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AN OVERVIEW OF

ENGINEERING GEOLOGY
Dr. Adly Kh. Al-Saafin
Engg. / Env. Geology
KFUPM-Dhahran

Quartz
Pyroxene
Clay

Site
Investigation

Minerals
Rocks
Soils
Dunes
Sabkhas

Rock
Cycle

Weathering
Physiographic
Features

Earthquake
Volcano
flood
Engg./Env.
Projects

Plate
Tectonic

Tunnels
Roads
Railroads
Building

Igneous
Sedimentary
Metamorphic
Rocks
Faults
Folds
Domes

Water Table
Groundwater
Foundation

Rock / Soil.
Characterization

Engineering Geology &


Engg./Environmental Applications

Engineering Geology &


Engg./Environmental Applications

Engineering Geology &


Engg./Environmental Applications

Engineering Geology &


Engg./Environmental Applications

Engineering Geology & Engineering


Applications

Engineering Geology &


Core Logging

OUTLINE


WHAT IS ENGINEERING GEOLOGY?

HISTORY OF ENGINEERING GEOLOGY.

ENGINEERING GEOLOGY & OTHER SCIENCES.

STAGES OF AN ENGINEERING PROJECT

WAYS OF THINKING

TYPICAL SPECIALIZATIONS!

WHY ENGINEERING GEOLOGY?

ENGINEERING GEOLOGIST RESPONSIBILITIES.

WHAT WILL
COURSE?

ASPECTS OF ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

ENGINEERING GEOLOGIST FUNCTION

YOU LEARN BY THE END OF THIS

WHAT IS ENGINEERING
GEOLOGY?
Engineering geology is the application of
geological knowledge to the siting,
planning, and construction of the
engineering works.
Engineering geology is a hybrid science
mainly consists of two majors: Geology and
Engineering.

Geology & Civil Engineering


GEOLOGY: is defined as the science dealing with
physical nature, history of earth, the rock of which
it is composed, and the changes which it has
undergone or is undergoing.
 GEOLOGIST builds his conclusions on observations
and intuitive reasoning.

ENGINEERING: is a science concerned with


putting scientific knowledge to practical uses.
 ENGINEER measures properties and applies
mathematical relationships to reach his conclusion

Engineering Geology
ENGINEERING GEOLOGY has attempted to
fill the philosophical gap in the evaluation of
geological phenomenon and defining the
geological environment for the purpose of
engineering works.
 ENGINEERING GEOLOGOST: is a scientist who
applies the geological knowledge to engineering
practice. (e.g. assuring that the geologic factors
affecting the location, design, construction
operation, and maintenance of engineering works
are recognized and adequately provided for).

HISTORY OF ENGINEERING
GEOLOGY


In 1903, Charles Brky had introduced the first Engineering Geology


course in Columbia University. In the 1940s, engineering geologic
activities have been utilized by public agency (USGS, USBR) in
many projects.
1950 - 1970s; Many workers in the US and UK were defined as the
principle foundation of Engineering Geology, and tried to introduce
engineering geology as a well recognized and acceptable science in
many universities.
1972/1973; Field and responsibilities of Geologist, Civil Engineer
and Engineering Geologist has been defined (California State Board of
Registration for Geologists and Geophysics, US and Engineering Geological Group
Party, UK).

1970 - present, Engineering Geology stands as a well-defined science


and served in several engineering & environmental works.

Development
of
Geosciences

ENGINEERING GEOLOGY AND


OTHER PERTINENT SCIENCES
ROCK
ENGINEERING

GEOLOGIC
PROCESSES

APPLIED
GEOMORPHOLOGY

SOIL
ENGINEERING

ENGINEERIG
GEOLOGY

APPLIED
HYDROGEOLOGY

STRUCTURAL
GEOLOGY

GEOCHEMISTRY
ENGINEERING
GEOPHYSICS

STAGES OF ENGINEERING
PROJECT
Engineering Geologist

Civil Engineer
SITE SELECTION STAGE

DESIGNING STAGE

CONSTRUCTION STAGE


MAINTENANCE OF ENG. WORKS

WAYS OF THINKING !

ENGINEER
GEOLOGIST
Empirical,
rule of thumb,
intuitive,
qualitative.
Answers from
experience.

Engineering
Geologist

Geotechnical
Engineer

Geological
Engineer

Precise,
specific
analysis,
rigorous
calculations,
quantitative.
Answers from
theory.

After W. Shehat, 2003

Typical Specializations !
GEOLOGY

ENGINEERING

Ways of
solving
problems

Empirical

Typical
Geological
Engineer

Typical
Engineering
Geologist

Typical
Geotechnical
Engineer

Theoretical

Areas of
knowledge

After W. Shehat, 2003

WHY ENGINEERING GEOLOGY?


Engineering geology becomes more important by time because
the available building sites become less ideal as time goes
on..
In most cities and towns, the best building sites were used long
ago. Notice how old buildings have sites within possible flooding
zone, within active (inactive) EQ, Volcanic zones, above water
table..
Recently, new projects require more careful geologic study and
better design because of problems like poor foundation
materials, high water tables, and poor drainage.
Notice: you are in the eastern and western parts of Saudi
Arabia, how many new houses are being built on reclaimed
wetlands and streams or on jointed rocky areas.

Most of these sites require some foundation preparation.

PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES
OF ENGINEERING GEOLOGIST
1.

SELECTION OF SUITABLE
PROJECTS.

2.

DESCRIBTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF GEOLOGIC


ENVIRONMENT PERTINENT TO THE ENGINEERING PROJECT
(SOIL, ROCK, WATER CONDITIONS).

3.

DEFINE OF NATURAL HAZARDS EVENTS THAT MAY AFFECTING


THE ENGINEERING PROJECT.

4.

FORECAST OF THE FUTURE EVENTS THAT COULD THREAT THE


ENGINEERING STRUCTURES.

5.

RECOMMENDATION OF WAYS TO HANDLE


VAROUS EARTH MATERIALS AND PROCESSES.

6.

INSPECTION
CONDITIONS.

7.
8.

DIRECTION AND COORDINATION OF TEAM EFFORTS

DURING

SITES

FOR

CONSTRUCTION

MAKING JUDGMENTS ON ECONOMY & SAFTEY.

ENGINEERING

AND

TO

TREAT

CONFIRM

Sources of Engineering Geological


Information
Geological Survey
Environmental Protection Agency
Association of Engineering
Geologists
Consultant Firms
Universities & Research Institutes

WHAT WILL YOU LEARN BY


THE END OF THIS COURSE?
Fundamentals of geology and mechanics
Engineering geologic characteristics of earth materials
(soil & rock) that are influencing the performance of
engineering works
Impacts of natural hazards on engineering works
Site investigation procedure
Computer-aided in engineering geological applications.
Case studies showing Role of engineering geologic
knowledge on siting of engineering and environmental
works

Aspects of Engineering Geology










Aspect 1:
Aspect 2:
Aspect 3:
Aspect 4:
Aspect 5:
Aspect 6:
Aspect 7:

Fundamentals of Geology
Rock Mechanics Fundamentals
Characterization of Earth Materials
Rock Mass Classification
Site Investigation
Instrumentation
Geohazards Evaluation & Mitigation

Engineering Geologist Function

Portrait of an Engineering Geologist looking back at Geologic


Processes and forward to Engineering Products.
(After IAEG & AGI)