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CAMS

CAMS

Positive cams
.

Positive Return
cam

Different types of follower

CAMS (Nomenclature)

Tangent

offset

Radi
al

Cam Profiles (Uniform displacement)


.

Cam Profile(Harmonic Displacement)


.

Cam Profile(Parabolic displacement curves)

Cam Profiles(Cycloidal displacement)


.

Cam Profiles (Ref: Kloomok &Muffley)

Cam Profiles (Kloomok &Muffley)

Cam Profiles (Kloomok & Muffley)

Criteria for selection of profiles to suit different requirements

1. The cycloid provides zero acceleration at both ends of action.


Hence it can be coupled to a dwell at each end.
. Because the pressure angle is relatively high and the
acceleration returns to zero unnecessarily, two cycloids should
not be coupled together.
2. The harmonic provides the lowest peak acceleration and
pressure angle of the three curves. Hence it is preferred when
the acceleration at both start and finish can be matched to the
end -acceleration of adjacent profiles.
. Because acceleration at the midpoint is zero, the half-harmonic
can often be used where a constant velocity rise follows an
acceleration.
. The half harmonic can also be coupled to a half-cycloid or to a
half-polynomial.
3. The eighth-power polynomial has a non-symmetrical
acceleration curve and provides a peak acceleration and
pressure angle intermediate between the harmonic and cycloid.

Graphical construction of cam profile(Knife-edge follower)

Graphical construction of cam profile(Flat faced in-line follower)

Graphical construction of cam profile(in-line linear roller follower)

Graphical construction of cam profile(offset linear Roller follower)

Graphical construction of cam profile(Flat faced pivoted follower)

Graphical construction of cam profile(Pivoted Roller follower)

Positive Return Cam


.

Cylindrical cam
.

Inverse Cam (Follower driving the Cam)


.

Analytical cam DesignFlat faced follower


.

Analytical cam DesignFlat faced follower


If the displacement diagram is given by the mathematical equation
, then

and

can be found from the equations:

*If is positive, (i.e. the follower moves away from the cam centre with
positive velocity),contact occurs above the axis of the follower.
*If is negative, (i.e. the follower moves towards the cam centre, the
velocity is negative), it indicates that the contact is below the axis of the
follower.
To find

and

for the cam contour:

Now, the minimum radius


to avoid a cusp or point on the cam
surface needs to be determined analytically!

Undesirables in Cam profilesPointing and Cusping


.

Avoiding Cusps and Pointing on Cam Profile


.To find the minimum value of C, to avoid a cusp or a
point on the cam surface:
A cusp occurs when both
and
are equal to
zero. As the Figure
shows, that for both the
positions and
, the contact between the
follower face and cam occurs at
, because of the
cusp. Hence

and

At cusp, the above


equations simultaneously
possible only if

become zero. This is

Avoiding Cusps and Pointing on Cam Profile


Hence, the sum of
must be checked for all
values of
to determine the minimum algebraic value.
The sum may be positive or negative.
If positive, C will be negative and has no practical
significance. In this case, the minimum radius will be
decided by the hub of cam, rather than by the function
After the minimum radius C has been determined and the
displacements R of the follower calculated, the cam can be
generated.
For the generating process, the length of the milling cutter
must exceed twice the maximum value of
During cutting, the axis of the milling cutter is parallel to
the plane of the cam.

Analytical cam design---Disc cam with Roller follower

To decide on R0 value and to check for pointingof cam profile

Finding Radius of curvature at a point on a curve

If there are several types of displacement curves


through which the follower passes, each must be
checked separately for min .
Radius of curvature at a point on a curve
expressed in Polar Co-ordinates is given by:

Use of K & M nomograms to find min for K&M cam profilles

Kloomok and Muffley have published nomograms to find out


values for various cam angles for different cam profile curves,
for various values of
.
So, knowing , and
, one can calculate
for any curve
such as cycloid , harmonic, parabola etc.. from K&M
monograms.
Knowing
, it can be ensured that
pointing and undercutting.

is less that to avoid

The next step is to ensure that the maximum pressure angles


do not exceed 300 at any point in the profiles. This is done by
using the nomogram developed by VERNUM.

Varnums monogram for pressure angle


.

Kloomok and Muffley Design Monograms for Harmonic motion

Kloomok and Muffley Design Monograms for Harmonic motion

Kloomok and Muffley Design Monogram for cycloidal motion

Kloomok and Muffley Design Monograms for cycloidal motion

Globoidal cams
.