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A nth-order shear deformation theory for the bending analysis on the


functionally graded plates
Song Xianga*, Gui-wen Kanga

Liaoning Key Laboratory of General Aviation, Shenyang Aerospace University, No. 37 Daoyi South Avenue,

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Shenyang, Liaoning 110136, People's Republic of China


Abstract

This paper focus on the bending analysis of functionally graded plates by a nth-order shear deformation

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theory and meshless global collocation method based on the thin plate spline radial basis function. Reddys
third-order theory can be considered as a special case of present nth -order theory (n=3). The governing
equations are derived by the principle of virtual work. The displacement and stress of a simply supported
functionally graded plate under sinusoidal load are calculated to verify the accuracy and efficiency of the
present theory.

Keywords: nth-order shear deformation theory; Bending analysis; Functionally graded plates; Meshless; Thin
plate spline;
1. Introduction

In recent years, functionally graded materials had been utilized in the aerospace and other industries

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because of their superior heat-shielding properties. The functionally graded material for high-temperature
applications may be composed of ceramic and metal. The material properties of functionally graded material

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vary continuously along certain dimension of the structure, but that of the fiber-reinforced laminated
composite materials are discontinuous across adjoining layers which result in the delaminating mode of

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failure.

Many researchers have studied the behaviors of functionally graded plates. Vel and Batra [1] presented the
three-dimensional exact solution for the vibration of functionally graded rectangular plates. Ferreira et al. [2]
studied the static characteristics of functionally graded plates using third-order shear deformation theory and a
meshless method based on the multiquadrics radial basis function. Ferreira et al. [3] calculated the natural
frequencies of functionally graded plates by the multiquadrics radial basis function. Zenkour [4] proposed a
generalized shear deformation theory for bending analysis of functionally graded plates. Ferreira et al. [5]

Corresponding author. Tel.: +86 02489728667. Fax: +86 02489728690.


E-mail address: xs74342@sina.com (Song Xiang).

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studied the static deformations of functionally graded plates using the radial basis function collocation method
and a higher-order shear deformation theory. They select the shape parameter in the radial basis functions by
an optimization procedure based on the cross-validation technique. Carrera et al. [6] presented the static

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analysis of functionally graded material plates subjected to transverse mechanical loadings. The unified
formulation and principle of virtual displacements were employed to obtain both closed-form and finite
element solutions. Matsunaga [7] calculated the natural frequencies and buckling stresses of plates made of
functionally graded materials (FGMs) using a 2-D higher-order deformation theory. Carrera et al. [8]

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evaluated the effect of thickness stretching in plate/shell structures made by materials which are functionally
graded (FGM) in the thickness directions. Xiang et al. [9] proposed a n-order shear deformation theory for
free vibration of functionally graded and composite sandwich plates.

In recent years, the various higher order shear deformation theories were proposed to analyze the plates.
Touratier [10] presented a standard plate theory which accounts for cosine shear stress distribution and free
boundary conditions for shear stress upon the top and bottom surfaces of the plate. Soldatos [11] presented a
general two-dimensional theory suitable for the static and/or dynamic analysis of a transverse shear
deformable plate, constructed of a homogeneous, monoclinic, linearly elastic material and subjected to any

type of shear tractions at its lateral plane. Karama et al. [12] presented a new multi-layer laminated composite
structure model to predict the mechanical behaviour of multi-layered laminated composite structures. They

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introduced an exponential function as the shear stress function. Reddy [13] developed a higher-order shear
deformation theory which accounts for parabolic distribution of the transverse shear strains through the

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thickness of the laminated plate. Aydogdu [14] proposed a new higher order laminated composite plate theory
in which a new shear stress function was used.

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In this paper, a n-order shear deformation theory is used to analyze the static characteristics of functionally
graded plates. The present n-order shear deformation theory satisfies the zero transverse shear stress boundary
conditions on the top and bottom surface of the plate. The third-order theory of Reddy can be considered as a
special case of present n-order theory (n=3). Displacement and stress of the simply supported laminated plate
under sinusoidal load are computed by present n-order theory and a meshless global collocation method based
on the thin plate spline radial basis function. The results are compared with the available published results.
2. The governing equations based on the nth-order shear deformation theory
The displacement field of the n-order shear deformation theory is

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w( x, y)

z n x ( x, y) +

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V = v( x, y) + zy ( x, y)
nh

n1

w( x, y)
z n y ( x, y) +
, n = 3,5,7,9...
y

W = w( x, y)

(1)

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n1

12
U = u( x, y) + zx ( x, y)
nh

where u , v , w , x and y are the unknown displacement functions. h is the thickness of the plate.
The strain can be expressed in the form of
n 1

(2)

1 2
u
+z x
x
x n h

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2 w
zn x + 2
x x
1 2 n1 2 w
v
y = + z y zn y + 2
y
y n h
y y
n 1
y
u v x y 1 2
2w
n x
+

z
+
+
2
xy = + + z


y x y x n h
xy
y x
2 z n1
w
yz = 1 y +
h
y

2 z n1
w
xz = 1 x +
h
x

x =

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We obtain the following Euler-Lagrange equations using the dynamic version of the principle of virtual
displacements

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N x N xy
+
=0
x
y
N xy N y
+
=0
x
y

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2 P
Ry
2 Pxy 2 Py
Qx
R Qy
C2 x +
C2
+ C1 2x + 2
+
=q
x
x
x
y
y
xy y 2

P
M x
P M xy
C1 x +
C1 xy Qx + C2 Rx = 0
x
x
y
y
M xy
Pxy M y
Py
C1
+
C1
Qy + C2 Ry = 0
x
x
y
y
12
where C1 =
nh

n 1

2
, C2 =
h

n 1

(3)

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N =

h/ 2

h / 2

Q =

h/ 2

h / 2

dz , M =

h/ 2

h / 2

z dz , R =

h/ 2

h / 2

zdz , P =

z z n1dz ,

h/ 2

h / 2

z n dz

, = x, y

(4)

written as

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xx Q11 ( z ) Q12 ( z )
0
0
0 x


0
0
0 y
yy Q12 ( z ) Q11 ( z )


0
Q66 ( z )
0
0 xy
xy = 0

0
0
0
Q66 ( z )
0 yz

yz


0
0
0
Q66 ( z )
0
zx
zx
where

Q11 ( z ) =

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The stress-strain relationships of the functionally graded plate in the global x-y-z coordinate system can be

E(z)
E( z)
E(z)
Q12 ( z ) =
Q66 ( z ) =
2 ,
2 ,
2(1 + )
1
1

(5)

(6)

In the Eq. (6), is the Poissons ratio, the variation of Youngs modulus E is given as:
p

1 z
E ( z ) = ( E c Em ) + + Em
2 h

(7)

where Ec and Em denote the elasticity modulus of the ceramic and metal, respectively. p is power law index. z

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is the distance from mid-plane. h is the thickness of the plate. As can be seen Eq. (7), E ( z ) = Ec at the top
surface z / h = 0.5 , and E ( z ) = Em at the bottom surface z / h = 0.5 . Top surface of functionally graded

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plate is pure ceramic, and bottom surface is pure metal.


Substituting Eq. (2) and Eq. (5) into Eq. (4), the resultants of functionally graded plate can be expressed in terms

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of displacement as follows

y
x 2 w
y 2 w
x
u
v
N x = A11 + B11
C1E11
+ 2 + A12 + B12
C1E12
+ 2
x
x
y
y
y y
x x
N y = A12

2 w
2 w

u
v
+ B12 x C1E12 x + 2 + A11 + B11 y C1E11 y + 2
x
x
y
y
x x
y y

x y
x y
u v
2w
N xy = A66 + + B66
+
+
+2
C1E66

xy
y x
y x
y x

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2 w
2 w

u
v
+ D11 x C1EE11 x + 2 + B12 + D12 y C1EE12 y + 2
x
x
y
y
y y
x x

M y = B12

2 w
2 w

u
v
+ D12 x C1EE12 x + 2 + B11 + D11 y C1EE11 y + 2
x
x
y
y
y y
x x



u v
2w
M xy = B66 + + D66 x + y C1EE66 x + y + 2

xy
y x
y x
y x

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M x = B11

y
y 2 w
2 w

u
v
+ EE11 x C1H11 x + 2 + E12 + EE12
C1H12
+ 2
x
x
y
y
y y
x x

Py = E12

2 w
2 w

u
v
+ EE12 x C1H12 x + 2 + E11 + EE11 y C1H11 y + 2
x
x
y
y
y y
x x

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Px = E11



u v
2 w
Pxy = E66 + + EE66 x + y C1H 66 x + y + 2

xy
y x
y x
y x
w

Qx = ( A66 C2 DD66 ) x +
x

Aij =

h/2

h / 2

Qij ( z)dz , Bij =

h/2

h / 2

Fij =

h/ 2

h / 2

h/2

h / 2

zQij ( z )dz , Dij =

z n1Qij ( z )dz , Eij =

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DDij =

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w
Ry = ( DD66 C2 F66 ) y +
y

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Rx = ( DD66 C2 F66 ) x +
x

w
Qy = ( A66 C2 DD66 ) y +
y

h / 2

h/ 2

h / 2

z 2n2Qij ( z )dz , Hij =

h/ 2

h / 2

h/2

z 2Qij ( z)dz

z nQij ( z)dz , EEij =

h/2

h / 2

z 2nQij ( z)dz

z n+1Qij ( z )dz
(9)

By substituting Eq. (8) into Eq. (3), the governing equations in terms of displacements can be obtained as
follows:

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A11

2y 3w
2y
2 3w
2
2u
2v
+A12
+ B11 2x + B12
C1E11 2x + 3 C1E12
+
2
xy xy 2
x
xy
x
xy
x
x

2x 2y
2x 2y
2u 2 v
3 w
+A66 2 +
+
B
+

C
E
+
+
2

=0
66 2
1 66
2
xy
xy
xy2
y xy
y
y

(10)

y w
y
x w
x
+ B11 2 C1E12
+ 2 C1E11 2 + 3 = 0

xy
y
y
xy x y
y

+B12

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2x 2y
2x 2y
2u 2 v
3 w
2u
2v
A66
+ 2 + B66
+ 2 C1E66
+ 2 + 2 2 + A12
+ A11 2

x y
xy
y
xy x
xy x
xy x

(11)

2 w
2 w
2 w
2 w
A66 x + 2 C2 DD66 x + 2 + A66 y + 2 C2DD66 y + 2
x x
x x
y y
y y

2 w
2 w
2 w
2 w
C2 DD66 x + 2 C2 F66 x + 2 + DD66 y + 2 C2 F66 y + 2 +
x x
x x
y y
y y

3
3
3u
3 4 w
3
3v
4 w
C1 E11 3 + E12 2 + EE11 3x + EE12 2 y C1H11 3x + 4 C1H12 2 y + 2 2 +
x y x y
x y
x
x y
x
x
x

E12

(12)

3y 4 w
3y
3x
3x
3u
3v
4 w
+
E
+
EE
+
EE

C
H
+

C
H
+
11
12
11
1 12
1 11
2
2
2
y3 y4
xy 2
y3
xy 2
y3
xy x y

3x
3x
3y
3y
3u
3v
4 w
+2E66
+
+
+

+
+
2
2
2
EE
C
H

66
1
66
2
2
2
2

xy2 x2y
x2y2
xy x y
xy x y

=q

2y 3w
2y
2x 3w
2u 2v
2x
2u
2v
+B
+
D
+
D

C
EE
+

C
EE
+
+
B
+

1 12

12
11
12
1
11
66
2
2
2
x2
xy
x2
xy
x3
x
y xy
xy xy

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B11

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2 2y
2 2y
3 w
w
w
w

+D66 2x +
C1EE66 2x +
+2
A66 x + + 2C2 DD66 x + C22 F66 x +

2
y

xy
xy
xy
x
x
x

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2y
2y
2u
2 3w
2u 2v
2
2v
3 w
C1 E11 2 + E12
+ EE11 2x + EE12
C1H11 2x + 3 C1H12
+
+ E66 2 +

xy
x
xy
x
x
y xy
x
xy xy
2 2y
2 2y
3 w
C1H66 2x +
+2
+EE66 2x +

= 0
y
y
xy
xy
xy 2

(13)

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2x 2y
2x 2y
2u 2v
3 w
2u
B66
+ 2 + D66
+ 2 C1EE66
+ 2 + 2 2 + B12
+
xy x
xy x
x y
xy
xy x

2 3w
2
2x 3w
2x
2v
+ D12
+ D11 2y C1EE12
+ 2 C1EE11 2y + 3
2
y
y
xy
y
y
xy x y

2u 2 v

w
w
w
A66 y + + 2C2 DD66 y + C22 F66 y + C1 E66
+ 2 +
y
y
y

xy x
2x 2y
2x 2y
3 w
2u
2v
+ 2 C1H66
+ 2 + 2 2 + E12
+ E11 2 +
EE66
xy x

x y
xy
y

xy x
2y 3w
2y
2x 3 w
2x
+ 2 C1H11 2 + 3 = 0
+ EE11 2 C1H12
y
xy
y
y
xy x y

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EE12

(14)

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B11

For the simply supported plates, the boundary conditions are as follows:

x = 0, a : v = 0, y = 0, w = 0, M x C1Px = 0, N x = 0

y = 0, b : u = 0, x = 0, w = 0, M y C1Py = 0, N y = 0

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For the clamped supported plates, the boundary conditions are as follows:

u = 0, v = 0, w = 0, x = 0, y = 0
3. Solution methods

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According to the meshless global collocation method, the solutions of Eqs. (10-14) can be approximated in the

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form of

u = uj g (rij )eit

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j =1

v = vj g (rij )eit
j =1
N

w = wj g (rij )eit
j =1
N

x = j g (rij )eit
x

j =1
N

y = j g (rij )eit
y

(17)

j =1

where N is the total number of nodes,

uj , vj , wj , j and j are 5N unknown coefficients, is the


x

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natural frequency of free vibration, g ( rij ) is radial basis function, rij is the distance between the node Xi and
node Xj, The multiquadric, inverse multiquadric, Gaussian and thin plate spline radial basis functions include a
shape parameter which have important effect on the accuracy. The choice of the shape parameter in thin plate spline

plate spline radial basis function as follows:


r

g = rij6 log10ij

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radial basis function is easier than other radial basis functions. Radial basis function used in this paper is the thin

(18)

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Thin plate spline radial basis function has the disadvantage of singularity when the distance between two
nodes is zero. In order to eliminate the singularity of thin plate spline radial basis function, when the distance
between two nodes is zero, rij2 = rij2 + .

where is infinitesimal. The infinitesimal value of this paper is 110-30.

Substituting Eq. (17) into Eqs. (10-14) and boundary conditions. The discretized governing equations and
boundary conditions can be expressed as

19

Lg
q
Bg { } = 0

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Then

20

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Lg q
=
Bg 0

The deflection can be calculated by subsitituting the Eq. (20) into the third formulation of Eq. (17), the stress can

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be obtained by the constitutive equations.

4. Numerical examples

In the present paper, a simply supported square functionally graded plate of side a and thickness h under
sinusoidal load q is considered. The available published results for the static analysis of the clamped
functionally graded plates are very sparse, so only simply supported functionally graded plate is considered.
The form of the q is q = q0 sin( x / a ) sin( y / a ) . The functionally graded plate comprised of metal and
ceramic. The material properties of the metal and ceramic are as follows:
Metal:

Em =70GPa, m =0.3

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Ec =380GPa, c =0.3

Ceramic:

The meshless global radial point collocation method based on the thin plate spline radial basis function is
used to solve the governing differential equations. The node distribution is 21h21. Because the 21x21 node

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distribution can produce the results with good accuracy and is moderate in its computing time.

The transverse displacements, the normal stresses and the in-plane and transverse shear stresses are
presented in normalized form as:

xy =

xy (0, 0, h / 3)h
q0 a

, yz =

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y (a / 2, a / 2, h / 3)h
10h3 Ec w(a / 2, a / 2)
x (a / 2, a / 2, h / 2)h
,
,

=
w=
y
x
q0 a 4
q0 a
q0 a
yz (a / 2, 0, h / 6)h
q0 a

, xz =

xz (0, a / 2, 0)h
q0 a

Table 1 lists the dimensionless stresses and displacements of a simply supported functionally graded square
plate of a/h=10. It can be found that the present theory produces the close results to those of Zenkour [4] and
Carrera et al. [6], the accuracy of displacements is higher than that of stress, and the accuracy of plane shear
stress is higher than that of normal stress.

Figs. 1-4 show the dimensionless displacement and stress of a

functionally graded square plate (a/h=10, p=1). It can be found from the Figs. 1-4 that present theory with n=5

or 7 produce the more close results to those of Zenkour [4]. The differences with respect to the results of

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Zenkour [4] are due to the meshless global collocation method which has been used to solve the governing
equations. If there is derivative boundary condition, the solution accuracy of the meshless global collocation

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method will deteriorate.

In Figs. 59 we present the evolution of the displacement and stresses through the thickness direction for

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various p values. According to the Figs. 59, the p values have more influence on the transverse shear stress
than they do on the normal stress and plane shear stress.
The present results are also compared with the three-dimensional solutions of Kashtalyan [15] and the
refined two-dimensional solutions of Carrera et al. [6]. Kashtalyan [15] considers a simply supported square
plate of thickness h and side-to-thickness ratio a/h = 3. The load and boundary conditions are the same as the
above examples. The shear modulus is assumed to vary exponentially through the thickness (Poissons ratio is
considered to be constant) according to

G ( z ) = G1e ( z / h 0.5) , G1 =

E
, h / 2 z h / 2
2(1 + )

21

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The transverse displacement is presented in normalized form as:

w=

G1w( a / 2, a / 2)
q0 h

22

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The dimensionless displacements of a simply supported square plate with a/h = 3 are listed in Table 2.

According to the Table 2, with the increase of n value, the present results are gradually close to the
three-dimensional solutions of Kashtalyan [15] and the refined two-dimensional solutions of Carrera et al. [6].
5. Conclusions

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In this paper, a n-order shear deformation theory is used to analyze the static characteristics of functionally
graded plates. The third-order theory of Reddy can be considered as a special case of present n-order theory
(n=3). Displacement and stress of the simply supported functionally graded plate under sinusoidal load are
computed by present n-order theory and a meshless global collocation method based on the thin plate spline
radial basis function. The results are compared with available published results and the agreement is found to
be good. Through numerical experiments, it is found that present theory does not require any shear correction
factor and allows the user to experiment the best order number to approximate the structural problem under
investigation. If there is derivative boundary condition, the solution accuracy of the meshless global collocation

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method will deteriorate. The authors will study the improvement of solution accuracy in the future article.

References

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[1] Vel, S.S., Batra, R.C.: Three-dimensional exact solution for the vibration of functionally graded
rectangular plates. J Sound Vib 272, 703730 (2004)

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[2] Ferreira, A.J.M., Batra, R.C., Roque, C.M.C., et al.: Static analysis of functionally graded plates using
third-order shear deformation theory and a meshless method. Composite Structures 69(4), 449457
(2005)

[3] Ferreira, A.J.M., Batra, R.C., Roque, C.M.C., et al.: Natural frequencies of functionally graded plates by a
meshless method. Composite Structures 75 (14), 593600 (2006)
[4] Zenkour, A.M.: Generalized shear deformation theory for bending analysis of functionally graded plates.
Applied Mathematical Modeling 30, 6784 (2006)
[5] Ferreira, A.J.M., Roque, C.M.C., Jorge, R.M.N., et al.: Analysis of functionally graded plates by a robust
meshless method. Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Structures 14 (8), 577587 (2007)

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[6] Carrera, E., Brischetto, S., Robaldo, A.: Variable kinematic model for the analysis of functionally graded
material plates. AIAA Journal 46, 194203 (2008)
[7] Matsunaga, H.: Free vibration and stability of functionally graded plates according to a 2-D higher-order

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deformation theory. Composite Structures 82, 499512 (2008)


[8] Carrera, E., Brischetto, S., Cinefra, M., Soave, M.: Effects of thickness stretching in functionally graded
plates and shells. Composites Part B: Engineering 42, 123133 (2011)

[9] Xiang, S., Jin, Y.X., Bi, Z.Y., et al.: A n-order shear deformation theory for free vibration of functionally

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graded and composite sandwich plates. Composite Structures 93, 28262832 (2011)

[10] Touratier, M.: An efficient standard plate theory. Int J Eng Sci 29(8), 901916 (1991)
[11] Soldatos, K.P.: A transverse shear deformation theory for homogeneous monoclinic plates. Acta Mech 94,
195200 (1992)

[12] Karama, M., Afaq, K.S., Mistou, S.: Mechanical behaviour of laminated composite beam by new
multi-layered laminated composite structures model with transverse shear stress continuity. Int J Solids
Struct 40, 15251546 (2003)

[13] Reddy, J.N.: A simple higher-order theory for laminated composite plates. J Appl Mech 51, 745752

(1984)

[14] Aydogdu, M.: A new shear deformation theory for laminated composite plates. Compos Struct 89(1),

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94101 (2009)

[15] Kashtalyan, M.: Three-Dimensional Elasticity Solution for Bending of Functionally Graded Rectangular

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C

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Plates. European Journal of Mechanics A/Solids 23(5), 853864 (2004).

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Table 1 Dimensionless stresses and displacements of a functionally graded square plate (a/h=10)
Method

xy

Zenkour [4]

0.5889

3.0870

1.4894

0.6110

Carrera et al. [6]

0.5875

1.5062

0.6081

Present n=3

0.5895

3.2480

1.5287

Present n=5

0.5886

3.1018

1.5007

Present n=7

0.5878

3.0203

1.4830

Present n=9

0.5855

3.1006

1.5007

Zenkour [4]

0.7573

Carrera et al. [6]

0.7570

Present n=3

0.7581

Present n=5

0.7572

Present n=7

0.7549

Present n=9

0.7541

Zenkour [4]

0.8819

M
AN
US
C

0.6114

0.6198

0.5441

1.4147

0.5421

3.7062

1.4222

0.5559

3.5609

1.3960

0.5503

3.5946

1.4065

0.5513

3.4942

1.3828

0.5463

4.0693

1.1783

0.5667

0.8823

1.1985

0.5666

0.8824

3.9371

1.1474

0.5620

0.8809

4.0079

1.1796

0.5709

0.8746

4.1122

1.1939

0.5787

0.8742

4.1312

1.2037

0.5726

Zenkour [4]

0.9562

4.5971

0.9903

0.5834

Carrera et al. [6]

0.9554

1.0117

0.5852

Present n=3

0.9563

4.6568

1.0026

0.5868

Present n=5

0.9523

4.6667

1.0026

0.5957

Present n=7

0.9477

4.5561

1.0020

0.5922

Present n=9

0.9469

4.5469

0.9985

0.5877

Present n=5
Present n=7
Present n=9

EP

Present n=3

1.3954

Carrera et al. [6]

0.6205

3.6094

TE

0.6295

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Table 2 Dimensionless displacements of a simply supported square plate with a/h = 3

=10-1

=10-6

-1.4861

-1.4137

-1.4781

-1.4061

-1.4649

-1.3936

-1.4544

- 1.3835

11

-1.4463

-1.3759

13

- 1.4401

-1.3700

15

-1.4352

-1.3653

17

-1.4312

-1.3615

- 1.4279

- 1.3584

-1.4252

-1.3558

-1.4146

-1.3426

-1.4145

-1.3424

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19
21
Kashtalyan [15]

AC
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EP

TE

Carrera et al. [6]

13

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AC
C

EP

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Fig. 1. Dimensionless displacement of a functionally graded square plate (a/h=10, p=1)

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Fig. 2. Dimensionless stress x of a functionally graded square plate (a/h=10, p=1)

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Fig. 3. Dimensionless stress y of a functionally graded square plate (a/h=10, p=1)

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Fig. 4. Dimensionless stress xy of a functionally graded square plate (a/h=10, p=1)

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sinusoidal load (a/h=10, n=3, p=1, 2, 4, 7)

Fig. 5. Nondimensional stress x through the thickness direction of square functionally graded plate under

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AC
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sinusoidal load (a/h=10, n=3, p=1, 2, 4, 7)

Fig. 6. Nondimensional stress y through the thickness direction of square functionally graded plate under

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ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT

AC
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sinusoidal load (a/h=10, n=3, p=1, 2, 4, 7)

Fig. 7. Nondimensional stress xy through the thickness direction of square functionally graded plate under

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sinusoidal load (a/h=10, n=3, p=1, 2, 4, 7)

Fig. 8. Nondimensional stress xz through the thickness direction of square functionally graded plate under

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ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT

AC
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sinusoidal load (a/h=10, n=3, p=1, 2, 4, 7)

Fig. 9. Nondimensional stress yz through the thickness direction of square functionally graded plate under

22

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> A nth-order theory for bending analysis of the functionally graded plates.
> Present theory does not require any shear correction factor

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> Present theory allows the user to experiment the best order number.