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Q1. Professor A. Van Cauwenbergh of Antwerp University, in a paper presented at the Tenth
Anniversary Conference of the European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management presented
four revisions to traditional Management Theory. In summary, the revisions are:
(1) The initiative for the renewal and adjustment of the activities of a firm should come from the
different levels in the management hierarchy. Strategy is not a privilege of top management.
(2) Firms, especially big firms, are incoherent systems (goals of the different component systems are
not simply subdivisions of an overall goal; there are individual, conflicting goal as well).
Some of these differences are manifestations of organizational initiative and vitality. Using
information systems and central planning and rule-making to suppress all differences is destructive
to organizations.
(3) the most vital fluid of an enterprise is the aggregate of its entrepreneurial values. The most
fundamental and motivation and control come through these shared values relative to work, quality,
efficiency, etc. Management often neglects these values and assumes that the collection and
dissemination of information will provide sufficient motivation and control.
(4) Enterprises are open systems; their structure and operating processes are determined by their
environment. This means organizations must be designed to continually adjust to the environment.
a. If these revisions are correct, how is planning to be organized?
b. How should the information system support the planning organization?
(Explaining the organizational planning process with diagram-4, Guidelines for planning MIS-2,
Comparing MIS plan and Business Plan (at least two)-2, Explaining significant problem of the Lewis
model-2) 10 marks

A.) Organizational planning process with diagram
The overall implementation activity. The system designers are change agents who speed up the process of
implementation. As the project deals with people it has to be dealt with care. The user of the system has a
certain fear complex when a the work culture changes. The foremost fear is the consequences of
changeover from the old to the new system. Care has to be taken to assure the user that these fears are
baseless. The second fear is about the role played by the person in the organisation and how the change
affects him/her. On many occasions, the new role may reduce his importance in the organisation or the
work design may make the new job impersonal. This may reinforce the fear complex and the career
prospects of the user may be affected. Systems designer leads the implementation of the project by a set of
guidelines to ensure success.

The Lewin's model suggests three steps in this process.

1. The first step is to communicate openly within the organisation. This makes everyone in the organisation
look forward to the new system or the changes with a sense of pride
2. The second step is to outline a list of activities specifying when they begin and reach the desired level of
3. The third step is refreezing and reinforcing. This process is often implemented through an external
change agent, such as a consultant playing the role of a catalyst.

Guidelines for planning MIS
Systems designer leads the implementation of the project by a set of guidelines to ensure success. The
systems designer should:
1. Offer a service for the user and should not allow scope creep by bowing down to their demands. .
2. Remember that the system design is the basic document of reference that connects the user and the
designer in the development of a system. In designing a system, the technical needs and the information
needs are listed separately and clearly. The designer should develop a design relevant to the chosen
technology to meet the information needs.
3. Impress upon the user of the system that the design meets the present and future needs.
4. Remember that it is up to the user to use the information in way he thinks is proper for decision-making.
5. Indicate to the user that the quality of inputs decides the quality of information.
6. Remind the user you are one of the persons in the company and the information is a common resource
hence you are expected to contribute to the development of the MIS.
7. The user commits to the requirements of the system design specifications. The designer should contribute
substantially to the quality of the information and successful implementation.
8. Management has to accept the proposed system
9. Not expect perfect understanding and knowledge from the user as he may not have technical knowledge
regarding system development. The user is often a person with knowledge of business and not on the
technical aspects of the systems development activities. Explain to the user that the change, which is easily
possible in manual system, is not as easy in the computer system as it calls for changes in the programs.
10. Apprise the user that perfect information is non-existent and therefore his role is important in the
organisation to provide accurate reliable information.
11. On a priority, solve the organizational issues before the MIS is developed.
12. Periodically conduct the formal review meetings to know the issues and problems faced by them. It is
through interaction that solutions are found for problems.
13. Train the user in computer application and systems analysis as his understanding of the computerized
information system may differ. Implementation of the MIS in an organisation is a process where change can
occur in a number of ways.
Comparing MIS plan and Business Plan
It is necessary to develop the objectives for the MIS to support the business goals. The MIS goals and
objectives consider management philosophy, policy constraints, business risks, internal and external
environment of the organization. Business plan is general in nature and is available across the departments
to facilitate communication and attain of organizations goals.

Table-1: depicts Business Plan vs. MIS Plan.

Business plan
1. Business goals, business plan and strategy.

MIS plan
1. Management information system
Objectives are consistent with the

2. Strategy planning and decisions.

business goals and objectives.

2. Information strategy for the business plan
implementation plays a supportive role.

3. Management plan for execution and control. 3.

Operation plan for the execution

a) Architecture of the Management Information

System to support decisions.
b) System development schedule, matching the plan
c) Hardware and software plan for the procurement
and the implementation

Such statements of goals and objectives help the designer implement strategies for the MIS Plan.
Significant problem of the Lewis model
The significant problem in this model is the resistance to change. The resistance can occur due to three
reasons, which are the internal factors, design factors and users attitude. Users resist change as they are
habituated to the system. If they are asked to use another system which they are not familiar with, then
opposition emerges. It is here, that education, training and motivation will help.
Q2. Information Technology and Computers have brought information age. The spread of Internet &
relative ease of access made Information Breach easier. Our future is not secure, if our information is
not secure. Information Resources need to be guarded, protected and controlled. List the
precautionary measures to be considered to prevent cybercrime?
(Listing any 5 measures to prevent cyber crime) 10 marks
Measures to prevent cyber crime
Violated computers are often damaged while the hacker either makes off with, or decides to destroy the
data on the hard drive. Business owners especially need to be vigilant to computer crimes. Here's how such
criminal acts can be prevented.

Keep the internet safe

They originally scoured chat rooms looking for offenders, but have since expanded their searches to
websites, internet news groups, internet relay chat channels, eGroups, Peer-2-Peer file-sharing programs,
and bulletin boards or online forums. Stopping these types of crimes involves FBI agents going undercover
on these media, using false names and information to have conversations with possible pedophiles.

Know the Operators

The people operating your computer system have the opportunity to perpetrate a computer crime. To
prevent this, screen the people that will operator the computer system. Run a check on their background to
find previous hacking activities or connections to anyone that would want to hack your system. You can
also encrypt or password protects files that contain sensitive information. Use a program to track the
computer activities of the employees. Check this information on a regular basis. You can also store backups
of the data in your computer systems in offsite computer storage.
Secure the Location
Many people think that cybercrime is the major computer crime. However, equipment theft is just as
dangerous and damaging. Espionage between companies may also occur if the person with malicious intent
gets physical access to the computer. Protect yourself and prevent the crime by securing the area in which
the computer is kept. The City of San Diego Police department also recommends installing alarms on the
building, reinforcing walls and windows, while also restricting access to the site.
Protect the Data
Everyone knows that the computer system should be equipped with anti-virus software, firewalls, and a
separate security system in the form of software. However, that is not enough to protect you from hackers
and criminals intent on stealing your data. Perform scans periodically for Trojans, viruses, spyware, logic
bombs, and other forms of software invasion. Require your employees and other computer operators to
create complicated passwords that include symbols as well as numbers. Use a minimum of six digits and
change the passwords periodically. Also, examine all new hardware to ensure that no extra software or
hardware was added before installation. Such devices incorporate themselves into the system quickly.
Cross Domain Solution
Cross Domain Solution offers a way to keep all information confidential by using safe and secure domains
that cannot be tracked or accessed. This security solution can be used by commercial and governmental
organization to ensure an impenetrable network while still making sure that users can get access to the




Q3. a. While implementing MIS in any organization change can occur in number of ways. List and
explain the steps in the process as suggested by Lewins model.
b. Compare between prototype approach and Life Cycle approach
(Explaining the 3 steps of implementing the process suggested by Lewins model-6, Comparison between
the two approaches at least two points-4) 10 marks
Steps of implementing the MIS process suggested by Lewins model
Implementation of the MIS in an organisation is a process where change can occur in a number of ways.
The Lewin's model suggests three steps in this process.
1. The first step is to communicate openly within the organisation. This makes everyone in the organisation
look forward to the new system or the changes with a sense of pride
2. The second step is to outline a list of activities specifying when they begin and reach the desired level of
3. The third step is refreezing and reinforcing. This process is often implemented through an external
change agent, such as a consultant playing the role of a catalyst.
Comparison between prototype approach and Life Cycle approach
The differences between the two approaches are given as:
Life cycle thinking is made operational through Life Cycle Management (LCM). LCM is a management
approach that puts the tools and methodologies in the life cycle thinking basket into practice. It is a product
management system that helps enterprises to minimize the environmental and social burdens associated
with their product or product portfolio during its entire life cycle
The prototyping process is initiated by two meetings, one with each group. The purpose and the intended
use situation of the prototype are presented for the group. The purpose of the prototyping process is also
explained, along with a brief description of the principles of prototyping. A mutual understanding and
agreement of the aim of the project is developed based on discussions regarding our respective
expectations. One important issue is that the students are not willing to devote too much time to the
participation in the prototyping. It is agreed upon that the students should use the prototype only in

situations where they find it useful, they will not be ``forced'' to use and evaluate all the services of the

Table-2: Comparison of Approaches Prototyping approach Life cycle approach

1. Open system with a high degree of uncertainty 1. Closed systems with little or no uncertainty about
about the information needs.

the information needs.

The system remains valid for a long time with no
significant change. The design would remain stable.

2. Necessary to try out the ideas, application and 2. No need to try out the application of the
efficiency of the information as a decision support.

information as it is already proven.

3. Necessary to control the cost of the design and 3. Scope of the design and the application is fully
development before the scope of the system and its determined with clarity and experimentation is not
application is fully determined. Experimentation is necessary

Q4. There is an information explosion in todays society. There are lot of advantages of DBMS like
proper maintenance of the data and maintaining security. Explain the process of data transition
using diagram and an example of your own.
(Writing diagram-2, Own example-3, Explaining the process-5) 10 marks
Process of data transition
Data that has been processed is referred to as information. Information helps in analysis and decision
making. It is observed that information is obtained from the data but not all data produce useful
information. Information is useful when it is relevant, reliable, accurate, up-to-date, timely, complete,
intelligent, consistent and convenient to the recipient. An information system is designed in a way to
process data to a meaningful form, i.e., to accept input, manipulate it in some way and produce output.
DBMS helps in gathering and providing reports. The set of data that is stored in row and columns to
perform a specific task is referred to as DBMS.
The main function of the information systems is to convert data into information. Figure depicts how data is
converted into information using the intermediate processes. The information systems can perform its
function only with the proper organisation and structure to convert data into information. Data represents a
fact or statement of event without relation to other things.

Fig. 1: The Process of Changing Data into Information (Organisation structure

Figure below depicts the diagrammatic representation of data to information, to knowledge and to wisdom.

Fig. 2: Transition of Data to Information, Knowledge and Wisdom.

E.g.: It is raining.
Here information embodies the understanding of a relationship of some sort,
like cause and effect.
E.g.: The temperature dropped 15 degrees and then it started raining. Knowledge represents a pattern that
connects and provides a high level of predictability as to what is described or what will happen next.
E.g.: If the humidity is very high and the temperature drops substantially, the atmosphere will hold the
moisture so it rains.
Wisdom represents understanding of fundamental principles personified within the knowledge that is the
basis for the knowledge being what it is. Wisdom is essentially systemic.
E. g.: It rains because it rains. And this includes an understanding of all the interactions that happen
between raining, evaporation, air currents, temperature gradients, changes and raining.

Q5. Write short note on

a. World wide web
b. Voice over IP
c. Intranet
d. Extranet
(World Wide Web-2, Voice over IP-2, Intranet-3, Extranet-3) 10 marks
World Wide Web
The World Wide Web is a huge set of interlinked documents, images and other resources, linked by
hyperlinks and URLs. These hyperlinks and URLs allow the Web servers and other machines that store
originals and cached copies of these resources to deliver them as required using Hypertext
Transfer Protocol (HTTP). HTTP is only one of the communication protocols used on the Internet. Web
services also use HTTP to allow software systems to communicate in order to share and exchange business
logic and data.
Voice over IP
VoIP stands for Voice over IP, where IP refers to the Internet Protocol that underlies all Internet
communication. This phenomenon began as an optional two-way voice extension to some of the instant
messaging systems in businesses across the world. In recent years many VoIP systems have become easy
and convenient to use as a normal telephone. The benefit is that, as the Internet carries the actual voice
traffic, VoIP can be free or cost much less than a normal telephone call, especially over long distances and
especially for those with always-on Internet connections. Thus, VoIP is maturing into a viable alternative to
traditional telephones. Also, Interoperability between different providers has improved.
Intranets are generally restricted to employees of an organisation, while extranets can generally be accessed
by customers, suppliers or other approved parties. An intranet is a private computer network. Intranet uses
Internet protocols and network connectivity to securely share part of an organizations information or
operations with its employees. The same concepts and technologies of the Internet such as clients and
servers running on the Internet protocol suite are used to build an intranet. HTTP, FTP and other Internet
protocols are used in intranet. There is often an attempt to use Internet technologies to provide new
interfaces with corporate "legacy" data and information systems.
An extranet may be considered as a private intranet mapped onto the Internet or some other transmission
system not accessible to the general public, but is managed by more than one company's administrators. An
extranet is a private network that uses Internet protocols, network connectivity and possibly public
telecommunication system to securely share part of an organizations information or operations with
suppliers, vendors, partners, customers or other businesses. An extranet can be viewed as part of a

company's intranet that is extended to users outside the company. It has also been described as a "state of
mind" in which the Internet is perceived as a way to do business with a pre-approved set of companies
(business-to-business - B2B), in isolation from other Internet users. In contrast, business-to-consumer
(B2C) involves known server/s of one or more companies, communicating with unknown consumers.
Q6. Artificial intelligent system functions like a human being and helps a manager in taking quick
decisions. Explain the different applications AI using diagram.
a. Diagram
b. Applications of cognitive science
c. Applications of robotics
d. Applications of natural interface
e. Explaining each type with an example
(Diagram-2, Applications of cognitive science-2, Applications of robotics-2, Applications of natural
interface-2, Explaining each type with an example-2) 10 marks
Different applications AI using diagram
The aim of AI is to promote computers that can simulate the ability to think, see, hear, walk, talk and feel.
In other words, simulation of computer functions normally is linked with human intelligence, such as
logical thinking, finding out reasons and solving troubles. AI can be grouped under three major areas
namely cognitive science, robotics and natural interfaces. Cognitive science focuses on researching on how
the human brain does work and how human beings imagine and find out.

Figure: Applications AI

Applications of cognitive science

Cognitive science is nothing but the mental representations correspondent to computer data structures, and
computational processes similar to computational algorithms.
Applications of robotics
Engineering and physiology are the basic subjects of robotics. Robotic machines are produced using robotic
applications along with computer intelligence and physical movements are controlled by computers. The
robotic applications are developed in such a way to give power to robot to view, feel and physical
movement. The robotic application also enables the robot to walk in any terrain and helps the robot to
navigate and reach the destination correctly.
Applications of natural interface
The development of natural interfaces is indispensable to the use of computers by people. Development of
normal languages an speech recognition are major thrusts in this area of AI. The goal of the AI research is
to make the computers and robots to talk and understand each other through conversational language as
practiced by human beings. Other natural interface research applications include the development of
multisensory devices that utilize the body movements to control computers. This is related to the emerging
application area of virtual reality. Virtual reality involves using multi-sensory humancomputer interfaces
that enable human users to experience computer simulated objects, spaces, activities and worlds as if they
actually exist.