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control volume analysis , thermodynamics

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6 vues10 pagescontrol volume analysis , thermodynamics

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A large number of engineering problems involve mass flow in and out of a system and, therefore,

are modeled as control volumes (e.g. water heater, radiator, turbine, compressor, etc...) In general, any

arbitrary region may be selected as a control volume, but making a proper choice simplifies the solution

process.

The boundaries of a control volume are called the control surface, and they can be real or

imaginary (e.g. see nozzle below).

Real

Boundary

Imaginary

Boundary

Control

Volume

(a nozzle)

A control volume can be fixed in size and shape or possess moving boundaries (e.g. shock

absorber).

A Few Definitions:

steady: implies no change with time; the opposite of transient

uniform: implies no change with location

It is very important that you learn the significance of these definitions!

The conservation of mass is one of the fundamental principles in nature. Simply stated, it

asserts that mass is a conserved property and can not be created or destroyed. The conservation of

mass principle for a control volume (CV) undergoing a process can be expressed as:

mi

me

m CV

(4.1.1)

Total mass leaving

Net change in mass

control volume

control volume

within control volume

where the subscripts i, e, and CV stand for inlet, exit, and control volume, respectively. The conservation

of mass equation may also be expressed on a time rate basis by expressing all quantities per unit time.

The conservation of mass principle is also often referred to the continuity equation in fluid

mechanics.

ENGS205--Introductory Thermodynamics

page 39

The amount of mass flowing through a cross-section per unit time is called the mass flow rate

.

and is denoted by m . In most practical applications, the mass flow rate in a pipe or duct can be

evaluated using the following expression ...

(4.1.2)

where Vav is the average

. bulk fluid velocity and A is the cross-sectional area normal to the flow direction.

The volume flow rate V is the volume of fluid flowing through a cross section per unit time and is given

by:

.

V = V av A

(4.1.3)

Thus, the mass flow and volume flow rates are related by: m = V

(4.1.4)

The first law of thermodynamics attributes the changes in total energy of a closed system to

heat and work interactions. For control volumes, however, an additional mechanism can change the

energy of a system: mass flow in and out of the control volume! When mass enters a control volume, the

energy of the control volume increases because the entering mass carries energy with it. Likewise, when

some mass leaves the control volume, the energy contained within the control volume decreases

because the leaving mass takes out some energy with it. Then the conservation of energy equation for a

control volume undergoing a process can be expressed as:

(4.1.5)

QW

heat and work

E in

Total energy of

mass entering CV

E out

Total energy of

mass leaving CV

E CV

Net change in

in energy of CV

If no mass enters or leaves the control volume, the second and third terms drop out and the

above equation becomes the first law for closed systems.

Flow Work:

Unlike closed systems, control volumes involve mass flow across their boundaries, and some

work is required to push the mass into or out of the control volume. This is known as flow work, or flow

energy. The work done in pushing the fluid across the boundary (i.e. flow work) is:

(4.1.6)

The total energy of closed system (non-flowing fluid) is expressed as:

(4.1.7)

ENGS205--Introductory Thermodynamics

page 39

The fluid entering or leaving a control volume possesses an additional form of energy--the flow

energy Pv ! Then the total energy of a flowing fluid on a unit-mass basis (denoted ) becomes:

= Pv + e = Pv + u + ke + pe

(4.1.8)

But the combination Pv+u has been previously defined as the enthalpy h. So the above relation reduces

to:

(4.1.9)

Note!

By using the enthalpy instead of the internal energy to represent the energy of a

flowing fluid, you do not need to be concerned about the flow work!

Processes involving steady-flow devices (turbines, compressors, nozzles, etc...) can be

represented reasonably well by a somewhat idealized process, called the steady-flow process. A

steady-flow process can be defined as a process during which a fluid flows through a control volume

steadily. That is, the fluid properties can change from point to point within the control volume, but at any

fixed point they remain the same during the entire process. A steady-flow process is characterized by

the following:

No properties (intensive or extensive) within the control volume change with time. As a result,

boundary work is zero for steady-flow systems.

No properties change at the boundaries (control surface) of the control volume with time.

The heat and work interactions between a steady-flow system and its surroundings do not

change with time.

Conservation of Mass:

During a steady-flow process, the total amount of mass contained within a control volume does

not change with time. The conservation of mass principle for steady-flow systems requires that the

total amount of mass entering a control volume equal the total amount leaving it (e.g. see figure below).

CV

m

m

m

3 = 1+ 2

ENGS205--Introductory Thermodynamics

page 39

The conservation of mass principle for a general steady-flow system with multiple inlets and exits

can be expressed in the rate form as:

.

mi

.

me

CV per unit time

(4.2.1)

CV per unit time

If the conservation of mass principle exists, what about conservation of volume? (Hint: think

about the definition of density (or specific volume) and compressibility!)

Conservation of Energy:

It was pointed out earlier that system properties remain constant for the duration of a

steady-state process. In order for the total energy of an open system undergoing a steady-state process

to remain constant, the amount of energy entering a control volume in all forms (heat, work, mass

transfer) must be equal to the amount of energy leaving it. By this line of reasoning, the conservation

of energy principle for a general steady-flow system with multiple inlets and exits can be

mathematically stated as:

.

.

Q W

.

me

boundary as heat and work

per unit time

out of CV with mass per

unit time

.

mi

(4.2.2)

Total energy transported

into CV with mass per

unit time

where is the tot al energy of the flowing fluid, including the flow work, per unit mass. Eq. (4.2.2) can

also be expressed as:

(4.2.3)

.

Dividing Eq. (4.2.3) by m gives the first law relation for control volumes on a unit-mass basis, or ...

q w = h e +

V 2e

2g c

gz e

gc

hi +

V 2i

2g c

gz i

gc

(4.2.4)

Many engineering devices operate essentially under the same conditions for long periods of time

(e.g. components of a steam power plant). Therefore, these devices can be conveniently analyzed as

steady-flow devices.

ENGS205--Introductory Thermodynamics

page 39

Nozzles and diffusers are commonly utilized in jet engines, rockets, spacecraft, and even garden

hoses. A nozzle is a device that increases the velocity of the fluid at the expense of pressure. A

diffuser is a device that increases the pressure of a fluid by slowing it down. The cross-sectional area of

a nozzle decreases in the flow direction for subsonic flows and increases for supersonic flows. The

reverse is true for diffusers.

Nozzle

Diffuser

The relative importance of the terms appearing in the energy equation for nozzles and

diffusers is as follows:

Q 0: The rate of heat transfer between the fluid flowing through a nozzle or a diffuser and

the surroundings is usually very small. This is mainly due to the fluid's having high velocities and thus not

spending enough time in the device for any significant heat transfer to take place. Therefore, in the

absence of heat transfer data, the flow through nozzles and diffusers may be assumed to be adiabatic.

W = 0: The work term for nozzles and diffusers is zero since these devices basically are

properly shaped ducts and they involve no shaft or electrical work.

KE 0 : Nozzles and diffusers usually involve large changes in velocity. Therefore, kinetic

energy changes must be accounted for in analyzing the flow through these devices.

PE 0 : The fluid usually experiences little or no change in elevation and therefore the

potential energy term can be neglected.

In power plants, the device that drives the electric generator is the turbine. As the fluid passes

through the turbine, work is done against a blade that is attached to a shaft. As a result, the shaft

rotates, and the turbine produces work. Compressors, as well as pumps, are devices used to increase

the pressure of a fluid (compressors are for gases and pumps are for liquids). Work is supplied to these

devices from an external source through a rotating shaft (e.g. the A/C compressor in your car is driven off

a belt). Typical schematics of a turbine and compressor are shown on the next page.

For turbines and compressors, the relative magnitudes of the various terms appearing in the

energy equation are as follows:

Q 0: The heat transfer in these devices is generally small relative to the shaft work, unless

there is intentional cooling.

W 0: All of these devices involve rotating shafts crossing their boundaries, and therefore the

.

work term is important. For turbines, W represents the power output; for pumps and compressors, it

represents the power input.

ENGS205--Introductory Thermodynamics

page 39

Turbine

Compressor

Shaft (-)

Work

Shaft

Work (+)

KE 0 : The velocities involved with these devices, with the exception of turbines, are

usually too low to cause any significant change in kinetic energy. In turbines, this change in kinetic

energy is usually very small relative to the change in enthalpy, and is often disregarded.

PE

Throttling Valves:

Throttling valves are any kind of flow-restricting devices that cause a significant pressure drop

in the fluid. Unlike turbines, throttling valves produce a pressure drop without any kind of work. The

pressure drop in the fluid is often accompanied by a large drop in temperature, and for that reason

throttling devices are commonly used in refrigeration and air-conditioning applications. An adjustable

throttling valve is shown below.

The relative magnitudes of the energy equation terms is discussed below ...

KE 0 : Even though the exit velocity is often considerably higher, the change in kinetic

energy is insignificant.

PE

The conservation of energy equation for a throttling valve readily reduces to:

he

hi

(4.3.1)

... and for this reason, throttling valves are sometimes called isenthalpic devices.

ENGS205--Introductory Thermodynamics

page 39

Mixing Chambers:

In engineering applications, mixing two streams of fluids is not a rare occurrence. The section

where the mixing process takes place is commonly referred to as a mixing chamber.

Mixing

Chamber

KE

PE

Heat Exchangers:

Heat exchangers are devices where two moving fluid streams exchange heat without mixing.

Heat exchangers are used widely in industries, and they come in numerous designs. The simplest form

of a heat exchanger is a double-tube (shown below) or tube-and-shell heat exchanger. It's composed of

two concentric pipes of different diameters (i.e., a pipe within a pipe). One fluid flow in the inner pipe, and

the other in the annular space between the pipes. Heat is transferred through the wall separating the two

fluids.

Fluid B

Fluid A

Q 0: This must be absolutely true! Otherwise, the heat exchanger you're analyzing doesn't

exchange heat!

ENGS205--Introductory Thermodynamics

page 39

KE

PE

The transport of liquids or gases in pipes and ducts is of great importance in many engineering

applications. When flow through pipe or ducts is analyzed, the following points should be considered:

Q 0: Under normal operating conditions, the amount of heat gained or lost by the fluid can

be very significant, particularly if the pipe or duct is long and not insulated.

W 0: If the control volume involves a heating section (electric wires, a fan, or a pump (shaft),

the work interaction should be considered.

KE

PE 0 : Potential energy consideration are important when a fluid is pump through great

elevation changes.

Many processes of engineering interest involve changes within the control volume with time.

Such processes are called unsteady-flow, or transient-flow processes.

Important point!

The steady-flow relations developed in the previous sections are not applicable to

these processes!

When an unsteady-flow process is analyzed, it is important to keep track of the mass and energy

contents of the control volume as well as the energy interactions across the boundary. Some familiar

unsteady flow processes are the charging of rigid vessels from supply lines, discharging a fluid from a

pressure vessel, inflating tires or balloons, and even cooking with an ordinary pressure cooker. Unlike

steady-flow processes, unsteady-flow processes start and end over a finite time period t. Another

difference between steady and unsteady-flow processes is that steady-flow systems are fixed in space, in

size, and in shape. Unsteady -flow systems, however, are not. They are usually stationary, but involve

moving boundaries (boundary work!)

Conservation of Mass:

Unlike the case of steady-flow processes, the amount of mass within the control volume does

change with time during an unsteady-flow process. The degree of change depends on the amount of

mass entering and leaving the control volume during the process. The conservation of mass

principle for unsteady-flow processes is mathematically stated as ...

ENGS205--Introductory Thermodynamics

page 39

mi

Total mass entering

CV during t

me

m CV

CV during t

(4.4.1)

within CV during t

If all the terms in Eq. (4.4.1) are divided by t and taking the limit as t

0 gives ..

(4.4.2)

where dmCV / dt is the time rate of change of mass contained within the control volume.

Conservation of Energy:

Unlike the steady-flow process, the energy content of a control volume changes with time during

an unsteady-flow process. The degree of change depends on the amount of energy transfer across the

system boundaries as heat and work as well as on the amount of energy transported into and out of the

control volume by mass during the process. That is, we have to keep track of the energy flowing into and

out of the control volume for the duration of the unsteady process t. The conservation of energy

principle for a control volume undergoing an unsteady process for a time interval t is

QW

boundary as heat and

work during t

CV during t

CV during t

E CV

(4.4.3)

Net change in energy

of CV during t

If all the terms in Eq. (4.4.3) are divided by t and taking the limit as t

0 gives ...

(4.4.4)

.

.

where i and e are the rates at which energy is transported with mass into and out of the control

volume respectively, and dECV / dt is the time rate of change of energy within the control volume.

In Eq. (4.4.3), the heat and work terms (Q and W) can be determined by external measurements.

The total energy of the control volume at the beginning and end states of the process (E1 and E 2 ) can be

easily determined by measuring the relevant properties of the substance at these two states. The total

energy transported into or out of the control volume (i , e), however, is not as easy to determine since

the properties of the mass at each inlet or exit may be changing with time as well as over the

cross-section. Thus, the only way to determine the energy transport through an opening as a result of

mass flow is to consider sufficiently small differential masses m that have uniform properties and add to

their total energies.

Total mass, m

divided up into

numerous

differential masses,

m

ENGS205--Introductory Thermodynamics

page 39

The total energy of a flowing fluid of mass m is m. Then the total energy transported by mass through

an inlet or exit (i , e) is obtained by integrating. At an inlet, for example, it becomes ...

(4.4.5)

or, in the rate form ...

(4.4.6)

The energy equation for unsteady-processes in control volumes becomes:

(4.4.7)

... and ...

(4.4.8)

Uniform-Flow Processes:

A uniform-flow process is a simplified unsteady-flow process involving the following idealizations:

At any instant during the process, the state of the control volume is uniform (the same

throughout spatially). Therefore, the state of the mass exiting the control volume at any instant is the

same as the state of the mass in the control volume at that instant.

The fluid properties may differ from one inlet or exit to another, but the fluid flow at an inlet or

exit is uniform and steady.

Under these idealizations, Eq. (4.4.7) becomes ...

(4.4.9)

where u1 and u2 are the initial and final specific internal energies of the system.

ENGS205--Introductory Thermodynamics

page 39