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SCHAUM'S OUTLINE OF

THEORY AND PROBLEMS
OF

SET THEORY
and Related Topics
Second Edition
SUB Gottingen
210 400 110
99 B1928

U
SEYMOUR LIPSCHUTZ, Ph.D.
Professor of Mathematics
Temple University

SCHAUM'S OUTLINE SERIES
McGRAW-HILL
New York

San Francisco Washington, D.C. Auckland Bogota Caracas
London Madrid Mexico City Milan Montreal New Delhi
San Juan Singapore Sydney Tokyo Toronto

Lisbon

2 Functions. 6.1 Introduction. Euclidean Algorithm. 3. 5. 3.4 Sequences. 5.2 Real Number System R.1 Introduction.11 Complexity of Algorithms. Counting Principles.7 Integers Z (Optional Material). 5. 5. . Empty Set. . 3.7 Closure Properties.1 Introduction. Power Sets.11 n-Ary Relations. . 5.6 Ordering of Cardinal Numbers.8 Associated Set Functions.9 Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic.5 Venn Diagrams.1 Introduction.6 Set Operations. Fundamental Factorization. 2. 3.3 Order and Inequalities.3 Denumerable and Countable Sets. 4. 5. 1. 1. 4. 2. Summation Symbol. Duality. 5.2 Sets and Elements. Ordinals. 1.3 Relations. 2.11 Mathematical Induction.6 Types of Relations. .1 Introduction. 1.2 One-to-One Correspondence. 6. 6. Distance. 3. 2. 1. 2.7 Special Kinds of Functions.6 Bounded Sets.2 Product Sets. 4.5 Cardinal Numbers. Equipotent Sets.7 Cardinal Arithmetic. 6.2 Operations on Collections of Sets. 3.4 Subsets. 3.8 Partitions.Contents PART I Elementary Theory of Sets Chapter 1 SETS AND BASIC OPERATIONS ON SETS .10 Arguments and Venn Diagrams. 1 34 Chapter 3 RELATIONS 3. 94 Chapter 5 FURTHER THEORY OF SETS AND FUNCTIONS 117 5.3 Universal Set.9 Equivalence Relations. 1.4 One-to-One.6 Recursively Denned Functions. 2.5 Composition of Relations. 1. 2. Completion Property.9 Classes of Sets. 1.5 Intervals.5 Mathematical Functions.9 Choice Functions. Exponential and Logarithmic Functions.10 Algorithms and Functions.4 Real Numbers R and the Power of the Continuum. 1. 64 Chapter 4 FUNCTIONS 4. 3.6 Functions and Diagrams.4 Pictorial Representations of Relations.5 Fundamental Products. 6. Transfinite Induction CARDINAL NUMBERS 141 6.1 Introduction.10 Partial Ordering Relations.3 Indexed Collections of Sets. Chapter 2 SETS AND ELEMENTARY PROPERTIES OF THE REAL NUMBERS 2. 5. 4.4 Absolute Value. PART II Chapter 6 Cardinals. 3.3 Composition of Functions. 5. 1. 3.8 Greatest Common Divisor. 6.8 Finite Sets. 5. 1. Onto. 2. and Invertible Functions.12 Axiomatic Development of Set Theory. 1. 4.7 Algebra of Sets.

1 Introduction.4 Limit Elements. Quantifiers. 8. 11.4 Partially Ordered Sets and Hasse Diagrams. 11. 9. 10.10 Ordinal Addition.2 Cartesian Products and Choice Functions. • 219 9. 7. 8. 7.8 Sum-of-Products Form for Boolean Algebras. 7.12 Structure of Ordinal Numbers.4 Propositions and Truth Tables. 7.4 Basic Theorems.9 Inequalities and Ordinal Numbers.3 Axiom of Choice.2 Basic Definitions. 11. 8.11 Propositional Functions. Chapter 11 BOOLEAN ALGEBRA 252 11.1 Introduction. 11. 7. Chapter AXIOM OF CHOICE.10 Logical Implication. 8. First and Last Elements. 10.9 Arguments.13 Auxiliary Construction of Ordinal Numbers. 9. Prime Implicants. 11.11 Bounded.9 Minimal Boolean Expressions.6 Logical Equivalence. 9 PART III Related Topics Chapter 10 LOGIC AND PROPOSITIONAL CALCULUS • 229 1. 9.9 Order Types of Linearly Ordered Sets.11 Ordinal Multiplication. 10. Zorn's Lemma.5 Tautologies and Contradictions. 8.0.5 Boolean Algebras as Lattices. 7.2 Well-Ordered Sets. 7-7 Supremum and Infimum.8 Ordinal Numbers. 8. 10. 9. 8.1 Introduction. 11. 10.3 Set Constructions and Order.6 Similarity Between a Well-Ordered Set and Its Subsets. . INDEX 281 . 10.3 Basic Logical Operations.8 Conditional and Biconditional Statements. 8. 10.2 Ordered Sets.7 Algebra of Propositions.10 Lattices. 9.5 Minimal and Maximal Elements. 8.vi Chapter CONTENTS 7 ORDERED SETS AND LATTICES 166 7. Distributive. ZORN'S LEMMA. 8. Chapter 8 ORDINAL NUMBERS 204 8. 10.1 Introduction. .7 Paradoxes in Set Theory. 10. 9. 7.7 Comparison of Well-Ordered Sets.3 Transfinite Induction. 11.1 Introduction.10 Karnaugh Maps. 10.5 Cardinal and Ordinal Numbers.12 Negation of Quantified Statements. 8. Complemented Lattices.8 Isomorphic (Similar) Ordered Sets. 11. . 10.3 Duality.6 Representation Theorem.2 Propositions and Compound Propositions. 8. WELL-ORDERING THEOREM .7 Sum-of-Products Form for Sets. 7. 7.6 Consistent Enumeration.6 Alephs. 11.5 Initial Segments.4 Well-Ordering Theorem.