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12-1 Aggregate Planning

Aggregate Planning

12-2 Aggregate Planning

Aggregate Planning

“Aggregate Planning is an aggregated
production plan that will effectively utilize the
organization’s resources to satisfy expected
demand timely without considering specific
item details”
“Particularly useful for the organizations
that experience seasonal or other fluctuations
in demand or capacity”

Long range Short range Now Intermediate range 2 months 1 Year . usually covering 2 to 12 months.12-3 Aggregate Planning Planning Horizon Aggregate planning: Intermediate-range capacity planning.

12-4 Aggregate Planning Overview of Planning Levels  Short-range plans (Detailed plans)  Work scheduling  M/C assignments  Intermediate plans (General levels)  Employment  Output  Long-range plans  Product & Service selection  Location / layout. Equipment decision .

restaurants( employment & output level). Planners usually focus on a group of similar products or services  Lump all models of a product together and deal with them as though they are a single product  It is convenient to think of capacity in terms of labor hrs or machine hrs per period. or output rates  Example: Television sets(size). Departmental store (space allocation) .12-5 Aggregate Planning Concept of Aggregation  “Big picture” approach to planning.

always updated.12-6 Aggregate Planning Overview of Aggregate Planning  Begins with a forecast of aggregate demand for intermediate range  Followed by a general plan to meet demand requirements by setting  Output  Employment  FG inventory level  Number of plans considered in terms of feasibility & cost. so called “Rolling Planning Horizon” .

. demand. or both.12-7 Aggregate Planning  Purpose & Scope Basic problem addressed by aggregate planning is “Balancing of capacity and demand”  Planners are concerned with the quantity and timing of expected demand.  If demand is much different from available capacity balance is achieved by altering capacity.

12-8 Aggregate Planning I/O Of Aggregate Planning  Input  Available resources over the planning period must be known  A forecast of expected demand must be available  Planners must take into account any policies regarding changes in employment levels.  Output  Production plan .

12-9 Aggregate Planning Aggregate Planning Strategies  Proactive   Reactive   Alter demand to match capacity Alter capacity to match demand Mixed  Some of each .

12-10 Aggregate Planning Demand Options  Pricing  Promotion  Back orders  New demand .

Hotels. Restaurants  The degree of elasticity is a concern .12-11 Aggregate Planning Pricing  Commonly used to shift demand from peak periods to off-peak periods  Balance the lack of capacity  Example: Djuice by GP.

g. displays. may bring the demand at wrong time .12-12 Aggregate Planning Promotion  Advertising and other forms of promotions. e. direct marketing  Example: IPE.. Brank Bank credit card  Appropriate timing and knowledge of response rate and pattern is essential  Much less control over demand.

e.12-13 Aggregate Planning Back-orders  Orders taken in one period and promised to deliver at a later period  High demand situation.. World cup flags  Success depends on customer – how much they are willing to take late deliveries  Lost sales may result.g. Shahbag-National flags .

evening session of private university  Beyond area of expertise . Fastfood restaurants.12-14 Aggregate Planning New Demand  Uneven demand pattern. “Khep” by drivers. seasonal product  Counter seasonal product & service mixing smooth out the slack capacity  Example: (snow blowers & lawn mowers).

12-15 Aggregate Planning  Capacity Options Hire and layoff workers  Overtime/slack time  Part-time workers  Inventories  Subcontracting .

e.  Skill level is another consideration – less available and higher cost.12-16 Aggregate Planning Hire and layoff workers  Matching worker level with production rate.  Bad impact on motivation.g.. lower quality & productivity . RMG sector  Union contracts may restrict hiring and laying off.

impact on quality. more accidents  Training. problem solving & process improvement . allow maintaining a steady base of skilled employees  Deals with seasonal fluctuation & increased earnings for the workers  Union contract provides a bound.12-17 Aggregate Planning Overtime/slack time  Less severe method.

12-18 Aggregate Planning Part-time workers  For seasonal work-requiring low to job skills. company certainly prefers it  Example: Book fair.  Cost less than regular workers in hourly wages and fringe benefits. departmental stores. supermarkets .  Though union do not support this practice. restaurants. Trade fair.

 Involves holding costs. cost of insurance.12-19 Aggregate Planning Inventories  Produce goods in one period & sell in another period.  Example: winter product  Appropriate for manufactured goods . obsolescence. deterioration. breakage etc.

quality consideration & cost  Subcontract In.g. RMG  Make or buy decision depends on available capacity.12-20 Aggregate Planning Subcontract  Provides temporary capacity but affords less control over the output-may cost due to quality problem. Outsourcing & Offshoring . relative expertise. e..

12-21 Aggregate Planning Aggregate Planning Strategies  Maintain a level workforce  Maintain a steady output rate  Match demand period by period  Use a combination of decision variables .

12-22 Aggregate Planning Chase strategy  Match output rates to demand forecast for each period  Vary workforce levels or vary production rate  Favored by many service organizations .

a mixed strategy. might be the best solution .12-23 Aggregate Planning  Level strategy Daily production is uniform  Use inventory or idle time as buffer  Stable production leads to better quality and productivity  Some combination of capacity options.

12-24 Aggregate Planning   Chase Approach Advantages  Investment in inventory is low  Labor utilization in high Disadvantages  The cost of adjusting output rates and/or workforce levels .

12-25 Aggregate Planning  Advantages   Level Approach Stable output rates and workforce Disadvantages  Greater inventory costs  Increased overtime and idle time  Resource utilizations vary over time .