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Harder rocks, Softer Rocks and building o

Three Themes for Phase III

Wells (North Sea)

Gulf of Mexico Well (strong, deep for

Canadian Well (soft formation)

Other examples of field calibration are:

Gas storage wells evaluated and lab

4 outcrop rocks evaluated

Areas of previous study include:

Ongoing work is being undertaken to obta

the field calibration of the results.

Initial work was undertaken to determine

factor out this constraint. Once determine
samples (conventionally 1" outside diam
sanding factors determined.

A basis of the work programme has been

stress required to initiate sanding - so tha

The TWC method was selected as the basi

sanding factors for various rock strengths.

TWC method:
Onset of sanding usually occurs when the
necessary to apply a sanding factor.

CST method:
Will produce a stress strain curve from th
curve will intersect with the onset of sandi

UCS method:
Core will exhibit a lower strength than it w
bedding planes

All these testing methods exhibit problem

Confined Strength Testing (CST)

UnConfined Strength testing (UCS)

Thick Wall Cylinder testing (TWC)

This project was initiatied in 1997, to incr

mechanical testing methods can be used


Phase III will now extend the work t

Issues pertaining to intermediate str

Now running since 2002, FracTech's Sand

utilising large Thick Wall Cylinder test sam

PEA135 - Sand Productio

Joint Industry Project


Exhibiting at ATCE Houston in

Basic TWC Collapse Tests

At the suggestion of an operator, tests wil

sanding. The tests will consist of:

B. Closed Perforation Tunnels

During Phase II, a participant provided co

were performed (limited by core availabilit
improve the mechanical strength characte
suites across the core intervals.

A. Hardness Evaluation: Gas Storage

Theme III: Extensions of Existing Wo

Field calibration is particularly import

core under known sanding conditions

Improve Hardness Indentation meas

measurements in 100psi UCS rock. H
hardness a better strength indicator
compaction, and is the extent of this

Hence, for wells with UCS ~ few hund

likely, but based on TWC may suggest
determine which strength indicator is

his has been identified as a key area f

order of a few hundred psi, the TWC:

Theme II: Softer rocks

Reservoir core in stronger, deeper roc

core availability (one well already ide

The TWC test-suite for OD/ID ratios

For each type, standard Mohr-Coulo

static modulus/stress function

Two outcrop rocks will be selected to

For the range of Sanding Factors (SF) so f

stronger materials: those with UCS values
from deeper wells. More tests on harder r
Production Prediction for deeper wells:

Theme 1: Harder rocks

The emphasis of field calibration of the lab

Consortium and participants have express
be a strong field-calibration element to all

Validity of Prediction tool in shallow

Sand Production Prediction in strong

Two specific issues have been highlighted

field relevance:

Schematic Showing Thick Walled Cyli

The sample is placed in a Hoek cell and th

the point of failure. The borehole is kept f
building up by maintaining connection to a
psi to be applied.

2. Loading of Sample:

The 1" diameter cylindrical rock samples a

with International Society of Rock Mechan
diameter of 1/3" is cored out of the cylind
coring is under 2%KCl or kerosene, as req

1. Sample Preparation:

TWC Testing Procedures

Your comments / review of the programm

This project enjoys support from Schlumb

Current Membership

The membership fee is available on applic


GDS 1: Controls sleeve/confining pres

GDS 2: Controls pore pressure
GDS 3: Bleeds through the borehole