NUMBER 1
CONTENTS
PART I ADVANCED
T h e L u c a s  L e h m e r T e s t for M e r s e n n e N u m b e r s .
Recurrence F o r m u l a s . . . . . . .
. Sidney Kravitz
= CR+1
W. C. Lynch
23
Hyman
Gabai
31
39
+ Cn + n m
R
By Expansions and O p e r a t o r s .
On P r i m e s and P s e u d o  P r i m e s Related
To the Fibonacci Sequence
. . . .
Edward A. Parberry
49
61
. Edited by Raymond
E. Whitney
74
T. Hansen
83
88
PART E ELEMENTARY
A r i t h m e t i c of Pentagonal N u m b e r s
L e t t e r s to the E d i t o r
. .
.
.
..
Rodney
L i n e a r R e c u r s i o n R e l a t i o n s L e s s o n Seven
Analyzing L i n e a r R e c u r s i o n R e l a t i o n s . .
.
. Jean H. Anderson
90
96
V. C. Harris
E l e m e n t a r y P r o b l e m s and Solutions .
. Edited by A. P. Hlllman
FEBRUARY
102
, V. C. Harris 104
105
1970
OF THE FIBONACCI
ASSOCIATION
BOARD
Donald E . Knuth
George L e d i n , Jr
D0 A. Lind
C. T, Long
Leo M o s e r
I. D Ruggles
M N. S, Swamy
Do Eo T h o r o
C h a r l e s H. King
L . H. Lange
J a m e s Maxwell
S i s t e r M. D e S a l e s McNabb
C. D. Olds
D. W. Robinson
A z r i e l Rosenfeld
John E . Vinson
Lloyd W a l k e r
C h a r l e s R. Wall
The California M a t h e m a t i c s Council
All s u b s c r i p t i o n c o r r e s p o n d e n c e should be a d d r e s s e d to B r o . A. B r o s s e a u ,
Mary T s C o l l e g e , Calif. All c h e c k s ($6.00 p e r year) should be m a d e out to the
Fibonacci Association o r the Fibonacci Q u a r t e r l y . M a n u s c r i p t s intended for
publication in the Q u a r t e r l y should be sent to V e r n e r E . Hoggatt, J r . , M a t h e m a t i c s D e p a r t m e n t , San J o s e State C o l l e g e , San J o s e , Calif. All m a n u s c r i p t s
The purpose of this note is to present certain computer calculations r e lating to the LueasLehmer Test for the primality of Mersenne Numbers.
The LucasLehmer Test states that the Mersenne number M = 2 P  1
p
is prime if and only if S  = 0 mod M where
(1)
S 1 + 1 = S  2
and Si = 4e Lehmer further states* that this test is valid not only for Si = 4
but for Si equal to 2p~
(i = l , 2 , e , 2 F
values, S 1 .,
starting
) are determined by
191
(2)7
where S  = S = 4 and S 2 = 5 2
Figure 1 demonstrates the LucasLehmer Test for M7 = 21  1 = 127.
Each of the 2 P ~
The
Dl
result is that 2 F
LucasLehmer t e s t
What happens to the other qp~
apply Eq. (1)? This is shown in Fig9 2e We see that successive terms do not
lead to a zero term, but instead are repetitive in cycles whose periods are
divisors of (p  1). Figure 2 shows four cycles of double sixes and two cycles
of double threes,
A computer program was used to determine the structure of the LucasLehmer Test for MT, M13 and M17 with the following results.
*D. H. Lehmer, "An Extended Theory of Lucas 1 Functions," Annals of Math, ,
(2) 31 (1930), pages 419448.
1
[Feb.
iH
tf>
1970]
For Mf = 127
A LucasLehmer pattern of 2p  1 + 1 terms
4 cycles of double sixes
making 65 terms
making 12 terms
making
making 48 terms
Total
2 terms
127 terms
making
12 terms
making
4 terms
2 terms
making
Total 8191 terms
For M i7 = 131,071
A LucasLehmer pattern of 2P  1 + 1 terms
2032 cycles of double sixteens
making
480 terms
making
24 terms
making
4 terms
making
2 terms
making
1008 terms
making
48 terms
making
12 terms
making
2 terms
Total
524287 terms
RECURRENCE FORMULAS
JOSEPH ARKIN
Spring Valley, New York
and
RICHARD POLLACK
New York University, New York, New York
= n
P(n) = 
(f(x))" 1 = b ( n ) x n ,
n=0
(2)
n
a(j) b(n  j) = 0
(n > 0)
S =
X
n(i) b(j  i) a(n  j) ,
0<i<m
m<j<n
T =
a(i)b(j  i) a (a  j)
0<i<j<m
F e b . 1970
RECURRENCE FORMULAS
w h e r e 0 < m < n.
m
j
T = a(n  j) a(i) b(j  i) = a(n) .
j=0
i=0
(3)
In the n e x t p l a c e ,
T =
E
0<i<m
E
a ( i ) b ( j  i ) a ( n  j)
i<j<n
ni
E
a(i) J^ b(s) a(n  i  s) .
0<i<m
s=0
T h e i n n e r s u m on the e x t r e m e r i g h t v a n i s h e s u n l e s s n  i = 0; s i n c e m < n
this condition i s satisfied for no value of i in the r a n g e 0 < i < m and t h e r e fore S + T = 0.
Combining this with (3), we get S =  a ( n ) ,
a
X
W b(J  i) a ( n  j) =  a < n )
0<i<m
m<j<n
(4)
o r , explicitly,
(0 < m < n) .
rather
(0 < m < n) .
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
T h e a u t h o r s wish to thank P r o f e s s o r L* C a r l i t z of Duke U n i v e r s i t y for
h i s g e n e r o u s l e t t e r extending (1) into this m o r e g e n e r a l form,
* * *
INTRODUCTION
exposition of known r e s u l t s in a form designed to help introduce the new r e sults which a p p e a r in the o t h e r s e c t i o n s .
PART 1
2.
Any sequence of n u m b e r s U
(1)
= U
n
will b e called a t  F i b o n a c c i
which s a t i s f i e s
+ + U
n1
sequence.
The i
.
nt
t  F i b o n a c c i sequence i s the
1 < j < t.
l l if
JO if
i = j
i ^ j
1970]
u =y\u .
i=l
Mention of t in the notation is suppressed since t will remain fixed for
any given discussion in this paper.
lUn
2 n
3Un
4Un
1
1
1
2
13
25
12
14
15
49
10
15
23
27
29
94
11
29
44
52
56
181
12
56
85
100
108
349
108
164
193
208
673
13
i t+1
In
t n1
iUn = i  l U n  l + t U n  r
f o r
<
<
We may verify
[Feb.
iUn=8in
(5)
* < "'< *
By s u m m i n g each side
establish
C. = 0
or
C, = 1
J
00
(b)
(c) j < t
K =
and
C. = 0
X>i2UJ
j=l
i m p l i e s that
C. = 0
for all
then
i < j ,
._,, = 0.
l+t
1970]
lfs
terminates,
Step (3) If C. through C . , , . are all l f s then change C . , , fromO to
1 (if C. , is not 0 then the original sequence has l f s in C.  through C. ,
and thus violated condition (d) ). Increase j by t and go back to Step (2).
We observe the following about the counting algorithm when C. is a
representation of K:
1. Step (1) increases by one the value of the representation.
2. Step (3) does not change the value of the representation since U
3. Each application of Step (3) reduces the number of l f s in the r e p r e sentation so that the algorithm terminates.
4. At termination, the resulting sequence of C. ? s satisfies (a) through
(d) and is thus a representation of K + 1.
5. If C
10
[Feb,
Since an infinite
h a s a unique r e p r e s e n t a t i o n in the t  F i b o n a c c i n u m b e r s y s t e m .
Proof; We will show that the t h e o r e m holds for all i n t e g e r s l e s s than
U .
Then J J
= t.
F o r a l l nonnegative i n t e 
Condi
 < K < yU
nonnegative i n t e g e r s < ^U
(6)
VU
.
2U   VU .  .
2 n1
2 nt1
2 n
Since we a r e on a n induction s t e p ,
n i s g r e a t e r than t + 1 so that
2 nt1
It then follows that
(7a)
VU
VU
 < VU 2 n1
2 n1
and c e r t a i n l y
(7b)
0 < K  ^
< ^
S i n c e , by induction, we can r e p r e s e n t K  ^U
 (clearly with
 =0),
But the
 down to C _, to be all l f s .
. = VU , c o n t r a r y to a s s u m p 
tion
VU
Thus K i s r e p r e s e n t a b l e .
+ * + ~U
By L e m m a 2 , e v e r y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of K
1970]
m u s t have C
 = 1,
O t h e r w i s e L e m m a 1 a s s e r t s that K < yU
to the induction a s s u m p t i o n .
then K  ^U
z, n  1i
from 1 to 0.
D.
Both
&
K 
from
.
Since by (7b),
VU
, < VU , ,
Z n1
Z n1 '
contrary
i s obtained
,
i s r e p r e s e n t e d by D. and D! w h e r e
C. by changing C
D
The r e p r e s e n t a t i o n for K i s
Q. E . D .
positions
tFIBONACCI DISTRIBUTIONS
We define the n
t  F i b o n a c c i d i s t r i b u t i o n to be the t dimensional v e c LU , JJ , ' ' e Sj U ) = V . Using v e c t o r addition in the usual s e n s e (add
&
1 n 2 n
t n
n
c o r r e s p o n d i n g c o m p o n e n t s ) , it i s c l e a r that
tor
(8)
1 ;
V = V  + V 0
+
n
n1
n2
   + V , .
nt
i s yU .
v = 2 c. v. ,
w h e r e C. is the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n for K.
12
[Feb.
Representation
4Distribution
000 0000
(0, 0, 0, 0)
000 11000
(0, 0, 0, 1)
000 11100
(0, 0, 1, 1)
000 11110
001 (0000
001 (1000
(1, 1, 1, 2)
001 1100
(1, 1, 2 , 2)
010 (0000
(0, 1 5 1, 1)
OOOJllll
00111110
( 1 , 1, 1, 1)
( 1 , 2 , 2 , 2)
010 1000
(1, 2, 2 , 3)
010 11100
(1, 2, 3 , 3)
10
010 11110
(1, 3 , 3, 3)
11
011 10000
12
011 11000
13
100 I oooo
010llll
(2, 3 , 3 , 3)
(2, 3 , 3 , 4)
01111100
(2, 3, 4 , 4)
com
See F i g . 2.
C o r r e s p o n d i n g to each nonnegative i n t e g e r K ,
ties,
distribution for K.
for
K + 1.
If K
i s y\J
can
for
.U
for i t s i
we can e a s i l y c a l 
In p a r t i c u l a r , i s the r e s u l t a t  d i s t r i b u t i o n , a n d , if s o ,
which i n t e g e r ?
of f(X) be
for
component
1970]
f(X) = i X t
n
13
i = 1
if
J X._ 1 + X
if
1 < i < t
X=
ZCJVJ '
j=l
f(x) = f
(EcJvj) = E v ( v =1>3 v
\j=l
j=l
j=l
ECMVJ
3=2
00
f(x) =
Evi
3=1
Since D. satisfies (a) through (d), f(X) is the tdistribution for the integer represented by the D.ffSo In other words, applying f to the tdistribution
for K yields the tdistribution for an integer whose representation in the
tFibonacci number system is the representation of K shifted left one place.
Observe, in Fig. 2 5 the entries for 5 and 11. Applying f to the 4distribution
of 5 yields the 4distribution of 11. The representation of 5 shifted left one
place yields the representation of 11.
Since it is a nonsingular linear transformation,
f is invertible.
if
i = t
X.^  X,
i+l
if
1 < i < t
Con
14
[Feb.
a r e much too large to be held in the memory of the computer, and they must
be recorded on some linear medium such as magnetic tape.
The primary
If
we have two files already sorted into order, we can combine, or merge, these
into one file.
We do this as follows.
B and the resulting file C. File C is initially empty. We look at the first
records of A and B and select the one with the smallest key.
We transfer
this record from the input file to C, removing it from the input file.
peat this process until both A and B are exhausted.
We r e 
See Fig. 3.
We will say that a file in ascending order by its key is a sorted file. The
idea behind merge sorting is to begin with many small sorted files; perhaps
1970]
JL
SL
6
9
10
5
6
11
15
7
8
9
10
11
sorted files grows, and, more importantiy 5 the number of files decreases after
each merger.
tapes
files
1 2
9
9
3
9
4
0
5
0
6
0
That i s , tapes 1, 2, and 3 contain nine files each (one after the other), while
tapes 4, 5, and 6 are empty. By an obvious extension of the described merging
process, we can merge together three files at once.
files that appear first on tapes 1 , 2 , and 3. This new file is placed on tape 4
so that we have twentyfive files.
1 2
8
8
3
8
4
5
1 0
6
0
16
[Feb.
By their nature, tapes 1, 2, and 3 are in position to read their second files
and tape 4 is positioned to write a file after the one just constructed*
is not in a convenient position to reread the file just written.
Tape 4
Files from 1,
2, and 3 are merged again, and the resulting file is written on tape 5.
One
3
6
5
1
6
1
We make six more mergers,, writing the resulting files cyclically on tapes 4,
5, and 6, yielding nine files.
1 2
0
0
3
0
4
3
5
3
6
3
Each file is three times as long as the originals. We rewind all six tapes and
make three mergers yielding
1 2
1 1
3
1
5
0
6
0
4
5
1 0
6
0
2
0
3
0
All the records appear on tape 4 as one sorted file. It should be clear that the
number of passes (i. e. , the number of times each record is processed) is
l0
% i ) <f>
2
don t come out even as in the example above, and some "fudging" is needed.
For a more complete discussion of merge sorting, see [4] and [s] .
1970]
17
Tapes
16
16
17
Suppose we wish to
pass
tapes
1 2
0
0'
We must have gotten here by merging four files, one each on tapes 1, 2, 3 5 and
4.
pass
5
tapes
1 2
1 1
one file on tape 4 by a fourway merger of one file each from tapes 1 ? 2, 3,
and 5.
pass
6
tapes
1
2
one each from 1 9 29 3 5 and 5 to 4e Notice that the sorting process leaves files
on tapes 19 2, and 3 and rewinds 5. The key idea of this process, called polyphase sorting [5] is not to exhaust all of the input files available,, The next few
steps backward a r e :
18
[Feb.
tapes
1
2
2 each from 1 9 29 4, 5 to 3
0
8
4
12
6
14
7
15
4 each from 1 9 3 9 4, 5 to 2
8 each from 2 9 3 8 4 9 5 to 1
10
15
23
27
29
15 each from 1, 2, 3, 4 to 5
11
44
52
56
29
29 each from 1, 2, 3, 5 to 4
At each step 9 we fourway merge as many files as are available on the tape
with the smallest number of files, then rewind this tape.
We leave the r e s i 
pass
tapes
1
2
L3
L4
L4
W
Li
L2
L2
L3
L4
L3
L4
W
Li
Li
L2
L3
Li
^4
Li
Li
L2
L2
L3
L2
L3
10
Li
L2
L2
L3
L3
L4
L4
W
11
L4
W
Li
At the end of each p a s s , the logical labels shift right one with respect to the
physical numbers.
It will be much more convenient to organize the tableau containing the
number of files per tape per pass by logical names rather than physical tape
numbers. The example is given in Fig. 5.
Usually the W column is dropped, since it is always zero.
Fig. 5 with Fig. 1 in Part 1.
Compare
1970]
L2
1
0
L3
1
W
D
L4
1
0
19
4
5
1
0
0
0
2
4
3
6
4
7
0
0
12
14
15
10
15
23
29
11
29
44
27
52
0
0
56
n files a r e written on W,
which
nl L 4 = *nh.
*nlLll =
*< 1 < *
Applying these relations, we can fill in the tableau for 0 < n < 4e
To construct the tableau in the opposite direction, it is clear that
#
nLl
nlL4
#n L. = # , L .
+ #  L .
n i
"n1 il
"n1 4
1 < i < t
for
1 < n < t
# L. = 8.
20
[Feb.
i n
VU
pass n.
We now raise two related problems. How do we adjust if the number of
files to be sorted is not some yU ? And, in general, how do we determine
the initial distribution of the files over t tapes?
question is complicated by the fact that in general, we will not know how many
files are to be sorted.
and we will read them one by one and distribute them over the input tapes. We
must distribute them in such a manner that at any time we will be prepared to
carry out the polyphase algorithm. This is because we won r t know which file
is last until we come upon it. This distribution problem is discussed in 8 .
The following algorithm is proposed for calculating the initial distribution. We will number the files in sequence and represent the number in the
tFibonacci number system. As we distribute a file we will obtain its number
by counting up by one the number representation of the previous file. This involves inserting a 1 in one of the lower t positions (say position j) of the
representation of the number of the previous file and adjusting for carries.
Refer back to the Counting Algorithm. The new file to be distributed is then
copied to tape j . At each step, then, the distribution of files is the tdistribution
for the number of files thus far distributed.
If we distribute 11 files on four tapes, Fig. 2 indicates that the distribution would be (2, 3, 3, 3). If we take one pass on the polyphase sortalgorithm
we obtain 5 files distributed (1, 1, 1, 2).
the four tapes, leaving three tapes with one file and creating a new tape with
two files.) We can keep track of this by shifting the representation right one
place. The representation for 11 is Oil] 0000 and the representation for 5 is
01J1000. Another pass of the polyphase algorithm gives us two files with the
4distribution (0, 0, 1, 1) and the representation 01100.
If we try another pass, nothing happens since L. contains no files.
Also, the shift would give the unacceptable representation 0110 (this violates
(c)). We instead should add dummy files to tapes Lj and L 2 .
Dummy files
are files with no records in them. By (d), this promotes the representation to
1970]
21
ljOOOO and the distribution to ( 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 ) . One more pass produces the representation
(0, 0, 0, 1),
and we a r e done.
Actually, this last merger was only twoway, but we pretended it was fourway!
The rule then is that when a shift of the representation to the right is not
allowed because a zero would shift into position t, dummy files should be
added to the indicated tapes* With this slight adjustment, any number of files
m a y b e sorted.
Operation
distribute
Representation
0001000
distribute
000I1100
ooojmo
0010000
OOljlOOO
00lll00
010I0000
oioiiooo
010I1100
sort
00ll000
sort
ooolnoo
oooiooo
sc>rt
Distribution
(0, o, 0, 1)
(0, 0, 1, 1)
(0, 1, 1, 1)
Comment
to tape 4
to tape 3
to tape 2
(1, 1, 1, 1)
(1, 1, 1, 2)
to tape 1
(1, 1, 2,
(1, 2, 2,
(1, 2, 2,
(1, 2, 3,
2)
2)
to tape 3
to tape 2
3)
3)
to tape 4
(1, 1, 1, 2)
(0, 0, 1, 1)
(0, 0, 0, 1)
to tape 4
to tape 3
dummy files
added to 1, 2
dummy files
added to 1, 2
Fig. 6
A little thought will produce a slightLy more economical method of adding
dummy files, but we leave this to the reader 1 s imagination.
8* CONCLUSION
We have presented a generalization of the Fibonacci numbers and developed some of their salient properties. In particular, we proved an extension of Zeckendorfs theorem, and used this to develop the tFibonacci positional
number system. We investigated the processes of counting and shifting in this
number system.
22
Feb. 1970
In Part 2, we reviewed the basics of merge sorting and polyphase sorting and went on to use the theory of Part 1 to develop a new initial distribution
and mergecontrol algorithm,,
It seems clear that this sortof analysis can be carried out for many other
merge sorting schemes (e. g. , oscillating [7] or cascade sort [s]). With each
sorting scheme, we should be able to associate a number system. This number system should be such that one pass of the merger corresponds to shifting
the representation of the number of files right, one place 0 The initial distribution of files is controlled by the mechanics of counting and imperfect distributions are adjusted to prevent shifting digits off the right end of the count.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The author is indebted to D. E* Knuth for many valuable suggestions.
REFERENCES
1. J. L. Brown, J r . ,
f?
= F
n1
+ F
n2
for
2 with
and
F l = le
T h e factors of the
first 60 Fibonacci numbers were published by Lucas (with only two errors) in
1877 [1], and recently a table of factors of F
z = z(p) is defined as the entry point (or rank) or p in the Fibonacci sequence;
furthermore p divides F
([3], p
396).
To find the entry point z(p) for a given p , we can generate the Fibonacci sequence modulo p until we obtain an element F
= 0; on a computer
z
this process involves only additions and subtractions, and we work throughout
with numbers less than 2p8 Tables of entry points have been published by
Brother U. Alfred [ 4 ] , and have also been inverted to give p as a function of
z. We extended the inverted table up to p = 660,000 by restricting our search
to the first 256 Fibonacci numbers, L e. , to z < 256, and by this means we
were able to give complete factorizations of 36 numbers F
[5].
In the present paper we shall adopt the alternative approach of fixing z
and searching for primes for which this z is the entry point In Sections Sand
4 we shall prove the following theorems:
Theorem 1. If z is the entry point of a prime p > 5 then
(i) if z is odd, we have either
(a) p = 4rz + 1
and
p = 1, 29, 4 1 , 49 (mod 60),
or (b) p = (4r+2)z  1
and
24
[Feb.
and
(a)
p = 2rz + 1
and
(b)
p = (2r + l ) z  1
and
p = 7, 2 3 , 4 3 , 47 (mod 60),
w h e r e in all e a s e s
T h e o r e m 2.
r i s an i n t e g e r .
2z(p) divides p l
The L u c a s n u m b e r s L
a r e defined by
J the s a m e r e c u r r e n c e r e l a t i o n a s
n
the Fibonacci n u m b e r s F , n a m e l y L = L  + L 0 for n > 2 , but with
J
n9
n
n1
n2
L 0 = 2 and L j = 1. We shall r e q u i r e the following well known i d e n t i t i e s :
(1)
F0
= F L
2n
n n
(2)
F2  F  F ^ =
n
n  1 n+1
(l)n_1
(3)
L 2  L  L J.1 = (  l ) n 5 .
n
n  1 n+1
When p i s an odd p r i m e and m i s an i n t e g e r p r i m e to p ,
symbol
theLegendre
(m/p) i s defined to be +1 if m i s a q u a d r a t i c r e s i d u e of p ,
i.e.,
if the equation
x2
= m
(mod p)
(m/p) is d e 
(4)
(1/p) = 1
if and only if
p = 1 (mod 4)
1970]
25
(5a)
(5/p) = 1
if and only if
p = 1 o r 9 (mod 10)
(5b)
(5/p) =  1
if and only if
p = 3 o r 7 (mod 10)
(6)
(5/p)
= 1
if and only if
p = 1,
3,
7,
o r 9 (mod 20) .
then
(for p > 5)
p  (5/p) = 0 (mod z) .
T h i s l e a d s to
Lemma 1
(8a)
p = qz + 1
if
p = 1 or
9 (mod 10),
(8b)
p  qz  1
if
p = 3 o r 7 (mod 10) ,
s i n c e o t h e r w i s e p would be divisible by 2 , 3 , o r 5.
If we r e d u c e the Fibonacci sequence (for which F 0 = 0,
p,
we obtain a p e r i o d i c s e q u e n c e .
F1 = 1) modulo
g e r k for which
F,
= 0 (mod p)
and
F,
 = 1 (mod p) .
It i s c l e a r that the e n t r y point z(p) will divide the period k(p), and the following r e s u l t s have b e e n proved by Oswald Wyler [ 7 ] :
(10a)
k(p) = z(p)
if
z(p) = 2 (mod 4)
(10b)
k(p) = 2z(p)
if
zip) E 0 (mod 4) ,
(10c)
k(p) = 4z(p)
if
z(p) i s odd.
26
[Feb.
k(p) divides p  1
if
p = 1 or 9 (mod 10),
(lib)
p = 4rz + 1
and
(b)
p = (4r + 2)z  1
p = 1 or 9 (mod 10),
or
and
p = 3 or 7 (mod 10).
Part (i) of Theorem 1, as stated in the introduction, then follows by using the
result (9) and selecting those residues modulo 60 which satisfy p = 1 (mod 4).
(ii) Next, we consider the case where z = 2s and s is an odd integer.
In this case p divides F~
4S
and
p = 1 or 9 (mod 10) .
Part (ii) of Theorem 1 now follows by using the result (9). Moreover, Lemma
3 establishes the following result which was conjectured by A. C. Aitken (private communication to R. Rado in 1961):
1970]
27
p = qz + 1
and
(b)
p = qz  1
and
or
Since the result (10b) applies to these cases, the period k is now given by k
= 2z. Applying (11a), we see that in case (a), q must be an even integer, say
q = 2r. Similarly, applying (lib) we see that in case (b) q must be an odd
integer, say 2r 1 1. This establishes part (ii) of Theorem 1.
In proving Theorem 1 we have used only the identities (1), (2) and (3). It
is interesting to note that, although we applied similar techniques to many other
identities, these did not lead to any further significant results.
4. PROOF OF THEOREM 2
To prove that for p > 5, 2z(p) divides p  (5/p) if and only if p = 1
(mod 4), we have to consider the three cases as before.
(i) When z is odd, we have by Lemma 2 that p = 1 (mod 4); we also
know from (7) that z divides p  (5/p), which is an even number, and hence
when z is odd 2z divides p  (5/p).
(ii) When z is twice an odd integer, we have by Lemma 3 that
p = qz + 1
and
p = 1 or 9 (mod 10) .
28
p = qz + 1
with
q an even i n t e g e r ,
(b)
p = qz  1
with
q an odd i n t e g e r .
[Feb.
or
w h e r e a s in c a s e (b)
p =
1 (mod 4 ) , h a s r e c e n t l y b e e n p r o v e d by R. P . B a c k s t r o m ( [ 9 ] , l e m m a s 4 and
6).
5.
n.
If n i s not p r i m e , then F
for a given
it i s a
(with
suitable
To d e t e r m i n e t h e s e f a c t o r s , we l e t the
z = n.
T h e s e n u m b e r s N in g e n e r a l fall
the l o w e s t upward.
F o r each
the p r o g r a m
tests
/N.
or Q
a t an e a r l i e r stage of the p r o g r e s s .
c o m e s sufficiently l a r g e for N
F i n a l l y , when N b e 
1970]
29
= Nj[N2 < N which implies that Q n has a factor smaller than N, and any
such factor would have been divided out at an earlier stage.
In the case of n even, say n = 2m, we can proceed slightly differently
on account of the identity
FQ
= F L
2m
m m
The computer program now generates L
, and dividing L
According as n = m is odd or even we use Theorem 1 (ii) or 1 (iii) to generate numbers N satisfying the conditions for p when z = n = 2m.
It was
found that these numbers N in general fall into 8, 10, or 12 residue classes
modulo 30n5 though in some cases 20 and even 30 residue classes occurred.
6. NUMERICAL RESULTS
A program on the lines described above was run on the Elliott 803 computer at Reading University, using multilength integer arithmetic.
In addi
tion to the factorizations listed by us in [5], the following further factorizations were obtained (the factors before the asterisk being improper factors):
F103 = 519121 x 5644193 x 512119709
F115 = 5 x 28657 1381 x 2441738887963981
F133 = 13 x 37 x 113 * 3457 x 42293 x 351301301942501
F135 = 2 x 5 x 17 x 53 x 109 x 61 x 109441 * 1114769954367361
F141 = 2 x 2971215073 * 108289 x 1435097 x 142017737
F149 = 110557 x 162709 x 4000949 x 85607646594577
We also factorized
of the identity F 0
= F
J
2m
the corresponding Lucas
tors of F ?
30
FACTORIZATION O F FIBONACCI N U M B E R S
L61
= 5600748293801 (prime)
L62
= 3 * 3020733700601
L68
= 7 * 23230657239121
L71
= 688846502588399 (prime)
L73
= 151549 x 11899937029
L76
= 7 * 1091346396980401
L77
L80
= 2207 * 23725145626561
L82
L85
L91
= 29 x 521 * 689667151970161
L92
= 7 * 253367 x 9506372193863
L93
L94
L96
L98
Feb. 1970
REFERENCES
1. Edouard Lucas, Bull, di Bibl. e di St. d. Sc. Mat. e Fis. , Vol. 10 (March
1877), pp. 129170.
2. Brother U. Alfred, An Introduction to Fibonacci Discovery, The Fibonacci
Association, 1965.
3. L. E. Dickson, History of the Theory of Numbers, Carnegie Institution,
Vol. 1, 1919.
4. Brother U. Alfred, Tables of Fibonacci Entry Points, The Fibonacci Association, 1965.
5. L. A. G. Dresel and D. E. Daykin, "Factorization of 36 Fibonacci Numbers
F with n > 100 9 " Fibonacci Quarterly, Vol. 3, pp. 232233, October,
1965.
[Continued on page 82, ]
GENERALIZED FIBONACCI
KSEQUENCES
HYMAM GABAI
York College (CUNY) and University of Illinois (UICSM)
1* INTRODUCTION
For k > 2, the Fibonacci ksequence F(k) m a y b e defined recursively
by
nl
= 0 (n < 0),
fj = 1,
= J2
f.
(n > 1) .
i=nk
A generalized Fibonacci ksequence A(k) may be constructed by arbitrarily
choosing a l 3 a 0 , a  ,
oee
an = 0
(a < 2  k) f
= 2
a.
(n > 1) 9
i=nk
In this paper, some wellknown properties of F(2)
sible thatcthe generalizations described in this paper may suggest some areas
of investigation suitable for high school and college students* (See, for example [5].) For once a theorem concerning F(2) has been discovered, one may
search for corresponding theorems concerning A(2),
F(3),
A(3),
eo8
and
THEOREMS
a , = 2a  a . .
n+1
n
nk
31
32
[Feb,
F o r n > 2,
a
n'
e v e r y c o m m o n d i v i s o r of
n+lJ
n+2J
" '
n+kl
i s a d i v i s o r of a 2 , a 3 , , a n _ i .
Some s u m m a t i o n t h e o r e m s a r e given in T h e o r e m s 3 , 4 , and 5.
T h e o r e m 3.
kn+m
2 ^ aki+m+l
i=0
a
2rf
i
i=m+lk
'
(b) F o r n > 1,
n
kn1
E ki
i=l
i=0
(c) F o r n > 1,
kn "
l<i< kn1
i^Olmodk)
T h e o r e m 4
F o r n > 2  k,
k2
k2'
i=2k
T h e o r e m 5.
(k
E
i=l
l 
i=l
F o r n > 1,
n
E
i=l
k1
a? = a a
l
(1
n n+1
 aan  y
1 0
n
/
A*
j=2 i = l
a.a. .
l 13
1)a
ni]
1970]
J
a
,i
~^
2 ( Vk+j X) fmj+l J
n+m
j=l \
T h e o r e m 7.
Let d
f
i=l
be the g r e a t e s t common d i v i s o r of
m'
ml5
"
8 s
mk+2
xk
k1
 E xi = i=0
Then
k+1 /
j1
^WsH^)
(a)
and
lim
(b)
3.
( ^ )
PROOFS OF THEOREMS
F o r , if n
then
n
a
,, =
n+1
n1
V*
a. = V * a. + a  a . = 2a  a . .
Z<
1
Z>
i
n
nk
n
nk
i=nk+l
i=nk
34
[Feb.
To p r o v e T h e o r e m 2 , suppose that d i s a c o m m o n d i v i s o r of a , a
j a ,.  .
n+k1
n+k2
a
*n+k""l
nfk2
a
Vl
i=nl
it follows that d a l s o divides a
a
n2
'"
9 a
,
Since
i=n

n1
Now T h e o 
m+l
k+m+l
k+m
k+m
E \+ E \  E
i=m+lk
i=m+l
a.
i=m+lk
then it holds for n = p + 1
b e c a u s e we then have
p+1
2 ^ aki+m+l
i=0
p
=
k(p+l)fm+l
k(p+l)+m
Z J aki+m+l
i=0
kp+m
i=kp+m+l
i=m+lk
k(p+l)+m
s
i=^m+lk
Hence T h e o r e m 3(a) holds for n > 1, m > 1.
In the proof of T h e o r e m 3(b), we apply T h e o r e m 3 ( a ) , choosing m = k  1:
1970]
35
kn+k1
ki+k
Z**d
i=0
i=0
a kn+k
2Ld a k i
i=l
kn+k1
kn1
Ea,
i=0
a. =
i
i=kn
a. + a, ,,
i
kn+k
i=0
One m a y ,
however,
Vk
Vk
a n+2k
n+3k
"
3k
l
2k
" ao
*2k
"
1
a
n+3
"
"
"
n+l 
2k
2
2k
l
3~k
4k
^1
a
ax
 a
Vk
...
Vl
a
n+3k
n+4k
~ 1
n1
n + k  :3 " n + k  4
" Vk2
n+k3
f1  a
n
n+1
a
 a
n+l
n+2
 a
36
[Feb.
2 h = Vk  a l  (k  2) E
i=2k
a +
i=2k
k2
ia
k2
(k
i=l
i=l
i E i  Z  *  1)a n+i
For the proof of Theorem 6, let n be any integer such that n > 1.
Theorem 6 holds for m = 1 because
k
S
Vk+j Sflj+i = Z) (a nk+j f l ) = a n+l '
j=l
1=1
j=l
If Theorem 6 holds for m = p , then it holds for m = p + 1 because we then
have
k
j
/
a
n+(p+l) " (n+l)+p " 24 ( n + l  k + j ^ f pj+i
j=l \
i=l
k+1
a
j=2 \
k
p+lj+i ~ f p+l)
(i=l
n+l 2 ^
i=l
p_k+i
EL ( nk+j 2
a
3=1
i
P+l
p+lj+i)
i=i
+ f
"I X , a nk+i) fp
\ 5=2
"Vk+l
+ 2a
7
n+lan+2)
1970]
7 holds for n = m p ,
We shall p r o v e that if T h e o r e m
37
By
J T h e o r e m 6,
mp+m
/^
P m o  k + i ) j mj+i I
j=l \
i=l
/
divides each t e r m of the s u m
m p m+1 "
J
"mj+i
i=l
where
a
1 < Jj < k  1,
and d
m
divides
a
,
mp
it follows that d
divides
m(p+l)'
F o r the proof of Theorem 8(a), we once again apply Theorem 6.
7 ^
J 1
=W*i I ^ T
T '
q,
j ja )= r q
lim
m>oo I f
It follows, t h e r e f o r e , that
1
^ftjg^s^
k
J
k+j
j=l\
k+l
 I T
" k j=2
L
Theorem 8(b) holds since
i=l
/
j1
V ki
r
ik ^
i=l
a
\
We
38
Feb. 1970
f
..
/ a n + l fn
n+l\
lim I s sI
REFERENCES
1. Brother U. Alfred, "An Introduction to Fibonacci Discovery," The Fibonacci
Association, 1965.
2. Brother U. Alfred, "Exploring Recur rent Sequences," Fibonacci Quarterly,
Vol. 1, No. 2, 1963, pp. 8183.
3. M. Beberman and H. Vaughan, High School Mathematics, Course 3, D. C.
Heath, 1966.
4. D. E, Ferguson, "An Expression for Generalized Fibonacci Numbers,"
Fibonacci Quarterly, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1966, pp. 270272.
5. M. Feinberg, "FibonacciTribonacci," Fibonacci Quarterly, Vol. 1, No.
3, 1963, pp. 7174.
6. I. Flores, "Direct Calculation of KGeneralized Fibonacci Numbers," Fibonacci Quarterly, Vol. 5, No. 3, 1967, pp. 259266.
7. E. P. Miles, "Generalized Fibonacci Numbers and Associated Matrices,"
American Mathematical Monthly, Vol. 67, No, 8, 1960, pp. 745752.
8. N. N. Vorobyov, The Fibonacci Numbers, D. C. Heath, 1963.
9. M. E. Waddill and L. Sacks, "Another Generalized Fibonacci Sequence,"
Fibonacci Quarterly, Vol. 5, No. 3, 1967, pp. 209222.
* * * *
DON'T FORGET!
It's TIME to renew your subscription to the Fibonacci Quarterly!
ON SOLVING Cn + j ^
R. J. WEItMSHEIMK
Lockheed Missiles & Space Company, Sunnyvale, California
and
V. E. HOGGATT, JR.
San Jose State College, San Jose, California
1. INTRODUCTION
It was the purpose of this paper to derive the general solution of the nonhomogeneous difference equation
m
Cn+2
_LO = C _,_ + C + n
n+1
n
n+2 =
n+1
+ C
C ^ = C . +C
n+2
n+1
n
and a solution of the particular equation. See [4,5] Since the polynomial
m
term, n , is of degree m s a particular solution to (1) can be expected to be
of the form
m
(3)
w
(C ) = Y a. n1*1"1
n p
iLd
i=0
im
40
= C ^ + Cn + n m
ON SOLVING C ^
[Feb.
If
(4)
P
m
(n) = (C ) ,
n
'
P
C = A F J _ 1 + B F  P ( n )
n
m n+1
m n
m
(6)
(C )
=Va.
Zr
P
n1*1"4 ,
im
i=0
i=0
i=0
By transposing and expanding these terms and then equating coefficients of,
say, the n " J terms for j ^ 0, the general term of (7) becomes
/o
( V
(8)
mj
2(mj + l)nmj
a
1!
(jDm+
. / >  J a . + ( m  j + Dnm3
\
jm
1!
 a. n
= 0
(jl)m
2jm(ml)(mj+l)nm"j
\
a
j!
0m/
+mtml)(m] +
j!
l)n m J
)
0m/
1970]
41
_a.
jm
(2il)(mj
1!
l)
...
(jl)m
(9)
, (2 j  l)m(m  l)(m  2)  (m  j + 1)
_A
.o
' a~. u
.]!
0m
Solving (9) for a.
j1
(10)
a.
jm
= YV
i m m e d i a t e l y yields
._.
j1
l^L^^^
^ji^/mA
ZJ
im
I j 
alm
= a0m m .
m m
= n
,
a0mn
aQm
1
for all nonnegative integers m. From Eq. (11), therefore, it is evident that
(14)
for all nonnegative integers m.
alm
= m
ON SOLVING C n + 2 = C n + 1 + C n + n m
42
[Feb.
a.
Theorem:
(15)
ajm
= a..{7)
for all
3J\3 /
j < m
< 16 >
VD(3+D
= E a i( J + D ( 2 J + 1 _ i  1 J
i=0
(17)
1
a.m =
= aa. . ! "M
]
for
0 < m< j
33\3 /
Therefore, assume
(18)
a.
= a^( . J
33\3 /
(19)
(j+l)m
(j+l)(3+l)(j^l)
(20)
i./.,
1(3+1)
= a.J
ii\
J
/
for
i <
1970]
< 21 >
43
VIHWXX""""^1)
i=0
G0
(22)
(23)
Vtyj+l)(j^ l) ~ S a i i ( 2 J + 1 _ 1  1] V.(mTl)'.
' (j + 1+ i):
i=0
(24)
a,.^
(j+l)m
Z~/ im
i=0
\ j + 1  \J
(25)
!
a,.^
= Va..)^
(j+l)m
*s \\x
i=0
"
 1)1?/
rrrj.
i. i >\
1! (m  j  1)! (j + 1  i)
< 26 >
Vl)(J+l)(j
) ( j ++ l)
i)
== a
(j + l)m
'
K D
From this theorem and Eqs. (4) and (6), the particular solution of expression
(1) can now be written in the final form
44
ON SOLVING C n + 2 = C n + 1 + C n + n m
[Feb.
m
i=0
k1
p=0
p=0
C = A F _ + B F  P (n) ,
n
m n+1
m n
m
C0 = A.  P (0) .
u
m
m
(0) = a
m
mm
A
= CA + a
m
0
mm
by setting n = 1
1970]
(33)
45
]B = C  C n  a
+ P (1) .
m
1
0
mm
mN
p (l) = Y \ .
(34)
in
Ji 1m
i=0
(35)
B m = Cl  C 0 + J2. a.lm
i=0
The final expression for the general solution, Eq. (29), can be written
m1
(36)
C = (Cn + a
)F ^ + ( Ci  C0 + T ^ a.
F  P (n) .
u
n
0
mm n+1
*
/,.y 1m n
m
10
(n)
An interesting method for finding the particular solution of Eq, (1) without the necessity of solving a large system of linear equations will now be investigated.
the difference operator, A, the method is valid for polynomials but for the
forward shifting operator, E, the limitations a r e less clear.
This method
uses the two operators E and A which are defined in the following manner:
(37)
E[f(n)] = f(n + 1)
and
(38)
Consequently,
46
ON SOLVING C n + 2 = C n + 1 + C n + n m
(39)
[Feb.
E = A + 1 .
(40)
= nm .
(41)
(42)
= _
(E2  E  1)
(A,2
+A  D
00
(43)
V ^
1 _ v _ v2
r^7
2/i*
i=0
it is seen that
(44)
l l _
^F.^A
ttAA)
i=0
00
(45)
Pm(n) =
i=0
.J\l+^m)
1970]
(46)
A^n
311
) = 0
47
Pm(n)
 F
1 + 1
A W
i=0
(49)
Clearly,
(50)
1/1
(E  E  1)
E 2 J x _ _1 _ J_
But, once again, the right side of this expression can be written as
(51)
E
*
^
i=0
Consequently 5 the final expression for the particular solution can be written
as
4.R
n + 1
Fph
1970
(52)
P m (n)
=]Fi+lE"(i+2)(nm)
i=0
where
E ( n m ) = (n + l ) m
(53)
and
E" 1 ^ 1 1 1 ) = (n  l ) m
(54)
= n, then
k=0
ff
,f
A P r i m e r on the Fibonacci
p. 61.
2. V. E. Hoggatt, J r . , and S. L. Basin, "A Primer on the Fibonacci Sequence,
Part I , " Fibonacci Quarterly, Vol. 1, No. 1, Feb. , 1963, p. 65.
[Continued on page 60. ]
The two sequences U i and JV } which satisfy the recurrence relation f(n + 1) = f(n) + f(n  1), and the initial conditions: Ji = U2 = 1; Vj
U(m_
(2)
= 0 (mod m)
U m = m (mod m)
where
1 if m = 1 (mod 5)
1 if m = 2 (mod 5) J*
Clearly it would be nice if (1) and (2) were to hold only for prime m, but this
is not the case.
In [3], Emma Lehmer shows that there a r e infinitely many composite
numbers, m , for which (1) is satisfied.
pseudoprimes.
50
[Feb.
\]
1 (mod 4),
(n
2 V
(4)
V1
2  n
all equivalent:
(5)
U n = n (mod n) ;
n
(6)
U(
ii
v = 0 (mod m) ;
m
(7)
U1
= 0 (mod m) ;
7r(m
2
m
U
s
m m
(8)
(mod m) .
U/ _
v = 0 (mod m);
and m is composite.
(mod 15).
1970]
51
This result
2  1
w h e r e p i s a p r i m e = 3 (mod 4)). It i s
i s p r i m e only if n = 4 , o r n i s p r i m e .
However if U
/1ft,
TT
(10)
an  ^
=
n
(11)
(12)
4rp
,
where
.  1 1 + N/5
a = 0
= ^i
&
V n = an + f
Un = (  D n " V n ,
Vn = (DnV_n
[(nl)]
(13) (a)
*  \ 
(2k\
,) 5*
k=0
[(nl)]
(13) (b)
2n"1Vn = 2J
y.
k
(l)
\2k) 5 ;
52
(14)
Vn+l* = * ^ n ' V
[Feb.
1;
(15)
(16)
U2  U U ^ = (l) 11 " 1
n
n1 n+1
(17)
n =
n+1
n1
(18)
If to
L e m m a
= N  1,
U
a+b =
or
U
N + 1,
aVb
then N is prime
( 1)aU
"
ba
Vb  (^fy+""'
Proof.
a+b
b0a
0 a+b , a 0 b
 p
+a p  a p
a+b
f
^+b
_ (^)a
N/5
Lemma 2. (i)
(ii) U
(iii) U
a+b 
ba
^ba
z_L_
<V/5
( 1)aU
"
ba
mV
= U
(mod 5) ;
m m
= m (mod 5), if m = 1 (mod 4) ;
= m (mod 5), if m = 3 (mod 4) ;
(iv) U
=  om (mod 5), if m = 0 (mod 4) ;
m
u
(v) U
1970]
53
F r o m (13),
[(nlj]
(19)
2  \ =
2 k
\ l )
k=0
5 k
(  d 5)
and
[i(nl)l
(20)
2 ^ ^
^
k=0
(2k) ^
^ '
(m0d
5)
Multiplying (19) and (20), and dividing out 2 n " , we get (i). F r o m
4n
4n+l
Fermatfs theorem, 2
= 1 (mod 5), 2
= 2 (mod 5), e t c . , and the o t h e r
r e l a t i o n s follow s i n c e (2,5) = 1.
T h e o r e m 1.
L e t n be e i t h e r a p r i m e > 5 o r a s t r o n g p s e u d o  p r i m e .
then
(3)
Ux
= 0 (mod n)
iff
n = 1 (mod 4)
(4)
= 0 (mod n)
iff
n = 3 (mod 4)
2(ncn)
Proof.
In L e m m a 1, l e t
a = i(n 
),
b = i ( n + n ) ,
(21)
= U1
V
+ (if
2(n+c n )
3(Q6n)
2 ( n " n )
= n (mod n)
now
\J1
= U
= 1,
and
(1)
2 ( n " un )
54
[Feb.
Hence
(22)
U1
l(n
V1
_ n )
= 0 (mod n)
l(n+6n
iff
n = 1 (mod 4)
A l s o , from (1),
(23)
(nen)
Now suppose
from (22),
.l(n+Cn)
(n_en)
el
<
n = 1 (mod 4 ) , and the p In, while p e !
then
V*>
and from (23),
f^n*
which i s i m p o s s i b l e since by (14),
(Vv' Vn>)
= 1
Hence
U1
iff
n = 1 (mod 4) ,
2 (n "V
which proves (3).
If, on the other hand, n = 3 (mod 4); then (21) shows that pn implies
U
= 2 (mod p) .
V
l ( n _ n )
l(n+n)
Therefore
Aj
, n\ = 1 ;
U^ )
1970]
55
; and s i n c e
(n
I 2 "V
/U
,V
\<
2, n
J i
C o r o l l a r y 1. If p = 3 (mod 4 ) , then co
Proof.
i s even,
2 (P  ) .
C o r o l l a r y 2.
If p = 1 3 , 17 (mod.20) ? then t o p
i s odd 9
i m p l i e s to
^tPep)
There
2 py
co i s odd.
P
C o r o l l a r y 3.
Proof.
(Thoro [ 3 ] ) If P  U ( 2 n + 1 ) ?
P)Uo n + 
i m p l i e s w 2n + 1 which in t u r n i m p l i e s
p = 2,
or
p = 1 (mod 4) by C o r o l l a r y 1.
T h e o r e m 2.
L e t (n,30) = 1, and l e t m = U .
a l l equivalent:
(5)
(a)
(6)
(b)
(c)
Proof.
(m0d m ) ;
 m
=
m
(mod m)
(a)^^(b) .
F r o m L e m m a 2 5 we s e e that U
Therefore
n)
= 0 (mod m )
(m
(d)
(mod
U2
(8)
(m ) "
v
(7)
= e $ and r e p l a c i n g e
= m = i n (mod 5),
in (a) 9 we have
s i n c e n i s odd.
[Feb.
56
n U
 c
*=>U
(b)^Mc)
Since n i s odd, and U
= HI U
mem
U
n
= U
u e
J n m
mc
m
is odd (since 3  n )
*=*n m   ^ n
2
m
we have:
U,
2 ( m  m )
(c) =Md)
Using L e m m a 1, we have
(24)
m =
l,
+ (1)
= (1)
(mod m)
= m = 1 (mod 4)
Hence
(1)2
(d)
^(c)
l
I
( m  m )
0 (mod m)
5 ( m + m )
IP
HI
 U
me
U
m
m+
m
(1)
1 (mod m)
hence
(26)
mem
m+em
s 0 (mod m) .
19701
Now suppose p e j m 9
(D
and P^^m_e
then P j V ^ m +
57
}
by (25),
Also
 /f
 ) =^oj
m
m  c
=^p e JrU
^
m
m
A
i^J
which i s a contradiction s i n c e
, V
(
(m+e
l ( m + m
)<
Hence
e s
e
m =**p
l
4(m
)
2V
m
which m e a n s that
Q.E.D.
iTL
~(me )
2
m
T h e o r e m 30
L e t n be a p r i m e > 5 ,
or a strong pseudoprime,
then
for m = U 2 n J
(m
) =
(mod
m)
and m is composite e
Proofo
We rjote that U 0 = U V by
L e m m a 1, and i s t h e r e f o r e
2n
n n J
posite for n > 2,
Now, using (2) and (17):
U0
2n
s V = 6 (U ^
+U
) (mod n) ,
n n
nN n+
n
n
n
and using (1), and L e m m a 1:
E U V
n n
com
58
[Feb.
U Q = (\Jt ^ , \ = (U V^ + (  l ) n U , v \
2n
n l (n+n ) I
ny n 6^
_ ( n  n ) y
= e2V
= V,
s (mod n)
.
n
n
n
n
n  m  ; which, since n and m a r e odd 9 i m p l i e s :
Hence,
(27)
2 n  m  eQ  U
I
2 n
= mu
a s in T h e o r e m 3 , then m i s a s t r o n g p s e u d o 
F r o m T h e o r e m 3 , and L e m m a 1,
Now if m = e
1,
, , \
.
+ ,
T?(me ) ^(m+e )
2
m
2
m
(_1)
I(mem)
^
m
Um
= (ir
= 1 (mod m) .
m
On the o t h e r hand, if m = 
gives:
m
m
l
l
i(m2n ) fai+2n+e )
2
m
2
m
= U0 ^
2n+6
m
= U0
2n
m
Tr(m2n
( 1]
Zn
that
m o d m)
2n+
1970]
h e n c e U m = m (mod m) iff c
to n = 1 (mod 5),
T h e o r e m 5.
59
= 1 and m = l ( m o d 4 ) . T h i s c o r r e s p o n d s
and n = 1 (mod 3)
Q. E.D.
then
= V 2 , v  2 ,
2(nl)
2n
Sufficiency:
Let
V2(p_1} 
0 (mod N) ,
then by L e m m a l s
U
2P
P
= U / vV / v s 0 (mod N) = w_T 2
N
2(PD 2(PD
and since
(U2(p1)>
2(p1))
' <*N
= 2? :
l
 ( N  N )
and s i n c e
2
N =  1 . T h e r e f o r e ,
 1 E 2
N  V , _1)e
2
 1
Q.E.D.
2 (mod
5) ,
fi0
,
*eD'
lq7n
iy U
'
and Difference Equations, New York, Henry Holt and Co. , 1960, pp. 126157.
6. George Ledin, J r . , "On a Certain Kind of Fibonacci Sums," Fibonacci
Quarterly, Vol. 5, No. 1, Feb. , 1967, pp. 4558,
7. R. J. Weinshenk, "Convolutions and Difference Equations Associated with
the NReflections of Light in two Glass P l a t e s , " San Jose State College
Masters Thesis, June, 1965.
8. J. A. H. Hunter, Problem H48 with solution in Vol. 3, No. 4, p. 303,
Fibonacci Quarterly.
n
m
9. Brother U. Alfred, "Summation of . * k F, +
Finite
Difference
Approach," Fibonacci Quarterly, Vol. 5 (19672, pp. 9198.
0. David Zeitlin, "On Summation Formulas and Identities for Fibonacci Numbers , " ^bciiacci_Quaxte^, Vol. 5 (1967), pp. 143.
** * * *
(1.1)
_<**{?
= =n
a  p
= aa + /3 n
n
^
where
(1.2)
*2 = or + 1,
2 = + 1,
ap =  1
a 2n
which gives
n
tt3)
n
F
2n = E ( s ) s '
s=0 * '
and indeed
2n = E
(, ss /) L s
s=0
For example,
62
n
(1 4)
'
2n+k
[Feb.
2 (s)Fs+ks
s=0 X 7
2n+k
S
(s)Ls&
s=0 x
<">
s=0
it follows that
'
s=o
(1.7)
'
= L m m  <l)m
we get
*2mn+k
(1.8)
Z#
s=0
s=0
v L)
s m ms+k '
\ /
=
T
 V " /( 1^x((nnssJ)t (mm++Dl /)n/ nV\ T s T
ij
2mn+k " ZJI {~l)
s Vms+k
s=0
1970]
63
(1.9)
=!l2f
m
(_l) m
1>m
m
s
rm
ms+k
(1.10)
7n
yn^ / ^ ( n  s M m + l ^ n  s
^s
rmn+k
x J v~ ;
(rl)m r m
s=0
ms+k
With each of the above identities is associated a number of related identities. For example, we may rewrite
a
= F a + F r
r1
as either
r
a
Hence we obtain
 JP a = F *
r
r1
E (i,s(y
s=0
or
r
a
 F ^ = F a
r1
r
= F
r(ns)+s+k
r1
k '
(1.11)
JLX
J2 (D ( s ) F ? L r ( n  s ) + s + k
v
S=0
'
r1 Lk
64
[Feb.
and
W) sQ F : s F rs+k
= FnF
r n+k
s=0
(1.12)
rs+k
n+k
s=0
asm
F
rm
a = <l)smF,
,
,
sm
(r~s)m
(2.1)
Note that
jS2 + 1 = j3v5 .
(2.2)
Thus we get
s=0
so that
n
/ \
S /^ns\j ^ s + k
s=0
It follows that
/o
~
5 n/2 a
Ta+k
. i x n ^n+k
a  8
 (1) P
1970]
65
(n even)
(2.3)
2s+k
5(nl)/2
s=0
(n odd) ,
n+k
Similarly
Eft)
(2.4)
s=0
5n/2
2s+k
L
n+k
(n even)
5<n+1)/2 F n + k
(n odd)
'
2m
(2.5)
2m+l
x
L
9+1
2m+l
T h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g f o r m u l a s for
0 2m
= F Q
"
2m1
/=9.^A
2m
are
p\/S  L 0
2m
(2.6)
T
L
2ml
 W
'.>*
n
(2.8)
Z2 W 2m1
2ms+k
s=0
n
(2.9)
X ) (s) 2ml
2ms+k
s=0
2m
(n even)
n+k
2m
n+k
(5n/2Fn L ,
]
2m n+ic
(m+l)/2 n
F
(5
2m F n+k
(n odd)
(n even)
(n odd) ,
0
(2.10)
!>> ()
s=0
2m+1
2m(ns)+n+k
(n even)
(DD/2
2 5V
^n
2m
(n
odd)
>
66
(2.11)
n/2
2m
E ^  ' Q L ^ L ^ ^ ^
0
s=0
(n
r r
a + *)a + >*E(;WS(:)=
x). v CV x v c v
r=0
N/
2n
s=0
= y x v ( n i n Vrk=0
Ld
r=0
~i \rf^L  r /
E
r=0
n
/n\ r r ,
(a 4 x ) r
la x
w
r r
E Q * E ( ^
s \ 2k3s
3s<2k
k=0
<>
"S
s=G
r=0
2n
Comparing coefficients of x
)(
we get
'
'
3s2k
'
'
1970]
67
r=0
'
3s2k
'
'
and
r=0
2k3s+j
3s2k
E
*', 3sE^2n (.".)(*) 2n3s+j
r=0
F
and
3s^2n
respectively,,
We have similarly
r=0
s=0
k=0
T=Q
68
a*x2f
r
r=0
r=0
^ /
'
r /xr
(1  ax)
s =0
'
= EkkE w)t"s)(k;s)
k=0
Comparing coefficients of x
2s<k
'
we get
x /
'
2s^k
It follows that
k
r=0
k
r=0
2s<k
'
'
2sk
/X
^'
2s<n
'
2s^n
I \
1970]
69
For brevity, we
The formulas
k=o V /
k=o
\ /x
'
'
were also proposed as a problem (Vol. 5 (1967), p* 70, H106). They can be
proved rapidly by making use of known formulas for the Legendre polynomial.
We recall that [ l , 162, 166]
>M>)M
k=0
(4.5)
s0 () (r=s"iww
70
(4.6)
x ;
k=0
k=0 \ / >
k k,
(4.7)
k=o ^ /
k=o
> '
'
ir
u =
, we get
! kti
k i+k n
zQ * zQ(; )" 
k=0
k=0
'
k=0 > /
It follows that
(4.8)
(4.9)
Z ^ t k% f)
k=0
F o r j = 0,
k=0
k+j
x /
)Lj+kn
L U \ k
k=0
in (4.6), we get
t&^Utiy
k+j
a,p.
1970]
71
k+j
0 ' ^ (:)( : ^
so that
(4.10)
F
Z#tkl
2k+j
x 7
k=0
(4.11)
Z^tk)
k=0
X /
Z ^ lXk / IX
k=0
k JFnk+j '
2k+j " Z ^ ( k ) ( n k
k=0
% f
)LnJ
'
k=0
k=0
\ / \
z@\^i>"i;)(\ j
k=0
'
k=0
k=0
X /
k=0
k=0
X /
and
k=0
X f
2k+jn '
2k+jn
72
[Feb.
The identities (4.8), , (4.15) can be generalized further by employing, in place of (4.5), the following formulas for Jacobi polynomials
1, 255 :
nV^/nVn + ^
\ )h\v
+ 1)
k/xl\ k
(X + 1)
* v /
MIH^^r
where
(X + l ) n = (X + 1)(X + 2) (X + n),
(X + l)o = 1
 scxsM'ise^
1 , k
+ 1)
k=0
'
n x
E(^X>
j+kn'
iL
' k=0 \ /
11
' '
<> E( ,; X"K)(^jE^)
<
jtkn'
(n + X + M + D k
(A + D t
nk+j'
Ms^^^w
1970
73
> ze^(:^(^M^^'k=0
)k
k=0
j+2kn*
^ * w
Z(\+A)(:^2k+1  (>:%(i) ^ P w
k=0
'k=0
n
(n + A +fi + 1).
(4.24,
(4.25,
n=0
(*()' Ln+. .
k=0
,  ! ,  * ( ) (
*) L2.2k+. ,
k=0
and so on,
Some of the formulas in the earlier part of the paper are certainly not
new.
where they first occurred. In any event, it may be of interest to derive them
by the methods of the present paper.
To facilitate their
l(>'
2mn
i n
Y\ (1)
F .
m mi
V
if m is odd
F .
m mi
if m is even
i=l
where F
and L
are the n
Fibonacci and n
n=l
F~F~~T
n n+k
2k
(A)
2k+2 2k+2 = k
1 " E
n=l
74
k  [  ( n  l)]
F F
9
n
n+2
1970
75
2kl k  [
L J
F o l r 1 S O I _ , = Si  k + V
^
' 2 k + l 2k+l
*
JL F F l 0
n=0
n n+2
(B)
w h e r e aj
Alberta,
If
(Vi;')
a..
for i 5
j = l,2,",n,
show that d e t { a . .  = 1.
SOLUTIONS
GENERALIZE
A of
0 < k<^ N.
Solution
by the Proposer.
Let
N = r (mod k)
0 <: r < k  1.
E a c h s u b s e t A of S can be m a d e to c o r r e s p o n d to a b i n a r y sequence
{ai9a2,ad9B
0 if i (J A.
i E A and
F o r a given s u b s e t A and i t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g b i n a r y
(ai$ aZ9 , o ^ ) ,
define k b i n a r y s e q u e n c e s a s follows;
a. =
sequence
76
= (av
= (<V < W
A
r
r+1 "
(a
1+k.1+2k
a
[Feb,
"'CW
r+k
r+2k
'ar+ik)
= (Vff2k'a3k'""'flftk)
Then the subset A corresponding to (c^, a2, , o>^) satisfies the given constraint if and only if each A
sequences A  ,   , A
k  r sequences A
2.
Since each of
 , ,A,
2,
prove that 1 + x + x + + x ~
divides F + 
= F
p = 2 (mod 5).
Solution by L. Carlitz, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.
Let c> (x) denote the cyclotomic polynomial:
d>n(x) = n (xr 
if(s)
rs=n
where
JJL(S)
<i> (x) if and only if n = 2 (mod 5), where n is an arbitrary positive integer
1970]
(not n e c e s s a r i l y p r i m e ) .
for a l l n.
77
F
 (model) (x))
In p a r t i c u l a r , we find that
Fn+1
= 1
(mod <Dn(x) )
F ^ = F _,, + x n F
n+2
n+1
n
= F 2 = 1,
(n > 1) ,
*
then
(1)
n+1
Xr
{ 1] X
Le(k
where
e(k)
j"(n + 5k)l,
r = "4(n + 2)1
and
/i
nWl
iLS~JA Tnl
n1,
,_
)   (i  x
(1  x ) ( l  x 2 ) . . .
(1 
nk+lx
xK)
( 0
^k<n)
(otherwise)
r
nl
I,
i s a polynomial in x with positive i n t e g r a l coefficients: a l s o it i s evident
from the definition that for \<L k ^ n ,
P i s divisible by the cyclotomic
polynomial <t> (x).
Thus (1) i m p l i e s
78
[Feb.
e(r)
e(r)
10 m
2 m
10 m
lOm + 1
2 m
10 m
10 m + 2
2 m
10m + l
10m + 3
2 m + 1
10 m + 4
1
10m + 4
2 m + 1
10 m + 4
1
10 m + 5
2m+l
10m + 5
10m + 6
2 HI + 1
10m + 5
10m + 7
2 HI + 1
10 m + 6
10m + 8
2m + 2
10 m + 9
10m + 9
2 m +2
10 m + 9
1
1
Therefore, making use of (2), we get the following values for the residue of
F n + 1 (mod <t>n(x) ):
residue of F ,  (mod <i> (x) )
n+i
m(10ml)
10 m
lOm + 1
, m(10m+l)
9m ^ m
+ x
' = x
+ x
m(10m+l)
x
= 1
1 10 m + 2
1 10m + 3
10 m + 6
(2m+l)(5m+2)
5m+2
(2m+l)(5m+3) _
X
(2m+l)(5m+3) _
X
zz
10 m + 8
10 m + 9
As a check, we compute F
4m+2
~X
j 10 m + 7
residues,
(2m+l) (5m+2) _
10m + 4
1 10 m + 5
6m+3
X
5m+3
""X
(m+l)(10m+9) _ X
,
1970]
n
^i
n+1
1 +x
1 + X+ X
1 + X + X2 + X3 + X4
2
1 = x2
5
X 2  X3
1 + x + x + x + 2x + x + x
1 + x + x 2 + x 3 + 2x 4 + 2x 5 + 2x 6 + x 7 + x 8 + x 9
7
8
1 = X 3
1 + x + x 2 + x 3 + 2x 4 + 2x 5 + 3x 6 + 2x 7 + 2x 8 + 2x 9 + 2x 10 + x 1 1 + x 1 2
2
79
residue
(mod <I>n)
1 + x + x + x + 2x + 2x + 3x + 3x + 3x + 3x + 3x
10
+ Sx 11 + 3x 12 + 2x 13 + x 1 4 + x 1 5 + x 1 6
1 + x + x 2 + x 3 + 2x 4 + 2x 5 + 3x 6 + 3x 7 + 4x 8 + 4x 9 + 4x 10 + 4X11
+ 5x 12 + 4x 14 + 3x 15 + 3x 16 + 2x 1 7 + 2x 18 + x 1 9 + x 2 0
2.
n+1<) =  * W e )  2
+ e k F
" I k< )  2
<n = 2k)
aI1
oo
2k k 2
x
(3)
n=0
where
(a) k
Since
= (1
a)(l  ax) (1  ax ) .
[Feb.
80
fc[ !V
'k
r=0
we get
k2
k
Fn+1 = 1 ;
2k<n
If we take a = x in (3), we get
1 +
k2
00
] L F n x = L  ^ )  = =n n( i  x
._..
fer
n=l
k=0
'k
1
.....
) a x
1
n=0
by the first RogerRamanujan identity (see, for example, Hardy and Wright,
Introduction to the Theory of Numbers, Oxford, 1954, p. 290).
Incidentally, if
Gi = G2 = 1,
G n + 1 = Gn + x n Gn_1
ther 1 we have
00
(4)
v*
2
a 2k x k +k
n=0
and
Gn+1 =
11+1
2 r . .  i ^
.[V*
2k<n
(n > 1) ,
1970]
1+G x
f>
xk2+k
5n+2  1 , ,
} (1 x
= ^yr V
k=0
'k
"
81
5n+3 " 1
n=0
= 0 (mod m ) .
let
a = a(m)
Virginia.
b e the l e a s t positive i n t e g e r
is
00
r
k=l
where
[]
F
F
m m1
mr+1
F  F 0 F
12
r
(r > 0)
a r e integers.
Solution
by the Proposer.
Then the n u m b e r of F
i s [ n / a ( p ) ] , e s t a b l i s h i n g the f i r s t p a r t
Math.
(m) = F  F F .
x u
m
Then
(r).'(m  r ) !
82
Feb. 1970
It suffices to show that for any prime p , the highest power of p dividing the
numerator is not less than that dividing the denominator.
this is equivalent to
<*>
r^vi * fri + r ^ l
k=l L a(VK) J
k = l L a(pK) J
k=l L a(p K ) J
JUST OUT
by Joseph and Frances Gies
A new bookLeonardo of Pisa and the new mathematics
of the Middle Agesconcerning our Fibonacci Thomas Y.
Growell Company, New York, 1970, pp, 12? *395
On  1),
n = 1,2,
Each number p can also be derived by summing the first n terms of the
arithmetic progression
1, 4, 7, 10, 13, , 3m  2 .
Geometrically, considering regular pentagons nomothetic with respect to one
of the vertices and containing 2, 3, 4, , n points at equal distances along
each side, the sum of all points for a given n yields p . Pictorially we have
the following: [1, p. 10]
84
[Feb.
A table of p f s will f i r s t be c o n s t r u c t e d .
Pn
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
_
j 5" ~TF"
22"
35~
330
176
287
145
210
247
925
852
590
651
715
782
1,335
1,426
1,717 1,820
1,520 1,617
2,380 2,501 2,625 2,752
2,882 3,015
3,725
3,876 4,030 4,187 4,347 4,510
5,370 5,551 5,735 5,922 6,112 6,305
7,315
7,526
7,740
7,957
8,177 8,400
9,560
9,801 10,045 10,292 10,542 10,795
12,105 12,376 12,650 12,927 1 3 , 2 0 7 . 13,490
70" ~
92"
ITT
532
376
425
477
1,001 1,080 1,162 1,247
1,926 2,035 3,147 2,262
3,115 3,290 3,432 3,577
4,676 4,845 5,017 5,192
6,501 6,700 6,902 7,107
8,626 8,855 9,087 9,322
11,051 11,310 11,572 11,837
13,776 14,065 14,357 14,652
~wr
for
n = 2, 3 , ,
' '
P8 = P4
P7
P24 == P?
P23>
P49
PiO + P48>
and
P83 = Pl3
P82
3n + 1, we find that
?3nHhl
^ 2 L 1 L [3(n
1)  1 ] = I ( 2 7 n 2
15n
Setting
p
 pF
^m
m  11
3 m  2 = ~
(27n2 + 15n + 2)
2N
we have
m = ~ (9n2 + 5n + 2 ) ,
an i n t e g e r .
The f i r s t t h e o r e m follows.
1970]
85
F o r any i n t e g e r n > 1,
i(9n 2 +5nf2)
<3n+1)
#(9n+5)
F o r any positive i n t e g e r n ,
1 [9(3n) 2 +5(3n)+2]
[3(3n)+l]
3n j  9 ( 3 n ) + 5 ]
Pi
~P
i(6561n 4 +2430n 3 +4B5n 2 +5Gn+8)
~(6561n 3 +2430n 2 +495n+50)
Proof.
F i r s t it i s n e c e s s a r y to e x p r e s s
Pi
i(81n 2 +15n+2)
in t e r m s of n.
i ( 8 1 n 2 + 15n + 2) ( r i
,
=
i
3 A(81n 2 + 15n + 2) Pl
J
i(81n 2 +15n+2)
*
M~ ( 1 9 , 6 8 3 n 4 + 7290n 3 + 1485n 2 + 150n + 8)
Equating p g  pQ_
to
Ps
^(81n 2 +15n+2)
yields
s = i (6561n 4 + 2430n 3 + 495n 2 + 50n + 8)
o
86
[Feb.
F o r n = 1 and 2 we h a v e s for e x a m p l e ,
P49
PiO
P48
or
3577 = 145 + 3432 = 2,134,277  2,130,700
and
Pi78 
Pi9
or
47,437 = 532 + 46,905 = 375,068,547  375,021,110 .
A r a t h e r c u r i o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between n and p
; n a m e l y , that
s.
*sn
= (3 sn  1) =
2
3(sn)2
sn
0 = 3s 2 n 2  sn  2p
^sn
+s ^ (  s ) 2  T ( 3 s 2 ) (  2 p s n )
1 ^ 1 + 24p"
sn
_
*
*sn
6s
2 3s 2
1970]
87
and
P4 P40*
P392 = P? P47
2.
W. S i e r p i n s k i , "Un t h e o r e m e s u r l e s n o m b r e s t r i a n g u l a i r e s , f f
Elemente
CORRECTIONS
P l e a s e m a k e the following changes in " A s s o c i a t e d Additive D e c i m a l Digital
B r a c e l e t s , " a p p e a r i n g in the Fibonacci Q u a r t e r l y in O c t o b e r , 1969:
On page 288, line 2 5 , change " t e r m s " to "forms* "
On page 289, line 2 , change " 8 " to r e a d " B . "
On page 290, line 1 1 , change " 7 8 4 2 " to "6842. "
On page 290, line 1 3 , change "and" to r e a d "And, "
On page 294, line 2 0 , change "19672" to r e a d "1967). "
On page 294, line 2 6 , change "1969" to r e a d "1959. "
P l e a s e change the f o r m u l a s given in "Diagonal Sums of G e n e r a l i z e d
P a s c a l T r i a n g l e s , " page 3 5 3 , Volume 7, No. 5 , D e c e m b e r , 1969, l i n e s 11 and
1 2 , to r e a d
(1)
t < x. By substitution,
4x2  4tx  4t2 4 = 0
solving for 2x,
2x = t + %/5t2 4
so that
5t 2 4 = s 2
F e b , 1970
L E T T E R S TO THE EDITOR
2x = u
and s i n c e v
> u
89
n > 1
2x = u
+ v
= 2u ,n+1
so that x i s a Fibonacci n u m b e r if t i s ,
QED,
= L
2n
3L
n("
+1
4L 2 + 2 (  l ) n + 1 (  l ) n
L4
3n
= hA
+
L5
n
L6
n
L7
n
L8
= LK
5n
= ha
6n
= ^
7n
= L0
5L 3
n
6L 4
n
7L 5
n
8L 6
= Ln
9L* + 2 7 L 5 (  l ) n + 1 + 30L 3 + 9L (  l ) n + 1
11
9
n
8n
9n
+
+
+
L10 = L 1 A +
n
lOn
+ 5L (  l ) n + 1 (  l ) n
n
+ 9L 2 (  l ) n + + 2 (  l ) n
n
n
+ 14L3(D
+ 7L
(l)n
nv
n
+ 2 0 L 4 (  l ) n + 1 + 16L 2 + 2 (  l ) n X (~l) n
n
n+1
n+1
n+1
n+1L
H a r l a n L. Umansky
E m e r s o n High School
Union City 9 New J e r s e y
* * *
(l)n
n
+ 2 (l)n
 211"*1 + a
2 n ~ 2 + + a, 2 1 + au0 2 ,
n1
n2
*
'
64
1000000000000000000010000000000010001,
(k)
l
4. Any cell has a numerical value greater than the sum of all l e s s e r
cells.
90
Feb.
1970
91
5. With the usual placement of the checkerboard having the lower left
corner colored red, all red cells are labeled with even numbers including 0
and all black cells are labeled with odd numbers.
6. The "parity" of a number N is defined as the absolute value of the
difference between the number of pawns on black cells and the number of pawns
on red cells in its checkerboard representation.
pawns the parity is always even, while an odd number of pawns has an odd
parity.
7. Any cell n lies rookwise adjacent to at most four cells, with no cell
greater than (k)2, the size of the board,, These cells a r e :
(1) If n is a square, the adjacent cells are n + 1, n  1 , n + W n
+ 3, and n + 4*/n + 5, These values of n lie at the corners of the spiral
which fall along the diagonal going upward to the left and passing through
cells 0 and 1. If n  1 is negative (for the 0 cell only), replace
n1
by 7.
(2) For cells lying along the diagonal upward to the right, that i s , if
n is of the form a (a + 1), then the adjacent cells are n + 1, n  1 ,
n + 4[\Zn] + 5, and n + 4 [ V n ] + 7, where the brackets [ ] indicate
n  1 is negative (for the 0 cell only), replace n  1 by 3.
(3) For all other cells, the adjacent cells are n + 1,
n1,
n+
If n = [Vn] . (Wn +
square (k) or square plus one extra row (k) (k + 1) for any k.
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY p PAWNS
One can easily (in theory, anyhow) make a list N(p) of all numbers which
can be expressed by exactly p pawns.
begins with N(5) .
= 2  1 = 31, and continues 47, 55, 59, 61, 62, 79, 87,
91, 94, 103, 107, 109, 110, 115, 117, 118, 121, .
92
[Feb.
G)
^>J
p!(z  p)!
7,624,512 ,
(?) 
number using five pawns are cells 15, 14, 13, 12, and 11, corresponding to
the number
= 63, 448.
THE FIBONACCI SEQUENCE
Some interesting patterns on the checkerboard a r e obtained by plotting
the Fibonacci sequence: F t = 1,
F 2 = 1,
F 3 = 2 , * 8 ' '^k+o
F, + F,  .
(At each step simply add together the binary representations of the last two
numbers. FA = F 2 , F 3 , F 4 , F 7 , F i 0 , F 1 3 , F i 6 , and F 2 2 , alone of ail Fibonacci numbers less than FlS0 (= 1548008755920), possess the property that each
pawn lies rookwise adjacent to at least one other pawn.
the property defining the polyominoes.
Specifically,
This happens to be
F 1 0 (= 55) is the U
(Li = 1, L 2 = 2, L.
= L.+L.
)
similarly
produces several polyominoes at the beginning of the run, notably the pentominoes P (= 47) and W (= 199).
(See V. E.
1970]
93
Fig. 1
(The numbers in the center of the squares represent blue. The numbers in the
corners represent red. The red cells of the checkerboard a r e the screened ones.)
POLYOMINOES
Finally we arrive at the focal point of this paper.
A particular
94
[Feb.
I A = (P H
VV
p! (p2  p)I
than 1 plus
L  2)2 + 1J
or P(5) 1 + 252. Actually, only tt pieces require such a large board; all
the rest can be fitted onto a (p  3) x (p  3) board plus one cell. For p = 5,
then, P(5) 1 + tt + 1. The argument can be generalized for any p.
A candidate for tj has at least one pawn which lies in the strip (p  2)2
= (p  3)2; that i s , the decimal representation of a tA polyomino lies in the
(p2)2+l
(p3) 2 +l
F
range 2
down to 2 F
. For pentominoes this range is 1024 to 32.
Going back to the list N(5) of numbers having five pawns in their plots,
we can see that for connected cells the parity of N(5) is no more than (p + 2)/4,
that i s , either 3 or 1 for p = 5. This reduces the number of candidates for
polyominoes; specifically, a parity of 5 means that all pawns lie on cells of the
same color. A 4x4 board with one additional cell has 9 red cells and 8 black
cells, producing
8 0
126 + 56 = 182
numbers of parity 5. A 3x3 board with one extra cell has 5 red cells and 5
black sells, together yielding two numbers of parity 5.
Now at last we start counting polyominoes. We countone straight pomino
first.
down to 2 P (1024
to 32 for the pentominoes), and finally count one for the p~omino formed by the
first p cells of the spiral. Certain restrictions in the range can often be developed. Within the range, an acceptable number must have exactly p one f s
1970]
95
in its binary representation, and must have a parity of no more than (p + 2)/4.
Then we look at the p exponents n i 5 n 2 s 8 s *% associated with 1 coefficients
(in other words, the labels on the cells occupied by pawns). We calculate the
rookwise adjacent cells associated with nt (from paragraph 7) and see if at
least one of these is included in the set of p exponents, say n3.
If so, we
calculate the neighbors of n3 and see if at least one of these is included in the
set of exponents. If any one of the exponents cannot be reached by a series of
steps from n 1? the number being tested does not represent a polyomino.
Finally having excluded all numbers which do not correspond to polyominoes, we are of necessity left with the list of numbers which do. We do not
yet, however, have P(p), the total number of pominoes, for we have not yet
excluded rotations, reflections, and translations.
Methods of algebraically
omino, is 2 "
"
Binary
Decimal
Parity
126976
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
992
963
803
171
124
115
109
107
103
55
31
serves an nETf for effort, with a "well done!" for replotting it into its "best"
configuration and decimal representation.
Answer: Parity 1, 13 pawns forming a W, 991177*
k k k
Frequently one encounters problems such as the following: Find the next
three terms in the following sequences:
1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11,
3, 4, 7, 11, 18, 29,
3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 96,
As has been pointed out many times, the solution to such problems is highly
indeterminate. It is "obvious" that the general term of the first sequence is
T
= 2n
But
T
where V
arises.
How can the problem be made more specific? Possibly, one might say:
Find the expression for the n
mum order. Whether this is sufficient to handle all instances of this type is an
open question, but it would seem to take care of the present cases.
The solutions in the three instances listed above are:
T
.
n1
= T + T n
n1
n+1
= 2T
T
n+1
n
n+1
= 2T
96
 T
Feb. 1970
97
If a sequence has terms which were derived from a polynomial expression in n9 this expression can be found by the method of differences. As was
pointed out in the first lesson, if the terms derive from a polynomial of degree
k, the k
difference is zero. A
(1)
Af(0
jf ( 1 )
f(o)
k
th
(k)
where A f(0) is the k
difference taken at the zero value and n
is the
factorial n(n  l)(n  2) (n  k + 1) of k terms.
Example. Determine the polynomial of lowest degree which fits the following set of values.
f(n)
1
2
11
48
135
290
5
6
531
1343
1950
876
Af(n)
A2f(n)
5
37
87
50
68
155
86
241
345
467
AH
32
104
122
140
18
18
18
18
18
18
607
98
[Feb e
Suppose that we have a sequence whose terms are the sum of the terms
of two sequences: (1) A sequence whose values derive from a polynomial: (2) A
sequence whose terms form a geometric progression* Is it possible to determine the components of this sequence ?
Imagine that the terms of the sequence have been separated into their
two component parts. Then on taking differences, the effect of the polynomial
will eventually become nil. How does a geometric progression function under
differencing?
ar
2
ar
ar3
a(r  1)
a(r  I)2
ar(r  1)
ar(r  I)2
ar2(r  1)
ar2(r  I)2
ar (r  1)
ar4
ar3(r  l)2
a(r  l) 3
a r ( r  I) 3
ar 2 (r  I) 3
Clearly, differencing a geometric progression produces a geometric progression with the same ratio. By examining the form of the leading term, one can
readily deduce the value of a, the initial term of the geometric progression
as well.
Example.
POLYNOMIAL AND GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION COMBINED
n
1
2
3
4
4
16
70
224
5
6
1624
4346
12040
616
34444
12
54
42
154
100
392
238
1008
2722
616
1714
7644
4972
22404
14710
58
138
378
1098
3258
9738
80
240
720
2160
6480
In the last column, one has a geometric progression with ratio 3, but not in the
previous column. Hence the polynomial that was combined with the geometric
1970]
99
a = 5 .
Eliminating the effect of the geometric progression from the leading terms
gives:
58  23 x 5 = 18
42  22 x 5 = 22
12  2 x 5 = 2
4  5 = 1
To apply Newton1 s Formula, we have to go back to the zero elements by
extrapolation.
A3f(0) = 18,
A2f(0) = 22  18 = 4, A f(0) = 2  4 = 2
f(0) = 1  (2) = 1 .
Hence
f(n) = i n(n  l)(n  2) +  j . n(n  1)  2n + 1
f(n) = 3n3  7n2 + 2n + 1
Hence the term of the sequence has the form:
T
= 3n3  7n2 + 2n + 1 + 5 x 3 n _ 1 .
The recursion relation for this term can be readily found by the methods of the
previous lesson.
POLYNOMIAL AND FIBONACCI SEQUENCE
If we know that the terms of a sequence are formed by combining the
elements of a polynomial sequence and a Fibonacci sequence, we have a situation similar to the previous case. For whereas the polynomial element vanishes
100
[Feb.
AT
n
Ti
T2
n
To
Ti
T3
T2
T4
T5
6
7
T6
T7
T8
A2T
A3T
T_t
T3
T4
T5
T2
To
T_i
T2
To
T3
Ti
T4
T6
T2
Example.
n
1
2
3
T
n2
8
35
27
4
5
106
238
71
132
453
215
7
8
772
1220
319
448
1825
605
21
44
23
61
17
83
22
21
104
129
157
25
28
6
5
1
4
3
The last column has a Fibonacci property, but the previous column does not.
Hence the polynomial must have been of degree three.
terms of the Fibonacci sequence as being 3, the zero term as 4, the term with
 1 subscript as  1 , etc* The effect of these terms can be eliminated from the
leading edge of the table to give: 23  5 = 18; 21  (1) = 2 2 ; 6  4 = 2; 2 3 =  1 . Calculating the zero differences as before, the final form of the term
to be found is:
T
= 3n3  7n2 + 2n + 1 + V
1970]
101
where
Vi1 = 3,
V2 = 7,
^'
and
1
n+1
= V
+ V
n
n1
PROBLEMS
1. Determine the polynomial for which f(l) = 4; f(2) = 22; f(3)
100; f(4) = 200; f(5) = 532; f(6) = 946; f(7) = 1532; f(8) = 2320.
2. The following sequence of values correspond to terms T 1? T 2J etc.
of a sequence which is the sum of a polynomial and a Fibonacci sequence: 0,
4, 12, 29, 53, 87, 132, 192, 272, 381, Determine the polynomial and the Fibonacci sequence components*
3. The values: 13, 72, 227, 526, 1023, 1784, 2899,4506,6839 include
a polynomial component and a geometric progression component
Determine
CORRECTION
xV
an integer p E Q*"
and
(m,n) of two p o s i 
n0
and b
b
Since (2 , 2 ) i s obtained by i n s p e c t i o n , we a r e m a i n l y c o n c e r n e d with finding (M,N). A l t e r n a t i v e l y , we a s s u m e m and n a r e odd.
Suppose m and n odd with n < m . Then
a
(1)
m = qjn + R l s
0 Rj < n ,
and
(2)
0 ^ Rj < n ,
 n ^ Rt  n < 0 .
The l a s t non
(m,n).
As an e x a m p l e , we find
(28567, 3829).
The divisions a r e
11 35 + 8 7
35 = 5 7
Hence (28567, 3829) = 7 F o u r divisions a r e r e q u i r e d . One n o t e s that Euclid 1 s
method r e q u i r e s 6 divisions and the l e a s t absolute value a l g o r i t h m r e q u i r e s 5
divisions in finding this g, c. d9
102
^3
1 =
5 = 1.3+21
13 = 1 7 + 2. 3
29 = 1 . 15 + 2 7 15 = 3 * 7  2 * 3
61 = 1 31 + 2 1531 = 3 15  2 7
11
3 = 3 1
3 = 3.1
7 = 3321
3 = 3. 1
7 = 3321
2 n + 1  3 = 1 (2 n  1) + 2  ( 2 n _ 1  1),
tabulated:
No8 of digits in a
i)(a,b)
<
10
r4
10
14
17
20
24
27
30
34
Lame [1] has shown that in applying Euclid's algorithm to two positive
integers a and b, the number of divisions required is not greater than five
times the number of digits in the smaller of a and b.
sidered in this note.) In the proof given byUspensky and Heaslet [2] an upper
limit for the number n 1 of divisions required is shown to be p/logj^ + 1
where p is the number of digits in the smaller of a and b and
f = (1 + v)/2 .
We have f = 1.61803* so that log 10 ^ 0.208978 and l/log 1 0 ^ 4.7852.
Hence the number N of divisions required is
N = n + 1 < p(4.7852) + 1 .
Hence
N <r 5p 0.21.48p + 1
and so
N ^ 5p + 1 + [0.2148p]
One could use the simpler but less accurate N 5p  [p/5]. Using this, the
improvement over Lame's statement would be 1 for 5 p 9, 2 for 10 p
^ 14, etc.
REFERENCES
1. G. Lame, "Note sur la limite du nombre des divisions dans la recherche
du plus grand commun diviseur entre deux nombres entiers, ? ? C. R. Acad.
Sci. , P a r i s , 19, 1844, pp. 867870.
2. Uspensky and Heaslet, Elementary Number Theory, McGrawHill, New
York, 1939, Ch. III.
104
Solutions should be
= Y
*2n+2
.A;
F
~iF
+ 2n
*2il
1=1
and
1=1
Generalize.
[Feb,
106
Initial P o i n t
(k,0)
T e r m i n a l Point
(k,D
n
(k,0)
(k + 1,0)
in
IV
(k,l)
(k,l)
(k+1,1)
(k + 1,0)
1
o
'
n
n1
n2
e
for n > 1. Show that GQ, G , G 2 f G~ * " is the sequence of upper left
principal minors of the infinite matrix
1
r
m2
m2
(~Dm
(D m
m2
m
G
2 + G m
mm
( l )
np
= F F N(mod p)
n p
^
and
L np = Ln L p = Ln N(mod ^'
p)
1970]
107
SOLUTIONS
FIBONACCI PYTHAGOREAN T R I P L E S
B160 Proposed by Robert H. Anglin, Dan River Mills, Danville,
Show t h a t if x = F n F n + 3 ,
y = 2Fn+1Fn+2,
X2 + y 2 = z 2
Virginia.
and z = F ^ ,
then
Then
+3F
= x,
2uv = y,
u2 + v 2 = z ,
and h e n c e x 2 + y 2 = z 2 ,
Also solved by Herta T. Freitag, Bruce W. King, Douglas Lind, John W. Milsom, A. G.
Shannon (Boroko, T. P. N. GJ, Gregory Wulcyzn, and the Proposer.
P E L L NUMBER IDENTITIES
B161 Proposed by John Ivie, Student,
P 0 = 0S P t = 1 9
[<kl)/2]
tD/2J,/
a)
pk =
r=0
Ur
+ l)/ 2
\
2k = i i i ; j 2 r p r
W)
Solution
Let
a = 1 + \/2,
b = 1  ViT
California.
England.
108
[Feb,
B = 1/2V?
Hence
/2
PK = _L (ak  bk) = L= E ("P
J
2VT
2V5 j=0 V A
Cioci)]
 <DJ2j/2l
I
[!(kD]
2r
,= J_
Po,,=
 ^ ( (a
a ^  b 2 k ) =  ^ ( f e a + l ) k  (2b + l ) b )
2k
2V2
'
2V2~
UH'bf)  a*
r
4/so so/ve<i fry i/erfa T. Freitag, Bruce W. King, Gregory Wulcyzn, Michael Yoder,
and the Proposer.
A REPRESENTATION THEOREM
B162 Proposed by V. E. Hoggatt, Jr., San Jose State College, San Jose, California.
Let r be a fixed positive integer and let the sequence uj, u2,* * satisfy
= u ,+u 0 + + u
for n > r and have initial conditions u. = 2J~
n
n1
n2
nr
3
for j = 1,2, , r . Show that every representation of U as a sum of distinct
u.1 must be of the form u n itself or contain explicitly the terms u n*x, u n&
9,
u
 and some representation of u
1970]
109
u. < u l 0 .
l
n+2
i=l
For n = l , 2 , ' " , r this is obvious; and if
n
J2 u. < u n + 2 *
where
n < r ,
i=l
n+1
1=1
i < \+2
V l ^ Vf3'
Now let
k<n
(E
nr1
n1
\\Z
k=l
/nr1
1 j ^ . k
k=nr
\)Vr
+l
/
\
nr+11
110
which i s a contradiction.
u
[Feb.
Thus we m u s t have
=u
++ u
, + S ,
n1
nr+1
w h e r e S i s s o m e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of u _ .
See " G e n e r a l i z e d Fibonacci N u m b e r s and the Polygonal
Numbers,"
Clearly
(1 + V 5 ) n = a
with a
Solution
and b
integers.
New Mexico.
Show that 2
+ b V5
n
i s a d i v i s o r of a
and of b .
Minnesota.
Let
a = (1 + V ) / 2
Elimination of ^
from L
and
]8 = (1  V ) / 2
= an + fi1 and V 5 F
2c/ 1 = L
+ V5>
= an  /311 gives
.
Thus,
(1 + V 5 ) n
where a
= 2 n ~ L n and b
= 2n~"1L
+ V5"(2 n "" 1 F
),
= 2n"~ F .
Also solved by Juliette Davenport, Herta T. Freitag, John E. Homer, Jr., John Ivie,
Bruce W. King, Douglas Lind, Peter A. Lindstrom, A. G. Shannon (Boroko, T. P. N GJ,
Michael Yoder, and the proposer.
1970]
111
Toronto,
Canada.
G , + G ,
n+1
n
for
n > 1.
it i s t r u e for all
square
and a i s supposed to
z"
112
for
Feb. 1970
k>1.
b ( [ 2 n + 1 + (l) n /3) = F n + 1 .
(b)
bQi^+iifysi
= Ln .
+ b (2 n + 2)/3]
= F n + b [(2 n _ 1 + l ) / 3 ]
= F +F  = F ^ .
n
n  1 n+1
Similarly, if n is odd,
b [ ( 2 n + 1  1/3] = F
n+1 '
(b) F o r n = 1,2 the theorem is true; and by exactly the same argument
as in (a), it follows by induction for all positive integers n.
Also solved by Herta T. Freitag and the Proposer.
* * *
1. .
2.
3.
4n + 3 + 3(l)n
4.
5.
SUSTAINING MEMBERS
*H. L . A l d e r
V. V. A l d e r m a n
G. L . A l e x a n d e r son
R H. Anglin
*Joseph Arkin
L a r r y Badii
Col. R. S. B e a r d
Leon B e r n s t e i n
* M a r j o r i e Bicknell
John W. Biggs
F r a n k Boehm
J . L. Bohnert
M, Bo B o i s e n , Jr
L . H. B r a c k e n b e r r y
* T e r r y Brennan
C. A. B r i d g e r
Leonard Bristow
Maxey Brooke
* B r o . A. B r o u s s e a u
*J. L . B r o w n , J r .
C. R. Burton
*Paul F . Byrd
N. S. C a m e r o n
L. Carlitz
L . C. C a r p e n t e r
P . V. C h a r l a n d
P. J. Cocussa
D. Bo C o o p e r
J . R. C r e n s h a w
D. E . Daykin
J . W. D e C e l i s
F . DeKoven
J. E. Desmond
A. W. Dickinson
No A. D r a i m
D. C. Duncan
M. H. E a s t m a n
C. F . E l l i s
H. S. E l l s w o r t h
Merritt Elmore
^Charter Members
R0 S. E r l e i n
H. W. E v e s
R. A F a i r b a i r n
A. Jo F a u l c o n b r i d g e
*H. Ho F e r n s
D C. F i e l d e r
E. T. Frankel
H. M. Gehman
G. R. Glabe
E . L . Godfrey
Ruth Goodman
*H. W. Gould
Nicholas G r a n t
G. B. G r e e n e
Bo H. Gundlach
*J. H. HaLton
W. R. H a r r i s , J r .
V. C. H a r r i s
L. B. Hedge
Cletus Hemsteger
*A. P . Hillman
B r u c e H. H o e l t e r
*V. E . Hoggatt, J r .
*A. F . H o r a d a m
D. F . Howells
J . A. H. Hunter
*Dov J a r d e n
*S. K. J e r b i c
J . H. J o r d a n
D. A. K l a r n e r
Kenneth K l o s s
D. E . Knuth
Eugene K o h l b e c k e r
Sidney K r a v i t z
Georg e L e d i n , J r .
Hal L e o n a r d
Eugene Levine
J. B. Lewis
*D. A. Lind
*C. T. Long
A. F . Lopez
F . W Ludecke
J . So Madachy
*J. A. Maxwell
* S i s t e r M. D e S a l e s McNabb
John M e l l i s h , J r .
C. T. M e r r i m a n
M r s . L u c i l e Morton
Mel M o s t
Stephen Nytch
R o g e r O f Connell
P . B. Onderdonk
F. J. Ossiander
L . A. P a p e
R. J . P e g i s
Mo M. Risueno
*D 0 W. Robinson
* A z r i e l Rosenfeld
To J . R o s s
F . G. Rothwell
I. D. RuggLes
H J . Schafer
J . A. S c h u m a k e r
H. D. S e i e l s t a d
B. B. Sharpe
L. R. Shenton
G. Singh
David S i n g m a s t e r
Ao N. Spitz
M. N. S. Swamy
A. S y l v e s t e r
*D. E . T h o r o
H. L. U m a n s k y
M. E . Waddill
*C, R. Wall
*L. A. W a l k e r
R. J . Weinshenk
R. A. White
V. White
H. E . Whitney
P . A. Willis
C h a r l e s Ziegenfus
S T . MARY T S COLLEGE
St. M a r y f s C o l l e g e , California
DUKE UNIVERSITY
D u r h a m , No. C a r o l i n a
THE CALIFORNIA
MATHEMATICS COUNCIL
NORWICH UNIVERSITY
NORTHFIELD,
VT.
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