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UNIT 2 THERMAL ASPECTS IN METAL

CUTTING

Thermal Aspects
in Metal Cutting

Structure
2.1 Introduction
Objectives

2.2 Heat Generation in Cutting


2.3 Temperature Measurement in Cutting
2.3.1

Tool-work Thermocouple

2.3.2

Calorimetric Method

2.4 Analysis of Temperature in Cutting


2.4.1 Average Temperature of the Tool-chip Interface
2.4.2 Friction at Tool-chip Interface

2.5 Dimensional Analysis of Temperature in Cutting


2.5.1 Temperature in Cutting
2.5.2 Temperature and Tool Life

2.6 Summary
2.7 Key Words
2.8 Answers to SAQs

2.1 INTRODUCTION
During metal cutting, large amount of heat is produced in the region surrounding the
cutting edge. This leads to very high temperature at the tool-chip interface. The high
temperature of the tool leads to high tool wear rate (TWR), hence, the temperature
analysis in metal cutting has attracted many researchers. The measurement of temperature
of tool, chip and workpiece has been studied in depth.
The temperature of the cutting tool in machining is of great significance from the tool life
point of view. In the absence of careful selection of process parameters, the tool may get
overheated at the isolated locations resulting in localized damage. This may lead to
softening of the tool surface, or crack formation which ultimately leads to the failure of
the tool. Further, intense heating of the machined workpiece may also change its surface
properties. In view of this, an understanding of the thermal phenomenon in machining
becomes quite important.

Objectives
After reading this unit, you should be able to understand

what are the various sources of heat generation during cutting,

how the temperature at tool surface and work surface can be measured,

how to determine average tool chip interface temperature experimentally,

methodology to evaluate rise in temperature of chip in PSDZ, and SSDZ,


and average chip tool interface temperature theoretically,

the calculation for average coefficient of friction in secondary shear


deformation zone, and

how to determine relationship between cutting zone temperature and


machining parameters as well as tool life.

31

Theory of Metal Cutting

2.2 HEAT GENERATION IN CUTTING


During machining, heat is produced in three different zones (Figure 2.1) i.e., primary
shear deformation zone (PSDZ), secondary shear deformation zone (SSDZ) and worktool interface. Extremely high stress and high strain rate are developed during plastic
deformation of material in PSDZ. It has been observed that a very large proportion of the
energy supplied to PSDZ is converted into heat (neglecting elastic deformation). Most of
this heat (heat source (1) in Figure 2.1) is carried away by the chip, except a small
proportion that is conducted into the workpiece.
On account of chip flow at rake face of the tool, under high normal pressure, heat is
generated due to friction between the moving chip and rake face of the tool (heat
source (2) in Figure 2.1). As discussed in Unit 1, deformation of the built up edge (BUE)
takes place during cutting which also produces heat.
Usually, the tool is not perfectly sharp, it wears out with machining time. Heat is
generated due to friction between the tool flank face and the machined surface of the
workpiece (heat source (3) in Figure 2.1). The amount of heat produced due to
interaction between tool and workpiece is usually small and hence it is neglected in
approximate analysis.
Different heat sources discussed above lead to the rise in temperature at the tool-chip
interface. Temperature of the workpiece also rises but to a lesser extent as compared to
the tool. Very high temperature near the cutting edge softens the tool and also gives rise
to thermal stresses. It has been found from the experiments that rise in tool temperature is
influenced more by cutting speed than other cutting parameters.
In situations where cutting is intermittent e.g., milling, the tool experiences wide
fluctuations in temperature. As a result due to thermal fatigue fine cracks appear on the
tool face. The cracks eventually propagate into the body of the tool resulting into tool
fracture and failure. Tool life is more dependent upon the temperature reached at the toolchip interface than the total amount of heat flowing into the tool and /or work. The rate of
tool wear is generally increased with increase in tool temperature on account of softening
of the tool material at elevated temperatures. Hence, determination of tool temperature
(theoretically and /or experimentally) is important.

Figure 2.1 : Sources of Heat Generation in Metal Cutting

2.3 TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT IN CUTTING


There are various methods that can be used to experimentally estimate the tool-chip
interface temperature, for example, radiation pyrometer, thermocouples, temperature
sensitive paints, and indirect calorimetric method. These methods can be employed for
the determination of average tool-chip interface temperature or the temperature at a
specified point on the tool face.

32

Radiation pyrometer technique can be used to determine temperature at a point on the


rake face of the tool or bottom surface of the chip (i.e., tool chip interface temperature).
For this purpose, very fine through holes are drilled in the tool so as to enable the
pyrometer to view the underside of the chip. Drilling too many holes may however affect

the cutting process. Hence using this method temperature measurement at limited number
of locations on the tool face is possible. Boothroyd (1963) used infra-red photography to
determine temperature on the outside surface of the tool, work and chip. Some synthetic
materials (thermosensitive paints) have characteristic of changing their colour when
subjected to a definite range of temperature. This feature of synthetic materials is utilized
to measure temperature distribution on the tool. This method can be used to determine
approximate temperature distribution on the flank face of the tool and on the workpiece.
However, it is difficult to identify the exact colour and its location. Further, this method
cannot be used to determine temperature distribution on the rake face of the tool.

Thermal Aspects
in Metal Cutting

Due to high temperature at the cutting edge, many times the tool fails by plastic
deformation. Moreover, temperature gradient at the tool face is very high. It is therefore
necessary to know the actual temperature distribution along the rake face. Very fine blind
holes are drilled in the tool in which thermocouples are embedded to measure
temperature at different points (Figure 2.2). In this method, the temperature is measured
at some point below the tool surface because the drilled holes in the tool are not through
holes, otherwise thermocouples will get damaged and the cutting conditions will also
change significantly. Due to this, the difference in the actual and the measured rake face
temperature may be as high as 100C. The limitations of this method are due to response
time of thermocouples, bead size of thermocouple, and drilling of very fine holes in very
hard tool materials. Electrochemical machining (ECM), electric discharge machining
(EDM) or laser beam machining can be used to drill fine holes in electrically conducting
tool materials.

Figure 2.2 : Scheme of Embedded Thermocouple to Measure Tool Temperature

2.3.1 Tool-work Thermocouple


This is the most widely used method for the measurement of average temperature at the
tool-chip interface. In this case the tool-chip interface acts as hot junction of the
thermocouple. This method is also known as tool work thermocouple method. As shown
in Figure 2.3, workpiece is insulated from the rest of the machine at the four jaws (or
three jaws) chuck and the steady rest (if used). One end of the workpiece which is held in
the chuck is connected through appropriate means to a solid small diameter rod. This
small diameter rod passes through the head stock of the lathe machine and other end of
the rod protrudes outside the head stock (Figure 2.3). This end of the solid bar is
connected to the mercury through a disc. Thus, the disc is mounted on one end of the rod
which is fastened at other end to the rotating workpiece by appropriate means. The disc is
partially dipped in the mercury bath which acts as a cold junction. During cutting,
electromotive force (emf) is generated which is proportional to the temperature difference
between the hot junction and the cold junction. By suitable calibration of the tool-work
thermocouple the generated emf can be interpreted in terms of average tool-chip interface
temperature.
In Figure 2.3, H constitutes the hot junction of the thermocouple which corresponds to
tool-chip contact area. B is cold junction that remains at room temperature. The mercury
contact of the rotating disc completes the electrical circuit. P indicates millivoltmeter.

33

Theory of Metal Cutting

The emf generated may range anywhere from 2-15 mV depending upon tool-work
combination and the cutting conditions which control the tool-chip interface temperature.

Figure 2.3 : Schematic Diagram to Measure Tool-chip Interface Temperature Using Thermocouple
(or Tool-work Thermocouple) Technique

2.3.2 Calorimetric Method


Schmidt determined average cutting temperature as well as the relative distribution of
heat between chip, tool and workpiece by calorimetric method. Three experiments
(workpiece dia. = 3/8 inch, predrilled hole dia. = 0.110 inch and drill dia. = 0.438 inch)
were conducted by Schmidt to determine average temperature and heat distribution
during cutting. Figure 2.4(a) shows a set-up with a calorimeter (D), a fixture F (made of
rubber or other insulating material), tool A (drill), workpiece E, and distilled water B.
Drilling operation was done for a definite period of time at the specified spindle speed in
all the three experiments.
In the first experiment, the water level in the calorimeter was chosen so as to submerge
about 90% of the workpiece length. During cutting test the chips fall in the calorimeter
water. In this case, the heat content of workpiece (Hw) and chip (Hc) is transferred to the
water (Hwat) and calorimeter (Hcal) including fixture. In the second experiment the water
level was such that the tool was also immersed in the water so that during cutting-test the
heat of work, chip and tool (Ht) is transferred to the water and the calorimeter. In the
third experiment, heat content of the chip only is transferred to the calorimeter and water.
Using the data (rise in temperature () of water and calorimeter) of these three
experiments, the magnitude of heat going to the water and calorimeter can be calculated
as
Hcal = water equivalent of calorimeter

. . . (2.1)

= (specific heat of calorimeter material mass of calorimeter)


Hwat = 1 mass of water

. . . (2.2)

From the observations of the above three experiments as written in Eqs. (2.3)-(2.5) and
Eqs. (2.1) and (2.2), percentage of heat going to chip, tool and workpiece can also be
calculated.
H c + H w = H cal + H wat

(Experiment 1)

. . . (2.3)

H c + H w + H t = H cal + H wat (Experiment 2)

. . . (2.4)

H c = H cal + H wat

. . . (2.5)

(Experiment 3)

Figure 2.4(b) shows the variation in percentage distribution of total cutting heat energy
with a cutting speed. It was concluded that the distribution of heat in chip, workpiece and
tool is approximately 80%, 10% and 10%, respectively beyond a certain minimum
cutting speed. This distribution would change to some extent by changing tool-work
34

combination and cutting conditions. The average tool-chip interface temperature (c) in
excess of room temperature can be determined from Eq. (2.6)
c mc Cc = H c

Thermal Aspects
in Metal Cutting

. . . (2.6)

where, mc and Cc are mass of the chip and specific heat of the chip, respectively. Here, it
is assumed that there is no loss of heat due to radiation.

Figure 2.4(a) : Calorimetric Apparatus Used by Schmidt to Measure Average Temperature


and Energy Distribution Between Tool, Chip and Workpiece During Drilling

Figure 2.4(b) : Distribution of Total Cutting Energy Between Chip, Tool and Workpiece in Drilling

2.4 ANALYSIS OF TEMPERATURE IN CUTTING


Boothroyd [1963] experimentally determined temperature distribution (using infrared
photographs) in the workpiece and chip during orthogonal metal cutting. It is seen in
Figure 2.5 that the maximum temperature occurs along the tool face some distance away
from the cutting edge. Experimental determination of temperature distribution in metal
cutting is quite cumbersome, and very often it is not feasible. Many researchers have
proposed analytical and numerical methods (like finite element or boundary element
method) to determine temperature distribution in cutting. The analytical models for
temperature in metal cutting processes assume that the total heat generated during cutting
process is distributed in the chip, workpiece and tool. It can be written as :
Pm = Pc + Pw + Pt
where, Pm = total rate of heat generation in the cutting process per unit time,
Pc = rate of heat carried by the chip per unit time,
Pw = rate of heat conducted into the workpiece in unit time, and
Pt = rate of heat conducted into the tool.

. . . (2.7)

35

Theory of Metal Cutting

Usually, Pt forms a very small portion of Pm and hence it can be neglected.

Figure 2.5 : Temperature Distribution in Workpiece and Chip during Orthogonal Cutting (Obtained
from an Infrared Photograph) for Free-cutting Mild Steel where the Cutting Speed is 75ft / min
(0.38m/s), the Width of Cut is 0.25 in. (6.35 mm), the Working Normal Rake is 30, and the Workpiece
Temperature is 611C. (After Boothroyd)

2.4.1 Average Temperature of the Tool-chip Interface


During metal cutting, workpiece material first undergoes deformation in primary shear
deformation zone and forms the chip. This chip slides/moves over the rake face of the
tool, and again experiences deformation (secondary shear deformation zone). The rise in
temperature of tool, chip and workpiece is mainly due to the heat generated during
deformation in these deformation zones (PSDZ and SSDZ). The following analysis is
presented to evaluate tool-chip interface temperature. Here, it is assumed that the thermal
properties of tool and work material are independent of their temperature, and cutting is
orthogonal with continuous type of chip without BUE. It is also assumed that the shear
and friction energy in PSDZ and SSDZ respectively, are uniformly distributed over the
contact regions. The analysis given below applies to orthogonal cutting with a single
point tool.
Temperature Rise in PSDZ
Rise in temperature of the primary deformation zone and workpiece is mainly due
to heat generated in PSDZ. Suppose Ps is the rate of heat generation in PSDZ. A
fraction of this (say, R) is conducted into the workpiece and the remaining part
(1-R) will be carried away by the chip (assuming that the heat conducted to the
tool is negligible and there is no loss of heat by any other means). Then, the
average temperature rise (Ts) of the material passing through the PSDZ is given
by

Ts =
where,

(1 R) Ps
w C w Vc tu b

w = workpiece (or chip) density (kg/m3),


Cw = specific heat of workpiece (J/kg-K),
Vc = cutting velocity (m/s),
tu = uncut chip thickness (m), and

36

b = width of cut (m).

. . . (2.8)

Thermal Aspects
in Metal Cutting

The value of Ps can be calculated from


Ps =FsVs

. . . (2.9)

Fs = shear force (N), and

where,

Vs = shear velocity (m/s).


In order to determine the value of R we assume that shear plane is moving with a
velocity Vs relative to the work surface. Hence, this problem can be dealt as a
problem of "moving heat source". For this purpose, equate the temperature
infinitesimal distance away from the shear plane towards the workpiece to the
temperature infinitesimal distance away from the shear plane towards the chip.
After solving the equation, it can be shown that the fraction of the total shear
energy (generated in PSDZ) going to the workpiece (R) is given by
R=

1
K
1 +1.328
Vc tu

where, is shear strain and K =

. . . (2.10)

k
(Thermal diffusivity of the work
w C w

material).
Temperature Rise in SSDZ
Heated chip coming out of the PSDZ slides over the rake face of the tool. Due to
severe rubbing between the underneath of the chip and the rake face of the tool,
heat is generated (i.e., tool-chip interface also acts as a heat source). Friction
energy per unit area per unit time liberated as heat over the tool-chip contact
region is given by :
Ef =

where,

FV f
lb

l = tool-chip contact length,


F = friction force on rake face of the tool,
B = width of the deformed chip, and
Vf = chip flow velocity.

Suppose, this heat source raises temperature of the chip by Tf, then temperature
of the chip (Tc) is given by
Tc = Ts + Tf + To

. . . (2.11)

where, To is ambient temperature.


To determine Tf, the Jaeger's model can be utilized. He considers the case of an
insulated slider, moving across a conducting surface with a constant velocity and
liberating heat energy continuously and uniformly over the entire contact area.
Here, heat source is considered as the chip-tool interface moving with respect to
the chip but stationary with respect to the tool. Applying Jaegers model,

T f =

0.75 R ' E f (l / 2)
k L

. . . (2.12)

where, k is thermal conductivity of the chip material, and R is proportion of the


total energy (Ef ) going to the chip. L, a dimensionless parameter, is given by :
L=

V f (l / 2 )
2K

Vf l
4K

. . . (2.13)
37

k
(Here, it is assumed
w Cw

Theory of Metal Cutting

where, K is thermal diffusivity of the chip material

that thermal properties of workpiece and chip material are the same.) It is difficult
to estimate the value of R'. The approximate value of R' can be evaluated from the
following formula (Eq. (2.14)) which is derived on the same concept as that of R in
Eq. (2.10).

Ef l A
K3
R =
Ef l A
K3
where,

s + To

E f 0.377l

. . . (2.14)

K3 L

K3 = thermal diffusivity of tool material,


To = ambient temperature, and

A = area factor which depends on the shape of the tool.


2.4.2 Friction at Tool-chip Interface
Traditionally, the coefficient of friction between two sliding bodies is calculated based on
following assumptions :

The coefficient of friction is independent of the sliding velocity.

The normal stress between the contacting bodies is uniform.

The shear stress between the sliding pair is uniform.

The two bodies are in intimate contact with each other.

In metal machining, the coefficient of friction between the tool-chip interface based on
the above assumptions is normally high (often >1) and varies widely over the cutting
conditions.
In reality the sliding surfaces comprise peaks and valleys. The actual contact between the
two sliding surfaces is through the peaks (or asperities). Hence, the real area of contact
(Ar) is much smaller than the apparent area of contact (Figure 2.6). This real area of
contact changes with load which first causes elastic deformation and then plastic
deformation. It has been shown that under the influence of normal and tangential load,
very high temperatures are developed at the contacting asperities. Thus, sliding of one
surface relative to the other will shear the bonds (or welds) between the asperities. The
friction mechanism that operates in metal cutting is different when the plastic
deformation takes place at the contacting surfaces because the real area of contact
approaches that of apparent area of contact. Under such conditions, the friction force (F)
becomes independent of normal force (N) ( F N ) .

Figure 2.6 : Microview of Asperities in Contact during Sliding Contact

It has been found experimentally that the value of increases with increase in rake
angle. Increase in rake angle () decreases both the friction and normal force but
disproportionately (Table 2.1). As a result, the value of increases in contradiction to the
normal belief that would decrease with increase in .
38

Table 2.1

Rake Angle,

Friction Force, F

Normal Force, N

Coefficient of
Friction,

(N)

(N)

16

3025

4518

0.67

30

2524

2938

45

2470

2034

% Decrease
F

0.86

16.87

35

1.21

18.62

35

Thermal Aspects
in Metal Cutting

(Source : Rao, P.N., 2000)

In metal cutting, friction along the rake face of the tool has been idealized as partially
sticking and partially sliding. (Figure 2.7). In sticking zone, shear stress () approaches
yield stress of work material (s) while in sliding zone it follows Coulomb's law of

friction ( = ; is normal stress). It is also seen in Figure 2.7 that normal stress in

contact zone is highest at the tool tip and zero at a point where the chip leaves the rake
face.
Under the cutting conditions employed in practice, friction stress on the tool face is so
large that over a part of contact length, lower contact layer of the chip is retarded (or
seized) and the process of external friction is replaced by internal plastic shear (or
secondary shear deformation). Mean coefficient of friction between chip and rake face of
the tool is influenced by tool geometry (rake angle and inclination angle of cutting edge)
and cutting conditions.
Under moderate cutting conditions (temperature at tool-chip interface is not very high), it
is found that the mean coefficient of friction () is manifested almost exclusively through
the variation in specific normal load (qN) since the specific tangential load (qF) remains
almost unchanged

=
where, qF =

qN =

qF
qN

. . . (2.15)

F
, and
lb
N
.
lb

Here, l is tool-chip contact length.


For the purpose of analysis, tool-chip contact length (Figure 2.7) has been divided by
Zorev into two zones. In the first zone (sliding zone), the sliding of the chip over the tool
face is analogous to the relative sliding of two elastic bodies. In the second zone (sticking
zone), the movement of the chip over the tool face is accompanied by considerable
plastic deformation of its lower contact layer. The tangential load (friction force) is so
large that it retards the contact layer of the chip and thus causes the secondary plastic
shear. The first zone is a zone of external friction while the second one is the zone of
plastic shear deformation of chip material. In the second zone, the shear stress becomes
independent of normal load.
Figure 2.7 shows the distribution of normal stress () and shear stress () in the tool chip
contact zone. The variation in normal stress is expressed as :
= K4 xn

for 0 < x < l

. . . (2.16)

where K4 is a constant, which depends upon the cutting parameters.


Based on the variation of the tangential stress, the tool-chip contact areas can be divided
into two zones. In the first zone, the tangential stress varies proportionally with the
normal stress.
= e = K 4 e x n for 0 < x < (l l1 )

. . . (2.17)
39

Theory of Metal Cutting

where, e is coefficient of external friction (sliding friction) between the chip and the
tool face.

Figure 2.7 : Normal and Shear Stress Distribution on the Rake Face of the Tool

As soon as the tangential stress reaches a value equal to the shear flow stress of the chip
material, it becomes constant (Eq. (2.18)).
= s

. . . (2.18)

The value of the coefficient of friction in the sticking region is not constant, and its value
is lower than that in the sliding region. The estimated value of the coefficient of friction
in metal cutting is an average value based on the values of the friction coefficient in
sticking and sliding regions. Any change in cutting conditions will change l1 and l l1,
and hence the average value of the friction coefficient.
The tangential force (Fe) in external friction section (l l1) is given by
l l1

Fe = K 4 b e x n dx (using Eq. (2.17))


0

or,

(l l1 ) n +1
K4
n +1

. . . (2.19)

s = K 4 e (l l1 ) n (at x = l l1)

. . . (2.20)

Fe = b e

From Eq (2.17),

Therefore, from Eqs. (2.19) and (2.20)

Fe = b s

(l l1 )
n +1

. . . (2.21)

According to Figure 2.7, the tangential force Fs in the plastic shear zone is equal to
Fs = bl1 s

. . . (2.22)

The tangential force (F) acting over the whole area of contact is the sum of the forces
acting in both zones.
F = Fs + Fe

= b s l1 + b s

or,

40

(l l1 )
n +1

(l l1 )

F = b s l1 +
n + 1

. . . (2.23)

The term within bracket in Eq. (2.23) remains almost constant, hence F depends on the
shear resistance of the lower layer of the chip (b is constant for orthogonal cutting). At
moderate cutting conditions, s remains approximately constant, hence

constant
N

Thermal Aspects
in Metal Cutting

. . . (2.24)

Now, the normal force (N) on the tool face is given by


l

N = K 4 b x n dx

. . . (2.25)

N =b

or,

n +1

l
K4
n +1

. . . (2.26)

Maximum normal stress ( m ) is at the cutting edge (x = l),


m = l n K 4

N=

Therefore,

. . . (2.27)

b m l
n +1

. . . (2.28)

Therefore, average coefficient of friction is given by


l + (l l1 )
s 1

n +1
e =
l
m

n + 1

or,

a =

. . . (2.29)

s nl1

+ 1

m l

. . . (2.29(a))

The coefficient of friction in the sliding zone (e) is expressed as

l
e = s

m (l l1 )

. . . (2.30)

Thus, using above equations the average value of coefficient of friction and the
coefficient of friction in sliding zone (a and e) can be evaluated.

2.5 DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS OF TEMPERATURE IN


CUTTING
2.5.1 Temperature in Cutting
Average value of chip-tool temperature can be determined by the dimensional analysis
(assuming orthogonal cutting). Following are the six important parameters of cutting
process, that have significant influence on the cutting temperature in machining. They are
expressed in terms of fundamental dimensions L (length), M (mass), T (Time) and D
(temperature).
Table 2.2
Sl. No.

Parameter

Symbol

Unit

1.

Temperature

2.

Cutting speed

Vc

LT-1

41

Theory of Metal Cutting

3.

Chip area

Ao

L2

4.

Specific cutting pressure

Sp

ML-1T-2

5.

Thermal conductivity of work material

MLT-3D-1

6.

Volume specific heat of work material

ML-1T-2D-1

In Table 2.2, there are six variables and four known dimensions (M, L, T, D) hence we
can form two dimensionless groups, say, Q1 and Q2 as follows :
Q1 = V a S Pb K c ( c ) d

. . . (2.31)

Q2 =V e S Pf K g ( c) h Ao

. . . (2.32)

Eq. (2.31) can be written in terms of its fundamental dimensions as


Q1 = ( LaT a ) ( M b L b T 2b ) ( M c Lc T 3c D c ) ( M d L d T 2 d D d ) D

or,

Q1 = M

b+c+d

La b + c T

a 2 b 3c 2 d

c d + 1

. . . (2.33)

Since Q1 is a dimensionless quantity, the index for each term in Eq. (2.33) should be
zero. From Eq. (2.33), it is, therefore, possible to write :
b+c+d=0

. . . (2.34(a))

ab+cd=0

. . . (2.34(b))

a 2b 3c 2d = 0

. . . (2.34(c))

cd+1=0

. . . (2.34(d))

There are four unknowns (a, b, c, d) and four equations hence the values of unknowns
can be evaluated. They are as :
a = 0, b = 1, c = 0, d = + 1

. . . (2.34(e))

Substituting the values of a, b, c and d from Eq. (2.34(e)) into Eq. (2.31) we get :

Q1 = S P 1 (c) =

c
SP

. . . (2.35)

Similarly, from Eq. (2.32) we can obtain :


Q2 =

Vc2 (c) 2 Ao

. . . (2.36)

k2

From experiments, the relationship between Q1 and Q2 has been established as :


Q1 = Co Q2n

or,

V 2 (c) 2 A o
(c)
= Co c

SP
k2

Experimentally for mild steel turning, it has been shown that n = 0.22,
or,

= Co S P

Vc0.44 Ao0.22
k 0.44 (c) 0.56

. . . (2.37)

By independent experimentation and analysis of results, Shaw showed that the important
parameters in metal cutting are work properties, strength, and thermal properties
(k, , c), and cutting conditions (V, f, ).

42

Thermal Aspects
in Metal Cutting

2.5.2 Temperature and Tool Life


The dimensional analysis technique as discussed above can also be employed for the
determination of a relationship between cutting temperature and tool life. The parameters
considered and their symbols along with units are as given below :
Table 2.3
Sl. No.

Parameter

Symbol

Unit

1.

Temperature

2.

Tool life

3.

Area of cut

Ao

4.

Cutting speed

Vc

LT

5.

Specific pressure

Sp

ML T

6.

ck

ck

M T D

2
-1
-1 -2

2 -5 -2

For six variables and four dimensions (6 4 = 2) the following two dimensionless
parameters, Q3 and Q4 can be formed :
c

Q3 = T a Vcb S P (ck ) d
g

Q4 = T e Vc f S P (ck ) h Ao

. . . (2.38)
. . . (2.39)

Substituting the dimensions in Eqs. (2.38) and (2.39) as in the previous analysis, we can
obtain :
Q3 =

(ck ) 0.5
T 0.5 ( S p )Vc

. . . (2.40)

Similarly, from Eq. (2.39) we get :


Q4 =

Ao
2 2
Vc T

. . . (2.41)

Experiments were performed to establish a relationship between Q3 and Q4 which


yielded, Q3 = C1 Q4m .
Hence, we get :
=

C1 AomVc1 2 mT 0.5 2 m S P
(ck ) 0.5

. . . (2.42)

Here, C1, Ao, ck, Sp and Vc can be treated as constant ( C ) during turning. Hence,
x

T =C

. . . (2.43)

It is evident that any attempt to increase the temperature of the tool will decrease the tool
life, but not linearly. Hence, usually coolant is used to keep the tool at as low temperature
as possible to increase its life.
Example 2.1

Name (no discussion) different sources of heat generation in metal cutting. Show
that for orthogonal machining with zero degree rake angle tool, the rate of heat
generation in metal machining (PSDZ) can be expressed as
Fc Vc (1 rc )
J

where,

Fc = cutting force,

43

Vc = cutting speed,

Theory of Metal Cutting

= coefficient of friction,
rc = chip thickness ratio, and
J = mechanical equivalent of heat.
Solution

In metal cutting, there are three sources of heat generation: PSDZ, SSDZ and tool
work (machined surface) interface.
F V
Heat generation rate in PSDZ, Qs = s s
J

where,

Fs = shear force,
Vs = shear velocity, and
J = mechanical equivalent of heat.
Fc = R cos ( )
Fs = R cos ( + )

(From force circle diagram)

For = 0,

cos cos sin sin


F cos ( + )

Fs = c
= Fc
cos
cos

Fc = cos (1 tan tan )


Fc = cos (1 rc ) (tan = ; tan = rc for = 0)

Vc
cos

Also,

Vs =

for = 0

Qs = Fc

cos () (1 rc ) Vc
J cos

Qs = Fc

(1 rc ) Vc
J

Hence, proved.
Example 2.2

Determine the value of mean coefficient of friction in SSDZ for the following
conditions. The ratio of tool chip contact length to the length of sticking friction
zone is 2.0. The ratio of maximum normal stress to maximum shear stress is also
2.0. The normal stress follows the following relationship
= x2

( K 4 = 1.0)

where, x is the distance measured along the rake face of the tool with tool point as
the origin.
Solution

The tangential force (F1) in the zone from x = 0 to x = (l l1) is given by


44

l l1

F1 =

Thermal Aspects
in Metal Cutting

e b d x

= e b

l l1

x 2 dx (as given)

F1 = e b

or,

(l l1 )
3

m = xm2

But,

= l2
Also,
m = e (l l1 )

(at x = (l l1 )

l l1
F1 = m l

. . . (E 2.1)

F2 (tangential force in the zone l1) is given by


F2 = m l1 b because s = m (shear strength of chip material).

Therefore, total tangential force


F = F1 + F2

l l1
= m b
+ m l1 b
3

(l l1 ) + 3l1
= m b

2l +
= m b 1
3

Normal force (N) is given by


l

N=

bdx

=b

N=

x3
x dx = b
3 0
2

bl 3 b m l
=
3
3

The mean coefficient of friction (e) in SSDZ is given by

e =
Also as given, l = 2l1 and

F mb [l1 + (l l1 ) / 3]
=
N
b m (l / 3)

m
=2
m

Substituting these values in above equation,


45

Theory of Metal Cutting

a =

1
2

2 l1 l1

l1 + 3

2 l1
3

1
[4 l1 / 3]
=2
2 l1
3
hence,

a = 1.0

Example 2.3

During orthogonal cutting operation with 10 rake angle tool, following


observations are made : Tool chip contact length, l = 0.75 mm, l1 = 0.50 mm,
max = 2000 kg/cm2, max = 900 kg/cm2. Calculate the average value of the
coefficient of friction, and the resultant force for a 6 mm wide cut.

Solution

From the given data and taking into consideration the nature of stress distribution
as given in the figure, we compute :
Normal force = b Area of ABC Width of cut.

N=

max l b
2

2000 0.75 6

2
10 10

N = 45 kg
Also,

F = max l1 b +
= 900

max (l l1 ) b
2

0.25 0.6
1
0.50
0.60 + 900

10
2
2
10

= 27 + 6.75 = 33.75 kg
F = 33.75 kg

46

F 33.75
= =
= 0.749
45
N

Thermal Aspects
in Metal Cutting

= 0.75
It is also known that
= tan = 0.749
= 36.8 o

R=

N
45
=
= 56.25 kg
cos 0.8

R = 56.25 kg

SAQ 1
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

Calorimetric technique is a good technique to determine temperature


distribution on the rake face of the tool during longitudinal turning.
(i)

True

(ii)

False

With an increase in back rake angle of a tool, temperature of the tool


decreases up to a certain value.
(i)

True

(ii)

False

In tool work thermocouple, the temperature obtained is


(i)

average temperature in cutting zone

(ii)

point to point temperature

(iii)

highest temperature at a point

(iv)

none of these

Tool life while cutting with coolant is more than dry cutting. It is the
result of
(i)

cooling of tool

(ii)

lowering temperature of both workpiece and chip

(iii)

lowering temperature of both tool and work

(iv)

none of these

The temperature of the workpiece before machining is much higher in hot


machining than in the conventional machining. Tool life in hot machining as
compared to conventional machining will be
(i)

less

(ii)

more

(iii)

equal

(iv)

difficult to determine

Use of a thermocouple embedded in the tool in metal cutting will give the
tool temperature which is
(i)

average

(ii)

highest

(iii)

temperature at a point

(iv)

none of these

47

Theory of Metal Cutting

(g)

(h)

(i)

A fraction of heat (generated in PSDZ) going into the workpiece is


approximately
(i)

10%

(ii)

50%

(iii)

90%

(iv)

none of these

In the sticking zone in SSDZ, the friction law F = N (F = friction force,


N = normal force, = coefficient of friction) is
(i)

obeyed

(ii)

not obeyed

(iii)

obeyed in some part and not obeyed in other part

In SSDZ, tangential stress as compared to normal stress is


(i)

more

(ii)

less

(iii)

both (i) and (ii).

2.6 SUMMARY
There are three sources of heat generation, e.g., PSDZ, SSDZ and tool (flank face) work
interaction. As a result of heat generation, the temperature of tool, workpiece and chip
increases. Maximum temperature rise occurs at the tool rake face. It softens the tool
material which enhances the tool wear rate, and sometimes may lead to sudden failure of
tool as well. The rise in temperature of workpiece is also of concern. But this rise in
temperature of workpiece is safe in the sense that usually it does not result in phase
transformation but may change to some extent the surface or sub-surface properties of the
machined surface and may affect the machining accuracy.
There are various ways to measure the tool and workpiece temperature at a point
(pyrometer, and embedded thermocouple). Calorimetric method gives average
temperature of chip, workpiece and tool. However, most commonly used method is toolwork thermocouple which gives tool (average tool chip interface) temperature.
Theoretically, researchers have reported point to point variation of temperature on the
tool, chip and workpiece surfaces. Analytical calculation of rise in temperature in PSDZ
has been done using Jaeger's moving heat source model. The procedure also has been
proposed to calculate percentage of the total heat going to the chip, tool and workpiece.
The analysis has been presented to calculate the coefficient of friction in the sticking
zone and sliding zone in the SSDZ. In the sliding zone, the value of may be even more
than 1.0 which is not the case according to the Coulomb's law of friction ( =F/N).
Finally, the dimensional analysis has been presented to establish relationship between
cutting temperature and identified variables. The relationship between tool life and
temperature has also been developed using dimensional analysis theory.
48

Thermal Aspects
in Metal Cutting

2.7 KEY WORDS


Calorimetric Method

: Method to determine average cutting temperature


as well as the relative distribution of heat between
chip, tool and workpiece.

Jaeger's Model

: This method is used to determine rise in the


temperature of the chip.

Dimensional Analysis

: Average value of chip-tool temperature can be


determined by dimensional analysis.

2.8 ANSWERS TO SAQs


SAQ 1

(a) (ii)
(b) (i)
(c) (i)
(d) (iii)
(e) (ii)
(f) (iii)
(g) (i)
(h) (ii)
(i) (iii)

NOMENCLATURE
A

Area factor

Ao

Chip area

Ar

Real area of contact

Width of cut (m), width of the deformed chip

Cc

Specific heat of the chip

Cw

Specific heat of workpiece (J/kg-K)

Temperature

Ef

Total energy going to chip

Friction force on rake face of the tool

Fe

Tangential force in external friction section

Fs

Shear force (N)

Hc

Heat content of chip

Hcal

Heat content of calorimeter

Ht

Heat content of tool

Hw

Heat content of workpiece

Hwat

Heat content of water

Thermal conductivity of chip, work material

Thermal diffusivity of chip material

49

Theory of Metal Cutting

50

K3

Thermal diffusivity of tool material

Tool-chip contact length

Length

mc

Mass of the chip

Mass

Normal force

Pm

Total rate of heat generation

Pc

Rate of heat carried by the chip

Pw

Rate of heat conducted into the workpiece

Pt

Rate of heat conducted into the tool

Ps

Rate of heat generation in PSDZ

qN

Specific normal load

qF

Specific tangential load

rc

Chip thickness ratio

Fraction of Ps conducted into the workpiece

1-R

Remaining part of Ps carried away by the chip

Sp

Specific cutting pressure

tu

Uncut chip thickness (m)

Time

Tc

Temperature of the chip

To

Ambient temperature

Vc

Cutting velocity (m/s)

Vs

Shear velocity (m/s)

Vf

Chip flow velocity

Rake angle

Shear strain

Coefficient of friction

Coefficient of external friction (sliding friction) between the chip and the tool
face

Average coefficient of friction

Temperature

Volume specific heat of work material

Workpiece (or chip) density (kg/m3)

Normal stress

Maximum normal stress

Shear stress, tangential stress

Shear yield stress of work material

Rise in temperature

Rise in average tool-chip interface temperature

Ts

Average temperature rise of material passing through PSDZ

Tf

Rise in temperature of the chip

ACRONYMS
ECM

Electrochemical machining

EDM

Electric discharge machining

Thermal Aspects
in Metal Cutting

PSDZ Primary Shear Deformation Zone


SSDZ Secondary Shear Deformation Zone
TWR

Tool Wear Rate

EXERCISES
Q 1.

How can you determine the temperature of the chip using Schmidt's calorimetric
method during drilling? What is the expected percent of heat distribution in chip,
work and tool?

Q 2.

Calculate average tool-chip interface temperature during orthogonal turning of


steel (shear yield strength = 200 N/mm2) with a 10 rake angle tool, depth of cut
as 2.0 mm and feed rate as 0.10 mm / rev. The average chip thickness (tc)
measured was 0.4 mm at cutting speed = 60 m / min. a = 0.674,
Cw = 500 J/kg-K, and kw = 50 W /m-K.
(Ans : 355C)

Q 3.

During machining (using shaper), the rise in temperature of the chips was found
to be 600C with the help of a calorimeter. The cutting was done at 2 m/s with
feed rate (tu) as 0.5 mm, width of cut as 3 mm using a tool with rake angle = 45.
Dynamometer records Fc = 6000N and Ft = 0. Under microscope, chip thickness
was found as 1.1 mm, and the workpiece length was 300 mm. After 50 strokes
(in one stroke, it will cut only 300 mm length), the insulated workpiece was
immersed in a calorimeter and its additional heat content was found to be 30 kJ.
Neglect the heat conducted into the cutting tool, calculate the proportion of the
PSDZ heat conducted into the workpiece (make the appropriate assumptions if
required).

51

Theory of Metal Cutting

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Armarego, E. J. A. and Brown, R. H., (1969), The Machining of Metals, Prentice Hall,
Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
Bhattacharyya, A. (1984), Metal Cutting : Theory and Practice, Central Book Publishers,
Calcutta.
Boothroyd, G. (1975), Fundamentals of Metal Cutting and Machine Tools, McGraw-Hill
Kogakusha Ltd., Tokyo.
Boothroyd, G. (1963), Temperature in Orthogonal Metal Cutting, Proc. IME,
Vol. 177, p.789.
Kalpakjian, S. (1989), Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Addison Wesley
Publishing Co., New York.
Pandey, P. C. and Singh, C. K. (1998), Production Engineering Sciences, Standard
Publishers Distributors, Delhi.
Rao, P. N. (2000), Manufacturing Technology : Metal Cutting and Machine Tools, Tata
McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. Ltd., New Delhi.
Shaw, M. C. (1984), Metal Cutting Principles, Oxford, Clarendon Press.

52