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STUDY OF CONSUMER

BEHAVIOUR OF WIRES AD
CABLES
COMMENCED AT RALLISON ELECTRICALS PVT. LTD., GURGAON

Industrial Training Report Submitted to Punjabi University,


Patiala

in partial fulfillment for the degree of

BACHELOR OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION


(2007-2010)

SUBMITTED BY
Arihant Bansal
Univ. Roll No. 6504
BBA 6th Semester

SRI GURU HARKRISHAN COLLEGE OF


MANAGEMENT AND TECHNOLOGY, PATIALA
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1

S.NO.

CONTENT

PAGE NO.

DECLARATION
Acknowledgement
Executive Summary
1.

Introduction

1.1 Consumer Behaviour and Marketing Strategy


1.2 Intelligent Consumer Behaviour
1.3 Consumer Buying Behaviour
2.

Review of Literature

20

3.

Company Profile

23

4.

Objectives

63

5.

Scope of the study

65

6.

Research Methodology

67

7.

Data Analysis

72

8.

Suggestions and Recommendations

82

9.

Conclusion

84

10.

SWOT Analysis

86

Bibliography
Annexure

DECLARATION

I hereby declare that the project titled Study of Consumer Behavior of


Wires and Cables, A study conducted at Rallison Electrical Private
ltdis an original work carried out by me under able guidance of Lect. Mr.
Mukesh Arora, submitted in the partial fulfilment of the degree of Bachelor
of Business Administration and this has not been submitted in part or full
towards any other degree or diploma.

Date:

Arihant Bansal

MR. MUKESH ARORA


(Lect. in Mgmt. Deptt.)
(Project Guide)
SRI GURU HARKRISHAN COLLEGE OF
MANAGEMENT & TECHNOLOGY, PATIALA
(Affiliated to Punjabi
University)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Industrial training is a very good step towards having on hand practical
experience of the industrial environment I feel very indebted to Mr. Lalit Kumar
Babbar (Managing Director) of Rallison Electricals Pvt. Ltd., Gurgaon for permitting
training in this fast growing company during the month of January-May 2010. I wish to
articulate my earnest gratitude to the esteemed staff of this ever-growing organization for
their judicious guidance, sustained efforts, valuable suggestions, constructive criticism
and kind encouragement during the period of training.
I would like to thank all those who extended their full cooperation / help for
providing me with a congenial environment to work in.
I would also like to thank my parents and my friends for their help, support and
encouragement.

Arihant Bansal
Uni.Roll No:6504
BBA 6th Semester

EXECUTIVE
SUMMARY

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The Consumer Behavior about Rallison Electricals Pvt. Ltd is a program
that explores factors that affect local consumers shopping decisions. Local
consumers describe their preferences regarding different family products of
Rallison Electricals Pvt. Ltd, offer opinions about business strengths, and make
suggestions for improvement in size, shape, taste and price. These consumers also
provide impressions of the general shopping environment that have an impact on
economic leakage.
Consumer education is also a part of the study, and each of the local consumers
involved learned about available Rallison Electricals Pvt. Ltd and services that
they were unaware of prior to the study. A general survey mailed to each of the
participating consumers provides communities with information concerning where
local rupees are being spent, and products sand services to add in order to retain
those rupees locally.

INTRODUCTION

1. INTRODUCTION
Consumer behaviour also called as Consumer Psychology is a branch of applied
Psychology, marketing and Organizational Behaviour. It examines consumer
decision making process and ways in which they gather and analyze information
from the environment. See the consumer behaviour article for an overview.
Consumer behaviour is a multidisciplinary field which is integral to Psychology
and aspects of household economy studied in microeconomics.
The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing
strategies by understanding issues such as how

The psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between
different alternatives (e.g., brands, products);

The psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her


environment (e.g., culture, family, signs, media);

The behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing


decisions;

Limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities


influence decisions and marketing outcome;

How consumer motivation and decision strategies differ between products


that differ in their level of importance or interest that they entail for the
consumer; and

How marketers can adapt and improve their marketing campaigns and
marketing strategies to more effectively reach the consumer.

Understanding these issues helps us adapt our strategies by taking the consumer
into consideration. For example, by understanding that a number of different
messages compete for our potential customers attention, we learn that to be
effective, advertisements must usually be repeated extensively. We also learn that
consumers will sometimes be persuaded more by logical arguments, but at other
times will be persuaded more by emotional or symbolic appeals. By understanding
the consumer, we will be able to make a more informed decision as to which
strategy to employ.

One "official" definition of consumer behavior is "The study of individuals,


groups, or organizations and the processes they use to select, secure, use, and
dispose of products, services, experiences, or ideas to satisfy needs and the
impacts that these processes have on the consumer and society." Although it is not
necessary to memorize this definition, it brings up some useful points:

Behavior occurs either for the individual, or in the context of a group (e.g.,
friends influence what kinds of clothes a person wears) or an organization
9

(people on the job make decisions as to which products the firm should
use).

Consumer behavior involves the use and disposal of products as well as the
study of how they are purchased. Product use is often of great interest to the
marketer, because this may influence how a product is best positioned or
how we can encourage increased consumption. Since many environmental
problems result from product disposal (e.g., motor oil being sent into
sewage systems to save the recycling fee, or garbage piling up at landfills)
this is also an area of interest.

Consumer behavior involves services and ideas as well as tangible


products.

The impact of consumer behavior on society is also of relevance. For


example, aggressive marketing of high fat foods, or aggressive marketing
of easy credit, may have serious repercussions for the national health and
economy.

There are four main applications of consumer behavior:

The most obvious is for marketing strategyi.e., for making better


marketing campaigns. For example, by understanding that consumers are
more receptive to food advertising when they are hungry, we learn to
10

schedule snack advertisements late in the afternoon. By understanding that


new products are usually initially adopted by a few consumers and only
spread later, and then only gradually, to the rest of the population, we learn
that (1) companies that introduce new products must be well financed so
that they can stay afloat until their products become a commercial success
and (2) it is important to please initial customers, since they will in turn
influence many subsequent customers brand choices.

A second application is public policy. In the 1980s, Acutance, a near


miracle cure for acne, was introduced. Unfortunately, Acutance resulted in
severe birth defects if taken by pregnant women. Although physicians were
instructed to warn their female patients of this, a number still became
pregnant while taking the drug. To get consumers attention, the Federal
Drug Administration (FDA) took the step of requiring that very graphic
pictures of deformed babies be shown on the medicine containers.

Social marketing involves getting ideas across to consumers rather than


selling something. Marty Fishbone, a marketing professor, went on
sabbatical to work for the Centers for Disease Control trying to reduce the
incidence of transmission of diseases through illegal drug use. The best
solution, obviously, would be if we could get illegal drug users to stop.
This, however, was deemed to be infeasible. It was also determined that the
practice of sharing needles was too ingrained in the drug culture to be
stopped. As a result, using knowledge of consumer attitudes, Dr. Fishbone
11

created a campaign that encouraged the cleaning of needles in bleach before


sharing them, a goal that was believed to be more realistic.

As a final benefit, studying consumer behavior should make us better


consumers. Common sense suggests, for example, that if you buy a 64
liquid ounce bottle of laundry detergent, you should pay less per ounce than
if you bought two 32 ounce bottles. In practice, however, you often pay a
size premium by buying the larger quantity. In other words, in this case,
knowing this fact will sensitize you to the need to check the unit cost labels
to determine if you are really getting a bargain.

There are several units in the market that can be analyzed. Our main thrust in this
course is the consumer. However, we will also need to analyze our own firms
strengths and weaknesses and those of competing firms. Suppose, for example,
that we make a product aimed at older consumers, a growing segment. A
competing firm that targets babies, a shrinking market, is likely to consider
repositioning toward our market. To assess a competing firms potential threat, we
need to examine its assets (e.g., technology, patents, market knowledge, awareness
of its brands) against pressures it faces from the market. Finally, we need to assess
conditions (the marketing environment). For example, although we may have
developed a product that offers great appeal for consumers, a recession may cut
demand dramatically.

12

1.1 CONSUMER BEHAVIOR AND MARKETING STRATEGY


The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing
strategies by understanding issues such as how

The psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between
different alternatives (e.g., brands, products);

The psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her


environment (e.g., culture, family, signs, media);

The behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing


decisions;

Limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities


influence decisions and marketing outcome;

How consumer motivation and decision strategies differ between products


that differ in their level of importance or interest that they entail for the
consumer; and

How marketers can adapt and improve their marketing campaigns and
marketing strategies to more effectively reach the consumer.

Understanding these issues helps us adapt our strategies by taking the consumer
into consideration. For example, by understanding that a number of different
messages compete for our potential customers attention, we learn that to be
effective, advertisements must usually be repeated extensively. We also learn that

13

consumers will sometimes be persuaded more by logical arguments, but at other


times will be persuaded more by emotional or symbolic appeals. By understanding
the consumer, we will be able to make a more informed decision as to which
strategy to employ.
One "official" definition of consumer behavior is "The study of individuals,
groups, or organizations and the processes they use to select, secure, use, and
dispose of products, services, experiences, or ideas to satisfy needs and the
impacts that these processes have on the consumer and society." Although it is not
necessary to memorize this definition, it brings up some useful points:

Behavior occurs either for the individual, or in the context of a group (e.g.,
friends influence what kinds of clothes a person wears) or an organization
(people on the job make decisions as to which products the firm should
use).

Consumer behavior involves the use and disposal of products as well as the
study of how they are purchased. Product use is often of great interest to the
marketer, because this may influence how a product is best positioned or
how we can encourage increased consumption. Since many environmental
problems result from product disposal (e.g., motor oil being sent into
sewage systems to save the recycling fee, or garbage piling up at landfills)
this is also an area of interest.

14

Consumer behavior involves services and ideas as well as tangible


products.

The impact of consumer behavior on society is also of relevance. For


example, aggressive marketing of high fat foods, or aggressive marketing
of easy credit, may have serious repercussions for the national health and
economy.

There are four main applications of consumer behavior:

The most obvious is for marketing strategyi.e., for making better


marketing campaigns. For example, by understanding that consumers are
more receptive to food advertising when they are hungry, we learn to
schedule snack advertisements late in the afternoon. By understanding that
new products are usually initially adopted by a few consumers and only
spread later, and then only gradually, to the rest of the population, we learn
that (1) companies that introduce new products must be well financed so
that they can stay afloat until their products become a commercial success
and (2) it is important to please initial customers, since they will in turn
influence many subsequent customers brand choices.

A second application is public policy. In the 1980s, Acutance, a near


miracle cure for acne, was introduced. Unfortunately, Acutance resulted in
severe birth defects if taken by pregnant women. Although physicians were

15

instructed to warn their female patients of this, a number still became


pregnant while taking the drug. To get consumers attention, the Federal
Drug Administration (FDA) took the step of requiring that very graphic
pictures of deformed babies be shown on the medicine containers.

Social marketing involves getting ideas across to consumers rather than


selling something. Marty Fishbone, a marketing professor, went on
sabbatical to work for the Centers for Disease Control trying to reduce the
incidence of transmission of diseases through illegal drug use. The best
solution, obviously, would be if we could get illegal drug users to stop.
This, however, was deemed to be infeasible. It was also determined that the
practice of sharing needles was too ingrained in the drug culture to be
stopped. As a result, using knowledge of consumer attitudes, Dr. Fishbone
created a campaign that encouraged the cleaning of needles in bleach before
sharing them, a goal that was believed to be more realistic.

As a final benefit, studying consumer behavior should make us better


consumers. Common sense suggests, for example, that if you buy a 64
liquid ounce bottle of laundry detergent, you should pay less per ounce than
if you bought two 32 ounce bottles. In practice, however, you often pay a
size premium by buying the larger quantity. In other words, in this case,
knowing this fact will sensitize you to the need to check the unit cost labels
to determine if you are really getting a bargain.

16

1.2 INTELLIGENT CONSUMER BEHAVIOR


Intelligent health consumers have the following characteristics:
1. They seek reliable sources of information. They are appropriately skeptical
about

advertising

claims,

statements

made

by

talk-show

guests,

and

"breakthroughs" reported in the news media. New information, even when


accurate, may be difficult to place in perspective without expert guidance.
2. They maintain a healthy lifestyle. This reduces the odds of becoming
seriously ill and lowers the cost of health care. Prudent consumers avoid tobacco
products, eat a balanced diet, exercise appropriately, maintain a reasonable weight,
use alcohol moderately or not at all, and take appropriate safety precautions (such
as wearing a seat belt when driving).
3. They select practitioners with great care. It has been said that primary-care
physicians typically know a little about a lot and specialists typically know a lot
about a little. The majority of people would do best to begin with a generalist and
consult a specialist if a problem needs more complex management.
4. They undergo appropriate screening tests and, when illness strikes, use
self-care and professional care as needed. Excellent guidebooks are available to
help decide when professional care is needed.

17

5. They communicate effectively. They present their problems in an organized


way, ask appropriate questions, and tactfully assert themselves when necessary.
6. When a health problem arises, they take an active role in its management.
This entails understanding the nature of the problem and how to do their part in
dealing with it. People with chronic illnesses, such as diabetes or high blood
pressure, should strive to become "experts" in their own care and use their
physicians as "consultants."
7. They understand the logic of science and why scientific testing is needed to
test and to determine which theories and practices are valid.
8. They are wary of treatments that lack scientific support and a plausible
rationale. Most treatments described as "alternative" fit this description.
9. They are familiar with the economic aspects of health care. They obtain
appropriate insurance coverage, inquire in advance about professional fees, and
shop comparatively for medications and other products.
10. They report frauds, quackery, and other wrongdoing to appropriate
agencies and law enforcement officials. Consumer vigilance is an essential
ingredient of a healthy society.

18

1.3 CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOR


Buying Behavior is the decision processes and acts of people involved in buying
and using products.
Need to understand:

Why consumers make the purchases that they make?

What factors influence consumer purchases?

The changing factors in our society.

Consumer Buying Behavior refers to the buying behavior of the ultimate


consumer. A firm needs to analyze buying behavior for:

Buyers reactions to a firms marketing strategy has a great impact on the


firms success.

The marketing concept stresses that a firm should create a Marketing Mix
(MM) that satisfies (gives utility to) customers, therefore need to analyze
the what, where, when and how consumers buy.

Marketers can better predict how consumers will respond to marketing


strategies.

19

STAGES OF THE CONSUMER BUYING PROCESS


Six Stages to the Consumer Buying Decision Process (For complex decisions).
Actual purchasing is only one stage of the process. Not all decision processes lead
to a purchase. All consumer decisions do not always include all 6 stages,
determined by the degree of complexity...discussed next.
The 6 stages are:
1. Problem Recognition (awareness of need)--difference between the desired

state and the actual condition. Deficit in assortment of products. Hunger-Food. Hunger stimulates your need to eat.
Can be stimulated by the marketer through product information--did not
know you were deficient? I.E., see a commercial for a new pair of shoes,
stimulates your recognition that you need a new pair of shoes.
2. Information search-o

Internal search, memory.

External search if you need more information. Friends and relatives


(word of mouth). Marketer dominated sources; comparison
shopping; public sources etc.

A successful information search leaves a buyer with possible alternatives,


the evoked set.

20

Hungry, want to go out and eat, evoked set is

Chinese food

Indian food

burger king

Klondike kites etc

3. Evaluation of Alternatives--need to establish criteria for evaluation,

features the buyer wants or does not want. Rank/weight alternatives or


resume search. May decide that you want to eat something spicy, Indian
gets highest rank etc.
If not satisfied with your choice then return to the search phase. Can you
think of another restaurant? Look in the yellow pages etc. Information from
different sources may be treated differently. Marketers try to influence by
"framing" alternatives.
4. Purchase decision--Choose buying alternative, includes product, package,

store, method of purchase etc.


5. Purchase--May differ from decision, time lapse between 4 & 5, product

availability.
6. Post-Purchase Evaluation--outcome: Satisfaction or Dissatisfaction.

Cognitive Dissonance, have you made the right decision. This can be
reduced

by

warranties,

after

sales

communication

etc.

21

After eating an Indian meal, may think that really you wanted a Chinese
meal instead.
TYPES OF CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOR
Types of consumer buying behavior are determined by:

Level of Involvement in purchase decision. Importance and intensity of


interest in a product in a particular situation.

Buyers level of involvement determines why he/she is motivated to seek


information about a certain products and brands but virtually ignores others.

High involvement purchases--Honda Motorbike, high priced goods, products


visible to others, and the higher the risk the higher the involvement. Types of risk:

Personal risk

Social risk

Economic risk

The four type of consumer buying behavior are:

Routine Response/Programmed Behavior--buying low involvement


frequently purchased low cost items; need very little search and decision
effort; purchased almost automatically. Examples include soft drinks, snack
foods, milk etc.

Limited Decision Making--buying product occasionally. When you need


to obtain information about unfamiliar brand in a familiar product category,

22

perhaps. Requires a moderate amount of time for information gathering.


Examples include Clothes--know product class but not the brand.

Extensive Decision Making/Complex high involvement, unfamiliar,


expensive

and/or

infrequently

bought

products.

High

degree

of

economic/performance/psychological risk. Examples include cars, homes,


computers, education. Spend a lot of time seeking information and
deciding.
Information from the companies MM; friends and relatives, store personnel
etc. Go through all six stages of the buying process.

Impulse buying, no conscious planning.

The purchase of the same product does not always elicit the same Buying
Behavior.

Product

can

shift

from

one

category

to

the

next.

For example:
Going out for dinner for one person may be extensive decision making (for
someone that does not go out often at all), but limited decision making for
someone else. The reason for the dinner, whether it is an anniversary celebration,
or a meal with a couple of friends will also determine the extent of the decision
making.

23

REVIEW OF
LITERATURE

24

2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
The central concern of brand building literature experienced a dramatic shift in the
last decade. Branding and the role of brands, as traditionally understood, were
subject to constant review and redefinition. A traditional definition of a brand was:
the name, associated with one or more items in the product line that is used to
identify the source of character of the item (Kilter 2000, p. 396). The American
Marketing Association (AMA) definition of a brand is a name, term, sign,
symbol, or design, or a combination of them, intended to identify the goods and
services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of
competitors (p. 404). Within this view, as Keller (2003a) says, technically
speaking, the n, whenever a marketer creates a new name, logo, or symbol for a
new product, he or she has created a brand (p. 3).
He recognizes, however, that brands today are much more than that. As can be
seen, according to these definitions brands had a simple and clear function as
identifiers. Before the shift in focus towards brand s and the brand building
process, brands were just another step in the whole process of marketing to sell
products. For a long time, the brand has been treated in an off-hand fashion as a
part of the product (Urde 1999, p. 119). Kotler (2000) mentions branding as a
major issue in product strategy (p. 404). As the brand was only part of the
product, the communication strategy worked towards exposing the brand and
creating brand image.
25

The standard discrete choice models prevalent in IO literature assume that


consumers are aware of all the products, and as a result those models only address
variation in the choice sets across markets (in fact, it is an important source of
identification in these models). However, there is some recent research in IO that
focuses on other sources of variation to estimate more realistic demand
specifications. Anupindi, Dada, and Gupta (1998) and Conlon and Mortimer
(2007) study variation in consumer choice sets generated by the presence of stock
outs. In Katz (2007), the variation comes from the fact that consumers restrict their
attention to a subset of products before making a choice.
This last paper is close to a large body of literature in marketing known as
consideration set literature, focused on incorporating the variation in the consumer
choice set into discrete choice models (Manski 1977 was the first to introduce it).
In this literature, two interpretations of the choice set are possible. First,
consumers might be unaware of the existence of some products, and their choice
set consists of all the products they are aware of. Alternatively, consumers might
face cognitive costs or constraints of having to consider a large number of
products in their choice, and therefore they might restrict their attention to a
smaller subset of products before making a choice. Both interpretations have been
considered in the literature to study the effect of advertising on the consumer
choice set.

26

COMPANY
PROFILE

27

3. PROFILE OF RALLISON ELECTRICAL PVT.LTD.


LIMITED, GURGAON
Rallison has unfolded the new dimensions of progress and development by taking
the initiatives to build a forte of intellectual prowess and zero-defect quality to
shield the imperative expectations of the cable and wire industry.
Rallison, as one of the leading manufacturers of wires and cables in North India
has the largest dealer and distributor network all over the India, which
enables its products to reach every nook and corner of the country.
We cater to the diversified needs of our reverent customers, thus providing them
with the comprehensive solutions of wires and cables such as PVC/PE insulated
wires, LT-PVC/XLPE power control, instrumentation cables, Flexible and House
wires. Rallison also manufactures the cables in accordance to the customer
specifications.
Rallison was awarded the ISO-9001 certificate in the year 2002. In addition to
this, Rallison is the first Delhi based cable manufacturing company to attain an
ISO-9002 certification.
The foundation of Rallison was laid in 1985 as a small unit in Badli working handin-hand with Remson, which is a name to reckon with in the appliance industry

28

and which has recently bagged a Gold Medal at IITF 2002 for its undisputed
quality commitment.
Our philosophy is to build a zero-defect product, which carries value satisfaction
for our customers. Rallison strongly believes that learning and improving is a
continuous process for the growth of any company.
Keeping up pace with radical transformation of technology, time and again,
Rallison has proved its urge for quality by getting Best Vendors Award from
Philips India for consecutive three years. Rallison has spread its wings by
exporting products to Philips India having branches in Singapore, Malaysia, and
Hong Kong and is emerging as a true contender for globalisation.
Today competitiveness is the loudly uttered word in domestic and international
markets. Rallison keeps a constant vigil on all the technological developments
taking place in the cable industry and adopts them to keep up with the everchanging market trends.
Rallison is adhering to the yardsticks of the latest technology, which matches the
international standards of quality. Rallison boasts of its means of processing, stateof-the-art machinery and equipment imported from USA, UK and Germany.

29

With the present setup at Mayapuri, New Delhi, well equipped with state-of-theart technology coupled with efficient, competent and result oriented professional
team working round the clock, enables us to niche our way to success.
Rallison has learnt "how to learn and hear the unheard voices" which enhances
its capabilities to face the future challenges. Keeping this in mind, Rallison has
added a 2 acres of land unit at Bhiwadi, Rajasthan which will be fully operational
by July 2003. Rallison's objective as a corporate is to provide utmost satisfaction
to its customers.
It is only then that we can have a relationship with our customers, which will be
fondly cherished by the generations to come.

3.1 PRODUCTS

Having established a firm reputation in India's PVC & PE Cable industry, it was
only natural for Rallison to look at future value-added product extensions. These
30

cables consist of carbon and hydrogen compounds, which essentially contain lowdensity polyethylene molecules in the form of long flexible chains.
On cross-linking, slippage between flexible chains can be prevented. Cross-linked
polyethylene (XLPE) is a thermosetting compound. It softens at the crytahne
melting point of polyethylene (85C to 115C) and assumes an elastic rubber like
consistency, a property that it retains during further rise of temperature until it
becomes carbonized without melting at 250C to 300C. All this strengthens LTXLPE cables against stress cracking and gives them a greater resistance to fight
ageing in hot air.
General Construction of XLPE Cables
Conductor
Conductors are made from electrolytic grade aluminium/copper conforming to
IS:8130, and are compact circular or compact shaped.
Insulation
Rallison's XLPE cables are specially made high grade cross-linked polyethylene
for insulation by extrusion process.
Core Identification
Different colours identify the cores:
Single core

Black

31

Two Core
Three Core
Four Core
Three and half Core

Red & Black


Red, Yellow & Blue
Red, Yellow, Blue & Black
Red, Yellow, Blue and reduced neutral core
in Black

Laying up
In multi-core cables, cores are laid up as per the above colour scheme, interstices
are filled wherever necessary to make the laid up cores circular.
Inner Sheath
Laid up cores are bedded over with thermoplastic material for protection against
mechanical and electrical damage.
Armouring
Armouring is provided over the inner sheath to guard against mechanical damage.
Armouring is generally of galvanized steel wires or strips (In single core cables
used in AC system armouring is by non-magnetic hard aluminum wires/strips).
Round steel wires are used where the diameter over the inner sheath does not
exceed 13mm. Above 13mm, flat steel strip armour is used. Round wire of
different sizes can be provided against specific request.
Outer Sheath
Specially formulated heat resistant black PVC compound confirming to the
requirement of Type ST-2 of IS:5831-1984, extruded to form the outer sheath.
32

Rallison XLPE offers a specially formulated Flame Retardant Low Smoke


Compound(FRLS) for outer sheath used in fire hazardous environment.
Tests
In addition to all tests as required by IS:7098 Part-1, Rallison XLPE Cables are
subjected to a number of in-house tests at every stage of production. Incoming raw
material is also tested thoroughly to ensure consistency of quality.
Product Code
As per IS:7098 Part-1, the codes are:
Constituents
Aluminum conductor
Rallison XLPE insulation
Steel round wire armour
Steel strip armour
Steel double round wire armour
Steel Double strip armour
Non-magnetic (A1) round wire armour
Non-magnetic (A1) strip armour

Code
A
2X
W
F
WW
FF
Wa
Fa

Product Range LT-XLPE Cables


Cable Type
Power
Aluminum

Manufacturing Range

Cable

with S/core

upto

Relevant Specification

1000mm; IS 7098/Part-1/1988

Conductor Multi-core upto 630mm

1.1KV
Control

Cables

with Upto 61 core

IS 7098/Part-1/1988

copper conductor

33

Know the Superior Product - The LT-XLPE Cables

LT-XLPE Cables have longer life as compared to conventional PVC


Cables.

LT-XLPE Cables have higher conductor temperature rating i.e, 90C as


against 70C of PVC and hence higher current rating.

LT-XLPE Cables have higher emergency overload capacity than PVC


Cables (upto 60%).

Max. temperature limit under short circuit conditions for LT-XLPE Cables
is 250C as against 160C for PVC Cables. Hence XLPE cables have
higher short circuit rating.

The moisture resistance of LT-XLPE Cables is nearly 100 times that of


PVC.

Insulation resistance of LT-XLPE Cables is very high as compared to PVC


Cables.

LT-XLPE Cables have high corrosion resistance in polluted atmosphere as


compared to PVC Cables.

LT-XLPE Cables have better properties of resistance to chemical and


corrosive gases.

LT-XLPE Cables have low installation cost because of light weight,


dimensions and are far more flexible.

34

LT-XLPE Cables have better properties to withstand vibrations, hot


impacts.

Jointing of LT-XLPE Cables is easier and quicker.

LT-XLPE Cables are ideal for transmission and distribution of power.

Mining cables are used in the mines. These are manufactured in 1.1 KV and 3.3
KV. 3.3 KV cables are normally with Copper conductor and are double wire
armoured to keep higher mechanical protection. The conductivity of the armour is
not less than 75% of the phase conductor.

35

Flat Cables for Submersible Pump Motor


Rallison Flat Cables are manufactured for critical space requirements, protection
against indefinite immersion in water under specified conditions, protection
against raining water and protection against ingress of small solid foreign bodies.
Rallison's Flat Cables are produced from best quality electrolytic copper drawn,
on-line annealed & bunched on automatic manufacturing machines. The
conductors are insulated with a special grade of PVC and outer sheath consists of a
highly abrasion resistant PVC compound. These cables processed on sophisticated
twin extrusion line meets and withstands the demanding needs of submersible
pump motor power supply.
Double Sheathed Round Submersible Cables
Double sheathed round 3 core and 4 core cables are better suited for heavy duty
applications like sewage, slurry and dewatering pumps. These conditions requires
the sheathing to be able to withstand abrasion, prevent ingress of water along the
interstices of the cable, and be resistant to acidic fluids and chemicals.

36

Flame Retardant Low Smoke Single Core Unsheathed Flexible Copper


Cables having high current rating for voltages up to 1100 volts AC
Conductor
Many thin strands of Electrolytic Copper are fine-drawn simultaneously for
uniformity of characteristics such as Resistance, Dimension, Flexibility etc. The
drawn strands are collected and closely twisted in high precision machines and
further compacted. This not only imparts circularity to the bunched conductor, but
also prevents the tendency for the strands to separate and exert internal pressure on
the insulation when the cable is bent during installation and usage.
Insulation
Such formulated high temperature grade of Flame Retardant Low Smoke
compound restricts the spread of flame in the fire situation. The smoke emitted by
the burning cable is also less as compared to the traditional cables. This offers
improved visibility for evacuation of trapped victims and facilitates fire fighting
operation.

37

Packing
90 mtrs. (approx. 100 yards) coils packed in protective cartons, jumbo coils in
special payout boxes also available to help reduce wastage at the time of
installation.

Rallison PVC single and multi-core flexible cables make a big difference
wherever they are installed. They don't merely deliver power, they do so with
maximum efficiency and security. With stronger materials, surer conductors and
safer insulation, Rallison cables have minimized loss while improving electricity
transfer and transient.
Making it possible, is the company's management of manpower, machines and
materials. Since its inception in 1985, modern methods of manufacturing and
marketing have welded technology and teamwork with quality control and
professionalism to produce a better cable.

38

Right from raw materials, built-in quality control systems check every stage of
production. Indian and international standards are met even before the cables
emerge from advanced facilities. The finished products are then measured by the
most critical tests of all: the highly competitive market place. Success in that
supercharged environment is the ultimate proof of the quality of Rallison cables.
Rallison was awarded the prestigious Safety Certification 'S' mark scheme from
the Department of Electronics. This certification is internationally recognized and
approved.
Rallison's flexible wires and cords are manufactured as per IS:694/1990 with latest
amendments.
Rallison earned international recognition for third party guarantee through
TUV Germany.
Note: Number and nominal diameter of wire formation in conductors can be
altered to suit individual customer's specific requirements.
Conductor: Annealed bare high conductivity copper/aluminium conductor as per
IS:8130/84.
Insulation: PVC compound Type A of IS:5831/84
Sheath: PVC compound Type ST-1 of IS:5831/84
Core

identification,

Colour

for

core

identification

&

39

Colour sequence

Cable for fixed wiring

Flexible Cords

Red, Black, Yellow, Blue, Red,

Black,

Flexible Cables
Yellow, Red,

White or Grey

Blue, White or Grey

Red & Black

Red & Black

Red & Yellow & Blue

Red, Black & Yellow

Black,

Yellow,

Blue, White or Grey

Green
(For ECC)
Red, Yellow, Blue & Black

Red, Yellow Blue &


Yellow

Green

(For ECC)

Unique Features:

On-line wire drawing and annealing


40

High speed extruders (upto 500 meters per minute)

Twin pvc insulated (upto 4 sq.mm.) for better insulation & electrical
properties

Automatic on-line critical diameter control

Stringent quality control

Rallison today is one of the most preferred and trusted name in House wires. It
has emerged as first choice and gained reputation & confidence in consultants,
architects and builders.
Rallison has built up a reputation for commercial foresight and solid integrity.
Tested and supervised by experienced engineers in sophisticated labs, Rallison
House wires have earned a name for themselves in both Indian and international
markets.

Rallison telephone cables are processed by high-speed state-of-the-art machinery.


The conductor is made of pure electrolytic grade, super annealed, tinned copper
41

and is insulated with good quality PVC. The cores are carefully twisted together
with suitable lays and bunched together such that the cross talk is reduced. Also
the cores may be helically wrapped with Myler or Polyester tape. A nylon ripcord
is also provided in order to safely peel off the jacket without damage to the cores.
The laid up and bunched cores are finally jacketed with PVC for indoor
application.
The cables generally confirm to ITD specifications for outdoor application, the
above mentioned cables can be provided with G.I wire/ strip armoured and over all
PVC jacket confirming to IS:1554 Part 1 - 1988 to make them suitable for
underground Trench/duct laying.
Armour material confirming to IS:3975. Jacket PVC compound confirming to ST1 of IS:5831/TM-2 of IS:13176.
Self Supporting Drop Wire
The conductor in Self Supporting Drop Wire is 0.5 mm made out of EC grade
Solid Copper Wire. This is PVC insulated and with Fibre Glass Roving as strength
member. The cable is used for landline connected from the pole to the subscriber
end. "Rollex" Self Supporting Drop Wire is made as per TEC Specification no.
G/WIR-03/02 July'99.
Jumper Wire
The Jumper Wire is made out of EC Grade Solid Copper Wire with 0.5 mm
42

conductor dia. This is PVC Insulated and two cores are twisted together. The
Cable is made as per TEC Specification no. G/WIR-10/02 Dec.'94.

Instrumentation/Screened/Shielded Cables
Instrumentation cables are used in process control systems, AC/DC converters,
Space Research and other Modern Processor based instrumentation Circuits. These
Cables are designed to combat noise and induction phenomena encountered in the
circuits and bring a clean and accurate signal to the control room.
The Instrumentation Cables are normally made with EC grade bare / tinned copper
stranded conductor, PVC Insulated/pair screened with polyester and Mylar tape
along with stranded tinned drain wire. Multi Pair Screened cables are available
with individual pair screening as well as overall screening OR with overall
screening only as per the requirement of the Customer. These are generally

43

armoured with wire/strip. The sheathing is available with FR/FRLS and FS


properties as per the requirement of the customer.
Thermocouple Extension/Compensating Cables
These cables are used in Boilers, Furnaces and Heat Treatment Industry. These
cables are produced from specified alloy conductor such as:
Extension Cables
TX (Cu/Cu Ni)
JX (Fe/Cu Ni)
KX (Ni Cr/Ni Al)
EX (Ni Cr/Cu Ni)
Compensating Cables
KX (A)
SX/RX (Pt-Rh/Pt)
These are PVC Insulated, cores twisted to form pairs, individually or overall
shielded. These can be armoured/unarmoured and with sheathing suitable for
FR/FRLS/FS.

44

Characteristics
The specific properties, which are checked for various Flame Retardant Smoke
characteristics are evaluated as per norms of prevalent international specifications.
Every customer decides its own set of requirements and Rallison are in a position
to offer a wide range of cables to suit these requirements and cover the needs of
particular application economically. These tests are to be carried out apart from
those physical & electrical tests to evaluate the cable parameters specified in the
standards to which it is manufactured.
FRLS Tests
Following special tests are most commonly carried out at present on Rallison PVC FRLS cables.
1. Oxygen and Temperature Index Test
2. Smoke Generation or Light Obscurtion Test
3. HCL Gas Emission Test
4. Flammability Tests:

45

a. IEC-3321-1
b. IEC-3322-3
c. IEEE-383
d. SS 424 1475
Smoke Generation Test
Optical method is most practiced to measure the amount of smoke generated while
burning the sample. A fixed dimension sample of material is put to flame of
specified intensity for 4 minutes and the percentage obscuration on an optical path
is measured a 15 seconds interval.
A graphical plot of such measurements evaluates the average smoke density. This
area integration method is only the quantitative indication of smoke generation by
the PVC compound.
The test is generally carried out as specified in ASTM-D-2843 standard.
Flammability Tests
All other tests mentioned are generally carried out on the materials to ascertain
basically the components, which have certain bearings on the fire resistance
characteristics of the cables. These results contribute to select a proper formulation
for a particular application.

46

There are certain tests, which are carried out on the completed cable manufactured
with such compounds, in which the cable samples are subjected to flames in
different conditions. The method and duration of such flames vary to a large
extent. The most prevalent tests methods under fire conditions are specified as
under:
a. IEC-332-1 i.e. on single vertical cable sample.
b. IEC-332-3 i.e. on bunched vertical cable sample.
c. IEEE-383 i.e. on bunched vertical cable samples.
d. SS-424-1475 i.e. on single vertical cable sample in a chimney.
The flame medium is generally LPG in the first three tests methods and Ethnol in
the third method.
The extent of damage to the cable under these tests gives an indication of the
behaviour of these cables in actual fire conditions and gives a measure of fireresistance in actual conditions.
HCL Gas Emission Test
All PVC Compounds when decomposed due to fire emit gaseous fumes, which are
basically corrosive in nature. This is entirely due to the ingredients used in the
formulations. These fumes, if containing higher amounts of corrosive gas i.e.
Hydrochloric Acid Gas, may damage various instruments and equipments in the

47

vicinity of fire. More and more stress is being given these days to control this
content in reasonable limits.
A sample of cable compound is subjected to controlled rate of heat for a certain
period and the decomposed gases are collected in alkaline solutions. Such alkaline
medium is then analysed to estimate the HCL evolved.
This is carried out as specified in IEC-754-1 standard.
Oxygen and Temperature Index Tests
Oxygen index is the measurement of oxygen content at which the vertically held
sample when ignited ceases to burn off its own within 3 minutes. This is a relative
measure of combustion resistance of materials in the context of atmospheric
oxygen.
Temperature Index is the temperature at which the vertically held sample ceases to
burn off on its own within 3 minutes at an Oxygen concentration of 21% i.e.
atmospheric air.
These tests are generally carried out as specified in ASTM-D-2863 Standard.

48

Airfield Lighting Cables are manufactures as per IS:1554 (Part II) and the cable is
of 5 KV grade. "Rallison" is producing the complete range of Airfield Lighting
Cables i.e. S/C x 6 Sq.mm & S/C x 16 Sq.mm in Copper and 2C x 25 Sq.mm.
Airfield Lighting Cables are with round conductor. These are armoured with steel
strip and PVC sheathed. The cables are type tested from CRI, DGAQA-Dehradun.

Rollex Electro Products manufactures a wide range of cables suitable for purpose
of Instrumentation. In the projects related to power generation & distribution,
chemical, fertilizer, sugar Industries and various other types of engineering
industries. The process instrumentation plays a vital role in measurement and
control of the process.
Shield is provide to prevent harmful electrostatic interface. There are three basic
reasons for providing an electrostatic shield in a cable. The first important reason

49

concerns the need to keep external electrical disturbances from affecting the signal
in the cable. The second reason is to prevent the signal in the cable from being
detectable at location other than at the cable ends. And the third reason is the
elimination of unwanted transfer of signal between circuits in the same cable.

Temperature Measurement and Control


The measurement of temperature is one of the most vital functions in the control
of manufacturing and processing operations. As demands for better quality,
reliability & economy increase, the demand for more precise measurement and
control increase. Newer and more sophisticated electronic circuitry is employed
creating stringent demands on the wire and cable used to sense and transmit
temperature measurements. To meet these ever increasing demands. "Rallison" has
a range of thermocouple Grade Wire and thermocouple Extension wire and cable.
Complementing its line of Electronic Instrumentation Cable, "Rallison" now
provides the industry with complete range of wires and cables for manufacturing
and process control all produced the highest standards of safety established by
government and industry.
The Thermocouple
At the heart of all temperature measurement is the Thermocouple. Although
involving very complex design parameter, the fundamental concept of all

50

Thermocouples is the same. Two wires of dissimilar metal are joined together at
one end. An increase in temperature creates an Electromotive Force (EMF) or
signal, which is transmitted through these wires to a monitoring device, which
"Reads" this signal and displays it on a previously calibrated meter or digital
device.
The monitoring device is usually at a location some distance away from the actual
Thermocouple. To connect the thermocouple to the monitor requires wire or cable
(for Multiple Thermocouple Installation) that will maintain the integrity of the
temperature-Emf signal generated by the primary wires in the Thermocouple.

3.2 QUALITY

Commitment, Teamwork and Dedication to quality have led and are still leading
Rallison to a future of growth and prosperity.
We are committed to continuous improvements in all our operations to ensure the
highest level of customer satisfaction. We maintain a highly skilled workforce
devoted to meeting and exceeding customer needs.

51

To meet the current worldwide demand for wires and cables, Rallison has
undertaken several expansions of its production facility and quality measures.
These expanded and improved facilities enable Rallison to significantly reduce
quoted delivery time and remain a major player in the Indian and international
markets.
Our quality objectives are:
To maintain a quality system that complies with ISO 9001
To exceed industry performance standards
To employ vendors who share a commitment to quality
To ensure employees understand and support our quality system
The firm belief of the company in "Total Quality Assurance" in all its products
and services is based on customer needs and expectations. Continuous, dedicated
and innovative efforts are made by company's design/quality departments to assure
the Quality expectations stated or implied.
Quality Assurance
At Rallison Plant, there is an inbuilt system adopted for quality assurance. It is
consciously cultivated culture in the development and substance of which is
involved a highly skilled and educated workforce guided by experienced and
qualified engineers. Various steps and procedures are adopted to ensure consistent
quality and to meet the general/specific requirements which leads to total customer

52

satisfaction. We have complete in-house testing facilities for testing complete


range of our production including testing facilities for FR/ FRLS/ FS properties.
Design of Product
The concept of product is evolved and introduced at the design stage itself.
Customer's requirement & specifications are studied by a well experienced & well
qualified team of technocrats. Specifications are studied in detail & proper design
is undertaken. The Company standards for design and raw materials have been set
on the basis of Indian and Intenational Specifications.
Raw Material
Material selection is done by qualified and experienced team of engineers on the
basis of specifications and requirements. Quality of incoming material is checked
by lot wise sampling as per standards & specifications and ISO Procedures. All the
instruments/equipments used for testing are calibrated and well maintained.
Material is released only after getting satisfactory results. Purchase department is
given feedback on the quality of the incoming material. A written down procedure
is followed for the acceptance of material.
Process Inspection
Process inspection is carried out at each step & proper record is maintained. Tools
used for process inspection are calibrated and well maintained. High standards of
workmanship are laid down. This is achieved through regular inspection & checks

53

at different stages of productions. The process checks are supervised by


experienced technicians and monitored by the qualified engineers. Stage
inspection is carried out between each process as per written down quality
procedures. Only the product satisfying the design parameters and quality
standards is released for the next process.
Final Testing
The final product is tested for compliance for the standards/ Customers'
specifications. Routine tests/ Type tests and Special tests, if any are carried put in
respect of each product.
Routine tests are performed on 100% of the manufactured lengths to check the
parameters, which are likely to vary during production.
Type tests are performed on lot sampling basis as per the scheme of testing and
inspection to ensure that each batch provided meets the requirement of the
customer.
Special tests, if any are conducted as per the requirements of the customer.

3.3 CLIENTELE

54

We are registered as approved vendors with some of the prestigious organisations


like:
Govt. / Semi-Govt. / Other Bodies:
Abett Consultant
Aggarwal M.M. & Associates
Airforce Naval Housing Board
Airport Authority of India - Chennai, Trivendrum, New Delhi, Mumbai
Ajay Kumar Associates
Ansal Properties & Industries Ltd.
Archiograph
Bajaj Consulting Engineers
Beacon (Dr. Kalra)
Central Government Employees Welfare Housing Organization
Central Institute of Medicinal & Aromatic Plants (CIMAP)
Dalal Consultant

55

Desein Pvt. Ltd.


Design `n' Design
Development Consultant Ltd.
Directorate General of Supplies & Disposals (DGS&D)
Driplex Water Engg. Ltd.
Electro Consultant (Mr. Narayana)
Ener Save Consultant Pvt.Ltd.
Engineering Projects (India) Ltd.
Escon
G.D. Techno
Gautam & Gautam Asociates
Gautam Gaurav & Associates
Geo-Miller & Co. Ltd.
Gherzi Eastern Ltd.
Gian Consultancy Services
Gm Consultant
Gupta Consultant
Haryana State Electricity Board
Himachal Pradesh State Electricity Board
Instrumentation Ltd. Kota
International Airport Authority of India

56

Kanpur Electricity Supply Co. Ltd.


Kinetic Technology India
Kothari Associates
Life Insurance Corporation (LIC)
Lirio Lopez
Military Engineering Services
National Dairy Development Board
National Hydel Power Corporation Ltd.
National Industrial Development Corporation (NIDC)
National Thermal Power Corporation
O. P. Madan (A/C Consultant)
Om Brejesure Bijani
Oil & Natural Gas Commission (ONGC)
P.W.D. - Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh
Panki Thermal Power Station - Panki, Kanpur
Punjab State Electricity Board
R.K. & Associates
RSEB - Kota Thermal Power Stations
RSEB - Ramgarh Thermal Power Stations
RSEB - Suratgarh Thermal Power Stations
S Park Tech Consultants

57

S. K. Integrated
Sahara India Ltd.
Sarimanya Consultant
Semac
Stein Doshi & Bhalla
Sunil Nayyar Consultant
Technofab Engg. Ltd.
Technozeal Consultant
Tevatia Chauhan & Sharma
Unitech Ltd.
V.S. Kukreja & Associates
Virendra Khanna & Associates

3.4 MANUFACTURING PROCESS


Manufactuing of Cables
Cables with Aluminium and Copper conductor and polymer insulation are
manufactured at Works at Delhi and Bhiwadi. Essentially cables comprise of
conductors, insulation, innersheath, armour and outersheath.

Conductor
Rallison Cables are avialable with both aluminium and copper conductor.
Rallison Cables are manufactured with solid/ stranded circular/ shaped
58

Aluminium/ Copper conductor.


Stranding makes Cables flexible and easy to handle while shaping makes them
compact.
Compaction is provided to all stranded conductor constructions as under:
1. Circular Conductor: With one wire in the center conductor contains

6,12,18,24,30...... wire layers in either unilay or opposite helical directions.


The conductor is Compacted.
2. Shaped Conductor: In all multicore cables from 16 Sq.mm. size,

conductors are "Shaped". However 6 & 10 Sq.mm. conductor can be


solid/stranded circular.
3. Segmental Conductor: As a special case Rallison cables of 1600 Sq.mm.

are made up of segmental conductors.

Rallison Copper conductor cables are of the same construction that of cables with
Aluminium conductor except for high tensile strength, superior conductivity, better
flexibility and ease of jointing, Copper cables are used in control, instrumentation,
winding, submarine, mining and ship wiring etc. applications.
All conductors for Rallison Cables are manufactured strictly in accordance with
National and International specification.

59

National specifications - IS:8130


International specifications - IEC:60228/ BS:6360

Insulation
Insulation for Rallison Cables is strictly as per National and International
specifications. Rallison cables are designed and manufactured with polymer
dielectrics to bear thermal and thermomechanical stresses safely at continuous
normal and short circuit temperature conditions.
Rallison cables are available with both thermoplatic & thermo setting insulations.
PVC Cables - Thermoplastic dielectric
XLPE Cables - Thermo setting dielectric
Rallison PVC Cables use PVC Compounds that take care of over load and short
current with both course & fine protection systems.
Rallison XLPE cables use XLPE Compound with antiu-oxidant stablizers and
traces of aromatic polunuclear hydrocarbon. Thus improving electrical treeing
characteristics and mechanical strength of insulation.
Pair Screening
Two core are twisted to make a Pair. A tape of Polyester is applied over the Pair
and then another tape of Aluminium Mylar is applied alongwith Drain wire.
60

Laying Up
Cores are tested on line during production both for physical and electrical
characteristics. Control is observed within tight tolerance limits for dimensions in
case of PVC/XLPE insulation.
Overall Screening
A tape of Polyester is applied over the laid up pairs and then Aluminium Mylar is
applied along the Drain wire.
Inner Sheath
Laid up cables are provided with innersheath of Tape/Extruded PVC with high
quality of PVC which acts as bedding for steel wire/strip armouring and circularity
is maintained.
In Rallison cables- polymer used for innersheath are softer than insulation or
outersheath & are compatible with temperature ratings of cables & do not have
deleteriocus effects on any other component of cable.
The innersheath dimensions are maintained strictly in accordance with laid down
specification.
Specification
For PVC Cables - IS:1554 (Part-I)
For XLPE Cables - IS: 7098 (Part-I)

61

Armouring
Mechanical protection to the cable is provided with armouring. Rallison single
core cables are armoured with Aluminium or Aluminium wire/strips, thus avoiding
magnetic hysteresis losses on A.C. system.
Multicore cables are provided with galvanized steel wire/strips. Rallison cables are
provided with galvanized wire armouring, where cables are to run vertically and
are subject to strsses.
Rallison Mining Cables are armoured with double steel wire and tinned copper
wires, so as to provide conductivity of armour more than 75% of main conductor
of cable.
Rallison cables armour wire/strips are of low resistivity material and meet the
requirements of IS: 3975.
Outersheath
All Rallison cables are provided with PVC/HR PVC/FR/FRLS outersheath.
Rallison cables are manufactured with various characteristics of sheathing
compounds.
General purpose sheathing copound
Heat resistant Compound for sheath (H.R.)

ST-1
ST-2

Fire Retardant Low Smoke Compound (FRLS)

IEC

754

Part

62

IEC 60332 Part I & II


IEEE-

383

ASTM-

2843

ASTM- 2863
to EIL Specn.

Flame Retardant Compound (FR)

Ultra Violet Radiatoins Resistance Compound to ASTM G-53


Anti Rodent and Anti Termite Compound is applied where the customer ask for it.
PVC Compounds used for Rallison cables are of various grades to meet
specifications IS: 5831.
In

order

to

be

identified,

Rallison

cables

have

their

names

embossed/printed/intended on outersheath at regular intervals.


ON the outersheath of Rallison cables. Voltage grade, Cable size, Trade Name &
year of manufacture are embossed, as desired by the customer.
Cables are sequentially marked for length at every metre throughout its length.
Final Testing
Each Rallison Cable is tested for all applicable Routine Tests. From a lot of Cable
one cable of each type is tested for Type Tests, as per relevant specifications.
Rallison conduct its testing at Rollex Electroproducts (P) Ltd. cable plant at Delhi
for acceptance test as per specification.

63

Testing of Rallison Cables are carried out as per Rallison work standards for
testing, besides applicable standards.

3.5 CERTIFICATE

64

65

66

OBJECTIVES

67

4. OBJECTIVE

Objective of the Projected Study and Analysis the Market assessment of the
Rallison Electricals Pvt. Ltd Products and their consumer behavior.

1. To study the Consumer Behavior.


2. To Study the Consumer Buying Behavior
3. Brand awareness of Rallison Electricals Pvt. Ltd Products.
4. To study the consumer preference regarding different Rallison Electricals
Pvt. Ltd Products in the market
5. Psychology of individual regarding their buying behavior
6. Feedback regarding design, packing and price of the brand
7. To study the consumer preference regarding Rallison Electricals Pvt. Ltd
Products.
8. Study of promotion mix of Rallison Electricals Pvt. Ltd for various
products.

68

SCOPE OF THE
STUDY

69

5. SCOPE OF THE STUDY


The scope of my project stands for:

1. Consumer Behavior
2. Consumer Buying Behavior
3. Brand Value
4. Consumers & future Customers

Consumer behavior for family products is significantly influenced by whether


the product is hygienic and suitable to their pocket. This study indicated that
consumers noticed the difference in clear, colored closures right away and were
drawn to clear because it is more attractive, stands out, looks different and gives
the product a special status among the competition.

70

RESEARCH
METHODOLOGY

71

6. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The Research Methodology used by me for the purpose of this project is as
follows:Research Design:The research design used here for this project is a combination of Exploratory &
Explanatory designs. First a general know about of the Consumer Behavior
about Rallison Electricals Pvt. Ltd Products. Then personal interactions with
the people concerned are made to figure out the results and random survey too.

Data Collection Method:-

According to the needed research of the project; I pursued both primary &
secondary data collection methods. I have used Rallison Electricals Pvt. Ltd
Official web sites, some publications on the net, & Rallison Electricals Pvt. Ltd
Products information broacher for secondary data collection. To ensure the
accuracy of the results the primary data collection method used is the structured
interview method.

72

Sampling:The sampling units in my project are Consumers. The sample size was small by
following the convenience sampling method. There were queries for the persons
interacted & the questionnaire have been attached at last.
Sample Size: 50
Field Work:Basic field work was assigned by the Rallison Electricals Pvt. Ltd Subsidiary
situated at GURDGAO.
The fieldwork conducted by me was mainly concerned with getting the
information from the Customers. For the purpose I visited the Local market, for
the behavior about Rallison Electricals Pvt. Ltd Products.
Apart from this I have collected the data with the help of questionnaire from the
consumers of different age groups.

The Research stands for:1. To know how of the actual phenomenon occurring & exploring the new
ideas with a clear & precise insight.
2. To test the hypothesis with being variables to be compared within their
relationship.

73

Data Analysis & Interpretation:The statistical tools used by me are mainly average, Percentage, & comparisons
etc. I would like to give brief points about

1. Questionnaire: - The questionnaires are given to respondent with no


pressurization at all, i.e. he/she is free to provide the information whatever
the concern is. One thing to be kept in mind that personal question apart
from name, address etc. should not be included.
2. Direct Interviews: - The direct interviews are one up against all the data
collection tools just because one can judge that what a person is telling to
the surveyor. Although it is time consuming but the information gathered is
of much more weight age than others.
3. Sampling design, Procedure & Sample size:-A sample is always a part of
the desired universe & it should represent each & every aspect of the study
being conducted. The only thing is that the sample being chosen is of
relevance & accurate source of information. My sampling design is based
on random sampling because each element gets probability to be included
& all choices made are independent of each other.

74

Limitations:The main limitation encountered during the project course was the responding
error by Management Executives & Consumers, but the approximate figures of
data & facts are sufficient for the purpose of this project.

75

DATA
ANALYSIS

76

7. DATA ANALYSIS
1. Which Rallison Electricals Pvt. LtdProduct do you use most?

Automative parts and components

Electrical Cables and Wires

19

Electronic and Telecom Cables

11

Plastic, PVC & PU Products

13

Interpretation: Out of 50 respondents 38 % are using Electric Cables and Wires of


Rallison Electricals Pvt. Ltd Cables, 26 % uses Plastic, PVC & PU products, 22 % are
using Electronic and Telecom Cables and the rest 14 % are using Automative parts and
components.

77

2. What do you preferred in product?

Quality

17

Effectiveness

13

Packing

Market Demand

13

Interpretation: 34 % believes in quality, 26 % believe in Effectiveness and Market


Demand and the rest 14 % in packing.

78

3. Which product do you prefer most?

Control Cable

General Wiring Cable

21

Flexible Cable

PVC Power Cables

11

Interpretation: Out of 50 respondents, 42 % are using General Wiring Cables, 22 % are


using PVC power cables, and 18 % are using Flexible as well as Control cables.

79

4. What do you like in your preferred brand? (Plz rank in order 1,2,3.n)

21

17

12

80

5. If you dont get prefer brand in some area will you compromise it other one?

Yes

31

No

19

Interpretation: Out of 50 respondents, 62 % of the consumer dont compromise on


prefer brands and 38 % compromise in case of rates, availability etc.

81

6. What is the single most important benefit you want to convey about your thinking
of Product/Service?

Best

27

Easily Accessible

18

Not Satisfactory

Interpretation: The single most important benefit you want to convey about your
thinking of Product/Service is that 54 % says it is best, 36 % says it is easily accessible
and the rest 10 % says not satisfactory.

82

7. What identity you like in the Rallison Electricals Pvt. LtdProducts?

Renowned Product

29

Packing is attractive

Easily Available

10

Less Complaints

Interpretation:

Out of 50 respondents, identity the consumer like in the Rallison

Electricals Pvt. Ltd Products, 58 % says it is a renowned product, 20 % says easy


accessible, 14 % says that it has less complaints and the rest 8 % says it has attractive
packaging.

83

8. How frequently you use Rallison Electricals Pvt. Ltd Products?

Daily

33

Weekly

Monthly

Occasionally

Interpretation: 66 % of the 50 respondents are daily using the Rallison Electricals Pvt.
Ltd products in case of their home electric switching, 14 % of them are using weekly and
occasionally and the rest 6 % are using monthly.

84

9. Would you change your choice with decrease of price?

Yes

17

No

33

Interpretation: Out of 50 respondents, 66 % responded that if they get the product

at less price they wont change their choice whereas 34 % can.

85

SUGGESTIONS &
RECOMMENDATION
S

86

SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Rallison Electricals Pvt. Ltd gives the power to identify, understand and
target best customers and prospects. By applying the Rallison Electricals Pvt. Ltd
segments and prospect databases, one move beyond the limits.
Consumer will gain valuable insight into purchasing behavior and preferences,
revealing best to buy and which products or services they want.
Rallison Electricals Pvt. Ltd has to:
Determine the best cross-sell and up-sell opportunities
Find new prospects by supplying good products and turn them into profitable
customers
Create marketing and selling strategies that will increase sales
Evaluate market potential for specific products and services
Customize product or service messages by target segment
Analyze consumer behavior and usage for product development

87

CONCLUSION

88

CONCLUSION
Consumers are very much in use of electric and plastic PVC cables.
Most of the consumers believe in quality and the effectiveness of the electric product of

Rallison Electricals Pvt. Ltd.


General Wiring Cables and PVC power cables are in use, Flexible as well as Control
cables also.
The consumer dont compromise on prefer brands in case of rates, availability etc.
The single most important benefit you want to convey about your thinking of
Product/Service is that it is best and easily accessible.
Identity the consumer like in the Rallison Electricals Pvt. Ltd Products, it is a renowned
product and easy accessible moreover it has less complaints and has attractive packaging.
Most of the respondents are daily using the Rallison Electricals Pvt. Ltd products in case
of their home electric switching.

According to the respondents even if they get the product at less price they wont
change their choice.

89

SWOT
ANALYSIS

90

SWOT ANALYSIS
SWOT Analysis (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Threat)
Strengths: - The key strengthening elements of Rallison Electricals Pvt. Ltd
Products are:
(a) Healthy amount of respect & reputation all over the world.
(b) Extensive network distribution coverage.
(c) The infrastructure is world class.
Weaknesses: - The weaknesses coming out to be:
(a) Losing Market share, i.e. unable to retain customers.
(b) Weak & unprofessional Advertisement Network.
(c) Inappropriate pricing strategy.
(d) Lack of feedback & continuous interaction with dealers.
(e) Better Environment, Good Marketing Strategy and Latest Developments
Opportunities: - The future gains can be from:
(a) Growing & constant demand Rallison Electricals Pvt. LtdProducts.
(b) Consumer is educated one & demands quality not the quantity.
(c) The customer is ready to pay more to receive the quality products.
(d) The advertisement can be a collective one for all its products.
Threats: - The major threats are :
(a) Competition.

91

BIBLIOGRAPHY

92

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Books

Britt, S, Psychological Principals of Marketing and Consumer Behavior,


Lexington Books, Lexington, Massachusetts, 1978.

Cohen, J, Behavioral Science Foundations of Consumer Behavior, The Free Press,


Macmillian Ltd., New York, 1972.

Minor, M and Mowen, J, Consumer Behavior: 5th ed, 1998. Upper Saddle River,
New Jersey. Prentice Hall, Inc.

Foxall, G and Goldsmith, R, Consumer Psychology for Marketing, 1994. London,


J&L Composition Ltd.

Websites

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Consumer_behaviour

http://www.rallison.com/php/certificates.php

http://www.consumerpsychologist.com/

93

ANNEXURE

94

ANNEXURE: QUESTIONNAIRE
Name:
Address:
Age:
Sex:

_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________

1. Which Rallison Electricals Pvt. Ltd Product do you use most?


A.
B.
C.
D.

Automative parts and components


Electrical Cables and Wires
Electronic and Telecom Cables
Plastic, PVC & PU Products

2. What do you preferred in product?


A.
B.
C.
D.

Quality
Effectiveness
Packing
Market Demand

3. Which product do you prefer most?


A.
B.
C.
D.

Control Cable
General Wiring Cable
Flexible Cable
PVC Power Cables

4. What do you like in your preferred brand? (Plz rank in order 1,2,3.n)
A. 1
B. 2
C. 3

95

5. If you dont get prefer brand in some area will you compromise it other one?
A. Yes
B. No
If yes (Give Reasons)

6. What is the single most important benefit you want to convey about your thinking of
Product/Service?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Best
Very Best
Easily Accessible
Not Satisfactory

7. What identity you like in the Rallison Electricals Pvt. Ltd Products?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Renowned Product
Packing is attractive
Easily Available
Less Complaints

8. How frequently you use Rallison Electricals Pvt. Ltd Products?


A.
B.
C.
D.

Daily
Weekly
Monthly
Occasionally

9. Would you change your choice with decrease of price?


A. Yes
B. No

96