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# CAMS

CAMS

Positive cams
.

Positive Return
cam

## Different types of follower

CAMS (Nomenclature)

Tangent

offset

al

.

.

.

## 1. The cycloid provides zero acceleration at both ends of action.

Hence it can be coupled to a dwell at each end.
. Because the pressure angle is relatively high and the
acceleration returns to zero unnecessarily, two cycloids should
not be coupled together.
2. The harmonic provides the lowest peak acceleration and
pressure angle of the three curves. Hence it is preferred when
the acceleration at both start and finish can be matched to the
. Because acceleration at the midpoint is zero, the half-harmonic
can often be used where a constant velocity rise follows an
acceleration.
. The half harmonic can also be coupled to a half-cycloid or to a
half-polynomial.
3. The eighth-power polynomial has a non-symmetrical
acceleration curve and provides a peak acceleration and
pressure angle intermediate between the harmonic and cycloid.

.

Cylindrical cam
.

.

.

## Analytical cam DesignFlat faced follower

If the displacement diagram is given by the mathematical equation
, then

and

## can be found from the equations:

*If is positive, (i.e. the follower moves away from the cam centre with
positive velocity),contact occurs above the axis of the follower.
*If is negative, (i.e. the follower moves towards the cam centre, the
velocity is negative), it indicates that the contact is below the axis of the
follower.
To find

and

## for the cam contour:

to avoid a cusp or point on the cam
surface needs to be determined analytically!

.

## Avoiding Cusps and Pointing on Cam Profile

.To find the minimum value of C, to avoid a cusp or a
point on the cam surface:
A cusp occurs when both
and
are equal to
zero. As the Figure
shows, that for both the
positions and
, the contact between the
follower face and cam occurs at
, because of the
cusp. Hence

and

## At cusp, the above

equations simultaneously
possible only if

## Avoiding Cusps and Pointing on Cam Profile

Hence, the sum of
must be checked for all
values of
to determine the minimum algebraic value.
The sum may be positive or negative.
If positive, C will be negative and has no practical
significance. In this case, the minimum radius will be
decided by the hub of cam, rather than by the function
After the minimum radius C has been determined and the
displacements R of the follower calculated, the cam can be
generated.
For the generating process, the length of the milling cutter
must exceed twice the maximum value of
During cutting, the axis of the milling cutter is parallel to
the plane of the cam.

## If there are several types of displacement curves

through which the follower passes, each must be
checked separately for min .
Radius of curvature at a point on a curve
expressed in Polar Co-ordinates is given by:

## Kloomok and Muffley have published nomograms to find out

values for various cam angles for different cam profile curves,
for various values of
.
So, knowing , and
, one can calculate
for any curve
such as cycloid , harmonic, parabola etc.. from K&M
monograms.
Knowing
, it can be ensured that
pointing and undercutting.

## The next step is to ensure that the maximum pressure angles

do not exceed 300 at any point in the profiles. This is done by
using the nomogram developed by VERNUM.

.

Globoidal cams
.