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152

ulfiT

168
152

lntroduction and Concepts

153
151
154

151
155
155
156
15'7

1.1

lntroduction

I'let

processinll is lhe Dreflcr:l of ptastir:1ll), rleformi g thc nlr:tol irLLi)


rcquired shape. XIost largescalc delonnaiiolr pr_ocesscs ar"c pcrlbrrned in h{n.
condition, s.r that mininum forcc is ]leeded Lo rL-.1orm thc rnctnl to r'equir-eri shitpc
and the consequcrnt rccrl'siallisation Ielines thc ntctellic struclur'-".

158

ColcL

159
159
160
161
162
163
163
165
165
161
167
168

rlor'ki g pr'ocess is cnplo1'ed \\'her1 srD.roLh stlr_frc.r iinish.1nd Liglr

dinrelrsiona] accuracy is dcnranded.

'fhe processes used are clivclsc iD scele, rllryirll liun forqiDg encl r'ol1irrg oi
ingots weighing sever-al tonncs to dr'arrir,g ol ujr.es less than 0.u05 rnn rl
dianletcr. Allhoullh a number of a componelrts can Le manufactureci cornpletelr',
nlctal lbrming is prin arily usccl to produce such matcr'ial es bar anrl sheets rvhich
erc subsequenUv machined or pr-essed iDto the final shape. A char.t showing the
major mctal fornring processcs is given in lig 1.1

1.2

General Classilication of metal lorming process


Selectiorl ol a par-ticular anulhclurjng process depends oD \':uiolrs Iactors
lilie size ancl shape oi the finishcd conrponent. rnrterial used, cost etc.
|ig.1.1 shorvs thc gener.al classificaiion ol forning; processes as the type anC
size of the components that can bc pr.oduced using these proccsse-r. HoFcvcr the
final selection clepends largely on the cost. tDeLe al and availabilitv olthe laciljtv
in a particular industry.
For exanple: Scalnless lubes of verv closr: diucnsional accuracy c:rn be mlcle
by cold drari ing.
Co]]:rpsible iu'bes and spcciel sections cen be obtained bt,exLr-usion.

Lerge componcnts cen be convcnienLl-r nranLrfactured


Whi1e. platcs, rods and diflercnt secLir)ns

hom rolling.

lilic

b1,

channel.

fb|ging pror:css.

section.irn be

eo.L

Manufacturinq Process -

IIl

1.3

Cla

apl
lngot ( Ca-sl)

Bas

as follow

(i)

Dn
(Fi

Round, Square & Special seclions


Plates & Strips

(ii) Int

apl
th

Large

Billet (aasr)

thi

(iii) Te

AI
ter

(iv) B
l

(fir

i
(v)

Sh

Heary &

to

Iightseclions

Seamless

x
I

ENGINEERING PRODUCTS

l\.{achning / Assernbly

FiE, 1,1 General classification ofmetal Laorhing prccesses.

httroduc tion @nd

1.3

C ohc ePt 3

Classification ot metal forming processes based on the nature ol force


apPlied.
Baseal on the nature of force applied, the forming processes can be clessified

(i) Ditect

compression type: llere the ibrcc is applied to the surface of the

work piece and the metal flo1vs at i!{ht angles to the direction ol compressirn
(Fig 1.2). The best er<amples ofthis type ofprocess are ro]ling and forging

compression type: In ihese types of forces, though the prinarj


piece wilh
applied forces are lrequently tensile, clue to the reaction of work
forces are developed (Fig 13) Best exampies of
the di". indi."ct
"o-pressiveextrusion and deep drawing'
this type are wire drawing,
Tension tlpe: Shetch forming is the best example ofthis tlTe (fig 1 4) Here
a metal sheet is wrapped to the contour- ol the die under the application of

(ii) Indirect
iL::

(Cast)
+

=;l

(iii)

tensiie force-

:r..ial

This involves application of bending moments to the sheet


(fig 1.5) as in sheet bending operation.
Shearing: In this process shearing forces of sulfrcient magnitude is applied
to rupture the material in the plane of shear (fig 1 6)

(iv) Bending tnter

(v)

Rolls

Dircction oi leed

(b) Rolling

tu)

\fte

dntunL7
Fig. 1.2 Direcl ComPrPssion

b)

Extrusion

,Vunufacturins ptulpsl III


2.
3

4.

k piece

6.
(c) Decp Drd!0i19

Fig. 1.3 Indirect Co,npressiorl trpe

7.

'Ilhe varir

Force or nessurc appti.d

Strelch
lornring

(ii)
Fig. 1.4 I'ension trpe process

Fig. 1.5 Bending Process

-*\vP

Col

wh

temperat
tcmpera{
greeter
consideri

The effer

Fig, 1.6 Shcaring

1.4 Classification
temperature.

ot

metal lorming processes based on working

as (i)

Based on thc worhing temperature, metal \\,.orking processes can


bc classilied
Hot working and (ii) Cold rvorkilg

(i)

Hot working

Working of metals above the recrysiallisation ternperature is callecl Hot


working. The metal is heated above the recrystallisation lernperature. but below
its nelting point and force is applied to achieve the desired size and shape.

1.

2.
3.

4.
5.
6.
7.

8.

The effects ofhot woridng are:

Th

a)

Lerge p,c"ric d. lornarion :s pos"ibl-.

I nt rod.u.

tiot atd

Conc e p t s

2. li does not shain - harden thc metals.


3. It refines the grain structure.
4. Dclccts in mctals such as blo\\' holes and porosity tends lo get fllled up
due to plastic delorm.rtion.

J. R""idLcr 5trpjca- Jra nor nL"!oLrvd 'r.hc mc

al.

6. lt does not iniluence mechanical properties7. Due to oxidation and scaling. the sudace finish is poor.
The various hot working processes ar.el

a) Forging,

b) Rolling,

c) Pipe wekling,

d) Extrusion,

e) Spinning,

0 Piercing,

g)

(ii)

Draw

g.

Cold working

a melal is rvorked at temperiitures belorv the recrystallisation


tcmperature it is called cold working. Thc tcmperature rnay vary fi.onr room
temperature lo temperatur-e beiow recrystallisation tenperaturc. It ]equires
\trhen

greater lorce

to

achieve plastic deformation- The amount

ol delormatjon

consider.ably jess.

The ellects of cold working are:

working

be classifiecl

called IIot
but belo\r

,-

rape_

1. Greater stress is required to achievc deformation.


2. It distorts grain shucture.
3. Co)d working resulh in loss ofductility ofthe netal.
4. It increases the mechanical propelties like ultimate tensile stress_
5. There will be work hardening due to cold working.
6. The directional pioperties are more pronounced.
7. Unrelieved intcrnal stresses will be prcsent.
E. Surface finish of the components will be very good.
The various cold lvorking processes are
!
a) Cold rolling
b) Cold extrusion

is

Mahuldcturiip Prccess - I

c)
e)
g)
1.5

Cold drawing

Coining

d)
fl

Embossing
Bending

Shearing, etc.

Casl \rersus wrought metals or alloys

1.7

Str

In

the desi:
the forcr

koow tl

Castings of various metals and alloys are used when the shape is very large
or awkward to {brge, rvhen quality and strength are noi pdmary considerations,
when economy is desirable, or when the metal or alloy is difficult to shape bl hot
or cold working. In castings local differences of [retallurgical structure and
chemical composition as well as any blow holes lormed duling solidification oi the
metal are permanent. Thus in general castings have inferior rnechanical
propeliies.

deternir
apply th

Wrouglrt metals, although they also start from the liquid state, are cast into
ingots of simple shape and size. The ingots are later subjected to hot worhiDg
operation. The subsequent rcheating before hot wortring reduces the tendency for
local segregation and subsequent mechanical working eliminates further.rny
existing de{ects such as blow holes. llot working aiso imparts directional
propedies to the metals caused by the dformation of g?ains along the direction of
working. Castings do nol show directional propeities. The rvrought metals
generally exhibit superior rnechanical properties lihc strength, ductilitv and
toughness compared to castings.

exlensic

Th
central I
indicate
of the s1
grippinE

1.6

Advantages and limitations ol metal working processes


Ad'antaEes

1.

Defects in metals such as blow holes and porositl tend to get filled up
due to plastic deformation.

2.
3.

Mechanically worked components exhlbit superior mechanical properties.

Especially suited for producing small components.

Disadoantages

1. Directional properties are prevelcnt in the components.


2. Unrelieved internal stresses will be present in components.
3. It is difficult to produce larE{e components.

.:

3.4
UNIT

1)

2) El
il) It

lntroduction

,1)

In forging the metals or alloys are plastically deformed to the desired shapes,
using compressive force, The compressive force is appliecl using hammers or
presses.

A pair of dies is used: One die is stationery and the other is attached to the
hammer which has a linear nrotiorr. Forging process can be canicd out bol]r in the
cold and hot state of the mei,al. Horvever in majority ol cases forgug is done rthen
the metal is in hot statc.

ForgeableMaterials
A netal lvlich has to be forged should possess good ductility. Ductility refcrs
to the capacity ofa rnatedal to undcrgo plastic deformation when subjectecl ro a
Ioad or stress. In addition to this, the material should have good resistancc to
shock and fatigue, good machining characteistics etc. some ol the comnlon metals
and alloys which can be forged, include aluminium alloys, copper alloys, stainless
stcel, lorv carbon steel, Nickel alloys, Magncsium alloys, Titanium alloys ctc.

3.3

ForgingTemperatures
In forging, the metal is hcated to higher lemperature so that it bccomcs
plastic befbre delomation. Excessive tempcrature may result in the burDing of the
metal. Insufficient temperature $'iil not give adequate plasticity to the n1ctal. In
addition the finishing temperature should be such that at rvhich no grain grorvth
takes, so that the lvorh piece possesses a {ine grained structure. Table 3.1 giYes
the lorging tenperatures lbr diflerent nelals and allols.
Aletal lAllnl'
Fary:ing tenlpel-a t u re' C' A D p r.r:i nnte)
sr.
rvo.

Stat

tili!

1.

lllild steel

1300

2.

Medium carbon steel


High carbon steel
Wrought iron
Aluminium and l{agnesium
Copper, Brass and Bronze

I2;it

4.
5.
6.

al1o1's

Table 3.1 Forging

11i:
:l ..
:

1':ri.-,4rn-'
s00

th

2)
3)
4)
3.6

Hi

T.

Nt

Hand

Thc tc
oper:ations s
TILe d

hammering.
rvelded on t
faced. The r
ol .sn, all dia

hole is
variorN

use<

fitti

Anvils

;;0

ancl should

S25

0.?5m fror

900

attained by

JJO

600

tenpErc.)...

5) l{
6) F.
-7) F.
3.5 Disad
1) In

3.2

St

flo

Forging
3.1
-

Advar

3,4

Advantages ol forging process


1) Superior nechanical properties are obtained especially along the fibre
Ilolr dirccLi.n.
2) Elinination of porosity prcsent in the metal.
3) Impu ties present in the metal in the fonn off slag and other inclusions
are broken up and distr:ibuted throughout the metal.

e desired shapes,
insa

hanlmer.s or

.i attached to the
n out both in the
irg is done when

4) Refinement of i'ain structure.


5) X{etal removai in subsequent machining in minimised.
6) Forgings can be readily u'elded.
- ?) Fairly closc dimensional tolerances are achieved.
3.5 Disadvantages
1) In hot forging, due to high temperature, rapid oxidalion and scaling of
the surface occurs which results in poor sudace hnish.

2)
3)
4)

!' Duclility

refers
e.- subjected to a
s'id resistance to
aornmon metals
t :lloys, stainless

n rlloys

etc.

3.6

Highly intricllte shapes possible by casting process cannot be forged.


Tooling and handling costs are high.

Normally forgings costs more than castings.

Hand Tools and Accessories

'Ihe tools and eqllipment used and their applications in numerous forging
operations are described below:

r --iat it

becones
rj:. burning ol the
J :o the tnetal. In
[ 10 grain growth
e. Table 3.1 gives
=C ,Tpproxin.cLte)

80{)

?50

900
350
600

The anuil:'l}'e anvil (lig. 3.1) fbnns a suplJort lbr blacksnith's work when
hal1-rn,ering. The body ol the anvi] is made of mild steel with a tool steei fece
welded on the body, but the beak or horn used for bending curves is not steel
faced. The round hole in the anvil called pritchel hole and is used lbr bending rods
of small diameter and as a die fbr hot punching operations. The square or hardie
hole is used for holding square shanks of
va ous fittings-

Anvils vary upto about 100 to 150 kg


and should stand with the top facc about
0.75m liotn 11oor. This height may be
attained by resting the anvil on a cast iron
or wooden base.

Fig.3-I Anotl

atturitp

Pro.ess -

III

3.8 classification

of forging process

Forgrng process can he broadly classified as

a)
b)
3.8.1

r:nber of hardwood
t e boards and lilt
I and release the
E the weight of the
ei lifting as air or'
Ere of hand tools,

i to

45 KN falling

e disadvantages ol
trld the intensity of

Open die lolging.


Closed die forging.

Open die forging

Fie. 3.13. Open Die foreing


This is also knorvn as hand, smiih, hammer of flat die forging. The simplest
open die forging operation is the upsetting of a cylindrical billet between lrvo flat
dies as shown in hgure 3.13- As the metal llows laterally between the advanting
die surfaces, there is less delornation at the die intedaces because ol the frictional
lorces, than at the mid height point. Thus the sides of the upset cylinder becomes
baralled. As a general rule netal will flow more easily towards thc nearest free
surfaces because this represents the lowest frictional path. Operl die lorging is
employed under the following circumstanccs:

(i)

When the forging is too large to be produced in closed dies.

(ii)

To obtain super:ior nechanical properties which cannot be obtaincd bl'


machidng from a bar or billet(iii) The quantity required being too small to justify the cost of closed dies.

(iv) The delivery date is too close to permit the making of dics lor closed die
forging.
The size and weight are not a limitation in open die forging. Items such es
marine propeller shalts which may be several metcm in diameter and as long as
25 :neters are lorged by open-die practice. Converseiy forgings no more than a few
centimeters in ma-ximum dimensions are also produced in open dies.
Open die forgings are produced

in a pair of flat dies; one attached to thc

Manulnttuting PN.:ess - III

52

Case

2:

3.8.2

tr'orging cylirtd.rical uorhpiece fi'on a square blocr?; In rhc first srep


the square blocl< is hantmered dorvn whjch iDcreases the length. In the
second stcp the corners of the square is hallrmered to produce en
octagonal shape. In the third step lhe octagon !vas rounded by suctessrr e
}ammer blows on the workpiece as it is rotated. This is follo*'ed by
cvlindrical forging.

Closed Die Forging

In this ca,ce the sheping of the hot. nctal is achieved compleLely rvithin thc
$'alls or cavities of trvo dies that coDe together to errclose the rvorkpiece on all
siclos. The in]pression for rhe forging can be entircly in either die or divided
betweer the top and botton dies.
The forging slock rvhich is generally a lound ol' squarc bar is cut to rhe
required lengih to get the volune of metal necdcd to fill the die cavities, plus an
allowancc for flash- The stock after heating to the required forging tcnlperature is
kcpt in bel*,een the two halves ol the die. Thc for.ce is applied by means c,ff
hanlmers which allorvs the melal to undergo plastic deformetion and fill the dic
cavity. Figure 3.1? shou,s a schenatic of closed die forging.

FiE. 3.17 Closed. die forginq.


l)epending on the nanner in rvhich lhe pressure is applicd, closed die lorgine
can be classified as:

a)
b)
c)

Drop forging.
Press lbrging.
Nlachirre lbrging.

a) Drop fbrging: In drop forging the various types of hammers are used to
apply the pressure. Thc rop half of the die is attached to rhe halnner while the
bcttofr h.r]f is fixed ro thc arvil. The D]-essure is appiied by repeated blows ftorn
thc top hall of the clie o1l to the irealeC metal kcpt in the botton half ol die.
In this closcd irnpr'ession dios ar.e used. Fol.ging is produced by impact or
Drcssure which compels 1.h-. hot end llor\ able metal tu confirnr to 1_he shape of lhe

dies as in fi

ilow of thc
number of r
metal until
the forged
required. L
die.

6a
;

V\
\

I'igur,

forgir, g. He
stock in var

b)P

hamnler'. tl
shape- 'I'he

Hydr:
lorgiDgs in
Iler-e lhe nr

mediurn car
:i lorce of '-

i:iuting Pro.ess III

rAi In r,he lirst

step
:.,e lcngth. In the
::j ro produce an
ii:ed by successive
.:.:: is lollorved by

dies as in figure. In this operation there is drastic flow of metal 'I'o ensure ploper
flow of the metal dudng the intermittent bjows, the operation is directed into :1
number of si,eps. cach step changes the form gadually contrclling Lhe flo$' oi the
lnetal until the flnal shape is obtaiDed- Number of steps involved depends upon
the forged qu:llities of the etal, size and shapc ol the parts and the lolerances
required. Large and cornplicated shapes may require use of nlore thcn one set ol
die.

=. .riiel."- \\,ithin thc


:. orkpiece on all
-- -: die or divided

: :ri is cut to the


:, .:1ities. plus an
: : tcmperature js
: ::i by iteans off
- - snd fi]] the dic

-. :lo-red die for.gints-

Fig. 3.18 Steps in forging of a urerrch in a board han ner,


Figure 3.1E shows the steps involved in forging of a $'rench usilrg closed idca
forging- Here n]ultiplc impression die is uscd to gradually change thc shape ol lhe
stock in various sleps to gct the linished product.

Press fbt'ging: 7r pres-q lbrging, instead ol rapid impact blows of


hammcr, the heated mctaL is slowll, squeezed undel pressur.e into the required

b)

shape. The squeezing operation is done eilher mechanicaliy or hydraulicaily.

r:mers are used to


;1enrmcr while lhe
'ipeated blows frorn
n half ol die.
duccd bf irnpact or
ro thc shape ol lhe

lI]'draulic pr'esses are ft'equerltl) used for starnping complicaled large


forgings in multi impression clies. Figure 3.19 sho$.s a hydraulic fbrging press.
Here the motion of the raDr is achieved through an intcnsifier drive. The rvorking
nedium can be oil, $aler: or oil t'ater emulsiorr. f'lodcrn hydraulic pr-esses develop
e ibrce of upto 1000 NtN adequete to fabricate fbrgings of upto 5 tons. Hydraulic
presses erc quite expelsivc and their operation is slow. Thel arc uscd to produce

Manufa.turihg Prctess

III

slender ibrginis and forgings lrorn less ductile al1oys. The typical products
produced by press fbrging al'e: large levers. flanges. toothed rvheels. ]rollorv boclies,
railway $.heel discs, ctc-,

provides a u
dense and h

l"
i

il
Fig. 3.19 Hytlroulic foryne press
Cornparison betu:ecn Itammer forging antl press forgjng; Flamner blorv
produces shock and vibrations in the structure and founclation au.l th.l
surrounding_s. This implies a practjcal lirnit to the sjze ol the harnlr-rer. The
hanmering proccss is more thorough and effcctive than pressing but $.hcn fhe
thickness of the material is largJe the eflects olhammering rna], not penetrate right
through, and the oLrter surface of the netal will be be er \aorked than thosc
deeper below. In the hamnering process speed of operation can be altered
accordiDg to the size of forging. In harnmering, the position of the \rork should be
altered rapidll' bctlyeen the blorvs ancl lhis can be done upto a lirDitt,cl size and
1!eight.

Press action is relatively slow but the r-eduction jn size ij comparatively


rapid. Vafied and mor.e col}lplex shapes can be fonneci in prcss nction. Size ts not a
definite rcstriction in this and hcnce c:rn be used quite reridill r. Ior.rn alnosL any
shape. Impodant clfecl is dispersion oj thc nor1 rneta]lic inrlus:,:nj throug]lour !hc
body rvhich lends to nininise thcir ellect.

In general, hanmer's are emplo]'cd upto 10 tornE!


presses in gcneral use. r,ary i}l range fronr 200 ro 11 ,

,.rj \,,::er.eas hydraulic


. ,,:::_es press lbreing

Ir

In

ups,
a fir<ed die. l

forrncd to sh
times rhe di
cavity. For

although in
dies. The irr
cases tdnlm

Forgin
sLlch as bolti
pr-oduced in
movable die
from upsetti
perlormed.

3.9

Floll tc

Roll as
alvav to perl

Ltutins Proc.ss - III

Forging

plovides a unifomr finished shapes- Shapes formed by press lorging are gcncrally
dense and hornogeneous in structure.

rt-pical products

,?ls. hollow bodies.

Il

0l

55

(i)

FiE. 3.20 Steps inDolDed in upset forsinr,.

In upset forging, one end of the bar is heated and the other end is gripped in
rr-oj

ilamDer blolv

::.::On and

the
-:::rrlnmer. Thc
:_-: !.rt rrhen the

r:,.:netrate right

::.::d than thosc

: :-.,

be altered
= ulk should be
,,.::-:ied size and
..

-.

romparalivcly
:- .- Size is not a
: ::n almost any

:.:.r'ougbout the

i:.:eas hyclraulic

Press lorging

a fixed die. Pressure is applied lengthwise on lhe hot end causing it to be upseL or
formed to shape. The length of the stock to be upset should not be more than 2 to 3
times the diameter or else the material is bent rather lhan bulge out to li1l the dic
cavity. For some products entire operations nay be compJetcd in one position
although in rnost cases work is progr'essively placed in differcnt positions in the
dics. Ihe impressions may be in the punch in the g'ripping die or in both. In mosl
cases tdmming is not necessary.

Forging ofthe dng and rod types rvith all kinds of threads and shouldets
such as bolts, nuts, n'ashers, collars, pinions, gear blalks, etc., can be convenicnth'
produced in such forging machinc. The heated end is gripped iD fixcd die and the
movable die and punch form the shape aller lorging. In machine lorging apart
ftom upsetting, operations such as punchilli, tlimnling and extrusiol can also be
pclformed.

3.9

Roll forging

Roll as shorvn in figure rvhich are not completel]' cilcular but arc 25 75Lh c:oL
away to pernit the stock to enter between thc rolls.'lhe circular portion ol the ro11

lllanlfarituti,rE Prc.ess - III

56

is grooved according to the shape lequired. Heated rod is placed bettveen them and
thc rolls are rotated which gives shape of the job. By rolling like lhis through
required nun,ber ol steps final shapc can be achieved. Ro1l lbrging is primarily
used lor reducing and tapcdng operations on short lengths of bar stock. Finaliy
after rolling it requires sizing operations. To manufacture chisels, tapered tubing,
ends of leal springs. axles, crow bars, knife, blades, etc., roll forging is ernployed.
Conpared to drop forging 2070 of matedal is saved and production rate is 3000
times grcater. This process has limitations as to the shapes that can be rolled and
the rolls are costly.

lt)

Upsetti

the

ac

delornr
friction

the

up,

flolvs
(11,)

er

Fulleri
cross

f'rllsr4

metal f
the cen
extensi
rods.

Fig. 3.21 Roll foreirlg

3.10

Forgingoperations
Dudng fbrying of components from the initial bar stock to the final shape
they are subjected to vaious operations. So]lle ol the cornmon forging operations

(i)
(ii )

Upsetting.

Fullering.

(iii) Edging.

iiv) Drawing.

(v)

Swaging.

(vi) Piercing.
(vii) Punching.

(.llr) Edginl

satheri
by the
laterall

'acturine Ptucess -

III

then a d
,g like this through
iorging is primarilY
ri bar stock. FinailY
i:ls, tapered tubing,
i.rging is employed.
iuction rate is 3000
d between

51

(.i)

E.i can be rolled and

Ilpsetting: In simple open die lolging the upsetting of a cyiindrieal lillcts is


achieved by hamrnering the heated bar kept on
the aivil. As the metal flows laterally between
the advancing die surlace. 'I'here is less
deformation at the die interfaces. because of
frictional lorces than at the middle. Thc sides of
the upset eylinder gets barreled as the metal
flows easily towards the nearest fi'ee surthce.

whpn rhcrc is a ,FFU ro ln!u..-l !"Lhc sr ock.


cp::_:lql-9ra4l 4teg!li-@r
the
dies
advance,
fqllggltliq- ssea: Here as the
metal flow takes place outwards and away ftom
the centre of the fullering die. 'lhis operation is
extensively used in lhe forging of coonecting

ii' Fullering:

-_ _

.t/./i

Fig : 3.22 Upsetting

:\, l/////)

_,.---

l.

Fie. 3.23 Fuuerine.


:11

ro the final shape


01 forging operations

Edgtzg. This is used rvhile shaping the ends of the bars nhich helps in

cjlbgl4Slhe r4eleL-As the dies approjrch each other, the metal is conhned
by the die fiom flowing in the horizontal direction. while it is fiee to florv
laterally to filI the die.

Fip. 3.24 Edeitug,

Manuf..cturi,Le Prccess -

58

i\r)

III

Drauting: This process is used to reduce the cross section of the work with a
corresponding increase in length. As the force is applied through the dies on
the heated metal the cross section gradually reduces.

Fig. 3.25 Drawing.


(v)

Swaging: This makes use of concave dies to reduce the diameters of small
diameter bars.

Figue :
un
forging
!o

constant ovi
Taking

,d

Fig, 3.26 Swagine.


::

Fig. 3.27 piercing

From \r

Fig, 3,28 Punching.

(.vi) Piercing: Piercing involves making a blind hole in a heated billet.


ivri) Punching: This is used to produce through holes in thjnner materials-

3.11

But

Analysis of forging in plane strain

The assumptions made while analysing forces during lorging are as follows:

a)
b)
c)

The material forged follows Von

Differer

rnisses criterion.

Coeffrcient of friction p = constant, treated as sliding fTiction.

From (l

Forging is carried out under plane strain condition i.e., the width is
constant.

d)
e)

Operation is taking place in plastic range.


Stress concentration is treated by Ta]'lor series of expiession neglecting
higher order differential equation.

a)

With