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Transistor Construction

The transistor is a three-layer semiconductor device consisting of either two n- and one p-type

layers of material(npn transistor) or two p- and one n-type layers of material(pnp transistor).

The outer layers of the transistor widths much greater than those of the sandwiched p- or ntype material

The doping of the sandwiched layer is also considerably less than that of the outer layers, this

lower doping level decreases the conductivity (increases the resistance) of this material by

limiting the number of free carriers

The terminals have been indicated by E for emitter, C for collector, and B for base.

The abbreviation BJT, from bipolar junction transistor, is often applied to this three-terminal

device.

The term bipolar reflects the fact that holes and electrons participate in the injection

process into the oppositely polarized material. If only one carrier is employed (electron or

hole), it is considered a unipolar device.

Transistor Operation

In Fig (3-2) the pnp transistor has been redrawn without the base-to-collector bias.

The depletion region has been reduced in width due to the applied bias, resulting a heavy flow

of majority carriers from the p- to the n-type material.

Let us now remove the base-to-emitter bias of the pnp transistor. The flow of majority carriers

is zero, resulting in only a minority-carrier flow.

i.e. one p-n junction of a transistor is reverse biased, while the other is forward biased.

In Fig (3-4) both biasing potentials have been applied to a pnp transistor, with the resulting

majority- and minority-carrier flow indicated. A large number of majority carriers will diffuse

across the forward-biased p-n junction into the n-type material.

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Since the sandwiched n-type material is very thin and has a low conductivity, a very small

number of these carriers will take this path of high resistance obtaining the base current IB

in A, the magnitude of the emitter IE and collector IC currents in mA

Applying KCL to the transistor of Fig (3-4) as if it were a single node, we obtain

[3-1]

The IC has two components-the majority and minority carriers. The minority-current component

is called the leakage current ICO (CO = Current with emitter terminal Open). Therefore:

[3-2]

IC

ICO

in mA

in A or nA , is temperature sensitive

Fig (3-5) Notation and symbols used with the CB (a) pnp transistor (b) npn transistor.

For fixed values of VCB in the CB configuration the ratio of a small change in IC to a small

change in IE is commonly called the common-base short-circuit amplification factor and

is given by the symbol (alpha).

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[3-3]

The term short circuit indicates that the load is short-circuited when is determined.

Typical values of vary from 0.90 to 0.998.

For most practical applications can be obtained using the following equation:

[3-4]

Therefore Eqs [3-2] be:

[3-5]

The current amplification IC / IE is always less than 1 for the CB configuration. This latter

characteristic should be obvious since IC = IE and is always less than 1.

Two sets of characteristics are necessary to represent the behavior of the pnp CB transistor

1--the driving point (or input)

2--the output set.

The output or collector characteristics of Fig (3-6a) relate the collector (output) current to the

collector-to-base (output) voltage and (input) emitter current. The collector characteristics

have three basic regions of interest:

1--the active region

In the active region the collector junction is reverse-biased, while the emitter junction is

forward-biased, it is the only region employed for the amplification of signals with minimum

distortion.

-When the emitter current IE =0 the collector current IC = ICO ( emitter input circuit is open)

-When the emitter current increases above Zero, IC=IE (in active region)

[3-6]

Fig (3-6) pnp CB transister (a) O/P Collector characteristics (b) I/P Emitter characteristics

51

2--the cutoff region

In cut off region the collector and emitter junction are both reverse biased, resulting in

negligible collector current.

3--and saturation region

In saturation region the collector & emitter junction are forward biased, resulting in the

exponential change in the collector current with small change in collector to base potential.

For fixed values of collector voltage VCB in the input characteristics fig(3-6b) as VEB increases,

the IE will increased , Increasing levels of VCB result in a reduced level of VEB to establish

the same current.

[3-7]

Example 1:

Using the characteristic of fig (3-6):

Solution:

The proper biasing of the CB determined using the approximation IC IE and assuming for

the moment that IB 0A.

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Fig (3-9) Notation and symbols used with CE configuration (a)npn transistor(b)pnp transistor

Two sets of characteristics are again necessary to describe the behavior of CE configuration:

-One for the input or base circuit.

-One for the output or collector circuit. Both are shown in Fig (3-10)

Fig (3-10) npn CE transistor (a) O/P Collector characteristics (b) I/P Base characteristic

-In the active region the collector junction is reverse biased, while the emitter junction is

forward-biased, this region employed for voltage, current, or power amplification.

-in cutoff region for the CE, IC = lCEO determined the cutoff for the CE configuration

For C.E

For C.B

The reason for this is,

IC 0 when

IB = 0

IC = ICO when IE = 0

Eqs[3-5]

But

Eqs[3-1]

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[3-8]

If we consider the case where IB=0, and substitute this value in Eqs.[3-8],then

[3-9]

And

The collector current defined by Eqs[3-9] will be assigned the notation indicated by Eqs[3-10].

[3-10]

In Fig (3-11) the conditions surrounding this newly defined current are demonstrated.

The CE forward-current amplification factor is

[3-11]

The value obtained for beta () from Eqs[3-11] is called ac or dynamic value.

[3-12]

The value obtained for from Eqs[3-12] is called the dc beta, since IC and IB in Eqs[3-12] are

dc values, vary from 20 to 600.

Eqs[3-12]

Eqs[3-4]

Eqs[3-1]

54

Substituting:

And dividing by IC

We obtain:

[3-13]

or

[3-14]

Then

[3-15]

Example 2:

Using the characteristics of fig (3-10)

Solution:

Example 3:

55

Solution:

The input char for CE & CB configuration is, the increase in input current is due to an

increase in majority carriers crossing the B-to-E junction with increasing forward-bias potential.

Common-Collector Configuration (CC)

The CC configuration is used primarily for impedance matching purposes since it has a high

input impedance and low output impedance, opposite to that which is true of the CB & CE

configurations.

Fig (3-12) Notation and symbols used with CC configuration(a)pnp transistor(b)npn transistor

The output characteristics of the CC configuration are the same as for the CE configuration.

Transistor Maximum Ratings

The standard transistor data sheet will include at least three maximum ratings:

-Collector dissipation (power), collector voltage, And collector current

The power or dissipation rating is the product of the collector voltage and current.

For the CE configuration

[3-16]

-For the CB configuration the collector dissipation is determined by the following equation.

[3-17]

56

Summary

57

ICBO is the collector current that flows when the emitter is open

Input and output voltages and currents for NPN and PNP transistor in the CE configuration

58

VCE ~ VCB + 0.7 for Si , when VCE is reduced to about 0.7, then VCB ~ 0 and the collector-base

junction is no longer reverse biased.

CC bias configuration

59

To use these devices for amplification of voltage or current, or as control (on or off) elements, it

is necessary first to bias the device. The usual reason for this biasing is to turn the device on

and to place it in operation in the region of its characteristic where the device operates most

linearly.

Operating point:

Since the aim of biasing is to achieve a certain condition of current and voltage called the

operating point (quiescent point or Q-point).

Operating region is the area of current or voltage within the maximum limits for the particular

device. These maximum ratings are indicated on the characteristic of Fig (4-1) by a horizontal

line for the maximum current, Imax and a vertical line for the maximum voltage Vmax

Operating in the linear regions, cutoff region, and saturation region of the BJT characteristic

are provided as follows:

1. Linear-region operation:

Base-emitter forward biased, Base-collector reverse biased, IC=IB , is true only in this region

2. Cutoff-region operation:

Base-emitter reverse biased

3. Saturation-region operation:

Base-emitter forward biased, Base-collector forward biased

Fixed-Bias Circuit

The fixed-bias circuit shown in Fig (4-2) provides a relatively straightforward and simple

starting point in the dc bias considerations.

It is possible to consider the biasing of a BJT by separately analyzing the base-emitter and

the base-collector dc bias loops.

60

Consider the base-emitter circuit loop shown, writing the KVL equation for the loop, we get:

We can solve the foregoing equation for the base current IB

[4-1]

Since the supply voltage VCC and VBE are fixed values, as a good approximation we may even

neglect the few tenths of a volt drop (VBE) obtaining the simplified form for the base current IB

[4-2]

Reverse Bias of Base-Collector

The collector-emitter section (Fig4-4) consists of the supply battery, the collector resistor, and

the transistor collector-emitter junction. The currents through the collector and emitter are

about the same since IB is small in comparison to either

For linear amplifier operation the IC is related to the IB by the transistor current gain,

[4-3]

Calculating voltage drops in the collector-emitter loop, we get

[4-4]

Example 1: Compute the dc bias voltages and currents for the circuit of Fig (4-5).

61

Solution:

Example 2: Compute the collector voltage and current for the circuit of fig (4-6).

Solution:

The dc bias circuit of Fig (4-7) contains RE to provide better bias stability than the fixed-bias

circuit

Base-Emitter Loop

A partial circuit diagram of the base-emitter loop is shown in Fig (4-8).

62

[4-5]

Collector-Emitter Loop

The collector emitter loop is shown in fig (4-9).writing KVL for this loop we get

The collector current IC is calculated using the relation

[4-6]

[4-7]

[4-8]

The voltage at which the transistor is based is measured from collector to emitter VCE

Example 3: Calculate the dc bias voltage VCE and current IC in the circuit of Fig (4-10)

Solution:

63

Example 4: Calculate the value of collector resistor RC needed VC = 10 v, using Fig (4-10)

Solution:

Note: that IB and IC are still the same values as calculated in Ex 3: using Eq[4-11]

The addition of the emitter resistor to the dc bias of the BJT improved stability ( the dc bias

currents and voltages remain closer to where they were set by the circuit even when outside

conditions supply voltage, temperature, and transistor beta change)

Example 5: Prepare a table comparing the bias voltage and currents of the circuit of Fig (45) for the given value of = 50 and for a new value of = 100.

Solution:

Using the results calculated in Ex1: then repeating for a value of = 100 yields the following:

IC is seen to change by 100% due to the 100% change in (and no change in IB).

Using the results calculated in Ex3: then repeating for a value of = 50, we have the following:

In the previous dc bias circuits the values of IB and voltage of the collector depend on , but

is temperature sensitive for this reasons needs to provide a dc bias circuit that is

independent of the transistor beta

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a) base-emitter Loop.

If the resistance seen looking into the base ( Fig4-12) is much larger than that of resistor RB2,

then the base voltage is set by the voltage divider of RB1 and RB2, then the current through

RBl goes almost completely into RB2 and the two resistors in series.

Calculating VB to the voltage-divider network of resistors RB1 and RB2, we get

[4-9]

Where VB is the voltage measured from base to ground. We then calculate the VE

[4-10]

The current in the emitter may then be calculated from

[4-11]

[4-12]

[4-13]

b) Collector-emitter Loop

VB is set by RB1 & RB2 and the supply voltage VCC , VE is the same VB, RE

RC determines the VC and, VCE voltage.

[4-14]

determines IE & IC,

Example 6: Calculate the dc bias voltage VCE and current IC for the circuit of Fig (4-13)

65

Solution:

Exact Analysis

A more exact analysis can be obtained by using the Thevenin equivalent of the voltage divider

as described by the following analysis:

[4-15]

[4-16]

The dc circuit to be analyzed can be redrawn as in fig (4-14) then calculate IB.

[4-17]

The value of VCE can be obtained using Eq[4-6]

Example 7: Calculate the dc bias voltage VCE and current IC for the circuit of Fig (4-13).

Solution:

Example 8: Using an exact bias analysis of the circuit of Fig (4-13), compare the IC & VCE for

the given of 140 and for a new of 70

Solution:

Using the results calculated in Ex 7: and repeating for a value of = 70, we have

66

The circuit maintains the IC and VCE even with a change in of 100%, the bias values only

changed by less than 3% in this circuit.

The approximate analysis would be satisfactory as long as

The use of emitter resistor to provide improved bias stability, voltage feedback also provides

improved dc bias stability.

Base Emitter loop

Writing the KVL equation around the base-emitter loop of the voltage feedback circuit gives

[4-18]

Collector-Emitter Loop

The partial circuit diagram of the collector-emitter section show in fig (4-17) the KVL equation is

67

[4-19]

Example 9: Calculate the dc IE & VCE for the circuit of fig (4-18) using voltage feedback

Solution:

Example 10: Calculate the dc IC current & VC for the bias circuit of Fig (4-19).

Solution:

68

Example 11: Analysis of various DC bias circuits

Calculate the collector current Ic and voltage VCE for the circuit of Fig (4-20)

Solution:

Example 12: Calculate the bias voltage VE and current IC for the circuit of Fig (4-21)

69

Example 13: Calculate the collector voltage VC for the circuit of fig (4-22)

Solution:

Example 14: Determine the collector voltage VC and current IC for the circuit of fig (4-23).

Solution:

70

Example 15: Calculate the emitter current IE and collector voltage VC for circuit in fig (4-24)

Solution:

A graphical technique is another method for finding the operating point of a transistor circuit.

The typical CE collector characteristic shown in Fig4-25, the circuit constraints must also be

taken into account in obtaining the actual operating point (quiescent point or Q-point)

As typical of most circuits previously covered

We can rewrite that equation to solve for the collector current as follows:

71

[4-20]

Eq[4-20] shows the circuit equation as that of a straight line with slope

1. For

2. For

IC = 0,

VCE = 0,

And y-intercept

VCE = VCC

IC = VCC / (RC + RE)

The straight line connecting these points called the dc load line as in Fig (4-26)

Fig (4-27) Effect of varying (RC+RE) or VCC on dc load line: a- effect of resistor on dc load line,

b- effect of supply voltage on dc load line.

plotting transistor characteristic and dc load line on one graph for determination Q-point.

72

Example 16: Determine the quiescent operating point (Q) for the circuit of fig (4-29) using the

transistor collector characteristic of fig (4-25).

Solution:

A dc load should be plotted on the collector characteristic of fig (4-25) this dc load line is

plotted by drawing a straight line from the point

Fig(4-30) shows the circuit dc load line and the transistor collector characteristic with the Qpoint marked at the intersection of the dc load line and base current of IB = 30.4 A. The

transistor is seen to be biased at

Design of DC bias circuits

It is important to be able to design a circuit to operate at a desired or specified bias point. Often

the manufacturer's specification sheets provide information stating a suitable operating point

for a particular transistor and other circuit factors dictate some conditions of current swing,

voltage swing, and value of common supply voltage, which can be used in determining the

Q-point in a design.

73

The supply voltage and operating point will be selected from the manufacturer's information on

the transistor used in the amplifier.

There are two unknown quantities: 1-the values of RC 2- the value of RE

VE is typically around one-fifth (1/5) to one-tenth (1/10) of the supply voltage VCC . Selecting the

emitter voltage in this way will permit calculating the RE and RC we get

Example 17: Calculate the resistor values RE , RC, and RB for a transistor amplifier circuit

having emitter-resistor stabilization (Fig4-31). The current gain of a transistor is 90 at a IC of

5mA Use a supply voltage VCC of 20V

Solution:The operating point selected from the information of tran ICQ=5 mA & VCEQ=10 V.

74

Circuit in Fig (4-32) provides stabilization both for ICO & current gain changes, the emitter

voltage selected to be one-tenth (1/10) of the supply voltage (VCC).

Example 18: Design a dc bias circuit for an amplifier circuit as in Fig (4-32). The transistor has

a current gain of 150, at a collector current of 1 mA, and the supply voltage for the present

circuit is 16 V. Provide design for VCQ = VCC/2.

Solution;

75

Bias Stabilization

In any amplifier circuit the collector current IC will vary with change in temperature

because of the three following main factors:

1. Reverse IC current leakage current ICO which doubles for every 10 increase in temperature

2. Base-emitter voltage VBE which decreases by 2.5 mV per C

3. Transistor current gain which increases with temperature.

Table-1

Notice that the significant increase of leakage current ICO not only causes the curves to rise

but also that an increase in beta occurs as shown in fig by the larger spacing between the

curves at the higher temperature.

Since the fixed-bias circuit provides an IB whose value depends on the VCC and RB, neither of

which is affected by temperature or the change in ICO or , the same IB will exist at high

temperatures as indicated on the fig

Fig (4-33) Shift in dc bias point (Q-point) due to change in temperature (a) 25 C (b) 100C

Stability Factor, S

A stability factor S, is the ratio of a change in collector current IC to the change in the

parameter value that caused it due to change in temperature Thus a stability factor is a

measure of how sensitive collector bias current is to change in a parameter value

76

Fig4-34b the result of analyzing the stability based on change in ICO only ( & VBE constant)

Stability factor varies from the ideal case of S = 1 up to a maximum value of S = + 1 which

occurs for the fixed-bias circuit ( RB / RE > + 1 )

S is smallest for larger values of RE (RE improves S, makes S smaller)

[4-21]

Example 19: In a circuit using a transistor typified by the parameters in Table-1 calculate the

change in IC from 25C to 100C for

(a) Fixed bias (RB/RE )

(b) RB/RE = 11,

(c) RB/RE = 0.01.

Solution:

77

Since smaller values of S indicate better stability, the larger the value of RE the better the

circuit stability due to changes in VBE with temperature.

Example 20: Determine the change in IC for a transistor having parameters listed in Table-1

over a temperature range from 25 to 100C for a circuit having RE = 1 k (and +1 >> RB/RE ).

Solution:

Analysis of the effect of changing with temperature on the circuit bias stability results in

[4-22]

Example 21: Calculate the change in collector current for the transistor having parameters as

given in Table-1 from room temperature to 100C. Assume that RB/RE = 20 for the circuit used

and that IC at room temperature is 2 mA.

Solution:

represents a change of about 16%.

The three parameters affecting S the change due to variation is probably greatest

The design of a good bias stabilized circuit most on stabilizing the effect of changes

in transistor beta.

78

So the total change in collector current over a certain temperature range is:

[4-23]

,

&

are the total change in the respective parameter values over the

temperature range. The expression is an approximation because all three parameters are

changing simultaneously with temperature

BJT switching circuits

Transistors are widely used in digital logic circuits and switching applications called an inverter.

Alternate between a Low 0V and a high voltage + 5V

When the input is high +5V, VBE is forward biased and current flows through RB , the values

of RB and RC are chosen so that the amount of base current flowing is enough to saturate the

transistor (to drive it into the saturation region of its output characteristics).

VCE corresponding to this point is VCE(sat) is very nearly 0V, the current at the saturation point is

called IC(sat) is very nearly to VCC / RC

When the transistor is saturated, it is said to be ON "a High input to the inverter + 5V results in

a Low output 0V"

When the input to the transistor is Low 0V, the base-emitter junction has No forward bias

applied to it, so NO IB and hence NO IC flows therefore NO voltage drop across RC so that VCE

must be the same as VCC = + 5V, By substituting IC = 0 in the equation for VCE

VCE = VCC -ICRC = VCC - (0)(RC) = VCC

In this situation, the transistor is in the cutoff region of its output characteristics and is said to

be OFF. In designing and analyzing transistor inverters. It is usually assumed that

IC(sat) = VCC/RC and that VE(sat) = 0 V

Fig4-37 When the input to the inverter is high +5V the transistor is saturated and its output is

low ~0V, When the input to the inverter is low, the transistor is cut off its output is high.

79

We can easily derive the voltage-current relations in a transistor inverter, since the transistor is

cut off when the input is Low, the equations we will study are that apply when the input is high

VHI is the high level of the input voltage. Usually the same as VCC

Example 22: Verify that the circuit in fig8-38 behaves like an inverter when the input switches

between 0V and +5V. Assume that the transistor is Silicon and that =100.

Solution:

It is necessary to verify that the transistor is saturated when Vin = +5V.

Example 23:

80

Example 24: Determine RB & RC for the transistor inverter of ICsat = 10mA

Solution:At saturation:

81

SUMMARY (BJT)

1-A bipolar junction transistor (BJT) consists of three regions: emitter, base, and collector.

2- The three regions of a BJT are separated by two pn junctions.

3- The two types of bipolar transistor are the npn and the pnp.

4- The term bipolar refers to two types of current: electron current and hole current.

5- One p-n junction of a transistor is forward-biased while the other is reverse-biased.

6- The dc emitter current is always the largest current of a transistor whereas the base

current is always the smallest. The emitter current is always the sum of the other two.

7- The collector current is made up of two components: the majority component and the

minority current (also called the leakage current).

8- The arrow in the transistor symbol defines the direction of conventional current flow for the

emitter current and thereby defines the direction for the other currents of the device

9- A three-terminal device needs two sets of characteristics to completely define its

characteristics.

10- In the active region of a transistor, the base-emitter junction is forward-biased while the

collector-base junction is reverse-biased.

11- In the cutoff region the base-emitter and collector-base junctions of a transistor are both

reverse-biased.

12- In the saturation region the base-emitter and collector-base junctions are forward biased.

13- On an average basis, as a first approximation, the base-to-emitter voltage of an operating

transistor can be assumed to be 0.7 V

14- The quantity alpha () relates the collector and emitter currents and is always close to one.

15- The impedance between terminals of a forward-biased junction is always relatively small

while the impedance between terminals of a reverse-biased junction is usually quite large.

16- The arrow in the symbol of an npn transistor points out of the device (not pointing in),

while the arrow points in to the center of the symbol for a pnp transistor, pointing in

17- For the linear amplification purposes, cutoff for the common-emitter configuration will be

defined by IC=ICEO

18- The quantity beta () provides an important relationship between the base and the

collector currents; the dc beta is defined by a simple ratio of dc currents at an operating point

19- To ensure that a transistor is operating within its maximum power level rating, simply find

the product of the collector-to-emitter voltage and collector current, and compare it to the rated

value.

20- No matter what type of configuration a transistor is used in, the basic relation ships

between the currents are always the same, and the base-to-emitter voltage is the threshold

value if the transistor is in the on state.

21- The operating point defines where the transistor will operate on its character curves under

dc conditions. For linear amplification, dc operating point should avoid the regions of saturation

and cutoff.

22- For most configurations the dc analysis begins with a determination of the base current.

23- For the dc analysis of a transistor network, all capacitors are replaced by an open circuit

equivalent.

24- The fixed-bias configuration is the simplest of transistor biasing arrangement but it is also

quite unstable due its sensitivity to beta at the operating point

25- Determining the saturation (maximum) collector current for any configuration can usually

be done quite easily if an imaginary short circuit is superimpose between the collector and

emitter terminals of the transistor. The resulting current through the short is then the saturation

current.

26- The equation for the load line of a transistor network can be found by applying KVL to the

output or collector network. The Q-point is determined by finding the intersection between the

base current and the load drawn on the device characteristics.

27- The emitter-stabilized biasing arrangement is less sensitive to changes in beta providing

more stability for the network. However, that any resistance in the emitter leg is "seen" at the

82

base of the transistor as a much larger resistor (RE 10R2), a fact that will reduce the base

current of the configuration.

28- The voltage-divider bias configuration is probably the most common of all configurations.

Its popularity is due primarily to its Low sensitivity to change beta from one transistor to

another of the same lot. The exact analysis can be applied to any configuration, but the

approximate can be applied only if the reflected emitter resistance as seen at the base is

much larger (RE 10R2) than the lower resistor of the voltage-divider bias arrangement

connected to the base of the transistor.

29- When analyzing the dc bias with a voltage feedback configuration, be sure to remember

that both the emitter resistor and the collector resistor are reflected back to the base circuit by

beta. The least sensitivity to beta is obtained when the reflected resistance is much larger than

the feedback resistor between the base and collector.

30- For the common-base configuration the emitter current is normally determined first due to

the presence of the base-to-emitter junction in the same loop. Then the fact that the emitter

and collector current are essentially of the same magnitude is employed.

31- A clear understanding of the procedure employed to analyze a dc transistor network will

usually permit a design of the same configuration with a minimum of difficulty and confusion.

Simply start with those relationships that minimize the number of unknowns, and then proceed

to make some decisions about the unknown elements of the network.

32- In a switching configuration, a transistor quickly moves between saturation and cutoff, or

vice versa. Essentially, the impedance between collector and emitter can be approximated as

a short circuit for saturation and an open circuit for cutoff.

33- When checking the operation of a dc transistor network, first check that the base-to-emitter

voltage is very close to 0.7 V and that the collector-to-emitter voltage is between 25% and 75%

of the applied voltage VCC

34-The analysis of pnp configurations is exactly the same as that applied to npn transistors

with the exception that current directions will reverse and voltages will have the opposite

polarities.

35- Beta is very sensitive to temperature, and VBE decreases about 7.5 mV (0.0075 V) for each

10 increase in temperature on a Celsius scale. The reverse saturation current typically

doubles for every 10 increase in Celsius temperature.

36- Keep in mind that networks that are the most stable and least sensitive to temperature

changes have the smallest stability factors.

CB npn

CB pnp

83

CE npn

CE pnp

CC pnp

CC npn

84

Equation

85

86

87

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