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STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF

350KL OVERHEAD WATER


TANK AT INDIRA GANDHI
NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY,
TELIBAGH LUCKNOW

DATA
1. Type of Tank:

Intze Tank

2. Capacity of the tank:

350KL

3. Type of staging:

Column & Brace type

4. Depth of foundation:

2.5m

5. Safe Bearing Capacity of Soil:

100KN/m2

6. Type of foundation:
foundation

Circular Ring &Raft

7. Grade of Concrete:

M-25

8. Grade of Steel:

Fe-415

9. Height of staging:

25m

10. Type of soil:

Soft Clay

11. Height of Building up to Terrace:

15.6m

12. No. of floors in Building:

G+3

13. Basic Wind Pressure:

1500N/m2

14. Sesmic Zone of Lucknow:

Zone 3

15. No.of student in College:

2000

16. Water consumption rate


(Per capita demand in litres per day per head):

45

17. Design period for tank:

30 years

18. No.of student in hostels:

1600

OBJECTIVE
1:- To make a study about the analysis and design of water tank
2:- To make a study about the guidelines for the design of liquid retaining
structure according to
IS Code
IS: 3370 part 2-2009
IS: 456:2000
3:- To know about the design philosophy for the safe and economical design
of water tank
4:- To estimate the overall cost for making the Intze Tank

WATER QUANTITY ESTIMATION IN COLLEGE CAMPUS


Population or the number of students to be served in 2014

2000

Let population to be increased at rate of 10% per decade


Number of students (2014)

Number of students in 2024

Number of students in 2034

2420

Number of students in 2044

2662

Quantity

2000
2200

per capita demand Population


=

45 2662

1,19,790 litres

120 KL (assume)

FLUCTUATION IN RATE OF DEMAND


Average daily per capita demand in college campus

= 45 lpcd

If this average supplied at all the times it will not be sufficient to meet the
fluctuation.

HOURLY VARIATION
(1) During the entry of college from 8 to 9 in the morning.
(2) During the lunch from 12 to 1 in the afternoon.

WATER CONSUMPTION IN HOSTEL


Average daily per capita demand in hostels = 135 lpcd.

Quantity

136 1600

=
Total quantity

216 KL

= 216 + 130
= 346 KL
350 KL

DESIGN REQUIREMENT OF TANK


* Concrete mix weaker than M-20 is not used because of higher grade lesser
porosity of concrete.
* Minimum quantity of cement in concrete shall be not less than 30 KN/m 3.
* Use of small size bars.
* Coefficient of expansion due to temperature=1110 -6/C
* Coefficient of shrinkage may be taken = 450 10 -6 for initial and 200 10-6
for drying shrinkage.
* Minimum cover to all reinforcement should be 20 mm or the diameter of
main bar whichever is greater.
* An overhead liquid retaining structure is design using working stress method
avoiding the cracking in the tank and to prevent the leakage and the
component of tank can be design using LIMIT STATE METHOD
(example:-column ,foundation ,bracing ,stairs etc.).
* Code using IS: 3370-PART 2-2009
IS: 456:2000
* The leakage is more with higher liquid head and it has been observed thad
water head up to 15m does not cause leakage problem.
* In order to minimize cracking due to shrinkage and temperature, minimum
reinforcement is recommended as(i) For thickness 100 mm = 0.3%
(ii) For thickness 450 mm = 0.2%
For thickness between 100 mm to 450 mm = varies linearly from 0.3% to
0.2%
* For concrete thickness 225 mm, two layer of reinforcement be placed one
near water face and other away from water face.

FROM IS -3370
(i) For load combination water load treated as dead load.
(ii) Cracking The maximum calculated surface width of concrete for direct
tension and flexure or restrained temperature and moisture effect shall not
exceed 0.2 mm with specified cover.
(iii) Shrinkage coefficient may be assumed = 300 10 -6.
(iv) Bar spacing should generally not exceed than 300 mm or the thickness of
the section whichever is less.

DETERMINATION OF FOUNDATION
p 1sin
h= (
)
r 1+ sin

100 1sin 12
(
)
17 1+sin 12

-From testing of soil sample


For clay

=12
r = density of soil
= 1.76 gm/cm 3
= 17.6 KN/m 3
p = 100 KN/m 3

h=2.52m

9. DETERMINATION OF HEIGHT OF STAGGING


We know turbulent flow occurs in a pipe
So Re

4000

0.079
1/ 4

L = length of pipe,
v = mean velocity in pipe of flow
d = diameter of pipe

4 fl v 2
h d
2 gd
R=

vd
2

The kinematic viscosity of water ( ) = 0.0110-4 m2/s


Assume diameter of pipe = 15 cm

Q= AV

A= 0.152=0. .176 m2
4

Volume (V) = 350 m3


Only for one hour maximum velocity occurs in the pipe so the discharge
during that period

v
350
m3
Q= =
=0.097
t 60 60
s
Q= AV
0.097

0.0176

10

v =5.52 m/sec.
Maximum velocity =5.52 m/sec.

vd 5.52 0.15
5
=
=8.2 10
4
0.01 10

(O.K.)

0.079

f=

(8.2 105 ) 4
2.61 103
Minimum length of pipe requirement
= 2 height of building up to 3 storeys from the level + lateral distance up to
the centre of tank
= 2 15.6 + 18
= 49.2 m
50 m

4 2.61 10 50 5.52
Head loss h L=
2 9.81 0.15

= 5.40 m

HEIGHT OF STAGGING
Total hydrostatic pressure on tank
Total head =

P = gh

p v2
+ +z+h L+minor losses
r 2g

Minor loss (assume) = 1 m.

rh v 2
+ + z +h L+ 1
r 2g

11

4.5+

5.52
+ 15.6+5.4+1
2 9.81

28.08 m
Using total head = 29.5
Height of stagging = 29.5 4.5
= 25 m

12

DESIGN OF TOP DOME


Assume thickness of top dome = 100 mm.
Meridional thrust at edges

T1=

P R1
1+cos 1

Dead load of top dome = 0.100 25 = 2.5 KN/m 2


Live load on top dome = 0.75 KN/m2 (assume)
P = 3.25 KN/m2

Total load

T1=

3.25 103 18.5


1+cos 18.92
30897.15

Meridional stress =

30897.15
=0.308
100 100

N/m

MPa < 5 MPa

(OK)

Maximum hoop stress occurs at the centre and its magnitude

P R1 3.25 103 18.5


=
2t 1
2 0.100
0.30 N/mm2

0.3 MPa < 5MPa

(OK)

Provide nominal reinforcement of 0.24%.

A st =

0.24 100 1000


=240 mm
100

Use 8 mm bars.

A =50 mm

Spacing

1000 50
=208.33
240

13

205 mm c/c.

Provide 8 mm bars @ 205 mm c/c radially and circumtentially as shown in figure.


The 205 mm c/c for radial bar is provided at the springing of the dome.
At the crown the spacing reduces to zero.
Hence the curtailment of radial bars may be carried out at the appropriate
distance.

14

DIMENSION OF TANK
Inner diameter of cylindrical portion D = 12 m
Rise of top dome h1 = 1 m
Rise of bottom dome h2 = D/8 = 1.5 m (centre)
Free board = 0.15 m
Diameter of ring beam Do = 5/8 D = 7.5 = 8 m
Rise of bottom dome (side) ho = 3/16 D
= 2.25 m
= 2.5 m
Capacity of tank:-

2 h2
3 R

h22
D2 h ho 2
V=
+
( D + Do2 + DD o)
4
12
Radius of bottom circular dome:1.5 (2R2 1.5) = 42
2R2 1.5 = 10.67
R 2 =6 m
Sin 2 =

4
6

2 = 41.8o

2 h2
3 R

2
h2
2
D h ho 2
2
V=
+
( D + D o + DD o)
4
12

15

350=

1.52 (3 61.5)
122 h 2
+
(122+ 82+ 12 8)
4
12
3
350=113 h+16038.87

h=2m
Radius of top circular dome:1 (2R1-1) = 6 6
R1 = 18.5 m
Sin 1 = 6/18.5
1 = 18.92o
Design of top ring beam:A ring beam is provided at the junction of top dome and the vertical wall to resist
hoop tension induced by the top dome.
Horizontal component of meridional thrust P 1 = T1 cos 1
= 30897.15 cos 18.92 o
= 29227.8 N/m.
Total hoop tension tending to rupture of beam =

P1 D
2
=

29227.8 12
=175366.8 N
2
Permissible stress in HYSD bars = 150 N/m 2
Ash = 175366.8/150 = 1170 mm2
Provide 20 mm bars (314.15) as hoop.
Number of 12 mm bars = 1170 / 314.15
= 3.72
=4
Actual

Ash = 4

/4 202 = 1256.63 mm2


16

= 1257 mm 2
Provide 4-20 mm hoop and 8 mm bars tie @ 205 mm c/c.
Hence the cross sectional area of concrete
1.3

175366.8
A+1257 8

Ac = 124841.53
Provide ring beam of 320 mm 400 mm.

17

Design of cylindrical wall:In the membrane analysis the tank wall is assumed to be free at top and bottom
maximum hoop tension occurs at the base of the wall and its magnitude:-

r w hd 9800 h 12
=
=58800 h
=
2
2
Hoop tension at any depth x from the top
X (m)

Hoop tension (N/m)

58800

117600

Minimum thickness of cylindrical wall = 3 H + 5


=32+5
= 11 cm.
Provide 20 cm at the bottom and taper it to 12 cm at top.
At

x = 1 m.

Area of steel

Ash = 58800/150
= 392 mm 2

Provide 8 mm bars.
A = 50.26 mm2
Spacing = (1000 50.26) / 392
= 130 mm c/c.
At x = 2 m.
Area of steel

Ash = 117600/150
= 784 mm 2

Provide 10 mm bars.
A = 78.53 mm2
Spacing = (1000 78.53) / 784
18

= 100 mm c/c.
The hoop steel may be curtailed according to hoop tension at different height
along the wall provided 0.24% of minimum vertical reinforcement.
Average thickness of wall = (120+200) / 2 = 160 mm.
A sh =

0.24 160 1000


=384
100

mm2

Provide 8 mm .
A = 50.26 mm2
Spacing =

50.26 1000
=130 mm c/c.
384

Design of ring beam B3:Thickness =100 mm


Rise = 1.5 m (centre)
Base dia. = 8 m
Raidus of curvature = 6 m
Cos 41.8o = 0.745
The ring beam connect the tank wall within conical dome. The vertical load at the
junction of the wall with conical dome is transferred to the ring beam B 3 by
horizontal thrust. In the conical dome the horizontal component of thrust causes
hoop tension at the junction.

W = Load transferred through the tank wall at the top of conical dome / unit
length.

19

o = Inclination of conical dome.


T

= Meridional thrust in conical dome at the junction.

tan o = 2/2.5
o = 38.65

20

= 30897.15 sin 18.92


= 10018.32 N/m
(ii) Load due to ring beam B1 = 320 mm depth
= 400 mm width
= 0.32(0.4-0.1)125000
= 2400 N/m
(iii) Load due to tank wall

2(

0.12+0.2
)1 25000
2

= 8000 N/m
(iv) Seif load of beam B3 (1m 0.6m say)
=(1-0.3) 0.625000
= 10500 N/m
Total W = 10018.32 + 2400 + 8000 + 10500
= 30918.32 N/m
Sin o = sin 38.65 = 0.62 , cos 38.65 = 0.78
Force Pw due to load

Pw1 = W tan o
= 30918.32 tan 38.65
= 24725.97 N/m

Force Pw caused due to water pressure at top of conical dome


Pw2 = rw hd3
h = depth of water upto centre of ring beam
d3 = depth of ring beam
Pw2 = 9800 2 0.6
= 11760 N/m
Hence hoop tension in the ring beam is given by :P=

P w 1+ P w 2
) D
2

21

24725.97+11760
) 12=218915.82 N
2

This is to be resisted by steel hoops the area of which is


Ash =

218915.82
150

= 1460 mm2
Use 20 mm bars = 314.15
Number of 20 mm bars =

1460
=4.64
314.15
= 5 bars

Hence provide 5 ring of 20 mm dia bars.


Actual area

As = /4 20 5
= 1570 mm 2

Stress in equivalent section =

218915.82
(1000 600)+10 1570
= 0.35 N/mm 2 < 1.2 N/mm2

(SAFE)

(OK)
The 10 mm diameter distribution bara (vertical bars) provided in the wall@ 100
mm c/c should be taken round the above ring to act as stirrups.

Design of conical dome :-

22

(a)Meridional thrust :Ww = Total weight of water on the conical dome


W = Weight of top dom, cylindrical wall etc.
Ws = Self weight of conical dome
Ww =

r w [ (D2 + Do2 )+ ( D2+ D D o2 + D Do ) Do2 ho ]


4
12
4

9800[ (122 +82 )+ 2.5(122 +82 +12 8) 82 2.5]


4
12
4

= 9800[326.72+198.96125.67 ]
=3920098 N
Let the thickness of conical slab = 400 mm
Ww =

l=

[ (

+ Do
)l t 0 ] r c
2

2.52+ 22

= 3.2 m
Ws =

25000 (

12+8
) 3.2 0.4
2

= 1005309.649 N
Weight W at B3 = 30918.32 N/m.
Hence vertical load W2 per metre run is given by
W2 =

DW + W w +W s
D o

23

12 30918.32+3920098+1005309.64
8

=242353.22 N/m
Meridional thrust To in the conical dome
To = W2 / cos o
= 242353.22 / cos 38.65
= 310321.06 N/m.
Meridional stress = 310321.06 / (1000400)
= 0.775 N/mm 2

< 5 N/mm2

(Safe).

(b) Hoop stress

Diameter of conical dome at any height h above base is


D = 8 + (12-8)/2 h = 8 + 2h
Intensity of water pressure P = [(4+2)-h]9800
= [6-h]9800 N/mm 2
Self weight

q = 0.4 25000
= 10000 N/mm 2

Hoop tension

'

Po =(

p
D'
+ q tan o)
cos o
2

(6h ' ) 9800


(8+2 h ')
+ 1000 tan 38.65)
cos 38.65
2

Po= 333150.48 + 12548.4 h2 + 12548.4h2


h

Hoop Tension
24

333150.48 N

353695.41 N

349144.86 N

2.5

337457.95 N

d Po '

For maximum

dh

'

=0

33093.99 25096.8 h= 0
h= 1.31 m.
Maximum

Po = 354969.2977 N

(c) Design of walls:Meridional stress = 0.775 N/mm2


Maximum hoop stress = 354969.29 N
Which is to be resisted by steel
As = 354969.29/150
= 2366.46 mm2
Area of each face = 1183.23 mm2
Spacing of 16 mm dia bars = (1000 201)/1183.23
= 170 mm c/c
Hence provide 16 mm dia hoops @170 mm c/c on each face.
Actual

As = (1000 201)/170
= 1182 mm 2

Maximum tensile stress in composite section =

354969.29
(400 1000)+(2 1182 10)
=0.83 N/mm 2 < 1.2 N/mm2

(Safe)

(OK)
25

In the meridional direction the reinforcement =

.21 400 1000


100

= 840 mm2

Or 420 mm2 on each face


Use 10mm diameter bars A

Spacing =

1000 78.53
420

= 78.53 mm2

= 180 mm c/c

Hence provide 10 mm bars @ 180 mm c/c on each face with a clear cover 20 mm
DESIGN OF BOTTOM DOME
R2= 6 m
2= 41.8
Weight of water on w0 on the dome is given by
2

H2

2
W0= [ 4 D 0 H 0 3 (3 R2 h2)] w
D0=8,H0 =2.5 ,R2=6,h2=1.5,
W0=850471.35N
Let the thickness of bottom dome =250mm
Self Weight Ws =2R2h2t225000
R2=6, h2=1.5, t2=0.25
Ws=353429.17N
Total Weight=1203900.52N
Meridional thurst=T2=

1203900.52
Do sin 41.8

D0=8
T2=71866.98N/m
Meridional Stress=

718866.98
1000
250
=0.287N/mm 2 <5N/mm2

safe o.k.

Intensity of load per unit area


26

P2=

1203900.52
2 R 2 h2

R2 =6,h2=1.5
P2=21289.63N/m2
Max hoop stress at centre of dome

P2 R2
(21289.63 6)
=
2 t2
2 .25
=255475.625N/mm2
=0.25N/mm2 <5MPa O.K.

1000
0.26
250

Area of min steel=


100
=650 mm 2in each direction
Use 10 mm bars
Spacing=

1000

78.5
650

=120mm

Hence provide 10mm bars @ 120mm c/c in both direction also provide 16mm
meridoinal bars @170mm c/c near water face.
Design of bottom circular Beam B2
Inward thrust from conical dome =T0Sino
=310321.06 Sin38.65
=193814.5 N/m
Outward thrust from bottom dam=T2cos2
=7866.98cos41.8
=56126.36N/m
Net inward thrust=137688.14N/m
Hoop compression in beam =137688.148/2
=550752.56N

27

Vertical load on beam ,per meter run=T0Cos0+T2Sin2


=310321.06 Cos 38.6 +71866.98 Sin
41.8
=290423.93 N/m
Self weight of beam=0.61.225000
=18000N/m
Total load on beam=290423.93+18000=308423.90N/m
Let us support the beam on 8 equally spaced column at a mean dia 8m
Mean radius of curved beam R=4m
For support 8:-coefficient of B.H.& twisting moment in circular beam
2=45o C1=0.066,C2=0.030,C3=0.005
m=9.5o ,=/4=22.5=/8 Radius
wR2=308423.942/4
=3875769.4
Max ve B.M.at support M0=C1wR22
=255800.78N.m
Max +ve B.M. at support Mc=C2wR22
=116273.08N.m
Max torsional moment

M tm =C3 wR22
=19378.84Nm

For cbc=8.5
Hysd bars st=150 N/mm2
Neuteral axis depth factor (K)

m cbc
K= m cbc +st

10.98

280
280
m= 3 cbc = 3 8.5 =10.98

8.5
10.98 8.5+150
28

=0.383
Lever Arm
J=1-K/3=0.872
R=1/2cbcJk=1/28.50.8720.383
1.41
Mr=Rbd2
Req eff. Depth (d)255800.78=1.41600d 2
d=550mm
However keep total depth =700mm from shear point of view.
Max shear force at support Fo=WR
=308423.94/8
=484471.12N
S.F. at any point F=WR(-)
=308423.94(22.5-9.5) /180
=279916.6N
B.M. at the pointy of max torssional moment m=9.50
M=WR2(Sin+CosCos-1) sagging
=308423.942(/8sin9.5+/8cot22.5cos9.5-1)
=4934.78Nm sagging
The torsion moment at any pointMpt=WR2[cos-cossin-(-)]
At the support =0 M0t=WR2 (-)=0
At the mid span ==22.5=/8 radian
Mt= WR2[cos]-

cossin
] =0
sin

Hence we have the following combination of B.M. & torsional moment:(a)at the support

29

M0 =255800.78 NM(hogging or negative)


M0t=0

30