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Marketing Insights

For everything from color scheme to change of logos of major companies.
For two products that are different and cater to diff markets are called----these are
apple and oranges and can not be compared as cater to diff markets. Scorpio and
duster ET.

SEO-- http://www.techmagnate.com/blog/why-cant-seo-die-after-all-the-deathpenalties/
research online purchase offline (ROPO)
%2Fwww.facebook.com%2F videos and stories
the lexicon describing male shopping has been lately enriched with newly minted
bain & co. calls the spender as HENRY FOR HIGH EARNER , NOT RICH YET.

Rural Mark Book---Individualized joint families.families stay in same house but

have separate kitchens..

The daily earning rate has improved leading to diamond structure from the pyramid

Amazing info on share of wallet

sexy+exciting=sexciting reebok

the markets which are untapped but have potential are called virgin market
penetration of air conditioners and computers is negligible in small towns hence
they can be treated as virgin markets for durable companies
repatriated moneymoney sent by members of family to home town from their
high towns earnings
E &Y Divided india into 3 sections
Six metros
KUT Key urban towns 22 cities
ROUI rest of urban india
MICE meetings incentives conferences exhibitions
Nirma, Ghari are providing core benefits with no frills attached at low price than
established competetors like ariel tide
A company shd aim at providing 75% of performance at 50% of cost to create a
definite impact in rural consumers mindset
STEM Students: Science Technology Engineering Mathematics
Use these images in ppt
Rule of 135, generally all growth rates of developed countries is 1%
Global average


Your advertizing budget is inversely proportional to your marketing IQ. Ex of redbull,

watsapp etc

Proctor & Gamble Rule: Unless and until the product development team come up
with a great product, the marketing team may not make it succeed entirely no
matter how marketing muscular p& G is

For analytics:
A better ad would incorporate the keyword in the text of the ad, preferably as the
headline and/or the Display URL. Some of the keywords might appear in the
Description lines
AdWords The brand name for Googles advertising platform. There is no such thing
as an AdWord. Clickthrough rate (CTR) The number of clicks on an ad divided by
the number of times the ad is displayed (impressions), expressed as a percentage.
Conversion When a click on an ad results in a desirable behavior, like an online
purchase. Impression The appearance of an ad on a search results page, whether
someone clicks on it or not. Keyword A word or phrase that can trigger an ad on a
search engine results page. A keyword is not an AdWord. Search engine results page
(SERP) The page presented to a searcher after typing a search query into a search
engine. Search query The word or phrase a searcher types into a search engine.

Radical Mark
P&G Model of Mark

Enterpreneurial Mar
Formulated Mar
Interpreneurial Mar
A cluster of comp products In minds of customer but in diverse industries. Cars, car
mag, fin, nsurance repair etc

Relationship Marketing ka outcome is BUILDING OF A COMPANY ASSET called a

marketing network
. A marketing network consists of the company and
its supporting stakeholders (customers, employees, suppliers, distributors,
university scientists,
and others) with whom it has built mutually profitable business relationships.
Increasingly, competition is not between companies but rather between marketing
networks, with the profits going to the company that has the better network.
Mark Channels:
Sellingdist+fin services and transactions

Brand competition: A company sees its competitors as other companies that offer
products and services to the same customers at similar prices. Volkswagen might
see its major competitors as Toyota, Honda, and other manufacturers of
automobiles, rather than Mercedes or Hyundai.
2. Industry competition: A company sees its competitors as all companies that make
same product or class of products. Thus, Volkswagen would be competing against
other car manufacturers.
3. Form competition: A company sees its competitors as all companies that
products that supply the same service. Volkswagen would see itself competing
manufacturers of all vehicles, such as motorcycles, bicycles, and trucks.

4. Generic competition: A company sees its competitors as all companies that

compete for
the same consumer dollars. Volkswagen would see itself competing with companies
that sell major consumer durables, foreign vacations, and new homes.
Causerelated marketing
BCG Matric
Mrkt share on x axis wrt to biggest comp-------?/
Growth rate on y axis

General Electric (GE)

pioneered. In this model, each business is rated in terms of two major dimensions
market attractiveness and business strength. These two factors make excellent
sense for rating a business.
BRANDAID: A flexible marketing-mix model focused on consumer packaged goods
whose elements are a manufacturer, competitors, retailers, consumers, and the
gen- eral environment. The model contains submodels for advertising, pricing, and
com- petition. The model is calibrated with a creative blending of judgment,
historical analysis, tracking, field experimentation, and adaptive control.24
CALLPLAN: A model to help salespeople determine the number of calls to make per
period to each prospect and current client. The model takes into account travel time
as well as selling time. The model was tested at United Airlines with an experimental group that managed to increase its sales over a matched control group
by 8 percentage points.25
DETAILER: A model to help salespeople determine which customers to call on and
which products to represent on each call. This model was largely developed for
pharmaceutical detail people calling on physicians where they could represent no
more than three products on a call. In two applications, the model yielded strong
profit improvements.26 GEOLINE: A model for designing sales and service territories
that satisfies three prin- ciples: the territories equalize sales workloads; each
territory consists of adjacent areas; and the territories are compact. Several
successful applications were re- ported.27 MEDIAC: A model to help an advertiser
buy media for a year. The media planning model includes market-segment
delineation, sales potential estimation, diminish- ing marginal returns, forgetting,
timing issues, and competitor media schedules.28

Some models now claim to duplicate the way expert marketers normally make their
decisions. Some recent expert system models include:
PROMOTER evaluates sales promotions by determining baseline sales (what sales
would have been without promotion) and measuring the increase over baseline associated with the promotion.29 ADCAD recommends the type of ad (humorous, slice
of life, and so on) to use given the marketing goals, product characteristics, target
market, and competitive situation.30

Multiple-Factor Index Method.

brand development index (BDI), which is the index of brand sales to category sales.
Companies commonly use a three-stage procedure to prepare a sales forecast. They
prepare a macroeconomic forecast first, followed by an industry forecast, followed
by a company sales forecast. The macroeconomic forecast calls for projecting
inflation, unemployment, interest rates, consumer spending, business investment,
government expenditures, net exports, and other variables. The end result is a
forecast of gross na- tional product, which is then used, along with other
environmental indicators, to forecast industry sales. The company derives its sales
forecast by assuming that it will win a certain market share.

Companies are abandoning

the shotgun approach that aimed at a mythical average consumer and are
increasingly designing their products and marketing programs for specific

Views of others: Some observers have pointed to a countermovement from a me

society to a we society. People are concerned about the homeless, crime and
victims, and other social problems. They would like to live in a more humane
society. At the same time, people are seeking out their own kind and avoiding
strangers. People hunger for serious and long-lasting relationships with a few
Market Entry

First, Parallel, Late entry
Adoption Process
Innovators, Early Adopters, Early Majority, Late Majority, Laggards
idea generation,
screening, concept development and testing, marketing strategy development,
business analysis, product development, market testing, and commercialization.
d influence wielded by children and teens.8 Children age 4 to 12 spend an
$24.4 billion annuallythree times the value of the ready-to-eat cereal market.
Indirect influence means that parents know the brands, product choices, and
of their children without hints or outright requests; direct influence refers to
childrens hints, requests, and demands.
Because the fastest route to Mom and Dads wallets may be through Junior, many
successful companies are showing off their products to childrenand soliciting
information from themover the Internet. T

psychological life-cycle stages

. A lifestyle is the persons pattern of living in the world as expressed
in activities, interests, and opinions.
Psychographics is the science of measuring and categorizing consumer lifestyles.
One of the most popular classifications based on psychographic measurements is
Internationals Values and Lifestyles (VALS) framework.
Actualizers: Successful, sophisticated, active, take-charge people whose
often reflect cultivated tastes for relatively upscale, niche-oriented products.
Fulfilleds: Mature, satisfied, comfortable, and reflective people who favor
functionality, and value in products.
Achievers: Successful, career- and work-oriented consumers who favor

prestige products that demonstrate success.

Experiencers: Young, vital, enthusiastic, impulsive, and rebellious people who
much of their income on clothing, fast food, music, movies, and video.
Believers: Conservative, conventional, and traditional people who favor familiar
products and established brands.
Strivers: Uncertain, insecure, approval-seeking, resource constrained consumers
favor stylish products that emulate the purchases of wealthier people.
Makers: Practical, self-sufficient, traditional, and family-oriented people who favor
products with a practical or functional purpose, such as tools and fishing
Strugglers: Elderly, resigned, passive, concerned, and resource-constrained
consumers who are cautious and loyal to favorite bran
Three types of buying situations are the straight rebuy, the modified rebuy, and
the new task
To influence the buying center, marketers must be aware of environmental,
interpersonal, individual, and cultural factors. The buying process consists
of eight stages called buyphases: (1) problem recognition, (2) general need
(3) product specification, (4) supplier search, (5) proposal solicitation, (6) supplier
selection, (7) order-routine specification, and (8) performance review.
a company can differentiate its market
offering along five dimensions: product, services, personnel, channel, and image
A company has five choices when it comes to brand strategy. The company can
line extensions (existing brand name extended to new sizes or flavors in the
product category), brand extensions (brand names extended to new-product
multibrands (new brand names introduced in the same product category), new
brands (new brand name for a new category product), and co-brands (brands
two or more well-known brand names).
Mark Up Pricing
Target Return Pricing
Value Pricing
Perceived Pricing

Going Rate pricing

Sealed Bid Pricing
Odd Pricing 99

Promotional Pricing Techniques

Technique Description Example
Loss-leader pricing
Special-event pricing
Cash rebates
Longer payment
Warranties and
service contracts

The service mix includes both presale servicesNotes 213

(such as facilitating services and value-augmenting services) and postsale services
service departments, repair and maintenance services)

After a firm has examined its customers desired service outputs and has
set channel
objectives, the next step is to identify channel alternatives. These are
described by
(1) the types of available intermediaries, (2) the number of intermediaries
and (3) the terms and responsibilities of each channel member.

Types of Intermediaries
Intermediaries known as merchantssuch as wholesalers and retailersbuy, take
to, and resell the merchandise. Agentsbrokers, manufacturers representatives
sales agentssearch for customers and may negotiate on the producers behalf but

not take title to the goods. Facilitatorstransportation companies, independent

banks, and advertising agenciesassist in the distribution process but neither
take title to goods nor negotiate purchases or sales.

Number of Intermediaries
In deciding how many intermediaries to use, successful companies use one of three
Exclusive distribution means severely limiting the number of intermediaries. Firms
such as automakers use this approach when they want to maintain control over the
service level and service outputs offered by the resellers. Often it involves exclusive
dealing arrangements, in which the resellers agree not to carry competing brands.
Selective distribution involves the use of more than a few but less than all of the
intermediaries who are willing to carry a particular product. In this way, the
producer avoids dissipating its efforts over too many outlets, and it gains adequate
market coverage with more control and less cost than intensive distribution. Nike,
for example, sells its athletic shoes and apparel through seven types of outlets:
(1) specialized sports stores, which carry a special line of athletic shoes; (2) general
sporting goods stores, which carry a broad range of styles; (3) department stores,
which carry only the newest styles; (4) mass-merchandise stores, which focus on
discounted styles; (5) Niketown stores, which feature the complete line; (6) factory
outlet stores, which stock mostly seconds and closeouts, and (7) the popular Fogdog
Sports site (www.fogdog.com), its exclusive Web retailer.9
Intensive distribution consists of the manufacturer placing the goods or services
in as
many outlets as possible. This strategy is generally used for items such as tobacco
products, soap, snack foods, and gum, products for which the consumer requires a
great deal of location convenience.

Terms and Responsibilities of Channel Members

The producer must also determine the rights and responsibilities of participating
members when considering channel alternatives. From an ethical perspective, each
channel member must be treated respectfully and given the opportunity to be
Other key rights and responsibilities include:
Price policy. The producer establishes a price list and a schedule of discounts and
allowances that intermediaries see as equitable and sufficient.
Conditions of sale. The producer sets payment terms and guarantees for each
Most producers grant cash discounts to distributors for early payment; they may
offer guarantees against defective merchandise or price declines.

Territorial rights. The producer defines the distributors territories and the terms
under which it will enfranchise other distributors. Distributors normally expect to
receive full credit for all sales in their territory, whether or not they did the
Mutual services and responsibilities. The producer must carefully lay out each
duties, especially in franchised and exclusive-agency channels. McDonalds provides
franchisees with a building, promotional support, a record-keeping system, training,
and technical assistance. In turn, its franchisees are expected to satisfy company
standards regarding physical facilities, cooperate with new promotional programs,
and buy supplies from specified vendors.
t. There are three types of VMS (Vertical Marketing System): corporate,
administered, and contractual.
A corporate VMS combines successive stages of production and distribution under
single ownership. Vertical integration is favored by companies that desire a high
level of control over their channels. For example, Sears obtains over 50 percent of
the goods it sells from companies that it partly or wholly owns; Sherwin-Williams
makes paint but also owns and operates 2,000 retail outlets.
An administered VMS coordinates successive stages of production and
through the size and power of one of the members. Manufacturers of a dominant
brand are able to secure strong trade cooperation and support from resellers. Thus
Kodak, Gillette, Procter & Gamble, and Campbell Soup are able to command high
levels of cooperation from their resellers in connection with displays, shelf space,
promotions, and price policies.
A contractual VMS consists of independent firms at different levels of production
distribution integrating their programs on a contractual basis to obtain more
economies or sales impact than they could achieve alone. Johnston and Lawrence
call them value-adding partnerships (VAPs

Horizontal Marketing Systems

Another channel development is the horizontal marketing system, in which two or
unrelated companies put together resources or programs to exploit an emerging
opportunity. Each company lacks the capital, know-how, production, or marketing
resources to venture alone, or it is afraid of the risk. The companies might work
with each other on a temporary or permanent basis or create a joint venture
Adler calls this symbiotic marketing.16

Vertical channel conflict is currently raging in consumer packaged goods, where

power has shifted from producers to retailers. Even as manufacturers continue to
pump out thousands of new products, retailers seeking maximum productivity from
their limited shelf space are able to collect slotting fees from manufacturers for
new products, display fees to cover space costs, fines for late deliveries and
orders, and exit fees to cover the cost of returning goods to producers. Trying to
power from retailers, manufacturers are expanding into alternative channels,
more emphasis on market-leading brands, and developing stronger links with
retailers through value-added distribution systems and programs that benefit all
members of the channel.
Cooptation. Cooptation is an effort by one organization to win the support of the
leaders of another organization by including them in advisory councils, boards of
directors, trade associations, and the like. As long as the initiating organization
the leaders seriously and listens to their opinions, cooptation can reduce conflict.
Market Demassification SS