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MANAGING CONFLICT &

MANAGING CHANGE
GROUP 5
LAYUGAN, ALMIRA

LOPEZ, ALDEN
LUMBRE, MARK ANTHONY
MAGNAYE, KIM PAOLO
MANIEBO, ROLF

WHAT IS CONFLICT?
Conflict is fundamental to complex task
management and is often determined by
the interplay of the engineering
organization and support functions.

Traditional View

New View

1. Conflict should be avoided

1. Conflict is inevitable

2. Conflict is caused by troublemakers 2. Conflict is part of change


and prima donnas
3. Conflict is determined by the
3. Conflict is bad
structure of the system and the
interplay of its components
4. Manager must eliminate conflict
4. Conflict may be beneficial; it may:
-

Enhance communications

Stimulate innovation

Unify the team

Provide early warning signs

HOW TO ANTICIPATE TYPICAL


SOURCE OF CONFLICT

Thamhain and wilemon- who


delineated typical sources of conflict
in seven propositions, which were
tested against expert opinions.

COST

PERSONALITY

ADMINISTRATION

TECHNICAL ISSUES

WORK FORCE

PRIORITES
SCHEDULES

Schedule Conflicts- disagreement over schedules is


the most often occur with other supports, over
which the engineering or project manager may
have limited authority and control.
Conflicts Over Priority- Priority issues often
developed into conflict with other support
department, whose established schedules and
work pattern were disturbed by the changed
requirements

Conflicts Over Work-Force Resources- Engineering


managers frequently complain that there is little
organization slack in terms of work-force resources.
Conflict Over Technical Issue- each participant
sincerely believes that their approach is the best one
and should be implemented may require you
intervention when the participants are incapable or
unwilling to resolve the issue themselves.

Conflict Over Administrative Procedures- Disagreements over


administrative procedures involve issues of how the engineering
manager will function and how he or she relates to the
organizations top management.
Personality Conflicts- Personality issues also may be obscured by
communications problems and technical issues. A support
person, for example, may stress the technical aspect of a
disagreement with a project manager when, in fact, the real
issue is a personality conflict.

Conflict Over Cost- Disagreements over


cost frequently develop when engineering
managers, under budget constraints,
negotiate with support groups who want
to maximize their part of the budget.

CONFLICT IN THE PROJECT LIFE CYCLE


Stages of Project Life Cycle:
Project Formation
Project Build-Up
Main Program Phase
Phaseout

1. PROJECT FORMATION
Frequently conflict develops among people during
the project start-up
Administrative procedures ranked highest in the
project formation stage as a source of conflict
Technical opinions, schedules, costs, and
manpower issues are other intense conflict areas
during start-up

2. PROJECT BUILD-UP
Disagreements over technical opinions,
priorities, schedules, and administrative
procedures continue as important
determinants
Schedules are again a great source of
conflict
Personality conflicts start flaring up during
project build-up

3. MAIN PROGRAM PHASE


Technical opinions are important sources of conflict
Two principal reasons for the rather high level of
conflict
It is often characterized by the integration of
various project subsystems
Simply because a component can be designed
in prototype
Conflict over work-force resources also ranks high

4. PHASE-OUT
Schedules are the most likely form of conflict to
develop during the project phase-out
Personality conflict becomes somewhat more
pronounced
Technical and administrative procedures rank lowest
as a source of conflict during project phase-out

CONFLICT THROUGHOUT THE PROJECT LIFE CYCLE

WHAT TO DO ABOUT CONFLICT

CONFLICT-RESOLUTION
APPROACHES
Withdrawing: Retreating from a conflict issue.
May intensify the conflict situation.
Can be beneficial either as a temporary strategy to allow the other party
to cool off or as a strategy to buy time so that the manager can study the
issue further.

Smoothing: Emphasizes common areas of agreement and


deemphasize areas of difference.
Like withdrawing, smoothing may not address the real issues in
disagreement
Can be more effective, however, as it may set a more cooperative stage
for seeking solutions.

CONFLICT-RESOLUTION
APPROACHES
Compromising: Bargaining and searching for solutions
which bring some degree of satisfaction to
the parties involved in conflict.
Always the out come of negotiation.

Forcing : Exerting ones viewpoint at the expense of


another
Often used as a last resort of a project manager.
Requires that the leader has the proper position power.

CONFLICT-RESOLUTION
APPROACHES
Confronting/problem-solving: Involves a rational
problem-solving approach.
Disputing parties solve differences by focusing on the
issues, looking at alternative approaches and selecting
the best alternative.
May contain elements of other modes, such as
compromising and smoothing.

CONFLICT-RESOLUTION APPROACHES

SKILLS FOR EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF CONFLICT


Before trying to mediate, managers tried to understand
the nature and implications of the conflict, not just the
symptoms. The effective manager can diagnose the
conflict and determine why it occurred, who is involved,
and where it leads.
The team or its leader could successfully isolate the
problem areas and eventually deal with them
successfully.
They built trust with their people and earned credibility to
be qualified to help in the search for solutions.

SKILLS FOR EFFECTIVE


MANAGEMENT OF CONFLICT
They were perceived as sincere in their attempt to help
and find acceptable solutions to all parties.
They facilitated communications with all parties involved in
the conflict and built conditions among competing
groups. Steering committees, quality circles, design
reviews, and technology transfer teams are examples of
organizational vehicles for facilitating cross-functional
communications and support.

SKILLS FOR EFFECTIVE


MANAGEMENT OF CONFLICT
They could stimulate professional excitement, work challenge, and a
clear business direction. When people see the need for their
contributions and the potential for professional recognition, they are
more likely to cooperate toward the organizational mission an its
objectives. Such a professionally stimulating work environment is one of
the strongest catalysts toward effective conflict-resolution while
preserving the benefits of enhanced communications, creativity, and
team unification.
They minimized power struggles and polarizations of groups along
functional, professional, or ethnic lines. They ensured a collegial work
environment, where people from all parts of the organization were
proud of their contributions and had a strong sense of ownership.
They could sense personality conflicts and handle them off line.

SKILLS FOR EFFECTIVE


MANAGEMENT OF CONFLICT
They recognized a deadlocked situation and its dysfunctional
consequences and could mediate, intervene or, if necessary, force
a conflict resolution.
They could lead a group toward resolving their internal conflict or a
conflict with other groups. Managing such organizational conflict
usually required a multi-phase approach
They helped their people to implement solutions, which were
worked out and agreed on
Finally, effective conflict managers monitored the organization
carefully after a conflict had apparently been resolved to ensure
that the organization stabilized completely and absorbed the new
solution as permanent.

A MULTI-PHASED APPROACH TO SOLVING


ORGANIZATIONAL CONFLICT AMONG
GROUPS.
Phase 1: Preliminaries
The leader prepares for the conflict-resolution meeting by collecting and
analyzing relevant information and defining the approach, objectives,
and timing.

Phase 2: Perspective
Each group identifies the issues involved in the conflict, their role in the
conflict, how they see the other parties involved in the dispute, and how
they think the other parties see them.

A MULTI-PHASED APPROACH TO
SOLVING ORGANIZATIONAL
CONFLICT AMONG GROUPS.
Phase 3: Image Exchange
All conflicting parties exchange with the other parties their own perception
of the conflict:
o How do you see yourself
o How do you see the other groups
o How do you think the others see you

Phase 4: Problem Identification


All parties identify the existing problems and causes of conflict as they see
them.

A MULTI-PHASED APPROACH TO SOLVING


ORGANIZATIONAL CONFLICT AMONG
GROUPS.

Phase 5: Organize for Problem-Solving

Select most important problems. Form crossfunctional problem-solving groups.


Establish process for problem-solving

Phase 6: Problem-Solving
Cross-functional task team works out solutions.
Obtain endorsement from group members and
management

A MULTI-PHASED APPROACH TO SOLVING


ORGANIZATIONAL CONFLICT AMONG
GROUPS.

Phase 7: Implementation
Excuse the solution plan. Fine-tune and stabilize

Phase 8: Continuing Improvement


A cross-functional team should remain in place to
monitor post-transition developments

MANAGING CHANGE
The ability to manage change will be one of the
hallmarks of the organization of the future.

Seniors managers see change as the only constant in


the organization.
Changes in technology: Computers and semiconductor large-scale integration (LSI) are constant
drivers.

THE PROCESS OF CHANGE MANAGEMENT


Kurt Lewins Theory- based on the notion of countervailing forces:
Driving forces
Restraining forces

THE PROCESS OF CHANGE


MANAGEMENT
1.
2.
3.
4.

Changes Introduced by the Organizations.


Changes Introduced by Technical Requirements.
Changes Originated by the Engineering/ Project Team.
Changes Introduced by the External Environment.

FOUR PHASES OF CHANGE MANAGEMENT


1.
2.
3.
4.

Diagnosing the situation


Defining the type of change
Designing the strategy
Implementing and managing the change.

Driving & Restraining Forces


Driving Forces

Restraining Forces

Education and Communication.

Surprise

Participation and Involvement.

Fear of Failure

Facilitation and Support.

Lack of Trust

Negotiation and Agreement.

Habit and Inertia

Manipulation and Cooptation.

Lack of Security

Coercion.

Social and ethical Factors

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR
IMPROVING ENGINEERING
MANAGEMENT
EFFECTIVENESS

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Understanding the Culture and Value System


Having Flexible and Leadership Style
Respond to Situational Variables
Provide Interesting Work
Have Technical Expertise
Do Effective Planning
Display Personal Drive

KEY VARIABLES FOR SUSTAINING HIGH


PERFORMANCE ORGANIZATION

Work Challenge
Visibility
Low Threat and Conflict
Involvement

Willingness to Challenge
(Long-Range Orientation)

HIGH

Managerial Leadership
Experience and Credibility
Motivation
Work Challenge

LOW
LOW

Organizational Effectiveness
(Short-Range Orientation)

HIGH