Main
Switch
board

1
DG

gear

Figure 63.

Energy needs for full speed


8.3.2.ENERGY NEEDS FOR ANCHORAGE, LOADED CONDITION
When ship is riding at anchor the available energy produced by boil off and minimum
fuel oil burning is only partially used.
During stay on anchorage ships energy needs for auxiliary equipment is 19980 kg/h.
The rest of available energy is degraded by means of steam damping installation.
Steam quantity that need to be damped in main condenser is 65868 kg/h.

Port

Boilers

stbd

Dump valve
TFP

1
TG
Main cond.

LPT
TBP

HPT
gear

Main
Switch
board

1
DG
2

Figure 64.
Energy needs for anchorage

107

8.3.3. ENERGY NEEDS FOR UNLOADING


During the unloading operation most of the terminals request ship to suspend gas
burning. The cargo tanks pressure is maintained by ship shore gas line. The boilers are
kept under pressure, ready for sailing, only by fuel oil firing.On the basis of plant
heat balance steam flow for unloading is 44945 kg/h

Port

Boilers

Stbd

Damp valve
TFP

1
TG
Main conden.

LPT
TBP

HPT

gear

Main
Switch
board

1
DG
2

Figure 65.
Energy needs for unloading

8.4.

ANALYSE OF FUEL OIL AND GAS CONSUMPTION


FOR DIFFERENT LOAD OF PROPULSION PLANT

For low load of propulsion plant fuel oil consumption is kept on minimum for safe
burning. Part of steam produced by burning all available boil off is used for cover
plant energy needs and excess steam is damped in main condenser.
When propulsion plant load increase fuel oil remain on minimum consumption and
plant use more of excess steam which is being damped.
When propulsion plant is on full load and when all available steam produced by boil
off and min fuel oil is used then fuel oil start to increase flow.
All new ships have possibilities to burn gas only. In that case less steam need to be
damped.
On the ballast voyage gas evaporation is reduced and more fuel oil is used for ship
propulsion.

108

100
Available energy of

Fuel oil and gas


max.
boil off
for
boilers

gas
50

surplus
gas

Fuel oil

Astern

Fuel oil

Propulsion plant load

100 %

50
ahead

Figure 66.
Fuel oil and gas consumption in regard to propulsion plant load
9. CALCULATION

OF OPTIMAL CARGO CONTAINMENT


SYSTEMS INSULATION THICKNESS

One of the most important parameter in LNG carriers exploitation is coefficient of


evaporation or so called boil- off. It is interesting to see how that coefficient changes
with insulation thickness change and what would be its optimal value. Optimal
insulation thickness calculation consists of:
-

analyse of optimal system parameters,


theoretical assumption of heat exchange,
gas evaporation coefficient calculation,
calculation of available steam energy produced by dual combustion of min
fuel oil and available boil off,
calculation of available steam energy change by insulation thickness change,
calculation of steam energy need for main propulsion and auxiliary machinery,
calculation of fuel oil consumption change by insulation thickness change,
calculation of system cost change by insulation thickness change.

9.1. HEAT EXCHANGE THEORETICAL THESIS


All physical phenomena, heat exchange included, are accompanied with changes of
physical values in time and space. Heat exchange occurs only if temperature
difference exists between body parts or other bodies. It is followed by temperature
change in space and time. Heat is exchanged by conduction, convection and radiation.

9.1.1. Heat exchange by Conduction

109

Temperature Field.
Temperature change in space and time can be expressed analytically, by an equation:
f x, y, z, t
(9.1)
That represents mathematical expression for non-stationary temperature field. If
temperatures in temperature field do not change with time, it is considered as a
stationary temperature field.
Equation
f x, y, z, t ;

0
t

(9.2)

Is a mathematical expression for stationary temperature field.


Temperature gradient
If all equal temperature points are connected, isothermal planes are formed.
Temperature change perpendicular to the isothermal plane is called temperature
gradient. Mathematical term for temperature gradient is equal to temperature
derivation over perpendicular n:
grad


n
n 0

(9.3)

Where following represents:

n0 - unit vector vertical to isothermal plane, and

- temperature gradient value

Heat flow Fouriers Law


According to Fouriers empirical thesis, heat quantity dQ, that in time unit dt flows
through surface element dA, is proportional to:

Temperature gradient n and equal to:


dQ

dA dt
n

(9.4)

Proportionality coefficient in equation above is observed bodys physical feature,


and is called heat conductivity coefficient.
Heat Quantity that flow through surface element dA in time dt is equal to:
q

(9.5)

And is called heat flow density. Equation 9.5. is known as Fouriers law and says:
Heat flow density is proportional to temperature gradient.
Heat conductivity coefficient
Heat conductivity coefficient is bodys physical feature that correlates to material
type and structure, its density, humidity and temperature, and is determined
experimentally. Heat conductivity coefficient is equal to heat quantity that flows
through an isothermal plane within a time unit, with a unit temperature gradient.
Temperature influence on heat conductivity coefficient is given by following
equation:
110

0 1 b 0

(9.6)

Where following represents:


0 represents heat conductivity coefficient at temperature 0, and
b material constant
Heat conduction differential equation
Heat conduction differential equation that connects temperature change in time and
any point in space, caused by a heat conduction mechanism, heat source and heat
conductivity coefficient change in space, is, as follows:

1

V

t c x x
y y
z z
c

(9.7)

If physical features constant value is assumed, and expression /c is defined as


temperature conductivity coefficient, and if the observed system contains no heat
source, i.e. v=0, than equation (9.7.) is reduced to Fouriers equation
2 2 2

2
t
y 2 z 2
x

(9.8)

When stationary heat conduction is without an internal heat source, equation takes
form of a Laplaces equation
2
x

2
y

2
z 2

(9.9)

Observing one-dimensional stationary heat conduction through a flat homogenous


wall with thickness , constant heat conductivity coefficient , differential equation is
simplified, and following expression is gained:
2
x 2

(9.10)

First type edge conditions are:


x = x1;

x = x2;

T
T1

dT
dx

x1

T2

x2

Figure 67.

111

Stationary heat conduction through a flat wall


Solution of this problem is reduced to finding temperature arrangement within the
wall, heat flow density qx and heat flow . Heat flow density is:
qx

T1 T 2

(9.11)

Whereas x2 x1

Heat flow is acquired from the following expression.


T1 T 2
A

Where:
represents heat conductivity coefficient
A heat exchange surface
wall thickness (hereon x will be used instead of )

(9.12)

Stationary heat conduction throughout multi-layer flat wall


By applying Fouriers law, when a wall is composed of several, different thickness
layers (x1), with different heat conductivity coefficients (i), as shown in figure 68,
heat flow in all parts of the insulation is the same, i.e.:
A 1

T1 T 2 A T 2 T3 A T n1 T n
x1

n1

x2

(9.13)

xn1

T1
T2
T3
Tn-1

x1

x2

Tn

xi xn-1

Figure 68.
Heat conduction through flat multi-layer wall
Universal heat flow equation is acquired through excerption
A

T1 T n
n

i
1

(9.14)

Where total heat conductivity can be expressed as

112

xi
1
n

(9.15)

x
i
i
1

And heat flow equation shapes into


u A

T1 T n
n

(9.16)

xi
1

Stationary heat flow through spherical wall


Due to stationary heat expansion in half measure r direction only, differential equation
is, as follows:
d2
dr

d
0
dr

(9.17)

= ;
r = R2;
= .
By applying Fouriers law, heat flow value can be determined
Edge conditions are

r = R1;

d
dr

(9.17)
Where A = 4r2 represents wall surface

dr
R1

R2

Figure 69.
Heat conduction through spherical wall
After expression (9.17) excerption, following equation is acquired

113

4 R1 R2

T1 T2
R1 R2

(9.18)

Heat flow density rendered to outer surface A=4R22 is:


q

R T1 T 2

1
A
R2 R1 R2

(9.19)

Where following represents:


heat conductivity coefficient
T1 inner insulation surface temperature
T2 outer
insulation surface temperature
R1 inner tank half measure
R2 outer tank half measure, including insulation
9.1.2. Heat exchange by convection
Heat exchange by convention practical calculation is based on Newtons law:
d s 0 dA

(9.20)

Where: d represents differential heal flow value


dA surface differential
s wall temperature
0 environment temperature
(s - 0) temperature change within fluid border layer at the wall
Proportionality coefficient in equation (9.20) is defined as local heat transfer
coefficient. Heat exchange in a complex way depends onto gas type, temperature,
pressure and speed, steam or liquid that give away heat to a wall or take that heat from
it. Nusselts theory enabled heat transfer calculation by using dimensionless
characteristics.
wd

c
Prandtls characteristic Pr

gd 3
Grashofs characteristic... Gr 2 T1 T 2

L
Nusselts characteristic Nu

Reynolds characteristic.. Re

Where following represents:


d diameter
w speed
L characteristic linear dimension
g gravitational acceleration
(T1-T2) temperature difference
volumetric expansion temperature coefficient
density
c specific heat capacity
heat conductivity coefficient

114

heat transfer coefficient


cinematic viscosity
9.1.3. Heat exchange by radiation
During heat exchange by radiation between two bodies, the warmer doesnt only
radiate towards the colder, but the colder also radiates towards the warmer, and
transferred heat flow is equal to the absorbed radiation portion difference.
Parallel walls
Heat flow density is calculated by the following equation
T 4 T 4
Cc
1 2
q
1 1
100
100

1
1 2
Where following represent: Cc black body emission constant
1, 2 emission coefficients
T1 warmer body temperature
T2 colder body temperature

Wrapped body
Heat flow for wrapped body is calculated by following equation
T1 4 T 2 4
Cc
A1

100
1 100
1

1
1
2
Where following represents:
geometric characteristic; =A1/A2
T1 warmer body temperature
T2 colder body temperature
A1 wrapped body temperature
A2 wrapping body temperature

(9.21)

(9.22)

9.2. GAS EVAPORATION COEFFICIENT CALCULATION


Gas evaporation coefficient calculation can be divided onto:
- total insulation heat conductivity calculation,
- characteristic tank surface calculation,
- double wall characteristic surfaces temperature calculation,
- total heat flow calculation,
- gas evaporation coefficient calculation.
9.2.1. Insulation conductivity calculation

115

Insulation heat conductivity of spherical tank system


Heat conductivity through tank insulation of liquefied natural gas spherical tanks can
be considered stationary heat flow through multi-layered wall, because temperatures
in all points remain (approximately) time constants. Therefore, temperature field is
independent of time, and the same heat flow always passes through insulation. As
shown in Figure 32. self-carrying spherical tanks insulation consists of three layers:
1. wall layer (mean valued)
R2 - R1 = x1 = 0,04 m
= 200 W/(m K)
2. air layer between the wall and polyurethane foam panels
R3 - R2 = x2 = 0,005 m
= 0,025 W/(m K)
3. layer that consists of polyurethane foam panels
R4 - R3 = x3 = 0,24 m
= 0,025 W/(m K).
Insulation material heat conductivity changes with temperature change from -161,5
C on the inner side to 20 C on the double plating side. Heat conductivity mean
values are taken into calculation. Expression for total heat conductivity calculation is:
Ri Ri 1
u
R R R
(9.23)
i 1 i R i 1
i i
Due to spherical tank half measure values of R=19,73 m, in correlation to insulation
layers thickness of x=0,296 m, total heat conductivity can be calculated by using
equation (6.14). By inserting above said vales in that equation, heat conductivity
value of basic insulation thickness X=0,295 m is given and is =0,03 W/mK.
In optimal insulation calculation program, total insulation heat conductivity changes
in correlation to polyurethane layer thickness changes (x 3). By inserting correlating
values an expression is acquired for spherical tank system insulation heat conductivity
x1 x2 x3 x4
u
(9.24)
x1 x2 x4 x x1 x2 x4

1 2 4
3
After simplifying expression above, final expression for total insulation heat
conductivity of spherical tank system is as follows:
u

x
x 0,055
0,25
0,025

(9.25)

Gaz transport system insulation heat conductivity


Gaz Transport system insulation is made of seven layers, as shown in figure 35:

1. mastic and air layer between double hull and second insulation boxes:
x1 = 0,0125 m
= 0,16 W/(m K);
2. wooden panels that belong to second insulation boxes:
x2 = 0,012 m
116

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

= 0,1 W/(m K);


perlite layer in second insulation layer boxes:
x3 = 0,176 m
= 0,04 W/(m K);
wooded panels layer that belong to second insulation layer boxes:
x4 = 0,012 m
= 0,1 W/(m K);
wooded panels layer that belongs to first insulation boxes
x5 = 0,012 m
= 0,1 W/(m K);
perlite layer in first insulation boxes
x6 = 0,176 m
= 0,04 W/(m K);
wooded panels layer that belong to first insulation boxes
x7 = 0,012 m;
= 0,1 W/(m K);

By inserting values above in equation (9.14), heat conductivity value for insulation
thickness x=0,412 m is gained and is =0,042 W/mK.
In optimal insulation thickness calculation program, change in perlite layer thickness
(x6) insulation heat conductivity changes. By inserting corresponding values an
expression for total insulation heat conductivity is gained.
x1... x7
u
(9.26)
x1 x2 x4 x5 x7 x3 x x1 x2 x4 x5 x7


1
2
3
6
After simplifying, final expression for total insulation system heat conductivity
calculation in Gaz Transport insulation system is:
u

x
x 02365

,
4958
,

004
,

(9.27)

Technigaz Mk 1 system insulation heat conductivity


Technigaz Mk1 insulation system is made of five layers, as shown in Fig. 37:

1. mineral wool layer


x1 = 0,1 m
= 0,03 W/(m K);
2. wooden panels layer
x2 = 0,012 m
= 0,1 W/(m K);
3. balsa tree layer, made out of three different thickness types of panels
x3 = 0,150 m
= 0,05 W/(m K);
4. maple tree layer that form the second membrane
x4 = 0,003 m
= 0,05 W/(m K);

117

5. balsa tree panels layer that carries the first membrane


x5 = 0,035 m
= 0,05 W/(m K).
By inserting values above in equation (9.14), heat conductivity value for insulation
thickness x=0,30 m is gained and is =0,0416 W/mK.
In optimal insulation thickness calculation program, change in mineral wool layer
thickness (x1) insulation heat conductivity changes. By inserting corresponding values
an expression for total insulation heat conductivity for Technigaz Mk1 system is
gained.
u

x2 x3 x 4

2
3

x ... x
x xx
1

x3 x 4 x5

(9.28)

After simplifying, final expression for total insulation system heat conductivity
calculation in Technigaz Mk1 insulation system is:
u

x
x 02
,
388
,
003
,

(9.29)

Technigaz Mark 3 system insulation heat conductivity


Technigaz Mk3 insulation system is made of five layers, as shown in Figure 38:

1. mastic and air layer


2.
3.
4.
5.

x1 = 0,0125 m
= 0,16 W/(m K);
plywood layer
x2 = 0,012 m
= 0,1 W/(m K);
polyurethane foam layer
x3 = 0,15 m
= 0,025 W/(m K);
polyurethane foam layer
x4 = 0,068 m
= 0,025 W/(m K);
plywood layer that carries the first membrane.
x5 = 0,012 m
= 0,1 W/(m K).

By inserting values above in equation (9.14), heat conductivity value for insulation
thickness x=0,254 m is gained and is =0,0281 W/mK.
In optimal insulation thickness calculation computer program, change in polyurethane
layer thickness (x3) insulation heat conductivity changes. By inserting corresponding
values an expression for total insulation heat conductivity is gained

118

x ... x
x x x x x

(9.30)
x1
2
5
1
2 x5
1
2
3
After simplifying, final expression for total insulation system heat conductivity
calculation in Technigaz Mk3 insulation system is:
x

u
304
,

x 0104
,

(9.31)

0025
,

9.2.3. Defining characteristic tank surfaces


Spherical tank geometric characteristics

area 3

d
h3

area 2
water line

h2

area 1

h1
ho

Figure 70.
Spherical tank elementary surfaces
Tank is divided onto three elementary surfaces with corresponding temperature
conditions:
1. surface below waterline
A1 d h1 h0

(9.32)

2. surface between the waterline and main deck


119

A2 d h2 h1

(9.33)

3. surface between the main deck and tank top

A3 d h3 h2

(9.34)

Elementary surfaces correspond to temperature areas with different environment


temperatures:
1. area with sea water temperature Tm
T T
2. area with ballast tank temperature T b 0 m
2
3. environment area temperature T0
Spherical tank surface is equal to elementary surfaces sum, i.e.:

(9.35)

Au A1 A2 A3

Surface ratios are:


A1
021
,
Au
A2
039
,
Au
A3
0,4
Au

Membrane tank geometric characteristics

area 7

l
a1

b1

a1
h

T7

area 6

T6

area 5

T5

area 4

T4

area 3

T3

area 2

T2

area 1

T1

h1
hv

a
ho
b

Figure 71.
Membrane tank geometric characteristics and elementary surfaces
Membrane tank is divided into seven elementary surfaces:

1. surface towards the cofferdam

A1 2 h1 a a1 b 2a 2a12 2a2 ,

(9.36)
120

2. tank bottom surface


A2 b l ,
3. lower conical tank surface
A3 2a 2 l ,
4. surface between lower conical surface and waterline
A 2 h h a l ,
5. surface from the waterline to upper conical tank surface
A5 2 h hv a1 l ,
6. upper conical tank surface lower half
A6 2a1 2 l ,
7. upper conical tank surface upper half
A7 b1 l .
4

(9.37)
(9.38)
(9.39)
(9.40)
(9.41)
(9.42)

9.2.4. Double hull characteristic surface temperature calculation


Stationery condition defines heat flow through tank insulation as equal to heat flow
through double hull and heat flow between outer hull and environment, i.e.
v u i

(9.43)

Where following represents:


v heat flow between environment and outer hull
u heat flow between outer and inner hull
i heat flow through tank insulation
Heat flow density between outer hull and seawater
Heat flow density between outer hull and seawater is calculated as follows:
qv T 0 T vo

(9.44)

Where following represents:


heat conductivity coefficient
T0 environment temperature
Tv0 outer hull temperature
Heat convection coefficient is calculated from Nusselts number calculation
equation:
Nu

(9.45)

Where following represents:


l tank length
heat conductivity coefficient
At the ships speed of 17 knots, or 8,7 m/s Reynolds number is greater than 500000
and for that value Nusselts number is calculated as follows:
Nu 00325
,
Re0,8 Pr 1/3

(9.46)

Prandts number is acquired as follows:

121

Pr

(9.47)

Where following represents:


density
c specific heat capacity
cinematic viscosity
heat conductivity coefficient
Thus acquired heat exchange values show that outer hull temperature is
approximately equal to environment temperature, and will be, in the rest of the
calculation taken as Tv0=T0.
Heat flow density between two hulls
Heat flow density between two hulls consists of heat flow by conduction through
ships steel structure, heat flow by natural convection and heat flow by
radiation. Therefore heat flow density is equal to:

(9.48)

qu qp qpk qz

Where following represents:


qp heat flow by conduction
qpk heat flow by natural convection
qz heat flow by radiation

a) heat flow density by conduction through ships steel structure is equal to:
Heat flow by conduction through ships steel structure is calculated as follows:

(9.49)

qp kp T vo T uo

Where following represents:


kp empiric heat conduction coefficient
Tvo outer hull temperature
Tuo inner hull temperature
V
To
Tvo

H
Tuo

Insulation
TANK

Figure 72
Basic tank structure model

122

Empiric heat conduction coefficient k is calculated as follows (for Gaz Transport &
Technigaz systems)
k p ~e

L l
LlH

(9.50)

Where following represents:


c steel heat conductivity
e steel plate thickness
L ballast tank screen spacing
l tank length
H ballast tank height
Basic steel tank structure model is shown in Figure 72.

b) heat flow density by convection between two hulls:


Heat flow density by convection between two hulls is calculated as follows:
qpk T vo T b

(9.51)

Where following represents:


heat transfer coefficient for natural convection
Tv0 outer hull temperature
Tb air temperature between two hulls (ballast tanks temperature)
Ballast tank temperature is calculated as follows:
T Tm
Tb 0
2
Where following represents:
Tv0 outer hull temperature
Tu0 inner hull temperature

(9.52)

For inner hull height H and temperature Tv0 and ballast tank air temperature Tb,
Grashofs number is calculated as follows:
g H 3 T vo Tb
(9.53)
Gr
T b 2
Where following represents:
Tv0 outer hull temperature
Tb ballast tank temperature
g earths gravity acceleration
H hull height
cinematic viscosity
Cinematic viscosity is calculated as follows:

(9.54)

Where following represents:


dynamic viscosity for air at atmospheric pressure
air density
Prandtls number for air and two-atom gases is equal to Pr = 0,71.

123

If Grashofs and Prandtls number multiplication result is (Gr Pr) > 108, turbulent
flow occurs and Nusselts number equation applies:
1/ 3
Nu 01
, Gr Pr
(9.55)
Natural convection heat transfer coefficient is acquired from Nusselts number
equation:
Nu

(9.56)

Where following represents:


heat transfer coefficient for natural convection
H hull height
heat conductivity coefficient

c) heat flow density by radiation between two hulls


Parallel walls
Heat flow density by radiation is calculated as follows
T vo 4 T uo 4
Cc
q

1 1
100
100

1
1 2
Where following represents:
Cc black body constant
1, 2 emission coefficient
Tv0 outer hull temperature
Tuo inner hull temperature

(9.57)

Wrapped body
Heat flow for wrapped body is calculated as follows:
T b 4 T uo 4
Cc
A1

100
1 100
1

1
1
2
Where following represent:
geometric characteristic; = A1/A2
Tv0 outer hull temperature
Tuo inner hull temperature
A1 wrapped body temperature
A2 wrapping body temperature

(9.58)

Heat flow density through tank insulation

a) spherical tanks
Heat flow density through tank insulation, simplified to outer surface, for spherical
tanks is calculated as follows:
R1
(9.59)
qi u
T uo T pl
R4 R4 R1

124

Where following represent:


u insulation heat conductivity coefficient
Tuo inner hull temperature
Tpl gas temperature
R1 inner tank half measure
R4 outer tank half measure (insulation included)
b) membrane tanks
Heat flow density through membrane tank insulation is calculated as follows:
qi u

uo

T pl

(9.60)

Where following represent:


u insulation heat conductivity coefficient
Tuo inner hull temperature
Tpl gas temperature
x insulation thickness
Double hull temperatures needed for insulation heat flow calculation differ in
characteristic areas shown in Figures 70 and 71. Iterative method will be used for
temperature calculation. According to IMO and USCG regulations, outer conditions
for gas evaporation coefficient calculation are:
- environment temperature 45 C,
- seawater temperature 32 C,
- screen tanks (cofferdam) temperature 10 C.
9.2.5. Spherical tanks characteristic areas temperature calculation
In spherical tank characteristic areas temperature calculation tank insulation heat flow
density by conduction qi, equal to the sum of heat flow density by natural convection
qpk and radiation qz between outer insulation layer and double hull is used. Heat flow
density by conduction qp through ships steel structure can be ignored, because the
only contact is through cylindrical support, making that surface very small. From
stationary conditions and equal heat flow density following can be said:

(9.61)

qi qpk qz

H3
area 3

R2
R!

area 2
H2

H1

Rb

Water line
area 1

125

Figure 73.
Spherical tank structure model
Double hull temperature values needed for tank insulation heat flow calculation differ
in characteristic areas shown in figure 73. According to IMO and USCG regulations
outer conditions for gas evaporation coefficient calculation are:
- environment temperature 45 C,
- seawater temperature 32 C.
Area 1
By inserting following values
R1 = 19,73 m
R4 = 20,025 m
Rb = 21 m
H1 = 3 m
Tvo = 45C
= 0,6
= 0,9
= A4/Ab= 0,9
u = 0,03 W/(m K)
in tank insulation heat flow calculation expressions (chapter 9.2.4.a), heat transfer by
natural convection (chapter 9.2.4.b) and tank and hull radiation (chapter 9.2.4.2.c)
following values, needed for calculation, are acquired:
- tank insulation heat flow density by conduction
qi 0985
.
u

T1 T pl

(9.62)

R4 R1

- heat transfer by natural convection coefficient between the hulls


Nu

W
209
,
H
m2K

- radiation constant
C

Cc
W
329
,
4
2
1
1
m 100K

1
1
2

(9.63)

By applying expressions for heat flow densities calculation and stationary condition,
following expression is acquired:
0985
.
u

T pl
x

b T 1

Cc
1
1

1
1
2

T vo

100

4
T2

100

(9.64)

By assuming start temperature T1 and applying iterative method, needed temperature


can be calculated by use of a computer program.
Same method is used for calculating temperatures for areas 2 and 3.
9.2.5. Membrane tanks characteristic areas temperature calculation

126

In membrane tank characteristic areas temperature calculation tank insulation heat


flow density by conduction qi, equal to the sum of heat flow density by natural
convection qpk and radiation qz between outer insulation layer and double hull is used.
Heat flow density by conduction qp through ships steel structure can be ignored,
because the only contact is through cylindrical support, making that surface very
small. From stationary conditions and equal heat flow density following can be said:
qi qp qpk qz

(9.65)
Characteristic areas are divided as shown in Figure 71.
Area 1.
Included surfaces towards the bulkheads between tanks (cofferdams). Cofferdam
temperature is maintained at 10C, by glycol water heating system, therefore
following applies T1 = 10 C
Area 2.
By inserting values
L=2m
l = 30,4 m;
e = 0,02 m; H = 2,7 m;
Tvo = 32C; = 0,6;
= 0,6;
~= 50 W/(mK);
in tank insulation heat flow expressions (chapter 9.2.4.a), heat transfer by natural
convection (chapter 9.2.4.b) and by radiation between the tank and hull (chapter
9.2.4..c), following values needed for calculation are acquired:
- empiric conduction coefficient through steel structure between hulls from
expression (6.50)
W
k p 0198
,
m2 K
natural convection heat transfer coefficient between two hulls from
expression (9.57)
W
184
,
m2K

- radiation constant
C

Cc
W
2,48
4
1
1
m2 100K

1
1
2
Tpl
T2

H
l
L

l = 30.4 m
L=2m
H = 2.7 m
e = 0.02 m

Tvo

Figure 74.
Ballast tank area 2 structure model

127

By applying expressions for heat flow density and stationary conditions following
expression is acquired:

T pl
x

k T
p

vo

T 2 T vo T b

Cc

1
1

1
1
2

T vo

100

T
2
100

(9.66)
By assuming start temperature T2 and applying iterative method, needed temperature
T2can be calculated by use of a computer program.
Same method is used for calculating temperatures for areas 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7.
9.3. INSULATION SYSTEM HEAT FLOW CALCULATION
9.3.1. Spherical tanks system insulation heat flow calculation
Heat flow is equal to the sum of characteristic area heat flows:

(9.67)

1 2 3

Where
1 021
, 4 u R1 R4
2 039
, 4 u R1 R4

(9.68)
3 0,4 4 u R1 R4

T pl T1
R4 R1
T pl T 2
R4 R1

T pl T 0
R4 R1

9.3.2. Membrane tanks insulation system heat flow calculation


Heat flow is equal to the sum of characteristic area heat flows:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Where
1 A1

(9.69)

T pl T1
x

..
7 A7

T pl T 7
x

9.4. BOIL OFF COEFFICIENT CALCULATION


Gas evaporation coefficient is calculated by following expression
K isp 24 3600 100

V L

%na dan

(9.70)
128

Where following represents:


- heat flow
L - liquefied natural gas latent evaporation heat
- gas density
V - tank volume
9.5. EVAPORATED GAS QUANTITY CALCULATION
Evaporated gas quantity is calculated by following expression
Bp 098
, 10 5

V K isp
24

(9.71)

Where following represents:


V liquefied gas volume
Kisp gas evaporation coefficient
liquefied gas density

9.6. AVAILABLE STEAM QUANTITY CALCULATION


9.6.1. Available steam calculation, produced by burning minimal quantities of residual
fuel oil
Steam quantity produced by burning minimal quantities of residual fuel oil D gm is
calculated as follows:
Dgm

Bgm H dg kot
hp hnv

(9.72)

Where following represents:


Bgm minimal fuel quantity
Hdp low heating value of fuel oil
kot boiler efficiency
hp superheated steam enthalpy
hnv fresh water enthalpy
9.6.2. Calculation of available steam produced by burning evaporated gas
Available steam produced by burning evaporated gas is calculated as follows:
Dp

Bp H dp kot
hp hnv

(9.73)

Where following represents:


Bp evaporated gas quantity
Hdp low heating value of fuel oil
kot boiler efficiency
hp superheated steam enthalpy
129

hnv fresh water enthalpy


Available steam quantity is the sum of steam produced by burning minimal quantity
of residual fuel and steam produced by burning available gas quantity, i.e.
Dr Dgm Dp

(9.74)

9.7. REQUIRED STEAM QUANTITY CALCULATION


9.7.1. Required steam quantity calculation at full speed
Required steam at full speed ahead is acquired from 125000 m 3 liquefied gas tanker
marine steam turbine propulsion system energy balance:
D pot Dgu D tnp D tg Dgt

(9.75)

Where following represents:


Dpot required steam
Dgu losses
Dtnp steam for driving turbo supply pump
Dtg steam needed for driving turbo-generator
Dgt steam needed for driving propulsion turbines.
In correlation to values above, required steam quantity is Dpot = 98,17 t/h
9.7.2. Required steam quantity at anchor
Steam quantity needed for driving auxiliary machinery at anchor D pur is acquired from
marine steam turbine propulsion system energy balance, calculated as follows:
Dpur Dgu Dtnp Dtg D kol

(9.76)

Where following represents:


Dpu steam quantity needed for driving auxiliary machinery
Dgu losses
Dtnp steam for driving turbo supply pump
Dtg steam needed for driving turbo-generator
Dgt steam needed for collector at 13 bar
Steam quantity needed for driving auxiliary machinery at anchor is Dpur = 19,98 t/h
9.8. REQUIRED AND AVAILABLE STEAM DIFFERENCE IN CORRELATION
INSULATION THICKNESS CHANGE CALCULATION
Difference between required and available steam quantity, D is calculated as follows:
D Dpot Dr

(9.77)

Where following represents:


Dpot required steam quantity
Dr available steam quantity
9.9. REQUIRED FUEL OIL QUANTITY CALCULATION IN CORRELATION TO
INSULATION THICKNESS CHANGE AT FULL SPEED
Required and available steam quantity difference at full speed is compensated by
burning fuel. Required fuel oil quantity is calculated as follows:
130

Bg

D
h hnv
H dg kot p

(9.78)

Where following represents:


Bg required fuel oil quantity
D difference between required and available steam quantity
kot boiler efficiency
Hdg heating value of fuel oil
hp superheated steam enthalpy
hnv fresh water enthalpy.
9.10. UNUSED STEAM QUANTITY IN CORRELATION TO INSULATION
THICKNESS CHANGE CALCULATION
When ship is at anchor, the difference between available and required steam quantity
represents unused steam. Unused steam quantity Dnis is calculated as follows

(9.79)

Dnis Dr Dpur

Where following represents:


Dr available steam quantity
Dpur steam required for driving auxiliary machinery
9.12. REQUIRED GAS AT FORCED EVAPORATION CALCULATION
Difference between required and available steam quantity can be acquired by force
evaporation and gas combustion. Steam difference is calculated as follows:

(9.80)

D Dpot Dr

Where following represents:


Dpot required gas quantity
Dr available gas quantity
Required evaporated gas quantity is equal to:
B pi

D
h hnv
H dp kot p

(9.81)

Where following represents:


D steam given by evaporated gas combustion
Hdg heating value of gas
hkot boiler efficiency
hp superheated steam enthalpy
hnv fresh water enthalpy
9.13. INSULATION PRICE CHANGE IN CORRELATION TO INSULATION
THICKNESS
By increasing insulation thickness system costs also increase.

131

17.3

cost

13.6

9.3

4.9

0
250

300

350

400

450

Figure 75.
Cost increase in correlation to insulation thickness diagram

500

Insulation thicknes

9.14. RESULT OF CALCULATIONS


Calculated boil-off coefficients are theoretical, expressed in % per day of total loaded
cargo quantity.In exploitation coefficient may change depending of sea condition, gas
composition, the thermodynamic stability of the liquid, and ambient temperature.
Obtained results show explicitely how boil-off coefficient and others parameters
change with insulation thickness change.
Cargo containment system with spherical tanks has lower boil off coefficient because
of tank shape and lower tank surface.
GazTransport and Technigaz Mark I cargo containment systems with membrane tanks
and perlite or balsa as main insulation material have higher boil off coefficients.
Improved systems with membrane tanks as MarkIII and Gaztransport No96 have
smaller boil off coefficients due to use better insulation materials (Mark III,
poliurethane foam) and by increasment of insulation thickness (GazTransport No96)
Obtained results are real and proven in exploatation, by author who has been sailing
on these ships for tventy years.
All calculated results and parameters changes by insulation thickness change are
presented in tables for each cargo containment system.
Table 4. Spherical tanks
x

m
0,3
0,31
0,32
0,33
0,34
0,35
0,36
0,37

Kisp %
0,126
0,121
0,117
0,113
0,109
0,105
0,102
0,099

Bg t / h
4,74
4,85
4,96
5,07
5,16
5,25
5,34
5,41

Dr t / h
53,59
51,96
50,48
49,07
47,78
46,57
45,44
44,36

Bp t / h
2,81
2,71
2,61
2,52
2,43
2,35
2,28
2,21

Bpi t / h

Dsteam [t/h]

4,2
4,3
4,4
4,49
4,57
4,65
4,73
4,8

33.59
31.96
30.48
29.07
27.78

26.57
25,44
24.36
132

0,38
0,39
0,4
0,41
0,42
0,43
0,44
0,45
0,46
0,47
0,48
0,49
0,5

0,096
0,093
0,09
0,088
0,086
0,083
0,081
0,079
0,078
0,076
0,074
0,072
0,071

5,49
5,56
5,62
5,68
5,74
5,8
5,85
5,91
5,95
6
6,04
6,08
6,12

43,36
42,42
41,52
40,69
39,89
39,14
38,42
37,74
37,09
36,47
35,89
35,32
34,79

2,15
2,08
2,03
1,97
1,92
1,87
1,82
1,78
1,74
1,7
1,66
1,62
1,59

4,86
4,92
4,98
5,04
5,09
5,14
5,19
5,23
5,27
5,31
5,35
5,39
5,42

23.36
22.42
21.52
20.69
19.89
19.14
18.42
17.74
17.09
16.47
15,89
15,32
14,79

Legend:
x- insulation thickness
Kisp- boil off coefficient
Bg-required fuel oil quantity
Dr- available steam quantity by burning minimum FO and boil off
Bp- boil off quantity
Bpi-forced vaporized gas for gas burning only
Dsteam- steam to be dump when vessel is on anchorage

0.14
0.12
0.1
0.08

boil-off coefficient

0.06
0.04
0.02
0.5

0.48

0.46

0.44

0.42

0.4

0.38

0.36

0.34

0.32

0.3

Figure 76.
Spherical tanks boil off coefficient change by insulation thickness change

Table 5. GazTransport membrane tanks


x

m
0,3
0,31
0,32
0,33
0,34
0,35
0,36
0,37
0,38
0,39

Kisp %
0,231
0,223
0,215
0,208
0,201
0,195
0,189
0,183
0,178
0,173

Bg t / h
0,81
1,02
1,21
1,38
1,55
1,7
1,85
1,98
2,11
2,23

Dr t / h
86,86
84,1
81,52
79,13
76,89
74,79
72,82
70,97
69,22
67,57

Bp t / h
4,98
4,8
4,63
4,48
4,33
4,2
4,07
3,95
3,83
3,72

Bpi t / h
0,72
0,9
1,07
1,23
1,37
1,51
1,64
1,76
1,87
1,98

Dsteam [t/h]

66.88
64.11
61.53
59.14
56.90
54.80
52.83
50.97
49.22
47.58
133

0,4
0,41
0,42
0,43
0,44
0,45
0,46
0,47
0,48
0,49
0,5

0,168
0,164
0,159
0,155
0,151
0,148
0,144
0,141
0,138
0,135
0,132

2,35
2,46
2,56
2,66
2,75
2,84
2,92
3,01
3,08
3,16
3,23

66,01
64,53
63,14
61,81
60,54
59,34
58,19
57,1
56,05
55,05
54,1

3,62
3,53
3,44
3,35
3,27
3,19
3,11
3,04
2,97
2,91
2,85

2,08
2,18
2,27
2,36
2,44
2,52
2,59
2,66
2,73
2,8
2,86

46.02
44.54
43.14
41.81
40.55
39.34
38.19
37.10
36.05
35.06
34.10

Legend:
x- insulation thickness
Kisp- boil off coefficient
Bg-required fuel oil quantity
Dr- available steam quantity by burning minimum FO and boil off
Bp- boil off quantity
Bpi-forced vaporized gas for gas burning only
Dsteam- steam to be dump when vessel is on anchorage

0.25
0.2
0.15
boil-off coefficient

0.1
0.05

0.5

0.48

0.46

0.44

0.42

0.4

0.38

0.36

0.34

0.32

0.3

Figure 77.
GazTransport boil off coefficient change by insulation thickness change

Table 6. Technigaz Mark I membrane tanks


x

m
0,3
0,31
0,32
0,33
0,34
0,35
0,36
0,37
0,38

Kisp %
0,215
0,205
0,197
0,189
0,181
0,175
0,168
0,163
0,157

Bg t / h
1,18
1,41
1,62
1,81
1,99
2,15
2,31
2,45
2,58

Dr t / h
81,9
78,79
75,95
73,32
70,91
68,67
66,59
64,65
62,84

Bp t / h
4,66
4,46
4,27
4,1
3,94
3,81
3,66
3,54
3,42

Bpi t / h
1,04
1,25
1,43
1,61
1,76
1,91
2,04
2,17
2,29

Dsteam[t/h]
61.90
58,79
55,95
53,32
50,91
48,67
46,59
44,65
42,84

134

0,39
0,4
0,41
0,42
0,43
0,44
0,45
0,46
0,47
0,48
0,49
0,5

0,152
0,147
0,143
0,139
0,135
0,131
0,127
0,124
0,121
0,118
0,115
0,112

2,71
2,82
2,93
3,04
3,13
3,23
3,31
3,39
3,47
3,55
3,62
3,68

61,59
59,57
58,08
56,68
55,35
54,1
52,92
51,81
50,74
49,74
48,78
47,87

3,31
3,2
3,11
3,01
2,93
2,85
2,77
2,7
2,63
2,56
2,5
2,44

2,4
2,5
2,6
2,69
2,78
2,86
2,93
3,01
3,08
3,14
3,21
3,27

41,15
39,57
38,08
36,68
35,35
34,10
32,92
31,81
30,74
29,74
28,78
27,87

Legend:
x- insulation thickness
Kisp- boil off coefficient
Bg-required fuel oil quantity
Dr- available steam quantity by burning minimum FO and boil off
Bp- boil off quantity
Bpi-forced vaporized gas for gas burning only
Dsteam- steam to be dump when vessel is on anchorage

0.25
0.2
0.15
boil-off coefficient

0.1
0.05

0.5

0.48

0.46

0.44

0.42

0.4

0.38

0.36

0.34

0.32

0.3

Figure 78.
Technigaz Mark I boil off coefficient change by insulation thickness change

Table:Technigaz Mark III membrane tanks


x

m
0,3
0,31
0,32
0,33
0,34
0,35
0,36
0,37
0,38

Kisp %
0,14
0,135
0,131
0,126
0,122
0,118
0,115
0,112
0,108

Bg t / h
3,03
3,15
3,26
3,36
3,46
3,55
3,64
3,72
3,8

Dr t / h
56,78
55,15
53,64
52,22
50,89
49,64
48,47
47,37
46,33

Bp t / h
3,02
2,91
2,82
2,72
2,64
2,55
2,48
2,41
2,34

Bpi t / h
2,68
2,79
2,89
2,98
3,07
3,15
3,23
3,3
3,36

Dsteam[t/h]

36,78
35,15
33,64
32,22
30,89
29,64
28,47
27,37
26,33

135

0,39
0,4
0,41
0,42
0,43
0,44
0,45
0,46
0,47
0,48
0,49
0,5

0,105
0,103
0,1
0,098
0,095
0,093
0,091
0,089
0,086
0,085
0,083
0,081

3,87
3,94
4
4,06
4,12
4,18
4,23
4,28
4,33
4,38
4,42
4,46

45,35
44,42
43,54
42,7
41,91
41,15
40,43
39,74
39,08
38,45
37,85
37,28

2,28
2,21
2,16
2,1
2,05
2
1,95
1,91
1,87
1,83
1,79
1,75

3,43
3,49
3,55
3,6
3,65
3,7
3,75
3,79
3,84
3,88
3,92
3,96

25,35
24,42
23,54
22,70
21,91
20,43
19,74
19,08
18,45
17,85
17,28
17,3

Legend:
x- insulation thickness
Kisp- boil off coefficient
Bg-required fuel oil quantity
Dr- available steam quantity by burning minimum FO and boil off
Bp- boil off quantity
Bpi-forced vaporized gas for gas burning only
Dsteam- steam to be dump when vessel is on anchorage

0.16
0.14
0.12
0.1
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0
0.5

0.48

0.46

0.44

0.42

0.4

0.38

0.36

0.34

0.32

0.3

boil-off coefficient

Figure 79.
Technigaz Mark III boil off coefficient change by insulation thickness change
The optimal insulation thickness calculation refer to use high quality insulation
materials, with lower heat transfer coefficient. By application of better insulation
materials boil off is reduced, cargo transported quantity increased and damp steam
quantity reduced. The vessels build 20 years ago have cargo containment systems
with less insulation thickness and higher boil off coefficient. New buildings have
improved insulation and less number of tanks what also reduce boil off.
Optimal cargo containment system should have four cargo tanks with insulation of
polyurethane foam with insulation thickness of 350mm and boil off coefficient
arround 0.15% per day. These ships should have forced boil off instalation for gas
burning only. Gas burning only transforms LNG carriers to air friendly systems by
important reducing of air pollution and save lot of boiler maintenance cost.
The forced boil off equipment is very small investment because main parts of these
equipment already exists on each LNG tanker.

136

IV

1. RECEIVING TERMINALS
These terminals are third main part in LNG transfer chain. Main purpose of these
terminals are:
- LNG cargo reception from vessel,
- LNG storage,
- Vaporisation and dispatching toward consumers.

Vaporiser gas firing


condenser
torch

to consumers

High pressure pump


Vaporiser sea water
Tat
Tank

gas compressors
pump
Compensation cylinder
Sea water pumps
Ship manifold

137

Figure 80.

Receiving terminal
scheme
The receiving terminal and vessel are connected by identical hard arms as on the
production terminals. New terminals are designed to be able receive the different
capacity vessels, in range from 40 000 m3 to 140 000 m3. The ship and shore pipelines
diameter provide discharge rate up to 12 000 m3/h. The storage tanks and cargo
handling equipment are same as on production terminals. From the storage tanks LNG
is directed by low pressure pumps to suction of high pressure pumps. The high
pressure centrifugal pumps raise pressure to 100 bars what is in same time pressure of
terminal delivery line. LNG under this pressure enters to vaporisers. The LNG
vaporisation process is performed in range above critical pressure what significantly
reduce vaporisation costs.
Boil off from terminal storage tank is used for ships cargo tanks pressure control. Part
of boil off is liquefied in condenser and sent to vaporisers. In case of condenser
problem gas pressure is controlled by burning at torch.
Using LNG cold energy and cooling effects on these terminals open a lot of
possibilities. The main possibilities is nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and hydrogen
production.
These terminals have huge electricity consumption for driving of high pressure pumps
and sea water pumps. Electric power plant inside terminal considerably increase
efficiency of whole system.
To reach a decision for place and capacity of receiving terminal a detailed
preliminary studies must be done. The terminal position depends of a great number of
parameters such are: ground quality, sea depth, sea currents, area seismic condition,
tide amplitude, public beaches, industrial zone and terrorism threat.
The increased safety and security requirements refer towards in ground LNG storage
tanks.

Ground level

Insulation
Reinforced concrete

Foundation

138

FiIn ground LNG storage tank

2. BASIC PROCESS CHARACTERISTIC OF TERMINAL


2.1. GAS EVAPORATION QUANTITY
Gas evaporation quantity depend of consumers needs. On the basis of these needs
daily, weekly and annually plans are calculated. For example planned receiving
terminal at Croatian island Krk should have annual production of 5 109 m3(n)/year.
Average quantity of LNG that must be evaporated can be calculated by next
expression:
qh = qg / K H

( 1.1)

where is: qh - LNG quantity per hour m3/h


qg evaporated gas quantity per year m3(n)/year
K LNG/gas ratio ( 1m3 of LNG gives ~ 600m3 of gas)
H running hours per year
The quantity of LNG that have to be evaporated is
qh = 5 109 / 600 800
The calculated quantity is average quantity. In case of special needs this quantity
can be extend to certain maximum quantity. Minimal quantity of evaporated gas is
that quantity at which terminal can still operate.
The vaporiser unit number is determined on basis of above calculated value. For
presented example that number is 5 if each unit evaporate 250 m3/h.

2.2. STORAGE CAPACITY


Total storage capacity of LNG receiving terminal can be calculated by next
expression
S = [C + (tz tmin) q ] / k

(1.2)

Where are: S total LNG storage capacity (m3)


C LNG carrier capacity (m3)
tz max. late time of ship (h)
tmin - minimum unloading time (h)
q LNG quantity to evaporate (m3/h)
k coefficient of safety (k=0.75)

139

Most of LNG carriers have capacity of 125 000 m3. If maximal ship late time is 72 h,
minimal unloading time is 14 h and LNG evaporating rate is 1041 m3/h then storage
capacity is
S = [125000 +(72 14) 1041] / 0.75 = 247170 m3
The receiving terminal which deliver 5 109 m3 (n) / year should have two storage
tank with capacity of 125 000m3 or three tanks of 80 000m3.
2.3. GAS EVAPORATION PROCESS
Thermodynamic state of liquid gas in tanks is defined by:
- pressure 1. 1bar,
- temperature 160 C.
and presented by point 1. in diagram in Figure 82.

p
(bar)
80

72

liquid

gas

1
1.1
-160

-50

10

t (C)

Figure 82.LNG vaporisation process


Final requested gas thermodynamic state in delivery pipeline is:
- pressure 80 bar,
- temperature 10 C,
presented by point 2 in above diagram.
Vaporizers are designed for working pressure of the maximum discharge pressure of
the LNG pump.
The most economic way to evaporate LNG, what means from state defined by point 1
come to state defined by point 2, is pressurize LNG up to 80 bar and heat it at that
pressure to 10 C. The pressurisation of LNG form 1 bar to 80 bar need 30 times less
energy than pressurisation of evaporated gas. The energy needed for high pressure
pump drive can be calculated by expression

140

W = {g [ z + (p/g) + x]}/

(1.3)

Where are: W energy kJ/kg


g gravity
- efficiency
zxp- pressure difference
- density of LNG
Total power is
P = ( QW) / 3600

kW

(1.4)

Where are: W energy (kJ/kg)


- density (kg/m3)
Q LNG flow (m3/h)
Liquid flow calculation through pumps gives p as function of flow
p =( v2/g) k vQ

(1.5)

Where is: v peripheral velocity, v = (m/s)


- angular velocity (rad/s)
g gravity (9.81 m/s)
Q LNG flow (m3/h)
k empirical coefficient for LNG pumps

80
p
(bar)

P (kW)

60
P
40

0
flow Q( m3/h)

Figure 83.
High pressure centrifugal pump performance characteristic
LNG centrifugal pump are often exposed to cavitations problem. On the suction
side, due to pressure drop and acceleration of liquid, partially LNG evaporation
cause unstable operation , pressure drop and cavitations.

141

2.4. LNG HEAT EXCHANGERS


LNG heating and evaporation process under high pressure is performed in heat
exchangers. There are two type of heat exchangers:
- sea water contra-flow heat exchangers,
- heat exchangers with water heated by gas firing.
The energy for heating and evaporation can be calculated by expression
E = c ( h1 h2 ) (kJm3 )

(1.6)

Where is: h1 liquid enthalpy (kJ/kg)


h2 evaporated gas enthalpy (kJ /kg)
c - specific heat of evaporation (kJ/kg C)
Estimated energy is E = 300 000 kJ/m3 of LNG

2.4.1. SEA WATER HEAT EXCHANGERS


LNG sea water heat exchangers contains lot of number vertical aluminium tube
panels. The panels are grouped in several sections. In these contra-flow heat
exchangers LNG is progressively heated and continuously evaporated. The heat
exchangers efficiency greatly depend of:
- water quality which have to be filtered,
- stable water flow over tube panels,
- aluminium tube groove profile.
The LNG sea water heat exchangers have to be protected against wind therefore
they are placed between concrete walls. Sea water quantity needed for
evaporation of one m3 of LNG can be calculated by next expression
E = mv cv ( T1 T2)

(1.7)

Where is: E energy for evaporation of 1 m3 of LNG


- heat exchange efficiency coefficient
mv water mass (kg)
cv water specific heat (4,18 kJ/kg C)
( T1 T2)- temperature difference between inlet and outlet of heat
exchanger
For temperature difference of 3 K sea water needed mass for evaporation of 1 m3 of
LNG is 24 000 kg.
The heat quantity exchanged by one sea water contra flow heat exchanger can be
calculated by expression

142

E = {k A [ (T2 Tlng) (T1 Tg)]} / log [(T2 Tlng) (T1 Tg)

(1.8)

Where is: k heat transfer coefficient (W/m2 K)


A heat exchange surface (m2)
T1 inlet sea water temperature K
T2 outlet sea water temperature (K)
Tlng inlet LNG temperature (K)
Tg - outlet gas temperature (K)
In case when the sea water temperature is too low and LNG evaporation is slow
down, sea water heater can be used. The receiving terminal in Montoir France has
twenty sea water heaters capable to increase water temperature from 10 C to
15 C.
2.4.2. LNG EVAPORATION BY GAS FIRING
LNG heating and evaporation by the gas firing part of delivered gas is used as a
fuel for this kind of evaporators. The heat exchanger tubes are immersed in water.
The heat produced by gas burning is exchanged with water through combustion
chamber wall.
Handling of this system is more complex than handling with sea water heat
exchangers. The quantity of evaporated LNG is controlled by water temperature
and changeable fuel gas quantity. Part of gas that has to be burned is 1.5% of total
evaporated gas quantity. The LNG heating and evaporation by this way is more
costly in regard to evaporation by sea water heat exchangers. It is used only in
case of:
- sea water heat exchangers problem,
- in extreme cold condition,
- limited sea water quantity.
Third case is characteristic for LNG receiving terminal in Lake Charles, Louisiana.
2.5 CALORIFIC VALUES ADJUSTMENT
Liquefied Natural Gas is playing an increasingly important role in the worlds
energy sources. LNG import sources are more and more diversified. As a result, the
calorific values of LNG imported from different sources are different. Supplying the
constant calorific value of natural gas is important to customers as well as gas
companies.
The fluctuation results in the significant loss of cash flow to gas suppliers and gas
supply quality to customers.
The calorific value adjustment systems currently used are classified into two
categories:
- boosting up calorific value
- reducing calorific value.
Two methods are currently adopted to supply customers with standardized gas, which
has some allowance of calorific value. The Standardized Calorific Value (SCV) is
used as the basis for consumer gas price. The allowable fluctuation of the SCV is
143

specified by regulations in most countries. The main objective of a calorific


adjustment system is to protect both interests of the customers and suppliers.
The supply of the constant calorific value of natural gas is linked directly with gas
quality.
The reduced calorific value adjustment systems are generally used to reduce calorific
value by injecting nitrogen or air into the gas network grid, which contains a high
calorific value of natural gas. Energy cost in pressurization of nitrogen or air is
considerably
high. One of the advanced systems is to pressurize liquid nitrogen produced by the air
separation plant using LNG cold energy.
The other method is to increase calorific value by injecting or blending rich gas
(Liquefied Petroleum Gas - LPG) into a low calorific value of natural gas. The
reasons for this method are
- to increase different amount of calorific value within each different source
in order to provide the SCV of natural gas to customers,
- to increase transportation efficiency. Once pipeline networks have been constructed,
it is difficult to re-build or increase in size especially in a megalopolis. However, gas
demand increases with a rising population and living standard. The viable option in
this case is to increase transportation efficiency by increasing calorific value. The
amount of energy transported through pipelines will then be increased under the same
transport conditions

3. FLOATING TERMINALS
In regard to LNG expanding business and relatively small number of places for
receiving terminal construction at the seaside LNG floating terminal are taken in
consideration. The first idea was to transform older LNG carriers to receiving
terminals. The second considered design was to built concrete floating terminal where
all system equipment is installed. There are also production floating terminal
proposal.

4. PEAK SHAVING PLANTS


The natural gas consumption variation during the year and consumption increase
forced the responsible for gas distribution in Cleveland, USA in 1941 to built second
gas pipeline which reduced but not completely covered the remarked problem. The
costs of third pipeline were higher than the plant which could in summer time liquefy
and storage surplus of gas and distribute it during the higher gas demand. So it was
decided to built first peak shaving plant.
A peak-shaving plant liquefies and stores excess natural gas to overcome mismatches
between supply and demand. Compared with base-load plants, the capacities of peak
shaving plants is smaller. The liquefaction capacity of a peak-shaving plant is
generally 1/10 of the peak load, but the capacity for storage and vaporization is much
higher than its liquefaction capacity.
Natural gas industrial consumers daily rate is relatively stable during whole year.
Daily rate of domestic consumers is very unstable during the year. During the winter
daily rate can be 10-15 times more than during the summer time. LNG peak shaving
plants are best solution to cover these rate difference due to their ability to deliver

144

large gas quantity in short time. These plants are located on the end of natural gas
distribution networks, near big cities and near winter tourist places.
Requirements for plant location selection are similar as for LNG receiving terminals.
The plants consists of natural gas purifying unit, liquefaction unit , storage tanks and
re-gasification unit.

5. LNG SATELLITE STATIONS


The primary role of an LNG satellite system (as a peak shaving plant) is to inject NG
on the pipeline nod, where the operational pressure of the pipeline is dropped, due to
an increase in seasonal gas demand after the construction of a pipeline network. The
peak gas demand is generally related to weather conditions. To construct a new gas
pipeline or increase capacity of a rental pipeline in order to meet the peak gas
demand is uneconomical.

6. LNG AND NATURAL GAS CONSUMMERS


Natural gas can substitute various fuels in different sectors offering both economic
and environmental advantages. Natural gas can be used directly to generate power, as
a feedstock for fertilizers and petrochemicals or be used in vehicles in place of
conventional liquid fuel. It is possible to achieve a 25 % reduction in fuel costs. No
other fuel approaches natural gas for ease or completeness of combustion. The gas
burner can be of the simplest kind. When derived from LNG it is the cleanest of all
fuels. The products of combustion are not corrosive and will not affect any material
being heated. Natural gas vehicles easily meet the requirements of exhaust emission
standards.
The main applications for LNG as a fuel are in industrial, transport and domestic
fields. The purity and composition of natural gas makes it an ideal fuel for steel
making, glass and ceramics industry.
6.1. ELECTRIC GENERATION POWER PLANT
The trend world wide in the electric power generation is capacity with Combined
Cycle Gas Turbines (CCGT), using natural gas as fuel, instead of the traditional oil
and coal fired power plants for both economical and environmental reasons.
Recently, an increasing number of power stations have been constructed with
combined-cycle power generation due to its high thermal efficiency and ease of startup and shutdown. There is a trend toward increasing the fuel gas pressure because it
increases the combined-cycle power generation system efficiency. As a result, the
existing power stations often find that the fuel gas pressure is not high enough when
the introduction of a high-efficiency, combined-cycle power generator is planned. For
LNG thermal power plants, the outlet gas from the BOG compressors should be
further compressed to higher pressures. Economically, the higher efficiency of power
generation that can be achieved by increasing the pressure of BOG is more beneficial
145

than burning BOG in a conventional system, even with added the cost for boosting the
pressure. If BOG is boosted to the required pressure, the temperature of BOG at the
outlet of compressors rises close to 200C. This temperature could cause problems for
the piping after the compressor. Thus, the gas should be cooled at the compressor
outlet before it is fed to the piping. Generally, water is used for the cooling gas. Using
LNG cold energy for gas turbine systems cooling down increase plant efficiency up to
60%.

Figure 84.
Gas turbine for electric power plant
The Gas turbines electric power generation plant has several advantages in regard to
others power generation plants:
- the cleanest burning of all others fuels,
- reduced cost of construction and maintenance of plant,
- reduced time of construction,
- less needed area for construction and less cooling water mass for system
refrigeration enable construction of these plants very near consumers what
reduced high voltage distribution network cost.

6.2. NATURAL GAS FOR AIR CONDITION AND HEATING


The demand for air conditioning has been increased rapidly with economic progress
and income in terms of comfortable and convenient residential environment.
Due to the rapid increase of air conditioning demand, the sharp decrease of reserved
electrical power in summer has become a great concern. One of the effective ways to
cope with the power problem in summer is considered to be gas cooling technology.
Gas air conditioning technology reduces gas turn down ratio up to about 3:1 and
allows electric and gas industry to have efficient energy demand management
annually.
While electric power is consumed greatly in the summer owing to the rapid increase
in the demand for electric power for cooling and moderately in the winter, natural gas
is consumed greatly in the winter owing to the rapid increase in the demand for
natural gas for heating, but moderately in the summer. Due to this seasonal unbalance
pattern to consume electric power and natural gas, a need for consuming the two
energy sources in terms of mutual complement between them has been intensively
raised. One of alternative solutions for meeting such need is to disseminate the gas
cooling system used in the summer.
Since the fuel cost for the gas cooling is much lower than that for the electric cooling,
the operating cost for this system is much saved in comparison with that for the
electric cooling system.
As the control of the use of Freon Gas is getting to be strengthened according to

146

Framework Convention on Climate Change and Global Environment Round, the


market of the gas cooling and heating system as an alternative to substitute freon gas
with natural gas for the cooling load is forecasted to be expanded greatly.
6.3. NATURAL GAS VEHICLES (NGV)
Natural Gas Vehicles (NGV) have been introduced in an attempt to reduce urban
air pollution and to provide energy security.
Urban air pollution has results from mobile source that is motorized vehicle. The
number of passenger cars has increased rapidly in last 30 years. The problem of air
pollution by exhaust gas of cars is getting more serious as time goes on because it is
expected that the number of vehicles will increase up . Comparing with the pollution
of gasoline (including LPG), which represents 35%(69.3% of vehicles) and diesel
with 65% (30.7% of vehicles) of total vehicle induced pollution, it can be seen the
pollution level of diesel is very high. In fact heavy-duty diesel buses and trucks alone,
which represent a mere 4% of the total vehicles registered, contributed 47% of the
total vehicular emission amount. Vehicular air pollution in the metropolitan area,
which accounted for 55% of total air pollution in 1991, rose to 86% in 1999. Urban
bus emissions are considered the primary source of air pollution in cities.
NGV was similar to diesel vehicle in general performance but its passing acceleration
performance falls short because of characteristics of the gas engine. In car
management, the engine oil exchange period of NGV would be longer than that of
diesel vehicle. When comparing NGV with a diesel vehicle, nitrous oxide (Nox),
hydrocarbons (HC) emissions were reduced to about 30-40 % less than that of diesel
vehicle and particulates matter (PM) was not emitted at all in NGV. Because noise and
vibration were lower than those in diesel vehicle, many passengers prefer the use of a
natural gas bus.
Because we live and operate in free market economy any alternative fuel to be
successful must be competitive and save money for all parties involved. On board
NGV fuel supply can be in form of compressed natural gas ( CNG) or in form of
LNG. There is opinion that LNG competes with diesel and CNG competes with
gasoline. CNG systems will be preferred for vehicle now using gasoline and LNG
systems will be preferred for heavy duty vehicles now using diesel.
CNG infrastructure and powerful lobbies slow down implementation of NGV. The
construction of CNG refueling stations can be done at a reasonable cost. It has been
seen that compressed natural gas is a safe fuel to use in vehicles. CNG has been
extensively used in many countries.
6.3.1

Cars powered by fuel cells

In case that car makers turn to fuel cells powered vehicles the natural gas will be
most probably used for hydrogen production. Fuel cells combine hydrogen and
oxygen to produce electricity with heat and water as the only by products. All car
makers research the use of fuel cells for a new generation of cars.
Cars powered by fuel cells can travel a long way on one charge of hydrogen before
requiring refuelling.
Fuel cells first come in use when they were used to generate electricity on space
flights. There are hundred of others applications from house independent electric
147

power supply to laptop computers. It can be used for generating electricity on a large
scale too. It is very reliable power source and can be cheaper than an internal
combustion engine.
6.4. PROJECTS OF ALTERNATIVE NATURAL GAS TRANSPORT BY SHIP
All the major oil companies are working on an economically feasible way to
transform natural gas into a liquid fuel similar to diesel, that can be then transported
by pipeline or simple tanker. Shell already have built gas-to-liquid plant. The process
has been discovered (1923) by two German scientist, Franz Fisher and Hans Tropsch.
During World war II it was used to produce liquid fuel from synthetic gas produced
by coal. The process of converting natural gas into a liquid consists of three steps:
- syngas generation, the natural gas or methane is first converted into synthetic gas,
a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide
- hydrocarbon synthesis, using steam and water the synthetic gas is converted into
wax,
- upgrading, using hydrogen, the wax is converted into room temperature liquid .

LITERATURE
[1] Cargo Containement System, Gaz Transport presentation, External Document
1056 Trappes, 1993.
[2] Code For The Construction And Equipement Of Ships Carrying Liquified Gases
In Bulk, IMCO, 1972.
[3] Coutray, R,, Diesel-Electric Propulsion For LNG Carriers, GEC Alsthom
Technical Review No. 16-1995.
[4] Definition Technique Des Essais Methanier De 125000 m3 "Mostefa Ben
Boulaid", Chantier Navals De La Ciotat, Ciotat, 1975.
[5] Bosnjakovic, F., Nauka o toplini, II dio, Tehnicka knjiga, Zagreb, 1976.
[6] Garguet, M,, Courtay, R,, Harre, R,, A Cost Effective Solution For Next
Generation Of LNG Carriers, Chantiers De L'Atlantique, St, Nazairet, 1993.
[7] Gastech 93, LNG/LPG Conference - Paris, Gastech RAI Ltd., London 1993.
[7] Gastech 96, LNG/LPG Conference - Vienna, Gastech RAI Ltd., London 1996.
[8] Guide De Conduite De Chauffe Au Gaz, Chantiers Navals De La Ciotat, Ciotat
1975.
[9] Instruction For The Tightness Of The Secondary Barrier, Technigaz, Maurepas,
1984.

148

[10] LNG 1, 2, 3, 4, Centre De Formation Aux Technique Gazieres, Ecole Des Mines
De Paris, 1993.
[11] Manutention De Cargaison, Technigaz, Maurepas, France, 1976.
[12] McGuire, G., White, B., Liquefied Gas Handling Principles, SIGTTO, London,
1986.
[13] Nelson W.L., Petroleum Refinery Engineering, McGraw Hill Book Co, New
York, 1958
[14] Ozretic, V., Brodski pomocni strojevi i uredaji, Rijecka tiskara, Rijeka, 1978.
[15] Prelec, Z., Brodski generatori pare, Skolska knjiga, Zagreb, 1990.
[16] Prirodni plin, Ina-Naftaplin, Zagreb, 1989.
[17] Sretner, J., Brodski parni kotlovi, Sveuciliste u Zagrebu, 1975.
[18] The LNG observer 1991, Institute Of Gas Technology, Chicago, 1991.
[19] Wooler R.G., Marine Transportation of LNG and Related Products, Cornell
Maritime Press, INC., Cambridge, Maryland, 1975.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

Share of natural gas in world energy consumption


Growth of natural gas production
Growth international trade with natural gas
Growth trade with natural liquefied gas
Phase diagram of hydrocarbon mixture
LNG liquefaction plant flow diagram
Chemical absorption
Natural gas drying
Theoretical work for liquefying gas in h-s diagram
Theoretical work for liquefying gas in T-s diagram
Joule Thompson valve
Liquefaction of natural gas by J-T valve
Liquefaction of natural gas by J-T valve in T-s diagram
Claude liquefaction process
Classical cascade liquefaction cycles
Integrated cascade liquefaction cycles
APCI liquefaction process

149

18. LNG storage in frozen ground


19. Double wall LNG storage tank
20. Reinforced double integrity self supporting tank
21. Loading and unloading arm
22. Powered emergency release coupling
23. Spherical system, Moss Rosenberg
24. Spherical tank insulation
25. Spherical tank zone
26. Scheme of Gaz Transport system
27. Insulation of Gaz Transport membrane cargo containment system
28. Scheme of Technigaz system Mark I
29. Insulation system of Technigaz Mark I
30. Insulation system of Technigaz Mark III
31. Mark I secondary barrier tightness measurement diagram
32. Mark I system periodical NPA survey diagram
33. Membrane cargo tank temperature distribution
34. Relief valves high pressure openings
35. Relief valves low pressure openings
36. Cargo pump
37. Emergency pump lowering equipment
38. Cofferdam heating system
39. Inerting operation diagram
40. Inert gas production plant
41. Inerting operation scheme
42. Gassing up operation scheme
43. Cooling down operation scheme
44. Loading operation scheme
45. Boil off to boilers scheme
46. Unloading operation scheme
47. Warming up operation scheme
48. Nitrogen generator system
49. Liquid nitrogen system
50. The radar level measurement principle
51. Capacitance level gauge system
52. Float level gauge
53. Superheated steam distribution
54. Steam propulsion plant main engine
55. Main boilers
56. Gas distribution to boilers
57. Steam dump system
58. Gas preparation for gas turbine
59. Propulsion plant with gas turbine
60. Diesel electric propulsion plant
61. Unit for complete boil off re-liquefaction
62. Unit for partial re-liquefaction
63. Steam distribution- full speed
64. Steam distribution for anchorage
65. Steam distribution for unloading
66. Fuel oil and gas consumption in regard to propulsion plant load
67. Stationary heat conduction through a flat wall

150

68. Heat conduction through flat multi layer wall


69. Heat conduction through spherical wall
70. Spherical tank elementary surfaces
71. Membrane tank geometric characteristics and elementary surfaces
72. Basic tank structure model
73. Spherical tank structure model
74. Ballast tank area 2 structure model
75. Cost increase in correlation to insulation thickness
76. Spherical tanks boil off coefficient
77. GazTransport boil off coefficient
78. Technigaz Mark I boil off coefficient
79. Technigaz Mark III boil off coefficient
80. Receiving terminal scheme
81. In ground LNG storage tank
82. LNG Vaporisation process
83. High pressure centrifugal pump performance characteristic
84. Gas turbine for electric power plant

LIST OF TABLES
1.Composition of gases from different sources (in percentages)
2.Lower explosions limits of natural gas ingredients
3.Upper explosions limits depending from pressure rising
4. Characteristics of Moss Rosenberg system
5.Characteristics of system for steam cooling

LIST OF SYMBOLS
Latin letters
a coefficient of temperature conductance
a1 geometrical characteristic of tank
A area
Au complete area of double hull
A1A7 surfaces of characteristic areas
b geometrical characteristic of tanks
b1 geometrical characteristic of tanks
Bg quantity of heavy fuel oil
Bpi quantity of gas which need to be vaporized
Bp quantity of vaporized gas
cp specific heat capacity at p=const.
C capacity of the ship
Cc constant of black matter radiation

m2/s
m
m2
m2
m2
m
m
t/h
t/h
t/h
J/(kgK)
m3
W/m2 (100K)4

151

d diameter of spherical tank


m
D quantity of steam
t/h; kg/h
Dgm quantity of steam given with gas combustion
t/h
Dgu quantity of steam loses
t/h
Dkol quantity of steam for collector working on 13 bar
t/h
Dnis not used quantity of steam
t/h
Dp quantity of steam given by combustion of minimal fuel quantity
t/h
Dpot quantity of steam needed for ship propulsion
t/h
Dr given quantity of steam
t/h
Dtg quantity of steam for turbo-generator propulsion
t/h
Dtnp quantity of steam for turbo feed pump propulsion
t/h
Dpul quantity of steam for auxiliary equipment propulsion
t/h
e thickness of steel plate, changing thickness of isolation
m
ef exergia
kJ/kg
g acceleration of gravity force
m/s2
h height
m
hp enthalpy of superheated steam
kJ/kg
hnv enthalpy of feed water
kJ/kg
h0,h1,h2,h3 geometrical characteristic for tank
m
H geometrical characteristic for ballast tank
m
number of working hours
Hdn lower heating value for natural gas
kJ/kg
l length of tank
m
work
kJ/kg
L distance between barriers inside ballast tank
m
Latent heat of LNG vaporization
kJ/kg
k safety coefficient
K proportion between liquefied and vaporized gas
Kisp coefficient of gas vaporization
%/day
kp experience coefficient of heat conductivity
W/m2
n number of days travelling
q density of heat flow
W/m2
qi density of heat flow thru tank isolation
W/m2
2
qk density of heat flow by convection W/m
qp
qpk
qu
qv
qz
Q

density of heat flow by conductivity


density of heat flow by natural convection
density of heat flow between two plates
density of heat flow between surroundings and outer plate
density of heat flow by radiation
heat

qh
qg
r
R
R1
R2

W/m2
LNG quantity per hour
LNG quantity vaporized per year
radius
radius of spherical tank
inner radius of spherical tank
outer radius of spherical tank

W/m2
W/m2
W/m2
W/m2
W/m2

m3/h
m3/god.
m
m
m
m

152

s entropy
t
time
T temperature
Tb temperature of ballast tank
Tm temperature of seawater
To temperature of surroundings
Tpl temperature of liquefied gas
Tuo temperature of inner hull plate
Tvo temperature of outer hull plate
T1..T7 temperatures of characteristic areas
v
velocity
V volume of tank
Visp vaporized quantity of gas
Vp quantity of transported cargo
Vu quantity of loaded cargo
x isolation thickness

kJ/K
s
K; oC
K
K
K
K
K
K
K
m/s
m3
m3
m3
m3
m

Greek symbols
coefficient of heat conductance
pk

W/(m2K)
coefficient of heat conductance by natural convection
volume coefficient of temperature dilatation
plate thickness
emission coefficient
dynamic viscosity

W/(m
K
m

Ns/m2
kot boiler efficiency
heat flow
heat conductivity
1..7 heat conductivity of isolation components
density
Boltzman constant
kinematics viscosity
temperature
geometrical characteristic
angle speed

W
W/(mK)
W/(mK)
kg/m
W/(m2
m
K

rad/s

Shortcuts
LNG - Liquefied Natural Gas
IMO - International Maritime Organisation

153

NPA - Normalised Porosity Area


LEL - Low Explosion Limit
UEL - Upper Explosion Limit
MEA - Monoetanolamin
DIPA - Dizopropanolamin
APCI - Air Products & Chemical Inc.
MCR - Mixed Components Refrigerant
IACS - International Association of Classification Societies
IMCO - Intergovernmental Association of Classification Societies
NGV Natural gas vehicles
CNG Compressed natural gas
Non dimensional symbols of similarity
wd

c
Prandtls characteristic Pr

gd 3
Grashofs characteristic... Gr 2 T1 T 2

L
Nusselts characteristic Nu

Reynolds characteristic.. Re

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