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INTRODUCTION

The traditional methods of conducting laboratory activities (assigned as Level


0) will not be able to provide the avenue for students to enhance independent
learning activities and inculcate creativity and innovation. The traditional method is
fully prescriptive where the three elements namely problem, ways & means and
answers are guided/fully given to the students. However, it is still necessary to be
implemented as part of the whole laboratory course activity especially to first and
second year students.
In these laboratory activities, reduced level will be obtained at every specific
point to produce ground profile. The ground profile can be used to provide
information for the purpose of construction design, cut and fill, landscape and site
investigation.

OBJECTTIVE
The objective of this laboratory is obtain and determining level profile for an
existing site location by levelling.

THEORITICAL BACKGROUND
Concept of Levelling Instruments
Main parts of levelling instruments:
1. Binocular
2. Bubbles (alidade)
3. Base (tribrachs)
1. Binocular.
Every level is equipped with astronomic binocular with Huygens or
Ramsdens eye piece with the very high luminance lens. The usual magnification is
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50x, newer versions are constructed with an inside optical focus which secures the
focus on the backside. Crosshairs are placed into binoculars are usually engraved into
glass plate and they come in many various shapes. Parallax of crosshair (movement
of crosshair in regards to picture due to the eye movement) happens when the sight
of crosshair is not the same as the sight of the binocular. This can be eliminated by
focusing the level rod and focusing of the crosshair.
2. Bubbles (alidade)
For the rough level of the instrument, circular bubbles are usually used. For
more precise instruments or applications, pipe bubbles are used (usually with the 1-2
mm precision). More precise instrument, the pipe bubbles are connected with
binocular. For the very precise levelling, the split bubble is used. Ends of the bubble
are shown in the sight of the binocular through prism system. Sensibility of bubbles:
(a) Centre angle alpha equals one part d=1 or d=2 mm which is indicated on
the bubble itself.
(b) By radius of the cut of bubble
3. Base (tribrachs)
Most common is the tribrach with a set of three levelling screws. This
tribrach can be connected with tripod. The horizontal movement is done by
horizontal circle which can be fine-tuned via fine screw.
Flying Level
Vertical distances of various points are measured with respect to the given
datum and relative differences in elevation between the points determined. A
horizontal line of sight of any point is measured using a vertical staff as shown in
Figure 1. From the measurement of vertical heights, therefore the reduced level of
the points can be obtained using;
Rise and Fall Method or Height of Collimation Method (HOC).
Profile Levelling
Profile levelling is also known as longitudinal levelling and the objective of
this levelling is to determine the profile of the ground surface of the predetermined
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line, which may be single straight line or may consists of a series of straight lines
changing a direction or connected to a curve. The point established on the
predetermined line at measured intervals is obtained from the staff readings shown in
Figure 2(a) and 2(b). From the measurement of vertical heights, therefore the
reduced level of the points can be obtained by using Rise and Fall Method or
Height of Collimation Method (HOC).

Rise and Fall Method


Second Reading less than the first = RISE

Second reading greater than the first = FALL

Height of Collimation Method (HOC)

PROBLEM STATEMENT
An existing road alignment is to be scraped and levelled to a proposed
reduced level. The chainage interval for the existing road alignment is at every 25 m
interval and the existing level have to be determined by using profile levelling
method by assuming assumed Benchmark (BM) level given at UiTM Pasir Gudang
having RL 100.00 m. The road alignment and CP must be sketched to show the
alignment of the road.

APPARATUS
1. Auto Level
2. Tripod
3. Levelling Staff
4. Bubble level
5. Measurement tape

PROCEDURE
1. First staff is sited on the Benchmark (BM) having RL 100.00 m. The level
points are then sited at intervals of 25 m each.
2. The instrument is then positioned and temporarily at a point where every
levelling point can be observed. For first staff, the reading is recorded as
back-sight and then the readings of other staff positioned are noted as
intermediate-sight until the last point where the instrument is then shifted
to another point. This point is known as change point (CP). Within the 25
m interval, the distance between intermediate points given is 5 m.
3. The instrument is then shifted to the next point and temporarily adjusted
but staff noted as fore sight from the previous reading is not shifted and
the reading is recorded as back sight. Step (2) is the repeated.
4. Steps (2) and (3) are repeated until the chainage point is at 200.00 m
from the BM.

DATA ACQUISITION
RISE AND FALL

BS

IS

FS

RISE

FALL

1.292
1.777
1.363

0.485
0.777
0.697
0.593

2.554
2.060

2.459

2.653
1.778
1.102

=6.55

0.368
1.001
=6.57

0.681
0.676
0.734
0.437
=2.52

=2.55

1.438

RL (m)
100.000
99.515
98.738
98.041
97.448
98.129
98.805
99.539
99.976

Distanc
e (m)
0
25
50
75
100
125
150
175
200

Arithmetic ; BS FS= RISE FALL=RL nRL 1 ST


6.552 m6.576 m=2.528 m2.552 m=99.976 m100.000 m
0.024 m=0.024 m=0.024 m

Remarks
BM1 100.000
CP1
CP2
CP3
BM1 100.000

HEIGHT OF COLLIMATION (HOC)

BS

IS

FS

1.292

HOC

RL (m)

101.292

100.000
99.515
98.738
98.041
97.448
98.129
98.805
99.539
99.976

1.777
1.363

2.554

100.101

2.653

99.907

0.368
1.001
=6.576

100.977

2.060
2.459
1.778
1.102
1.438
=6.552

Distance

Arithmetic ; BS FS=RL nRL1 ST


6.552 m6.576 m=99.976 m100.000 m

0.024 m=0.024 m

(m)
0
25
50
75
100
125
150
175
200

Remarks
BM1 100.000
CP1
CP2
CP3
BM1 100.000

ANALYSIS
RISE AND FALL

RISE

FALL

Distance

RL (m)

CORRECTION

FRL (m)

100.000

100.000

0.485

99.515

0.006

99.521

25

0.777

98.738

0.006

98.744

50

0.697

98.041

0.012

98.053

75

0.593

97.448

0.012

97.460

100

0.681

98.129

0.018

98.147

125

0.676

98.805

0.018

98.823

150

0.734

99.539

0.018

99.557

175

CP3

0.437

99.976

0.024

100.000

200

BM1 100.000

Different of BM 1 100.00099.976=
0.006

(m)

0.024
4

Remarks

BM1 100.000

CP1

CP2

HEIGHT OF COLLIMATION (HOC)

RISE

FALL

Distance

RL (m)

CORRECTION

FRL (m)

100.000

100.000

0.445

99.515

0.006

99.521

25

0.777

98.738

0.006

98.744

50

0.697

98.041

0.012

98.053

75

0.593

97.448

0.012

97.460

100

0.681

98.129

0.018

98.147

125

0.676

98.805

0.018

98.823

150

0.734

99.539

0.018

99.557

175

CP3

0.437

99.976

0.024

100.000

200

BM1 100.000

Different of BM 1 100.00099.976=
0.006

10

(m)

0.024
4

Remarks

BM1 100.000

CP1

CP2

DISCUSSION
At first there was a slight difference between the final RL and the initial RL,
this is due to some errors like parallax error or the uneven ground which the
equipment is set up on. After that, in order to right the wrong, first we had to do the
checking by finding the difference between the total value of backsight and the total
value of foresight, difference between the total value of rise and fall and the
difference between the final RL and the initial RL. If the checking is all the same,
then we had to find the misclosure by deducting the actual RL and the measured RL.
The next step is to distribute the error by the number of set ups.
The observation data that we got from this experiment has shown in the data
sheet above. The errors was been checked and after that there was no single error was
suspected during the fieldwork. Factors affecting the accuracy in levelling are:
a.

Reading of staff.

These errors depends on


i.
ii.
iii.
b.

The magnification and image clarity afforded by the telescope


The manner in which staff is marked
The length of sight

Bubble displacement.

The bubble centring accuracy depends on the method used to view the bubble. The
uncertainty caused by bubble mislevelment in tilting level is comfortable to the
uncertainty due to mislevelment of the compensator in automatic instruments. The
accuracy of the engineers level is in range of 1.5 to 0.5 with more precise
instrument capable of being set horizontal to 0.2
In this experiment, we have used 2 methods (rise & fall and HPC)
Rise and Fall Method
The levels are recorded in the level book and arithmetic check involved in the
reduced level are as follows;
BS-FS=(rise)-(fall)=last RL-first RL
Visualization is necessary regarding the nature of the ground.
Reduction of levels takes more time.
Preferable for check levelling where number of change points are more.

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By following the step above, we have ensure that there are no error in calculation in
rise & fall method
Height of Collimation Method (HOC)
The arithmetical checks applied are as follows;
BS-FS=last RL-first RL
Used where more number of readings can be taken with less number of change
points for constructional work and profile levelling.
It also no error in calculation this method because it is easier compared to rise &
fall method.
To make sure the levelling is good and accurate;
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Anchor tripod legs firmly


Check the bubble level before and after reading
Take as little time as possible between BS and FS equal
Try to keep distance to BS and FS equal
Provide the rod person with a level for the rod

CONCLUSION
Leveling is to determine the difference in height between two points in an
area. The main purpose of leveling is to design the highways, railroad, sewers, water
supply system and provides grade lines on the existing topography. Besides, leveling
can also lay out the construction projects according to the planned elevations and
enables to calculate the volume of earthworks. Leveling requires equipment such as
leveling staff, tripod, auto level meter, staff bubble and measuring tape. Leveling
method is now widely used in construction sites. Leveling is an inexpensive, simple
and accurate method for measuring height. Besides construction site, leveling are
also used for measurements of rivers or lake.
From the experiment, we can conclude that the test been done successfully.
The result obtained is acceptable. We have done two different methods in order to
finish up our experiment which is Rise & Fall Method and Height of Collimation
Method. In Rise & Fall Method, once we do the arithmetic checking, we get the
same value which is 0.024 while in Height of Collimation Method, we get an
arithmetic checking value which is -0.024 the checking is to ensure that the reduced
level is true and there is no error in reading. Furthermore, great teamwork was
occurred during running this experiments and thats one of the factors to achieve the
objective of these experiments.
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APPENDIX

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