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HW #3: C-Mom, C-Energy, C-Ang-Mom and Turbomachines, Bernoullis Equation, Dimensional Analysis, and Pipe Flows

Due: Fri, Nov 22, 2013 at the ISE box.


Asi Bunyajitradulya

25

Problem 7. Dimensional Analysis for Turbomachines [Adapted from Fox et al., 2004, Problem 7.61, p. 308.]
The power, P, required to drive a fan is assumed to depend on fluid density, , volume flowrate, Q, impeller

diameter, D, and angular speed, . If a fan with D1 = 200 mm delivers Q1 = 0.4 m3/s of air at 1 = 2400 RPM,
1.

what volume flowrate could be expected for a geometrically similar fan with D2 = 400 mm at 2 = 1850 RPM, and

2.

what ratios of the required driving power (P2/ P1) and torque (T2/T1) could be expected? In the case of the torque
ratio, use at least two methods in calculating the ratio and compare the results of the two methods.

3.

If viscous effect is not negligible, what additional variable should be included and what the resulting dimensionless
group could be expected?

Solution:

0.2

0.4

(RPM)

2400

1850

Q (m3/s)

0.4

D (m)

[P ] ML2 t 3

1.

Given the functional relation for the power P


[Here, we include first in order to illustrate the Re effect.]

P f ( , , Q, D, ) .
2.

[n = 6]

Make a table of dimensions:

[ D] L

[ ] t 1

-1

[ ] ML3

-3

2 1

[ ] L t

-1

[Q ] L3t 1

-1

[P ] ML2 t 3

-3

Rank r = 3.
3.

Hence, we have n r 6 3 3 PI groups.

4.

Choose r repeating variables with independent dimensions. Choose D, , .

5.

Form PI groups:

Thus,

q q a b D c , and

b Dc
a

[q] M L t .

q M L t M a L3a t b Lc M a L 3ac t b M 0 L0t 0 1 ,


Hence, we have a system of three linear equations in three unknowns a, b, and c:

det 1 0

HW #3: C-Mom, C-Energy, C-Ang-Mom and Turbomachines, Bernoullis Equation, Dimensional Analysis, and Pipe Flows
Due: Fri, Nov 22, 2013 at the ISE box.
Asi Bunyajitradulya

26

a 0
3a c 0
b 0

which can be solved to give

c 3

Finally, we have the corresponding PI groups.

6.

[Q] L 3t 1

[P ] M 1 L 2 t 3

0 1 D 3

(D) D 2

P
P

3 5
2
D
D (D) 3
1

Re

D 2

D 3
P
3 D 5

Hence, the functional relation among the PI groups can be written as

Neglect the Re effect, we have


7.

0 1 2
(

D
)D
D

[ ] L 2 t 1

P
P
3 5
D

F Q Q , Re D

D 3

P
P
3 5
D

Q
F Q
.

D 3

Two geometrically similar fans operate at the dynamically similar conditions.


For geometrically similar fans operating at the dynamically similar condition, we must have all the
independent PI groups (hence, also the dependent PI group) equal. Thus, we have

and

Q 1 Q 2

Q Q

D 3 1 D 3 2

P 1 P 2

3 D 5

P

3 D 5
1

For the volume flowrate: We have


D
Q2 2 2
1 D1

Q1

1850 0.4
3
3

0.4 m / s 2.47 m / s
2400 0.2

ANS

For the power ratio:

We have

P2 2 2

P1 1 1

D2

D1

Assuming that the two fans drive the same fluid, i.e., air, at the same thermodynamic conditions, i.e., 1 2 , we
thus have

P2 2

P1 1

D2

D1

1850 0.4

14.7 .

2400 0.2

ANS

For the torque ratio, Method 1: Dimensional Analysis:


We need to set up a new functional relation for the new dependent variable T. Similar as above, we have
T f ( , , Q, D, ) ,

which gives, dropping the Re effect,

HW #3: C-Mom, C-Energy, C-Ang-Mom and Turbomachines, Bernoullis Equation, Dimensional Analysis, and Pipe Flows
Due: Fri, Nov 22, 2013 at the ISE box.
Asi Bunyajitradulya

T
T
2 5
D

27

Q
F Q
.

D 3

Hence, for the dynamically similar condition, we have

T 1 T 2

2 D 5

Thus,

T2 2 2

T1 1 1

and, for 1 2 ,

T2 2

T1 1

D2

D1

D2

D1
5

T

2 D 5
1

1850 0.4

19.0 .

2400 0.2

ANS

Method 2: Use the relation P T and find it from the power ratio:
Since the driving power is related to the driving torque through P T , we also have
T2 P2

T1 P1

Using

P2 2 2

P1 1 1

D2

D1

, we arrive at the same equation and the same result for the torque ratio as Method

1,
T2 2

T1 1

D2

D1

1850 0.4

19.0 .

2400 0.2

If viscous effect is not negligible, the viscosity should be included and the Reynolds number Re
as shown above.

Note:

ANS

D 2
results

ANS

Note that there are various powers and torques at various stages of the energy conversion/transmission train
(e.g., hydraulic torque/power, power at the impeller surface, mechanical torque/power at shaft, electrical
power at motor, etc.). Hence, in general the more upstream the power, the more dimensionless groups
(independent or dependent depending on how we formulate the starting functional relation) may need to be
included in the similarity analysis due to additional physics involved. For example, mechanical train efficiency
or motor efficiency may need to be included.