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INTRODUCTION

Cellular respiration is a process of food molecules oxidation to produce


energy in ATP form; it includes aerobic and aerobic respiration. An aerobic
respiration occurs in the presence of oxygen and the oxygen act as a final
electron acceptor. An anaerobic respiration is also known as a fermentation
process, which occurs in the absence of oxygen that uses an organic molecule as
a final electron acceptor.
In the yeast cells, the fermentation process produces 2 ATP, carbon dioxide and
the wasteful product, ethanol. During this process, NADH will donate the atom
hydrogen to keep generating c f NAD+ and continue the fermentation process.

OBJECTIVE(S)

To identify the type of cell respiration in the yeast.

To interpret the results on yeast reaction by using blue methylene as


the artificial hydrogen acceptor.

APPARATUS & MATERIALS


Test tubes
Measuring cylinder
Beaker 250 cm
Parafilm

Blue methylene 0.5 %


Fresh yeast 10% + Glucose 1%
Water bath (38c 42c)

METHODOLOGY

1. Test tubes was labelled A, B and C.


2. 10

cm

of fresh yeast was poured into the test tubes.

3. Test tube C was placed in a beaker of boiling water for five minutes.
4. 10 drops of blue methylene was dropped into each of the test tube and
were shake well.
5. All the test tubes were placed in water bath for fifteen minutes. The
colour in each of the test tube was recorded.
6. Test tube B was placed into a beaker of boiling water for five minutes.
7. A rubber stopper was inserted into each test tube and the test tubes
were well shake. The colour change was recorded in each of the test tube.
8. The rubber stopper was removed and the test tubes were placed in the
water bath for fifteen minutes. The colour change in each of the test tubes
was recorded.

RESULTS
Table 3.1: Yeast reaction
Test tube

The colour observed


X

Colour change
from blue to
white

White to
greenish blue

Precipitate
formed (white)

Colour change
from blue to
white

From white to
turquoise

From white to
turquoise

Remain blue

From blue to
turquoise

From blue to
turquoise

QUESTIONS & ANSWERS


1. Explain the biochemical process that happened in the test
tubes based on your observation.
Test tube A and B change to colourless because of respiration and test
tube C did not turn to colourless because the yeast is dead. Test tube C
was placed in the water bath of boiling water. After shaking test tube A
the tube turns to blue again because of reoxygenating the methylene
blue.

2. Does this reaction controlled by enzyme? Give your reason.


Yes. Because many aspects of fermentation require enzymatic reactions in
order to proceed.

3. Give one example of structure or substance in living cell that is


represented by blue methylene.
Nucleus.

4. Name the process that involves the activity demonstrated in


this experiment.
Fermentation.

DISCUSSION
The purpose of this lab was to identify the type of cell respiration and to
interpret the results on yeast reaction by using blue methylene as the

artificial hydrogen acceptor. The result was determined by observing the


colour changes using blue methylene. Firstly, we poured 10 ml of fresh
yeast into each of test tube that labelled A, B and C. The test tubes C were
boiled for 5 minutes and was well shake. Then, we add methylene blue
into each of the test tube and put in a water bath (38 C42 C for 15
minutes. The colour changes that we observed in test tube A is from blue
to white. Despite, the colour changes in test tube B is from blue to white
and test tube C remain blue. Test tube A and B obviously turns white
colour because of respiration. Test tube C doesnt change and remains
blue because yeast cannot be having an effect as the boiling would kill it,
so it must be function of the heat involved in boiling. Then, the
experiment was continued by placing the test tube B in a beaker of boiling
water for 5 minutes and then covered by parafilm into each of test tube
and shake it. We observed that the colour changes in test tube a change
from white to greenish blue. In test tube B, the colour change from white
to turquoise and test tube C change from blue to turquoise. Test tube A
turn to greenish blue because of reoxygenating the methylene blue. While
test tube B change from white to turquoise. It may be reoxidising. Then
test tube C change from blue to turquoise. Then, the parafilm were
removed and the test tube was placed in the water bath again for 15
minutes. We observed that the colour changes in test tube A were
changes into white precipitate. While, test tube B remain unchanged and
test tube C remain unchanged too. We observed that many parallax error
that effect on the result. For the precautions, the test tube must be
shaking carefully. Despite, the time taken must be precise, when we
measure the volume of substances, the eye must be perpendicular to get
an accurate result.

CONCLUSION
In conclusion, the data supported the hypothesis. We can conclude that, the type
of cell respiration in the yeast was identified and the results on yeast reaction by
using blue methylene as the artificial hydrogen acceptor was intrepret.Although
there is a lot of inaccuracy between the steps, the results can be determined.
Some improvements can be made to this procedure and experiments such as
use more professional equipment such as electrical stirrer or any advance stirrer.
Other than that, we can improve this experiment by increasing the quantity of
water bath equipment. Next, with the aid of rubber stopper we can shake the
test tube better than using the parafilm.

REFERENCE (S)

Internet

www.whitelabs.com/files/Enzyme-Catalog.pdf

www.studyzones.com/questionzone/yeast
Book

Biology Solomon 9th edition