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National Institute of

Fashion
Technology
Chennai

TEXTILE INTERNSHIP

DIVISION ANKUR TEXTILES


AHMEDABAD
Report by :
ARPAN MAHATO
B/AP/12/1643
SARTHAK SAGAR
B/AP/12/1644
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The following report has been made under the guidance of our mentor
Mr. AO Abdul Salam Sait, Department of Fashion Technology. We are
highly grateful to him, for providing us with this extremely interesting
project, which has enhanced our knowledge with respect to the subjects
and also, for guiding us and providing help whenever needed.
We are also thankful to Mr. Ashutosh tiwari, who was our mentor
in industry for his support and guidelines. We would like to thank the
officers and staffs of Ankur textiles who helped us directly or indirectly.

OBJECTIVE OF THE INTERNSHIP


To know about the various processes involved in making of fabric (Voile) and
gain knowledge of Spinning, Processing, Finishing and Packaging. To gain
firsthand knowledge about the process flow and working conditions of the
Industry.

CONTENTS
ORGANIZATION PROFILE AND HISTORY

ABOUT ANKUR TEXTILES

5-6

ORGANIZATIONAL HIERARCHY

SPINNNG

BLOW ROOM CARDING

9-16

DRAWING

16-19

LAP FORMATION AND COMBING

19-21

ROVING

21-22

9 WEAVING
1 STEAMING
0
11 WARPING

22-32
32-35

1
2
1
3
1
4
1
5
1
6
1
7
1
8
1
9
2
0
2
1

DRAWING-IN

39

KNOTTING

40

LOOM SHED

40-44

PROCESSING

44-46

DESIZING PROCESS

46-47

SINGEING

45

SCOURING

47-50

BLEACHING

50-52

SOURING

52

DYEING

53-54

35-38

ORGANIZATION PROFILE AND HISTORY


ARVIND LIMITED
1930 was a year the world suffered traumatic depression, companies across the globe began
closing. The three brothers Kastur Bhai, Narottam Bhai, and Chiman Bhai Lal Bhai decided
to put up a mill to produce super fine fabric, next they looked around for state of the art
machinery that could produce such high quality fabric. Their search ended in England. The
3

best technology of that time was acquired at a most attractive price and a company called
Arvind Limited was born.
Arvind Limited with a share capital of rupees 25,25,000($ 55,000) in the year
1931. With the aim of manufacturing the high and super fine fabric. Arvind invested a very
sophisticated technology, with 52,560 ring spindle, 2552 doubling spindles and 1122 looms,
it was one of the few company in those days to start along with spinning and weaving
facilities in addition to full fledged facilities for bleaching, mercerizing , dyeing and
finishing. The sales in the year 1934, after three years of establishment was 45.75 lacks and
profit was profit was 2.82 lacks steadily producing quality fabrics, year after year Arvind took
its place amongst foremost textile units in the country.
ARVIND GROUP OF COMPANIES:
Arvind Intex
Arvind CoatspinArvind millsArvind millsArvind worldwideArvind worldwideArvind clothing LimitedArvind Fashion Limited-

Gomitpur, Ahmedabad
Kolhapur, Maharastra
Naroda, Ahmedabad
Santej, Ahmedabad
Mauritius
USA
Gandhinagar
Gujarat

ABOUT ANKUR TEXTILES


Ankur textiles is a plant of well known industry (arvind mills limited) in Raipur area of
Ahmedabad.
Ankur textile has a turn over about rupees 327 crore per year.
Ankur textiles has spinning, weaving, testing, processing and packaging department. The
company produces cotton yarn for Indian and International market and recently
commissioned a modernized spinning unit to produce ring spun yarn for the Indian market.
The Ankur Textile Ltd. Was originally known as Laxmi Cotton Mills and was taken up by
Lalbhai Group Ltd. In the year 1979 as a closed sick mills. A major rehabilitation program
was drawn up to revive this closed sick mill. Managerial and technical talent from arvind is
being appointed for making good growth of the company. Turnover of the Lalbhai group ia
about 3991 crores. Ankur textile is located at Raipur road which is at a distance of 6 kms
from Ahmedabad railway station.
The company has a full-fledged in-house production and processing and research laboratory
and department of spinning, weaving, processing and packing department. The company
undertakes all the procedure and process on material from first place itself. The company is
having about 55,000 sq.m. area for doing job at the place.
The company mainly produces voiles fabric and yarn. Mainly company is producing cotton
products and polyester products. It also produces fabrics with Aromatic finishes. Company is
making products and controlling the quality of products under the observation of the manager
and management of the Arvind Products Ltd.
The company operates through its division of Arvind Products Ltd.

VISION
Be the foundation that integrates culture vision and values, creates an environment that
facilitates the maximization of human potential.

PHILOSOPHY
We believe in people and their unlimited potential.
In content and focus in problem solving.
In Teams for effective performance.
In intellect and its power.
DREAM
Of excellence in all Endeavour. Of mutual benefit and prosper. Of making the world a better
place to live in, we make things happen.
ENDEAVOUR
To select train and coach people to obtain higher responsibilities. To nurture talent to build
leadership for tomorrow and to reward, celebrate and activate all intellectual business
contribution.

ORGANIZATIONAL HIERARCHY
Officers
OFFICERS
President
P D Chavda
CEO

Unit Head
Departments
Spinning
Weaving
Processing
Packaging
Human Resource
Marketing

Grade Criteria:

Workers

E1

Officer

E2
M1
M2
M3
BM(1-7)

Manager(head)
Manager
Sr. Manager
Chief Manager
Business Manager

SPINNING
Spinning is the twisting together of fibers to form yarn. The process used
for yarn formation is spinning. Spinning by hand was a slow and laborious
process. Thus, many implements and methods were invented for making
it faster and simple. The basic manufacturing process of spinning includes
carding, combing, are successively formed into lap, sliver, roving and
finally yarn.
Cleaning is required to remove the trash such as dirt, leaves, burrs and
any remaining seeds. Carding is the initial straightening process which
puts the fiber into a parallel lengthwise alignment. This makes the tangled
mass of fiber ready to produce yarn. This form of the fiber is called 'Lap'.
The lap is treated for removing the remaining trash, disentangling and
molding it into a round rope like mass called 'Sliver'. The sliver is then
straightened again which is called Combing. In it, fine-toothed combs
continue straightening the fibers until they are arranged in such a parallel
manner that the short fibers are completely separated from the longer
fibers. This process forms a 'comb sliver' made of the longest fibers.
Drawing pulls the staple lengthwise over each other. As a result longer
and thinner slivers are produced. 'Roving' is the final product of the
several drawing-out operations. It is the preparatory stage for the final
6

PRSCLBDoubaringmpstedlwFxWEING
insertion of twist. Enough twist is given for holding the fibers together but
it has no tensile strength till this process, it can break apart easily with a

slight pull. The roving, on bobbins, is placed in the spinning frame, where
it passes through several sets of rollers running at high speed and finally
the 'Yarn' is produced of the sizes desired.

SPINNING
UNIT
(ANKUR

BLOW ROOM
Blowroom is the first step of yarn production in the spinning mills. The bales are taken to the
blowroom and prepared for the process. Basic operations in the blowroom are:
1. Opening.
2. Cleaning.
3. Mixing or blending.
4. Micro dust removal.
5. Uniform feed to the carding machine.
6. Recycling the waste.

In blowroom required cotton quantity is issued from bale godown and is


brought in blow room mixing wise.
MIXING:
Mixing is the process of adding different cotton or different
materials(fibers) to reduce a representative of lot.
In mixing process different types of cotton is mixed thoroughly
according to a fixed proportion.
Proportion is maintained according to the requirement .
Methods of mixing:
Stack mixing.
Bin mixing.
Mixing by the blending hopper.
By auto mixer.
NOTE: In ANKUR TEXTILE mixing is done by stack mixing for
poly fiber and stack mixing and auto mixture both are used for cotton.
Mixing used in blowroom are as below :8

Mixing
90s

Type of cotton
80% (dch-32

Quantity
8 bales

mp)

Marking on lap
Blue

15 bales

20%
(pimabAmerican
70s
105(export)
Polyester

cotton)
Mcu5 (Ganyur)
(100% pima b)
(0.8 micro denier

6 bales
2 bales
3 bales

Red
Green
Green Tinting

40mm,Custer-SD
round fiber of
reliance
industries ltd.

Weight of Bales:
90s Cotton Dch-32 (170kg per bale).
70s Cotton-Mcu5 (170kg per bale).
105(export)-(pimab) (230kg per bale).
Polyester-(0.8 denier polyester fiber) (400kg per bale).
Lap.wt.

Gms/mt

Length of

Marking

HK of lap

Blue

0.00144

90s

(18.1-18.7

+/-300gms

lap
45 m

mixing.
70s

kg).375
(18.1-18.7

+/-300gms

45 m

Red

0.00144

mixing.
105s.

kg).375
(18.1-18.7

+/-300gms

45 m

Green

0.00144

mixing.
Polyester.

kg).375
18 -16.8 kg

+/-300gms

Green Tint

0.00147

NOTE:

Rod wt. 1.3kg.


9

Waste accepted =0.25% (polyester).

In cotton waste is 3 - 3.5%.

Fig no. 1: Bales are kept for processing in blowroom.

Fig no. 2: GBR Machine.

10

Blow Room Machines Sequences for cotton:GBR1


GBR2

Axiflow
Beater B
MPN (MultiMixer)
Bypass

Bypass

Step
Step cleaner

Condenser

Scutcher 1
Scutcher 2

Lap
Lap

11

cleaner

For Polyester:GSCL
Bcao
Runp
t-do
3ceP
.hno
eys
ree
rs
.e
r

S B C c R uo

- t n c3 L d h . a e e p n r

s o

e f

r P.

l y

t e

f
l

t
.

CARDING

Carding continues the cleaning process removing fibers too short for yarns
and separating and straightening the fibers so that they lay parallel to
each other. These fibers are then spread into a thin, uniform web. The web
moves into a funnel shaped device (trumpet) where it is gathered into a
rope like mass and formed into the card sliver.
Depending on the quality of yarn being made, the sliver either goes to the
drawing machine or the combing machine. Fine quality cottons require
yarns to be combed in addition to carding. The card sliver goes through
the breaker drawing step and then the combing operation.

12

Objectives of Carding:

To open the flocks into individual fibers.


Cleaning or elimination of impurities.
Reduction of neps.
Elimination of dust.
Elimination of short fibers.
Fiber blending.
Fiber orientation or alignment.
Sliver formation.

NOTE:

Total 18 cards all of LR (Laxmi Rieter) (c {16}) make 2 are of


LR (c 1/3) make.

Cards details according to the number of counts.


Mixing
90s

No. of Cards
4

Canes used
White/Green

Marking of lap
Blue

plastic canes of
70s
105(export)
Polyester

24 * 42
Red canes 24 *

Red

42
Red canes 24 *

Green

42
Red canes 24 *

Green Tint.

42
13

Fig: # Carding Machine

DRAWING
Drawing follows either combing or carding, depending on the quality of
yarn desired. Several strands of sliver (typically eight to ten) from
different carding machines are combined and conveyed to the drawing
machine, where they are pulled together and drawn out into a new sliver
no larger than one of the original single slivers. The loose, rope like strand
of fibers resulting from this process is called drawn sliver.
Objectives of drawing:

14

The purpose of drawing is to make yarn more uniform by combing


and elongating multiple slivers, thus eliminating the randomly
occurring defects.
Quality of the draw frame sliver determines the yarn quality.
Drawing is the final process of quality improvement in the spinning
mill.
Drawing apart of the fibers is affected by fibers being

carried along with the roller surfaces.

Pre-Drawing and Post-Drawing


Drawing no.

Manufacturer

Mat.Running

Prodn./Day

RSB(Ricter)

Terry cotton

1700 kg

RSB(Ricter)

90s /Exp

1100 kg

Padmatex

Polyester

1500 kg

Padmatex

T/C 3

1600 kg

LRD 02/S

T/C 4/2/3

1200-1300kg

LRD 02/S

T/C 2/3

1400kg

Padmatex

90s/Exp/T/C/1/2/3

1500-1600kg

Padmatex

90s/70s/Exp/card

1450-1500kg

15

Fig: 4- pre drawing


Fig: 5- Post drawing
LAP FORMATION AND COMBING:
Combing is an optional process introduced into the spinning of finer and
high-quality yarns from finer cotton. For coarser cotton fibers, the combing
operation is usually omitted. This is the process of removal of a
predetermined length of short fibers present in the fiber assembly,
because the presence of short fibers reduces the yarn quality by
increasing the number of thin and thick places, neps, hairiness, and also
reduces the tenacity. The presence of short fibers and the inappropriate
configuration of the fibers in the drawn sliver would not allow drafting and
the ring frame operations to be effective. Thus, combing is an important
process next to carding in the spinning of fine yarns.
Combing is used for high quality yarns for great evenness,
smoothness, fineness and strength. This operation combines several card
slivers which are drawn into the comber and, once again, spread into a
web. The fibers continue to be cleaned and straightened as the web is
16

formed. Short fibers and all residual non-lint materials are removed. This
combed sliver is used to make high quality yarns.

OBJECTIVES OF LAP FORMATION AND COMBING:

Yarn evenness
Strength
Cleanliness
Smoothness
Visual appearance
TASK OF THE COMBER:
1. Elimination of short fibers
2. Elimination of remaining impurities
3. Elimination of neps

LAP FORMER:Lap produced on lap former goes to comber machine count wise.

Lap former 2 machines of Rieter manufacturer.

18 ends up doubling on both machine.

COMBER MACHINES:-

Total 11 combers all of LR manufacturer.


Four combers are of 18 * 42 dimension.
Seven combers are of 16 *42 dimension.
17

Count wise combers distribution:Count

No. Of

Lap Marker

Comber Lap

Combers
Running
90s
70s

1,4,7,9,10
Blue line
3,8,11
Red line
Fig :# Combing

5
3

ROVING

The drawn fiber is taken to the roving frame, where it is further drawn. As the roving strand is
ready to leave the roving frame, a slight twist is imparted to hold the fibers together.
OBJECTIVES OF ROVING FRAME:

o Attenuation- drafting the sliver into roving.


o Twisting the drafted strand.
o Winding the twisted roving on a bobbin.

Roving is fed to ring frame (z twist).


Ring bobbin (output).
Ring bobbin goes to winding section converted to cheese or cone form.
Cone or Cheese form is fed to parallel winder.
2 cheese are fed they are kept parallel.

18

DOUBLING

Parallel cheese fed.

Doubling Bobbin.

Steaming is done to stabilize the twist.

NOTE:
In voiles (both ring frame and doubling is given Z twist).

WEAVING
Weaving is the textile art in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads, called the warp and
the filling or weft (older woof), are interlaced with each other to form a fabric or cloth. The
warp threads run lengthways of the piece of cloth, and the weft runs across from side to side.
Cloth is woven on a loom, a device for holding the warp threads in place while the filling
threads are woven through them. Weft is an old English word meaning "that which is woven".
The manner in which the warp and filling threads interlace with each other is known as the
weave. The three basic weaves are plain weave, satin weave, and twill, and the majority of
woven products are created with one of these weaves.
Woven cloth can be plain (in one color or a simple pattern), or it can be
woven in decorative or artistic designs, including tapestries. Fabric in
which the warp and/or weft is tie-dyed before weaving is called ikat.

19

Operations are involved in weaving:


1) Shedding
2) Picking
3) Beating up (Battening)
4) Taking up and letting off.

Shedding :

Each alternate warp yarn is raised to insert the filling yarn into the warp to form
a shed. Shedding is the raising of the warp yarns to form a shed through which
the filling yarn, carried by the shuttle, can be inserted. The shed is the vertical
space between the raised and unraised warp yarns. In modern looms, simple and
intricate shedding operations are performed automatically by the heddle or
heald frame, also known as a harness. The weave pattern determines which
harness controls which warp yarns, and the number of harnesses used depends
on the complexity of the weave.

Picking :

As the harnesses raise the heddles or healds, which raise the warp yarns, the
shed is created. The filling yarn is inserted through the shed by a small carrier
device called a shuttle. The shuttle is normally pointed at each end to allow
passage through the shed. The filling yarn emerges through a hole in the shuttle
as it moves across the loom. A single crossing of the shuttle from one side of the
20

loom to the other is known as a pick. As the shuttle moves back and forth across
the shed, it weaves an edge, or selvage, on each side of the fabric to prevent the
fabric from raveling.
Beating up (Battening)
As the shuttle moves across the loom laying down the fill yarn, it also passes
through openings in another frame called a reed. With each picking operation,
the reed presses or battens each filling yarn against the portion of the fabric that
has already been formed. The point where the fabric is formed is called the fell.
Taking up and letting off
With each shedding, Picking, Battening operation, the new fabric formed is
wound on the cloth beam which is called 'taking up'. At the same time, the warp
yarns must be released from the warp beam which is called 'letting off'.
As the shuttle moves back and forth across the width of the shed, a self edge is
woven which is called selvage or selvedge. The selvage prevents the
fabric from muddling. It is usually more compact and strong than
the rest of the fabric. There are different kinds of selvages depending upon the
expected use of the fabric- Plain Selvages, Tape Selvages, Split Selvages, Fused
Selvages, Leno Selvages and Tucked Selvages.
NOTE : In ANKUR TEXTILES mainly plain, satin and twill weave is made,
with different types of selvedge designs.

WEAVING DEPARTMENT (ANKUR TEXTILE):

21

WINGARPSZDTwo section :

a) Preparatory.
b) Loom shed.

Winding

There are 9 winding m/cs

a) 3 m/c ( Murata make)


b) 3 m/c Doubling.

Autocomer (Schafhorst) (German Company)

238nm/c -4 {Electronics}
With knotting Uster
With Splicing
538 {Mechanical}
Murata-3 x-5 Latest autocomber
Knotting m/c(238)-only double yarn
Autocomber-538
- with 10 spindle 1 knot.

22

- with 10 spindle 2 knot.


- splicer = 1/80 Ne,terry cotton 2/80
There are 3 Doubling machines:

Oerlikon
Schlafhorst
Splicing

WARPING MACHINES :

Bhagwati-2 m/c (Electrical), (Hydraulic Break)


Indiquip-4 m/c (Mechanical), (Clutch Break)

PROCESS SEQUENCE
23

RA
DSUPI
SOSTAN
WURI
UTEGO
ANT
BEAC
RGOL
LAMFO
PECL
MRNIOII
NNAEIIE
NNL
GNGMR
GWGE
GER
I
N
D
I
N
G

A U T O C O NE R R IN G F R A M E
DOUS T E ABML IINN GG
SS TINE GEA M IINN GG A U T O C O NE R
WA R P IN G

PROCESS FLOW CHART FOR WEAVING

24

P A R A L E L WIN DIN G

WINDING

Yarn from the spinning frame is next wound onto large spools or
packages in a process called winding. These spools or packages are
now use in weaving, knitting and other operations. In some cases,
packages of yarns may be dyed prior to knitting or weaving. This
allows colored patterns to be produced in the fabric.
Ring spinning produces yarn in a package form called cops. Since
cops from ring frames are not suitable for further processing, the
winding process serves to achieve additional objectives made
necessary by the requirements of the subsequent processing stages.
Following are the tasks of winding process:
1. Extraction of all disturbing yarn faults such as the short, long thick
,long thin, spinners doubles, etc
2. Manufacture of cones having good drawing - off properties and with
as long a length of yarn as possible
3. paraffin waxing of the yarn during the winding process
4. introduction into the yarn of a minimum number of knots
5. achievement of a high machine efficiency i.e. high production level.
The winding process therefore has the basic function of
obtaining a larger package from several small ring
bobbins. This conversion process provides one with the possibility of
cutting out unwanted and problematic objectionable faults. The

25

process of removing such objectionable faults is called as yarn

clearing.
RS
R N I GN LG E F W R A I N M D E I N B G O
PD
S
I
No
P O A U R B A: 9 L L I L N E G L FW R I A N M D
SIID of machine in windingD department
ASO AutoconerS 238T machine
(SCHLAFHORST)
:4
E
A
M
I
N
G
D
O
U
B
L
E
W
IN D IN
NTWN Autoconer
138 machine (PADMATEX) : 2
S
I
N
G
I
N
G
AL O machine
R O P M : I 3N S G H E D
GLORIUG Match Wcorner
R E Y F A B R IC
EAGOU
PRODUCTION
OF GAUTOCORNER
RANBF (winding speed/ y.p.m. *time*efficiency) / (840*2.2* count)
=
ARLOB kg/day/machine
=6.42
ELGLR
MPEML Bobbin peg MACHINE PARTS (AUTOCONER 238 )
YIA Balloon braker
IW Precleaner
EN Tension device
MNI Splicing head
clearer (luster)
FSWLGE Yarn
GNH Yarn holder
device
AIWB Wax
Yarn trap
D
BENIFO Drum
MACHINE
PARTICULS :
IDN
RRB Model : sclafhorest
year : 25-1-1996
NID Mfg
of spindle : each side 60
IAB No
speed : 900 rpm
GNI Winding
count : 95 & 100
CMI Running
Humidication maintain : 60to 65 %
GN Efficiency :90%
EN
G
MACHINE PARTS (AUTOCONER 138)

Bobbin peg
Balloon breaker
Precleaner
Lower cutter
26

B B IN
EI N G

Gate feeler
Tension shoe
Upper cutter
Splicing head
Wax device
Yarn clearer
Lap guard
Drum

PIRN WINDING MACHINE


Objective :

To prepare a pirn of required dimension suitable for shuttle.


To prepare a pirn contain continuous longer length of yarn.
To prepare pirn with fault less yarn.

Machine made: LAXMI-SCHWEITER


No. of machines :4
Manufacturing year :1992
Winding speed :9000rpm
One side spindle : 9+9+18
Total spindles :18+18=36
Bobbin diameter : 26mm
Main drives:900rpm
Tension:6-7 grams
Gross wt. of bobbin: 0.066gms
Empty bobbin wt:0.036gms
Net wt:0.03gms

o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

Length of yarn in pirn: =net wt. * count * 2.2 hanks


=0.22 * 42.5 * 1693
=1583 meters

STEAMING (1ST STAGE)


OBJECTIVE:
To recover the winding from high twisted yarn.
PROCESS:

27

In this process first the material which comes from doubling frame is put in one basket and
these types of three baskets are used. Then the basket is put in the steaming machine and the
door is closed. In this process 15% vacuum and 2 kg pressure is applied and this process
takes time about 1.5 to 2 hours and the basket is taken out.
Number of machines : 3
Feed material : doubling frame material used.

YARN SINGEING
OBJECTIVE:
To remove protruding fiber from the yarn.
To bring luster in the yarn.

IMPORTANCE OF SINGEING PROCESS


This process is done to make cloth thin because yarn looks thick due to more protruding fiber
. This process is done to remove protruding fiber and gives strength and luster to the cloth, it
also helps in uniform penetration of dye during dyeing process.
No of machine : 3
No of spindle per machine : 120
Drum rpm : 750
Temperature :730.C
Tension : 15-17 gms
Suction motor : 3
Rocker shaft motor (stop motion) : 2
Main motor rpm : 1445
Volt : 8.5 amp
Gas pressure : 17-30 P
Air pressure : 300

SINGEING PRODUCTION
= ( winding speed * time* efficiency) / ( 840 *2.2*100*count)
=(820*22.5*60*0.80) / (840*2.2* 45)
= 11.40 kg/spd/day

28

STEAMING (2ND STAGE)


OBJECTIVE :
To recover the winding from high twisted yarn.
PROCESS :
In this process the material which comes from the singeing department is put in one basket
and these types of three baskets are used. Then the basket is put in the steaming machine and
the door is closed. In this process 15% vacuum and 2 kg pressure is applied and this process
takes time about 1.5 to 2 hours and the basket is taken out.
Number of machines : 3
Feed material : singed yarn used.

29

WARPING

Warping is the process to collect a pre-determined number of ends from cross wound
package and from a sheet on the beam. It is followed by winding, in this process 400
to 600 parallel ends are taken in a sheet form and is wounded on a beam.
The new yarns are knotted with the old ones to draw them through the guides easily.

Drawing all the yarns through the guides in the creel is called creel dressing.
It is the process of determining the length of one section by passing the warp yarn
through another movable reed.

After drawing the yarns parameters required are feed on the machine
like warping speed, section length, number of ends etc.
It is the process of winding the warp yarns on the large beam depending
upon the length of warp yarn required.

Automatic knotter is applied for knotting the warp yarns of large beam to the already
present warp yarns on the weavers beam.

30

It is the process of winding the warp yarns on the weavers beam through relative
rotational cycle.
If the yarn breaks during the course of warping then the machine stops automatically
and the indicator on the related guide glows.

There are two types of warping processes:


W
B
a
e
r
a
p
m
i
n
W
g
a
r
p
i
n
g

S. No.

31

Parameters

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Yarn Count
F to F distance
Pitch
Actual Pitch
Number of ends (total)

6.

Number of ends (F)


Number of ends (M)
Number of ends (L)
Section Width (F)
Section Width (M)
Section Width (L)
Max. Warp Length
Warping Length
First Lease
Last Lease
Warping Speed
Piece Length
Total no. of sections

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

Number of machines : 4
Warping type : ( sectional warping)
INDEQUIP1 : creel capacity = 512 ends.
INDEQUIP2 : creel capacity = 500 ends.
BHAGWATI 1 : creel capacity = 480 ends.
BHAGWATI 2 : creel capacity = 612 ends.
STOP MOTION IN MACHINE:

Electric stop motion.


Break stop motion.

FACTORS AFFECTING THE PRODUCTION:

Time taken for creeling.


Length of warp wound on the beam
Number of supply package
Quality of yarn
Speed of machine
Frequency of changes in quality and count of yarn.
Machine stoppages due to spinning and winding faults
PRODUCTION IN WARPING:
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Weight of yarn = total weight of beam weight of beam


= 260-80
= 180 kgs

DRAWING-IN
OBJECTIVE:
To drive the ends through eyes of healds and dents to feed with the

help of reed hook.


The warp threads are passed in pre- determined order through

healds and feed of appropriate count and reed according to


manufacturing particulars of cloth, generally one end is drawn
through the eye of heald and two ends are drawn through the dent
of reed.

33

The drawing in the beam is mounted on the loom for weaving

process.
Equipment needed for mounting heald frames and the reed is called

upright frame.
MANUAL DRAWING-IN
This process is done by drawer.

MECHANICAL DRAWING-IN
It is done by machines.

NOTE : In ANKUR TEXTILES, manual drawing-in process is used.


TYPES OF HEALDS USED IN MILL :
1. COTTON HEALDS
2. FLAT STEEL WIRE HEALD

KNOTTING
For using new beam without removing end from old beam. Beam ends and drawn ends are
knotted together for making warp sheet.
Knots: 400 knots/min.

NOTE: Weaves are also decided according to the latest trends and marketing study.

NOTE : Weaving is done by power looms (shuttle looms) in ANKUT TEXTILES and there
are two types of looms based on design.

LOOM SHED
Objective:

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To produce the defect free fabric.

To remove warp break/slacks.

To stop the damage mantling.

To remove weft breaks/slacks.

Looms Motion:
o Main and auxiliary motion.
o Seeding [positive].
o Picking [negative].
o Beating-up [positive].
o Let-off motion [semi positive].
o Take up motion.
o Center weft fork stop motion.
o Warp stop motion.
o Loose read warp protector motion.
o Single pick motion.
o Reversing motion.
o Auto pirn changing device.
o Electrical feeler for pirn changing.

Total number of looms : 72


35

Loom size : 180cm = 48 looms


Loom size : 150 cm = 24 looms
Machine particulars:
LOOM SIZE : 180 cm
Rpm : 196
LOOM SIZE : 150 CM
Rpm : 205

Average production per day of ANKUT TEXTILES 80 meter day per


loom.

NOTE: PPI depends on the order received.


Export quality count= 105, 2/105
PPI- 64, EPI 64
GREY WIDTH = 160 cm or 95 cm
PRODUCTS OF ANKUR TEXTILES FAMOUS IN INDIA
1. Trade name- chakori (monopoli)

Quality 80088

100% cotton blouse material

Reed * pick = 72 * 72

Count = 2/94 singed yarn

GREY WIDTH = 100 cm

FINISHED WIDTH = 90 cm

GREY WEIGHT = 86 87 gm
36

2. TIP TOP

100% polyester blouse material

Reed * pick= 80*80

Count = 2/81 PC * 2/81 PC

Carbonizing is done to remove cotton to make it 100 % polyester


( passing the fabric through sulphuric acid).

GREY WIDTH = 91 cm

FINISHED WIDTH = 90 cm

GREY WEIGHT = 115 gm / mtr.

3. Mulberry
4. Padmini
5. Dolphin
6. Rosemerry
DEFECTS DURING WEAVING
Warp break.
Warp slacks
Weft breaks
Weft slacks

Causes of stoppages:
Warp and weft brakes.

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Shuttle trap.
Banging off.
Pkg. changes.
No shuttle transfer.
Break after transfer.
Damage mentioning.

Production Calculation:
Prod. Of loom/day/machine = Rpm * 60 *24.
39.37*picks/inches
Production depends on the value of Rpm of loom and PPI.
NOTE : average production of ANKUR TEXTILES is 80 mtrs per day .

PROCESSING
GREY INSPECTION DEPARTMENT
To remove projecting yarns and stains or weaving faults.
In grey inspection department fabric are observed on light surface. By light,
projecting yarns which are present on fabric in which both side are easily seen.
In inspection of grey fabric projecting yarns are remove and cut from middle and
selvedge of fabric.
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Weaving faults like reed marks, knots, slub, parallel and single yarn
faults, sludge etc. Are removed from the grey fabric.
Unwashable stains are removed chemically.

GREY FOLDING
In grey folding, fabric is fold for farther process after grey inspection.
In half rotation 1 mt. of fabric is fold.
Then fabric is send to stitching, were according to requirement stitching is done.
No. of inspection table = 8
No. of folding m/c = 2

o
o
o
o
o

SINGEING
Singeing is done to remove the protruding fibers from the surface of the fabric, if protruding
fibers are not removed uniform penetration of dye cannot be done, and during printing sharp
print design will not have the same desired effect. It is a necessary process for dyeing and
printing process.
Singeing process is given to the cotton fabric generally in grey stage
but in case of polyester- cotton blend fabric this operation is given after dyeing of polyester
portion. If it is done in grey stage the protruding fibers gets melted and forms bead on surface
of fabric and this creates problem in dyeing ( shade variation can happen ).

Singing machines in Ankur Textile:


Machine Name - ASTHOFF SENGE
Manufactured From - GERMANY
Burner Distance - 10mm
Gas and air ratio - 1:4
Parameters for singeing process are as follows:PARAMETER
FOR P- C BLEND

FOR COTTON

1. machine speed

10 m/min

80 m/min

2. flame intensity

06 mili

10 mili

3. temperature

100.C

120.C

4. time of contact of
fabric to flame

0.55 sec

0.75 sec

PARTS OF SINGEING MACHINE:


1. Batch of fabric
2. Pre cleaning section
3. Exhaust
4. Brush roller
5. Guide roller
6. Singeing section
39

7. Flame
DESIZING PROCESS
Objective:
The purpose of desizing is to remove size paste applied on the warp yarn before weaving
process, this size paste remains on the fabric produced after weaving. Usually an emulsifying
agent is added to sizing mixture to facilitate its removal from cloth.
It is necessary to remove the size paste from cloth because
hydrophobicity of this material causes problem during wet processing like less penetration of
chemical and less absorption of chemical.
PROCESS:
In ANKUR TEXTILES enzymatic desizing is done for the fabrics.

SCOURING
After desizing, the cloth still contains fats and waxes (both natural and added), due to its
presence absorbency of the cloth is adversely affected. This leads to improper dyeing and
finishing in the subsequent processes. These impurities are removed from the fabric in the
scouring processes.
The oils and fats are higher fatty acids of in organic compounds. They are hydrophobic
substances and affect the absorbency of the cloth. The outer hydrophobic layer has to be
removed to make the fabric absorbent.
The process by which this water resistant layer is removed from the fabric is called
Scouring.
Note:
Kiers are used for scouring process. It is under high pressure, saponification reaction takes
place in which impurities become soluble and then it is removed by washing.
KIERS:
Open Kiers.
Closed Kiers.
Chemical used for Scouring:
Caustic soda, sodium sulphate , soda ash.
Number of kiers in ANKUR TEXTILE:
5 Kiers.

40

Following steps are kept in mind during Scouring process:


1) Feeding of fabric should be uniform into the kier in rope form.
2) Kier should not be filled beyond 80% to 85% of its rated capacity as overfilling may
cause undue hydraulic pressure.
3) Temperature and pressure should be according to the standards.
4) The kier should be at least half filled; otherwise the cloth may turn
around due to circulating liquor and get entangled.
Kier Parts:
a) Vessel
b) Lid
c) Pressure gauge
d) Safety valves
e) Lid clamp
f) Heater
g) Steam line
h) Steam valve
i) Pump
j) Clean water input
k) Drain valve
l) Valve
m) Caustic tank
n) Drain valve
MERCERIZATION
Objective :

1. To increase tensile strength of fabric.


2. To increase dimensional stability.
3. To increase luster.
4. To improve dye uptake.
5. To improve smoothness.

Mercerization is a treatment for cotton fabrics and threads that gives fabric a lustrous
appearance. The process is applied to cotton materials.
The treatment causes the fibres to swell, which in Mercer's version of the process shrunks the
overall fabric size and makes it stronger and easier to dye. By holding the cotton during
treatment to prevent it from shrinking, fibre gains a lustrous appearance. Mercerisation alters
the chemical structure of the cotton fibre. Mercerising results in the swelling of the cell wall

41

of the cotton fibre. This causes increases in the surface area and reflectance, and gives fibers
a softer feel.[3]
The modern production method for mercerised cotton, also known as "pearl" or "pearle"
cotton, gives cotton thread a sodium hydroxide bath that is then neutralized with an acid
bath. This treatment increases luster, strength, affinity to dye, resistance to mildew, but also
increases affinity to lint. Cotton with long staple fibre lengths responds best to mercerisation.
Mercerised thread is commonly used to produce fine crochet.
Mercerisers are either chain or chainless and consist of three sections, impregnation,
stabilisation and washing off.
Most mercerisation units have their own caustic recovery systems to help minimise waste.
Principal pollutants: Alkaline effluent from washing and rinsing operations. Effluent from
mercerising operations consists mainly of mildy caustic rinse water. Typically the pH of this
effluent is about 10 to 12. Water usage for this process is about 20 liters per kg of cloth.
Effective Mercerization requires attention to variables such as caustic strength, dwell time
(feedrate), temperature, and neutralization. The feed rate of the fabric may also be limited by
its trength and weight and is usually run at 80 to 120 yards (73 to110 m) per minute.
MACHINE USED FOR MERCERIZATION IN INDUSTRY:
Chainless mercerizing machine = 2 machines
MACHINE DEATAILS:
Manufactured by

M-TEX machines pvt ltd,

Washer tank capacity

700 ltr

Nip pressure

2 kg / cm 2

Number of washer tank

Fabric in NaoH tank

23 metres

Air gun roll pressure

4 Kg /cm2

Fabric in this machine is washed by counter current system


Machine parts :
a. Tensioner
b. Guide
c. Fixed rubber roll
d. Floating roller
e. Caustic soda tank
f. Air gun roll
g. Transfer roll
h. Sqeezing roller
i. Wash liquor outlet
42

j.
k.
l.
m.
n.
o.
p.
q.
r.

Stabilizer
Washer
Scrolling device
Spray pipe
Dancing roller
Platter
Mercerized fabric
Washer pipe
Guide roller

BLEACHING
Objective
1. Removal of colouring matter.
2. Increases whiteness.
Bleaching means whitening or oxidizing a substance. Bleach is a chemical that can produce
these effects. Common chemical bleaches include sodium hypochlorite, or "chlorine bleach,"
and "oxygen bleach," which contains hydrogen peroxide. "Bleaching powder" is calcium
hypochlorite.
Bleaching is a process to make the fabric or yarn look brighter and whiter.
This is achieved by oxidizing or reducing the coloring matters in to
colorless form. Mostly widely used textile bleaching method is Hydrogen
Peroxide bleaching. This is carried out in an alkaline bath at
about 80 to 85C at a pH of 11.
Bleaching powder may be used for bleaching cotton and linen. The fabric
is soaked in a weak aqueous suspension of bleaching powder and exposed
to the air when hypochlorous acid is liberated and causes bleaching by
oxidation. The process is completed after repeated boiling, washing and
exposure to sunlight for up till 6 months.
Bleaching of textiles can be classified in to oxidative bleaching and reductive bleaching.
Oxidative bleaching
Generally oxidative bleaching is carried out using sodium hypochlorite, sodium
chlorite or hydrogen peroxide. Natural fibre like cotton ,jute, wool, bamboo are all generally
bleached with oxidative methods.
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Reductive bleaching
Reductive method of bleaching is done with Sodium hydrosulphite, a powerful reducing
agent. Fibres like Polyamide, Polyacrylics and Polyacetates can be bleached using reductive
bleaching technology.

In ANKUR TEXTILES full bleaching is done to give maximum whiteness to fabric.


In bleaching process, Sodium hypo chlorite ( NaOCl) is used then fabric is treated
with Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2). First process is known as chemicking ( chemic).
Manual bleaching process is practiced in the industry and the fabric is present in rope
form. Process is not continuous.

CHEMICKING PROCESS:
In this process sodium hypochlorite is used.
Procedure :
Hydrolysis
NaOCl + H2O NaOH + HOCl
Bleaching agent release
HOCl HCl + (O)
Maximum HOCl development
NaOCl + HCl NaCl +HOCl
Formation of free chlorine
HOCl + HCl H2O +Cl2

SOURING
In this process neutralization of fabric is done by using dilute mineral acid after bleaching
process and removes surface deposits from fabric, souring is carried out in dilute acid.
This process is necessary after bleaching because by this process traces of
oxidizing bleaching agent are also removed from the fabric. In this process concentration of
acid and temperature should be controlled.
CHEMICAL USED: 2 gm/ ltr HCl
TEMPERATURE : room temperature
MACHINE USED : washing machine
TIME: 1 hour
TEMPERATURE : 35- 40 .C
ROPE WASHER :
a. Water
b. Water tank
c. Eye pot
d. Fabric in rope form
e. Rubber roller
44

f.
g.
h.
i.
j.

Winch
Fabric controlling plate
Chemical inlet
Water inlet
Drain valve

DYEING
In ANKUR TEXTILES dyeing department uses generally Reactive dyes, vat, sulphur dyes
for cotton and disperse dyes for polyester material. Reactive dyes and vat dyes are widely
used for cotton materials dyes used in the industry are of following manufacturers :
Reactive Dyes from M. ghmani Dyes
Sulphur Dyes from Bhanu Dyes
Vat Dyes from Atul Dyes
Disperse Dyes from Colourtex Dyes.
CARBONIZATION:
In order to obtain 100% polyester fabric this process is done, 100% polyester fabric cannot be
get by weaving process so first polyester- cellulosic blend is made then by using
carbonization process cellulosic portion from P-C blend is removed. This process is
particularly dine for the blose material of TIP- TOP brand of ANKUR TEXTILES.
Machine:
Jigger Machine
Chemical Used:
70% H2S04 soda ash (20 g/l)
Time:
4 Hours
Process:
Step 1st:- 1000 meters of fabric is taken for carbonization process on jigger m/c.
Step 2nd:- 4 turns are given in conc. H2SO4 in 1 hour.
Step 3rd:-Fabric is washed for 1 hour (4 turns) and given soda ash wash.
Step 4th:-Fabric is again washed for 1 hour (4 turns).
Optical Brightening process (OBA):
Object:
This process is given to make fabric pure white.
Optical brightening agents are physical bleaching agents
OBA make fabric more reflective by absorbing ultra violet rays of light and transfer them in
blue violet range and fabric looks pure white, it is done by two methods
1. Exhaustion method
2. Padding method
In ANKUR TEXTILES fabric stenter machine is used for P-C blend.
45

Packaging
Packaging is an important unit in the Textile mill of Ankur Div. since it produces fabric both
for Export and Local Market with maximum turnover in Export quality. Arvind ankur has two
warehouses for packaging. One main inside the factory and another outside. The outside one
hire labours from various contractors while the main warehouse has its own labours working
for Arvind.
The main warehouse is used for packing and storing of export quality fabrics which are
exported to various foreign countries like Dubai, Switzerland, Mauritius etc. Packaging is
carried out in Roll form and folded form. Proper care is taken for packing of Aroma finished
fabrics which are cut into smaller units and packed in plastic bags. The special aroma finished
fabrics retain its smell till 7-8 wash with this type of packing.

46

Conclusion
This textile internship for two weeks provided us a great opportunity to
learn and experience all the processes involved in making a fabric from
the fiber stage till the finished fabric in a textile industry. Also through this
we had an opportunity to visit Ahmedabad regarded as the textile hub of
India. We came to know about the culture and had an experience to
interact with the people. This experience will help us in understanding the
basics of a Garment Industry and will be helpful in pursuing our career in
this field.

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