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Continental J.

Social Sciences 8 (1): 11 - 21, 2015


Wilolud Journals, 2015
Printed in Nigeria

ISSN: 2141 - 4265


http://www.wiloludjournal.com
doi:10.5707/cjsocsci.2015.8.1.11.21

RESEARCH PAPER

WORK MOTIVATION AND JOB SATISFACTION AS PREDICTORS OF EMPLOYEE


ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT IN PUBLIC SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS
1

Esau Nanfwang Mwantu, 1 Pius Okoliko Agbo, and 2Justice Chidi Ngwama
Department of Psychology, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria and 2Department of Personnel Management Crawford
University, Igbesa, Ogun State, Nigeria
ABSTRACT
The influence of work motivation and job satisfaction on employee organizational
commitment was examined. Participants in the study were 124 respondents (65 males and 59
females). Age range of participants were 20 47 years; their mean age was 28.1 years (SD =
3.4). The study employed a 2x2 factorial design and utilized the Work Preference Scale
developed by Amabile, Hill, Hennesey and Tighe (1994) to measure the intrinsic and extrinsic
aspects of work motivation; the job satisfaction scale developed by Spector (1994) and the
organizational commitment scale developed by Allen and Meyer (1997). Results indicated a
significant effect of work motivation on employee organizational commitment F (1, 120) =
4.616, P<0.05; and a significant effect of job satisfaction on employee commitment F (1, 123)
= 5.979, P<0.05. The result further showed statistically significant interactive effects of work
motivation and job satisfaction on employee organizational commitment F (1, 120) = 6.446, P
< 0.05. It was concluded that worker motivation and satisfaction are necessary conditions for
organizational commitment. Recommendations are that more integrated investigations of these
two variables are warranted and future systematic research is needed to explore further the
dynamics of the interactions between these two constructs among various occupational groups
in Nigeria and elsewhere.
KEYWORDS - employees, motivation, organizational commitment, satisfaction
Received for Publication: 11/04/15
Accepted for Publication: 16/06/15
Corresponding Author: mwantueujpsy@yahoo.com

INTRODUCTION
Employees are one of the most important determinants and a leading factor of production that determines the
success of any organization in todays competitive business environment. This is especially true of organizations
that rely heavily on the good behavioural attitudes of the employee to provide friendly and courteous services to
their customers. It is therefore, in the interest of the organization to retain and maintain employees in the
organization to enhance commitment and maximize performance, effectiveness, and productivity. Commitment is
therefore not only an individual variable but it is an organizational variable as well. Over the years, studies involving
issues of commitment have received much attention by researchers in organizational behaviour (OB) and
organizational practitioners pertaining different work outcomes; but studies examining employee motivation and
satisfaction as they relate to employee organizational commitment in emerging economies such as Nigeria seem a
paradigm shift in contemporary research (Ajang, 2006; Cook, 1988).

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Mwantu et al.,: Continental J. Social Sciences 8 (1): 11 - 21, 2015

According to Mathieu and Zajac (1990), there has been a proliferation of foci types, definitions and measures of
organizational commitment from different theoretical perspectives. To these researchers, commitment has been
operationally defined in many ways. Among these different definitions of organizational commitment which all
signify the idea of a bond or link between the individual and the organization, Meyer and Allen (1991) defined
organizational commitment as a psychological attachment felt by the individual to his organization that reflects the
level in which organizational values and objectives are internalized. According to Cohen (2009) organizational
commitment is defined as the overall strength of an employees identification and involvement in an organization;
hence, paving the way for employees to be satisfied with the organization in which the work can be said to be
crucial in providing goods and services. In this regard, taking the positive effects of organizational commitment into
account, organizational commitment has become an issue of great importance to be dealt with because it helps
increase employee performance and helps to minimize turning up late to work, absenteeism, and job turnover
(Meyer and Allen, 1997).
Over the years, there has been a steady increase in the study of organizational commitment as a workplace construct
(Cohen, 2009; Meyer and Allen, 1991). Researchers have agreed that commitment can take different forms, and that
it is a complex construct (Cohen, 2009; Meyer and Allen, 1991). Organizational commitment researchers have
devoted much attention to the matter of identifying the predictors of organizational commitment. Predictors of
commitment have been studied, not merely to produce commitment as an end in itself, but as a means of linking
commitment to desirable organizational outcomes such as improved attendance, improved performance and less job
turnover (Meyer and Allen, 1997).
The current employee work environment is one in which a number of specific organizational commitment concerns
come to bear. One of these concerns is that employees work in a multiple-commitment world. The job itself, the
organizations environment, and the profession compete for employees loyalty. Employees may develop
commitment to a boss, a professional association or an informal coalition group (Steers, 1991). Employees may also
experience different degrees of commitment to different organizational aspects such as organizational ideology or
philosophy, organizational culture, organizational values, vision and mission (Kreitner and Kinicki, 2001; Meyer
and Allen, 1997).
The second concern is that organizational commitment itself is viewed as a multidimensional construct (Meyer and
Allen 1991; Jackson, Meyer and Wang, 2013). In the past, some researchers presented it as a one-dimensional
construct. Quijano, Navarro and Cornajo (2000) however, observed that readers should not be presented with any set
of dimensions of the construct. From the broad context of organizational commitment reviewed, research indicated
that some researchers raised concern as to whether or not commitment was a reasonable expectation of employers to
hold for their employees in todays work environment where changes in leadership and focus of the organization
may occur rapidly. Quijano (2006) further concluded that the old employment contract: lifetime employment in
exchange for loyalty is gone; and unfortunately for many organizations, commitment fled with it.
Jackson, Meyer and Wang (2013) however, observed that the notion concerning the lack of commitment to
organizations today have served as a catalyst for a further and more rigorous study of organizational commitment.
The maintenance of employee organizational commitment remains a viable organizational goal and the only
meaningful option for any organization that intends to achieve success in this global community in this 21st century.
Organizations that are downsized and those that are characterized by change still need a core of employees and
leaders/managers that are committed to the values and goals of the organization (Kreitner & Kinicki, 2001; Meyer,
Stanley, Jackson, MCinnis, Maltin, and Sheppard, 2012). Organizational commitment remains a suitable topic for
study in todays rapidly changing world of work.
Gradually, organizational commitment became a multifaceted and multidimensional construct (Allen and Meyer,
1991). Several integrative models then emerged in the literature which considered one type of commitment with
distinguishable dimensions (multi-dimensional model). For example, Oreily and Chatman (1986) proposed three

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Mwantu et al.,: Continental J. Social Sciences 8 (1): 11 - 21, 2015

independent forms which may represent separate dimensions of organizational commitment namely compliance
attitude to gain specific rewards, identification, and acceptance of influence to establish or maintain the relationship
a need for affiliation, and internalization congruence between employees and organizational values.
Meyer and Allen (1991) identified three distinct components of organizational commitment namely affective,
normative and continuance commitments. Affective commitment is the employees emotional attachment to,
identification with, involvement in, and enjoyment of membership of the organization. Normative commitment is
related to the employees moral feelings and obligation to remain with the organization; while continuance
commitment is based on the cost associated with continued participation in the organizations activities,
assignments, and schedules. An employee can experience these three components concurrently and simultaneously
and to distinct degrees.
Quijano et al (2000) however defended the existence of only one attitudinal commitment with four progressive
levels of bonding with the organization namely need, exchange, affective and value-based commitments. These
researchers further integrated these levels into two general categories or types of commitment namely instrumental
or calculative commitment, and personal or affective commitment. Instrumental commitment is related to an
individuals dependence upon organizational rewards. This has two kinds of bonds exchange commitment which
stipulates relationship based on extrinsic rewards; and need commitment which refers to the need to keep the job.
Personal commitment refers to the personal internalization of organizational values and objectives.
Against these backdrops, it can be said that employees with high level of organizational commitment have
significant contributions in the achievement of set organizational goals under competitive conditions (Kreitner and
Kinicki, 2001, Steers, 1991). Commitment of an employee to the organization and using all his/her skills and
expertise for the advancement of the organization is a significant point of concern to the managements of all
organizations who care to succeed in their businesses. This study therefore, examined the effect of employee
motivation and job satisfaction on organizational commitment in a public service organization in Jos, Nigeria.
In Nigeria, studies by Olajide (2000), Ololube (2007) and Akintayo (2009) concerning this variable have shown that
fewer employees engage in affective commitment which refers to the emotional bond an employee has and the
identification with the organization; less normative commitment moral commitment which refers to a feeling of
obligation of the employee to continue employment with the organization. But engage more in continuance
(economic/ calculative) commitment which refers to what the employee will have to give up if he/she has to leave
the organization or in other words, the material benefits to be gained for remaining in the organization.
The implication of the above statements indicates that fewer of the Nigerian work forces especially in the public
sector of the economy have less enhanced feelings of devotion and commitment, belongingness, and stability to their
organizations ie low level of feeling that they ought to remain with the organization because they feel they need to
do so for material benefits. Therefore, if the employees believe that fewer variables are available; their continuance
commitment will be stronger to their own organization. This in itself encourages low commitment by employees as
commitment is related to how much they can earn from the respective organization. In Nigeria too, this has been
heightened by the recent down-sizing, mergers and acquisitions witnessed by some private and public sector
organizations (Dokotri, 2013). Against these backdrops, the need therefore, to examine factors that could enhance
the organizational commitment of employees through work motivation and job satisfaction is indeed, not only
important but it is very necessary.

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Mwantu et al.,: Continental J. Social Sciences 8 (1): 11 - 21, 2015

The main aim of this study therefore, was to examine the impact of work motivation and job satisfaction on
employee organizational commitment. Specifically, the study had the following objectives:
(i)
To assess the effect of work motivation on organizational commitment of employees in Nigerian
organizations.
(ii)
To assess the effect of job satisfaction on organizational commitment of employees in Nigerian
organizations.
(iii)
To examine the interactive effects of work motivation and job satisfaction on organizational
commitment of the employees.
To do these, the following hypotheses were formulated and tested.
1. Work motivation would have significant effect on employee commitment in Nigerian organizations.
2. Employee job satisfaction would have significant effect on organizational commitment of employees in
Nigerian organizations.
3. There would be significant interactive effects of employee work motivation and job satisfaction on
organizational commitment of employees in Nigerian organizations.
METHOD
Design
The design of this study was a simple 2x2 factorial design with two levels of motivation (intrinsic and extrinsic); and
two levels of satisfaction (low and high). The studys dependent variable is employee organizational commitment.
Study Setting
The study was conducted at the Call Centre Signal Service Company Nigeria Limited (CCSSCNL) a call centre
company that handles customer related issues and problems on behalf of Mobile Telephony Network (MTN)
Nigeria. The company is located in Jos, the Plateau State capital.
Participants
The participants utilized in this study were 120 full-time employees of CCSSCNL, MTN companys call centre in
Jos metropolis and its environs made up of 65 males and 59 females; who were conveniently selected using the nonprobability sampling method (Coolican, 2009). Mean age of participants was 28.1 years (SD = 3.4). All participants
were resident in Jos metropolis at the time of the study.
Instruments
The variables of this study were measured based on established instruments which have been used in previous
seminal studies (Akintayo, 2009; Cohen, 2009; Cohen and Shamai, 2010; Cohen and Liu, 2011; Meyer and Allen,
1991; Meyer, 1997; Meyer, Stanley, Jackson, MCinnis, Maltin, and Sheppard, 2012) as discussed below.
i.
Work Motivation Scale
This was developed by Amabile, Hill, Hennessey, and Tighe (1994) to measure the intrinsic and extrinsic aspects of
work motivation in the employees of organizations. The scale is a 30-item instrument measured on a 4-point Likerttype scale where 1= Never true of me; 2= Almost never true of me; 3= Sometimes true of me; and 4= Always true of
me. The scale has 15 items measuring intrinsic motivation and another 15 items for extrinsic motivation. The
psychometric properties of this scale were satisfactory for the study population in this particular investigation. An
analysis of the scale reliabilities on the study sample yielded high reliability scores of .82 for intrinsic motivation
and .76 for extrinsic motivation and a validity score of .72 for all items of the scale.
ii.
The Job Satisfaction Scale
This scale was developed by Spector (1994) for the purpose of determining the level of job satisfaction among
employees. The scale has 36 items in all with some of the items written in positive and negative directions. Scores
on each of nine facet sub-scales based on four items each range from 4-24; while scores for total job satisfaction,

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Mwantu et al.,: Continental J. Social Sciences 8 (1): 11 - 21, 2015

based on the sum of all 36 items range from 36-216 points. Each item is scored from 1-6 if the original response
choices are used. High scores on the scale represent job satisfaction, so the scores on the negatively worded items
must be reversed before summing it up with the positively worded items into facets or total scores.
A score of 6 represents strongest agreement with a negatively worded item and considered equivalent to a score of
1representing strongest disagreement on a positively worded item, allowing them to be combined meaningfully. The
scale has a Cronbachs alpha reliability coefficient score on the study sample of .86 for the job satisfaction scale and
a validity score of .74 for the same sample.
iii.
Organizational Commitment Scale
This is an 18-item measure of organizational commitment developed by Allen and Meyer (1990). This scale was
designed to measure the three dimensions of organizational commitment (affective commitment, continuance
commitment, and normative commitment). Affective commitment according to Allen and Meyer is defined as the
emotional attachment to, identification with, and involvement in an organization; continuance commitment is
defined as an awareness of the cost associated with leaving the organization; and normative commitment represents
a feeling of obligation to continue employment (Meyer and Allen, 1991). A scale of measurement using the Likerts
five-point scale ranging from 1= strongly disagree to 5= strongly agree was utilized for this purpose. Sample
items from each scale include the following: I would be very happy to spend the rest of my career with the
organization (affective commitment). If I leave the current organization, I might not find such good employment
opportunities (continuance commitment); and This organization is worth my loyalty (normative
commitment).The Cronbachs alpha reliability coefficients of the scale for the three types of commitments on the
study population were .69, .78, and .90, respectively. A summative score of the three aspects of commitment on the
scale gave a total organizational commitment scale of .92.
Procedure
The data were collected in the month of November, 2014 using participants from the Call Centre Signal Service
Company Nigeria Limited (CCSSCNL) - a call service centre of Mobile Telephony Nigeria (MTN) located at Ray
field in Jos South Local Government Area of Plateau State. The team of research assistants first seeks an informed
consent from management of the company using a formal letter of introduction which enabled permission to be
granted for the study. The purpose of the study was then explained to the participants by the research assistants at
different points of interaction in their offices and this enabled the Questionnaires to be administered to those who
volunteered to participate in the study using the convenience sampling non-probability method. Due to the tied
schedules of the participants, a period of two days was given to them to respond to the Questionnaire items. The
completed Questionnaires were all collected back on the third day and a 100% response rate was recorded. The data
were coded and analyzed using the 2-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistic.
RESULTS
Results from analysis of the demographic data of the participants revealed the descriptive information provided in
Table 1.
Table 1: Showing demographic information of respondents on the study variables
Mean
Total mean SD
Frequency
Percentages
Gender
Male
65
52.4
28.1
3.4
Female
59
47.6
Work
Intrinsic
59
47.6
88.872
93.76
9.2
Motivation
Extrinsic
65
52.4
99.531
Job
Low
61
49.2
90.838
satisfaction
High
63
50.8
95. 565
134.88
23.0

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Analysis of the data collected showed that 65 (52.4%) of the participants were males and 59 (47.6%) were females;
59 (47.6%) were categorized as intrinsically (internally) motivated and 65 (52.4%) were categorized as extrinsically
(externally) motivated. Sixty one (49.2%) of the participants had low job satisfaction and 63 (50.8%) had high job
satisfaction. Further analysis of the data indicated that the mean age of the participants was 28.1 years (SD= 3.4); the
total mean score for employee work motivation was 93.76 (SD=9.2), for employee job satisfaction was 134.88 (SD
= 23.0) and for employee organizational commitment was 51.30 (SD= 10.6).
Three hypotheses were formulated for the study and were tested using the Two-way Analysis of Variance
(ANOVA) statistic. The first hypothesis stated that work motivation would have significant influence on employee
organizational commitment.
Table 2 indicates that, Work motivation has significant effect on employee commitment in the organization that was
studied. The result shows F (1, 120) = 149.236, P<0.05. Therefore we accept the research hypothesis and reject the
null hypothesis.
The second hypothesis states that employee job satisfaction would have significant effect on employee
organizational commitment.
Table 2 also indicates that, employee job satisfaction has significant effect on organizational commitment of
employees in the organization investigated. The result shows that F (1, 123) = 20.812, P<0.05. Therefore, we accept
the research hypothesis and reject the null hypothesis.
The result revealed that there was a significant influence of employee job satisfaction on the participants
organizational commitment; indicating that job satisfaction impacted on the participants levels of organizational
commitment with high job satisfaction causing more organizational commitment than employees low job
satisfaction. The mean for low job satisfaction was 90.838 and high job satisfaction was 95.565, respectively (See
Table 1).
The third hypothesis stated that there would be significant interactive effects of work motivation and job satisfaction
on employee organizational commitment.
Table 2: Showing 2-way ANOVA source table of
satisfaction on employee organizational commitment
Source
Type III Sum of
df
Squares
Corrected Model
6506.238
Intercept
1046847.231
Motivation
4828.427
Job satisfaction
673.371
Motivation*Job
208.571
satisfaction
Error
3882.504
Total
1100420.000
Corrected Total
10388.742

the interaction effects of work motivation and job

3
1
1
1

Mean
Square
2168.746
1046847.231
4828.427
673.371

208.571

120
124
123

32.354

F
67.031
32355.834
149.236
20.812
6.446

Sig.
.000
.000
.000
.000
0.12

Table 2 indicates that, there is a significant interactive effect of employee work motivation and job satisfaction on
organizational commitment of employees in the organization examined. The result shows that F (1, 123) = 6.446,
P<0.05. Therefore, we accept the research hypothesis and reject the null hypothesis.

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The result showed a statistically significant interaction effect of work motivation and job satisfaction on employee
organizational commitment. This indicates that there was a combined effect of work motivation and job satisfaction
on organizational commitment of the participants. Participants who were extrinsically motivated had a higher mean
score of 99. 531 and simultaneously higher job satisfaction mean score of 95.565; while participants who were
motivated by intrinsic factors had a low mean score of 88. 872, and consequently low job satisfaction mean score of
90.838, respectively. This indicates that Nigerian workers are motivated more by extrinsic factors than by intrinsic
factors.
DISCUSSION
Findings from the analysis of the data of this study indicated that there was a significant influence of work
motivation on employee organizational commitment. Previous research on employee motivation has shown that
different work characteristics motivate older and younger workers. The result of the present study agrees with
Kanfer (1990), Wright (2008), Wolf, London, Casey and Pufahl (1995), Vandenabeele (2009) and Valentine and
Valentine (1998). Furthermore, evidence from Lord (2004) on work motivation of older workers reveals that the
primary reasons why older workers remain active in the workforce and the organization are that they enjoy working,
derive satisfaction from using their skills, gain a sense of accomplishment from the job they do and enjoy being
creative; suggesting that they are intrinsically motivated to do the job.
Although the result of this particular study revealed that the respondents were motivated to be committed to their
jobs and the organization that employed them, the result showed that the respondents in this particular study as
earlier concluded by Valentine and Valentine (1998) were more influenced by extrinsic factors of motivation than
they were by intrinsic factors. The outcome of the present finding could be attributed to the fact that older Nigerian
workers continue to work because of financial gains or perhaps most importantly because of lack of security at
retirement. In most organizations in Nigeria especially the public service organizations, people are retired without
immediate payment of their retirement benefits and remain for long periods and sometimes even die without such
benefits. Explained another way, older workers prefer jobs that satisfy higher order needs to jobs offering better
physical conditions (Leviatan, 1992).
The ensuing outcome of this particular study can further be explained based on the concepts of the selfdetermination theory proposed by Ryan and Deci (2000). According to Ryan and Deci, individual workers
motivation can be considered as an autonomous identity regulation which is based on internalized values that are the
foundation of that organization and its related identity. This type of self-regulation corresponds to the organizational
logic of appropriateness (Kreitner and Kinicki, 2001)) where individuals act in accordance with organizational
values because they have internalized such values (Kreitner and Kinicki, 2001; Scott, 2010).
Furthermore, OReilly and Chatman (1986) , Deci and Ryan (2005) all acknowledged that this process of
internalization or the socialization of an autonomously regulated identity is enhanced by the satisfaction of the
individuals basic psychological needs and higher social needs of self-actualization, competence, and relatedness
earlier proposed by Abraham Maslow in his hierarchy of needs motivation theory (Maslow, 1954). These are
assumed to be present within each individual and they are considered to be the basis for individuals growth-oriented
movement and the process of internalization. When employees needs are satisfied, an identity and the values the
organization is based upon will simultaneously be internalized in the affected worker, resulting in a more
autonomous regulation of the identity (Deci and Ryan, 2005) and consequently, a higher work motivation in the
individual and indeed, higher level of commitment from him.
The outcome of the second hypothesis indicating a significant effect of job satisfaction on organizational
commitment is in line with the findings of Armania-Kepuladze (2010) that found job satisfaction to have impact on
affective commitment. In another study, Sinclair, Tucker, Cullen and Wright (2005) investigated the relationship
between the control dimensions of organizational climate and the three components of commitment on a sample of
respondents; they found significant relationships between total commitment, job performance and job satisfaction.

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On the other hand, the outcome of the study contrasts with the findings of Pinder (1998), Ololube (2007) and
Paynter (2009) who all investigated the role played by job satisfaction on organizational commitment, and their
findings indicated no significant relationships between job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Vinokur,
Jayaaratne and Chess (1994) also studied the relationships between job satisfactions, age, years of practice, anxiety,
and organizational commitment. Their result did not show the expected influence of job satisfaction on levels of
employee organizational commitment.
The third hypothesis indicates that an interaction between motivation and job satisfaction influenced the level of
organizational commitment in the respondents. This is in line with the findings of Wright and Hamilton (1998) that
investigated the influence of motivation, age, and job satisfaction on employee commitment in different work
organizations in different countries and concluded that motivation and satisfaction are key factors that influence
employee organizational commitment. The works of Ajila (1997), Olajide (2000), Ajang (2006) and Cohen (2009)
further lent support to the findings of this particular study. The outcome of the present study could be argued based
on the fact that performance management involves strategic and integrated approaches that consider all aspects of
the employees work-life including the things that motivate and spur him to work as well as those that satisfy his
social and psychological needs. These deliver sustained success to the organization by improving the performance of
people who work in them and developing the capabilities of teams and individual contributions in the organization.
CONCLUSION
In conclusion, this study examined the effects of work motivation and job satisfaction on employee organizational
commitment. The result revealed significant effects of work motivation and job satisfaction on employee
organizational commitment. It is concluded that quality issues, right services, efficiency, and effectiveness in an
organization make the issues of motivation, job satisfaction and organizational commitment more important in
todays organizational environment. The aforementioned findings suggest that motivation and job satisfaction
factors are important in understanding commitment to continue to work among Nigerian employees. However, there
is inconclusive research as to how these factors influence the type of organizational commitment especially amongst
employees in Nigerian organizations.
RECOMMENDATIONS
The management of people at work is an integral part of the management process. Therefore, to understand the
critical importance of people in the organization, managements of the twenty-first Century organizations should
recognize that the human element and the organization are synonymous. A well-managed organization often sees an
average worker as the root source of organizational quality and productivity. Such organization does not emphasize
other factors of production such as capital investment and technology but lay more emphasis on employees as the
fundamental source of organizational improvement and success. In order to achieve this, such an organization will
ensure that its workers remain motivated and satisfied, with high spirit of cooperation and sense of commitment
within the spheres of its influence.
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