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JEEIVITA KATHIRVELU PILLAI

NUR AFFIA BINTI HELIMIN


MOHD RAHMAT BIN ABDULLAH
TAUFIQ

Adverb : Single word which modifies verb


E.g; The sun shine brightly, he smile widely.

(bright, wide= adjective + -ly)


Adverbial : Words and phrases that modifies
verb similarly to adverb
E.g; She called this morning.

Clause : group of words which consist of


subject and verb
E.g ; she walked , I cried

Phrase : a group of words which usually


consist of present / past participle
E.g; speeding away, Katy and Samantha

Tells us when something happens and start with


words like when, now, as long as, as soon as,
until and while.
Eg :
1. A lie can travel half way around the world
while the truth is just putting on its shoes.
2. As long as you complete your homework, you
may go to the playground.

Applicable if the clause has a form of be.


Basic rule of changing/reducing a clause into
a phrase is omitting the noun/pronoun
While they were in Italy, they had trouble.
While in Italy, they had trouble.
they were are omitted = clause is reduced
into a phrase.

Try to reduce;
Eg:
While I was in Italy, they had
trouble.
*While in Italy, they had trouble.
Reduction of clause cannot be done because
sentence will become ambiguous.
Thus, reduction of clause into a phrase need to
take into consideration the noun/pronoun that
exist in the sentence
More than 1 noun cannot do reduction

Applicable if clause has no form of be.


1. Noun/pronoun is omitted verb is changed
into -ing form.
Before we left, we visited Rome
Before leaving, we visited Rome
When they saw Lisa speak, many of them are
surprised
On/upon seeing Lisa speak, many of them are
surprised.

2. Noun/pronoun is omitted add having +


past participle
After they had opened the door, they saw the
blood
After having opened the door, they saw the
blood

Omission of subordinating conjunction in clause


change it into adverbial phrase

While I sit on the porch, I thought about my


future.
Sitting on the porch, I thought about my future.

While they waited at the hospital, they were


deeply troubled.
Waiting at the hospital, they were deeply
troubled.

How to remember?
Adverb clause > adverb phrase > adverbial
phrase
Since the children were sleeping in the car,
the children were not aware of what was
happening.
Since sleeping in the car, the children were
not aware of what was happening.
Sleeping in the car, the children were not
aware of what was happening.

Watch video :-

http://www.showme.com/sh/?h=ez3zMBM

Time clauses with "while" and "when" can be


reduced by deleting the subject and "be" verb.

If there is no "be" verb, change the verb in the


subordinating clause to its -ing form. Sometimes
the subordinator (when or while) can be deleted as
well.

If the subjects are different, you may not reduce


the adverbial clause.

Be careful when reducing time clauses that come at


the end of sentences.

THE END