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Latin/Greek Roots and Affixation

SUFFIX
ROOT
PREFIX

MEANING

TERMS AND DEFINITIONS


(SELF)-STUDY MATERIAL; (SELF)-EXAMINATION TEST

DIAGNOSTIC SUFFIXES AND COMPOUNDING ELEMENTS

- asthen

weakness (a - neg.
and sthen-strength)

Neurasthenia:
Nervous prostration

- emia

blood

Anemia: Deficiency of red blood cells

- itis

inflammation

Dermatitis: Inflammation of the skin

- oma

tumour

Carcinoma: A malignant growth

- osis

a condition, usually
morbid also
indicates an
increase

a. Neurosis: Functional disorder of the nervous system.


b. Leucocytosis: Increased white cell count

- path
- pathy

disease, suffering

Cardiopathy: Any disease of the heart

- phobia

persistent,
abnormal fear

Claustrophobia: Fear of being closed in

- ptosis

downward
displacement,
falling

Gastroptosis: Downward displacement of the stomach

- rrhexis

rupture

Hysterorrhexis Rupture of the uterus

- tropho

growth

Atrophy: A wasting away

- tropic

turning, changing

Cephalotropic: Having an affinity for (turning toward) brain tissue

OPERATIONAL SUFFIXES AND COMPOUNDING ELEMENTS

- centesis

puncture or tapping

Cardiocentesis: Surgical puncture of the heart

- desis

binding or fixation

Arthrodesis: Surgical fixation of a joint

- ectomy

excision; a cutting
out

Tansilectomy: Removal of tonsils

- ostomy

making an opening
into (os-mouth)

Colostomy: Making a more or less permanent opening into the


colon

- otomy

incision into

Phlebotomy: Opening into a vein (phlebos)

- oscopy

inspection,
examination

Bronchoscopy: Examination of the bronchi with an endoscope

- pexy

fixation, suspension

Hysteropexy: Fixation of the uterus to the abdominal wall

- plasty

plastic repair of;


surgical correction

Hernioplasty: Plastic repair of a hernia

SYMPTOMATIC SUFFIXES AND COMPOUNDING ELEMENTS

- algia

pain

Otalgia: Pain in the ear; earache

- odynia

pain

Gastrodynia: Pain in the stomach

- genic

producing

Pathogenic: Giving origin to disease

- lysis

breaking down;
dissolution

Keratolysis: Separation of the horny layer of the skin

- oid

like

Fibroid: A tumour of fibrous tissue, resembling fibers

- penia

deficiency, decrease

Leucocytopenia: Decrease in number of white cells

- rhea

flow or discharge

Diarrhea: Abnormal frequency and fluidity of stools

- rrhagia

excessive flow

Hemorrhage: excessive bleeding

ROOTS

aden -

gland

Adenitis: Inflammation of a gland

angio -

vessel

Angiospasm: Spasmodic contraction of the blood vessels

arthr -

joint

Arthritis: Inflammation of the joints

blephar -

eyelid

Blepharoplegia: Paralysis of an eyelid

bucca -

cheek

Buccolabial: Pertaining to the cheek and the lip

cardi -

heart

Cardiodynia: Pain in the heart

cerebro -

brain

Cerebral: Pertaining to the brain

cervi -

neck

Cervical: Pertaining to the neck

chole

bile

Cholangitis: Inflammation of the bile duct

cost -

rib

Costectomy: Excising or resecting a rib

crani -

skull

Cranial: Pertaining to the skull

cysto -

bladder; sac

Cystatrophia: Atrophy of the bladder

cyt -

cell

Erythrocyte: Red blood cell

cut -

skin

Cutaneous: Pertaining to the skin

dacry -

tear

Dacryocystitis: Inflammation of the tear sac

denti -

tooth

Dentalgia: Toothache

derma -

skin

Dermatosis: Disease affecting the true skin

encephal-

brain

Encephalitis: Inflammation of the brain

enter -

intestine

Enteroptosis: Downward displacement of the intestine

gastr -

stomach

Gastric: Pertianing to the stomach

gloss -

tongue

Glossoplegia: Paralysis of the tongue

hem -

blood

Hyperemia: Excess of blood in any part of the body

hepat -

liver

Hepatitis: Inflammation of the liver

hyster -

uterus

Hysteropexy: Fixation of a displaced uterus by a surgical operation

gingiv -

gums

Gingivitis: Inflammation of the gums

laryng -

larynx

Laryngoscope: Instrument for ocular examination of the larynx

lip -

fat

Lipoma: a fatty tumour

lith -

stone

Lithotomy: Removal of a stone by cutting into the bladder

myel -

marrow (the spinal


cord)

Myelitis: Inflammation of the bone marrow or the spinal cord

myo -

muscle

Myalgia: Painful muscle

myring -

ear drum

Myringitis: Inflammation of the ear drum

(membrana tympani)

nephr -

kidney

Nephrotoxic: Toxic or destructive to the kidney

neuro -

nerve

Neurasthenia: Nervous exhaustion

ophthalm
-

eye

Ophthalmic: Pertaining to the eye

opt -

vision or sight

Optometer: A device for measuring the power and range of vision

os (or -)

mouth

Oral: Pertaining to the mouth

ot -

ear

Otitis: Inflammation of the ear

osteo -

bone

Osteomalacia: Softening of the bone

palpebr -

eyelid

Palpebration: The act of winking

pharyng -

throat

Pharyngoplasty: Plastic operation on the pharynx

phleb -

vein

Phlebitis: Inflammation of a vein

phren -

(1) the mind;

1) Schizophrenia: Disturbance of the mental functions;


2) Phrenohepatic: Pertaining to the diaphragm and the liver

(2) the diaphragm

- pnea

breathing

Dyspnea: Difficult breathing

pneumo -

lung; also air or


breathing

Pneumothorax: Accumulation of the air or gas in the pleural cavity

pulmo -

lung

Pulmonary: Pertaining to the lungs

pyel -

pelvis (of the kidney) Pyelonephritis: Inflammation of the kidney and its pelvis

pyo -

pus

Pyoderma: Any skin discharge characterized by pus formation

rhin -

nose

Rhinitis: Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose

salping -

tube

Salpingoscopy: Examination of the Eustachian tube

stomo -

mouth; opening

Colostomy: Surgical formation of an opening into the colon

thoraco -

chest

Thoracic: Pertaining to the chest

trache -

neck

Trachelocystitits: Inflammation of the neck of the bladder

viscer -

organ (especially
abdominal)

Visceral: Pertaining to the internal organs

PREFIXES AND COMPOUNDING ELEMENTS

a, an

without; not

Asthenia: Without strength

ab -

away from; off

Abduct: To draw away from

ad -

near; toward

Adrenal: Near the kidney; adduct: to draw toward

ana -

upward; bacward;
again; excessive

Anaphylaxis: Unusual or exaggerated reaction to foreign protein;


analysis: breaking down into component parts

ante -

before (time or
place)

Antepartum: Before childbirth

anti -

against

Antipruritic: Relieving or preventing itching

brady -

slow

Bradysphygmia: Abnormal slowness of the pulse

co -, con -

together, with

Congenital: Born with; hereditary

contra -

against; opposite

Contraceptive: Anything used to prevent conception

dys -

difficult, painful,
bad

Dyspnea: Painful breathing

ecto -

outside

Ectopic: Out of the normal place

endo -

within

Endocrine: pertaining to internal secretion

epi -

on, upon

Epidermis: Outermost layer of the skin

erythro -

red

Erythrocyte: Red blood cell

ex -

away from, outside,


without

Expire: To breathe out

hyper -

above, excessive

Hypertension: Blood pressure above normal; high blood pressure

hypo -

beneath, deficient

Hypodermic: Under the skin

hemi -

half

Hemiplegia: Paralysis of one half of the body

infra -

below

Infratracheal: Beneath the trachea

inter -

between

Intermuscular: Situated between muscles

intra -

within

Intracutaneous: Within the skin

leuko leuco -

white

Leukocyte: A white blood corpuscle

mega megalo -

huge; very large

Megalocyte: An extremely large erythrocyte

neo -

new

Neonatal: Pertaining to the first four weeks of life

necro -

relating to a dead
body

Necroscopy: A postmortem examination

oligo -

scanty; few

Oliguria: Diminished urine secretion

ortho -

straight; normal;
correct

Orthopedic: Pertaining to the correction of deformities

para -

beside; around;
near; abnormal

Paranoia: A mental disease

patho -

relating to disease

Pathognomonic: Characteristic of a disease

peri -

around

Pericardium: Membrane enclosing the heart

pro -

in front of; forward

Prolapse: Downward displacement of an organ

retro -

backward; behind

Retroversion: The tipping backward of an entire organ

sub -

under; beneath

Subcutaneous: Under the skin

supra super -

above, beyond;
superior

Supraoccipital: Situated above the back part of the skull

syn sym -

with, together,
beside

Symphysis: The line of junction and fusion between bones

tachy -

rapid, swift

Tachypnea: Excessive rapidity of respiration

trans -

across, over

Transection: Incision across the long axis; a cross section