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`Placing Jesus`
Phenomena fundamental to Christianity are the Spirit like a dove experience and the
cloven tongues of fire (day star or morning star) experience. These phenomena are
not present in Judaism: no mention is made of them in the religion given to the Jewish
people by Moses or the religion developed by David and they play no part in
contemporary Judaism.
Information about these phenomena is available in Christian traditions stretching back
to Jesus: the Spirit like a dove features in the story of Jesus and John the Baptist; the
cloven tongues of fire are written about in Acts; the day star is mentioned in Second
Peter.
These phenomena, not present in Judaism, missing from modern Christianity and
which feature in none of the popular religions of today, signify a paranormal
dimension to being. Jesus was able to refer to himself as the Son of God after the first
phenomenon, and after the second phenomenon his disciples were able to claim he
had survived death and was alive with his Father.
A Spirit like a dove and a star are central to the religion of Jesus. Both are associated
with the activity of a god. Jewish tradition says Yahweh is the name that god wanted
to be known by and that in the past Yahweh had been known as God Almighty.
The original Christian community understood their God Almighty to be a paranormal
light that came to live in them and which transformed them into children of light.
Some time after Jesus had been crucified and pronounced dead he sent the Holy Ghost
to his disciples. Acts has it that the Holy Ghost manifested as cloven tongues of fire.
Second Peter speaks of the day star; John speaks of the morning star. In Revelation
Jesus is called the morning star: it was in this form that he made himself known to his
disciples.
Paul misled his followers into believing the paranormal light, which manifested as a
star, was the devil in disguise. Paul's advice to his followers resulted in the star being
labelled the devil's star and the light (Jesus/God) being labelled the devil.
God Almighty or God the Father should be understood as a God of Light with an
associated winged spirit and five pointed star.
Many gods and goddesses are named in writing from various parts of the ancient
world. Several were promoted as being responsible for creating the world. Most of
them were not associated with paranormal light, a winged spirit and a five pointed
star.
Stories about Adam, Noah, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob do not feature a God of Light
that is associated with a winged spirit and five pointed star. The deity Moses
introduced to the Hebrews was not a God of Light and was not associated with a five
pointed star or a winged spirit - although Moses decorated the mercy seat with
cherubs.

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The Spirit seen by Jesus is neither cherub nor seraphim. Its form and activity are
simple compared to the cherub and seraphim featured in the visions of Isaiah and
Ezekiel. Jesus saw something that reminded him of a medium sized pigeon (white by
tradition). Flying is the only activity recorded for that bird-like spirit.
Jesus was changed by the Spirit he saw: he became one with God and was able to
claim he was in God and God was in him. The paranormal intelligence encountered
by Jesus can enter into a union with human beings - it can engender offspring
(children). Christians call this intelligence God the Father.
God the Father or God Almighty is an intelligence that can share itself with human
beings and whose 'calling card' is an avian spirit or apparition. That intelligence
should be easy to identify if it has worked with humans in the past.
Impressive civilizations developed around four rivers: Nile, Euphrates, Tigris and
Indus. More is known about the civilizations that emerged in Mesopotamia and Egypt
than the civilization that developed in ancient India. It is not known if the Indus
civilization had any influence upon other civilizations but, as it had trade links with
Mesopotamia, the potential for reciprocal inspiration existed.
Unfortunately there is no firm data concerning the gods worshiped by the Indus
people. Nevertheless some indication of the gods recognised by them might be
available in the religious literature associated with India and Iran, and it does not
seem unreasonable to suppose the Indus people recognised several almighty gods and
goddesses - as did the people of Mesopotamia and Egypt.
Many deities are associated with the civilizations of ancient India, Mesopotamia and
Egypt. A few are winged. Some are thought of as avian but only a limited number of
those can be connected with light. Two bird-like gods that are connected with light
are Garuda and Ahura Mazda: Ahura Mazda was born from the purest light; Garuda
was tremendously bright when he emerged from his shell. Horus, the Egyptian god,
can be connected to light through his role as sun-god.
No God Almighty of avian form plays a part in the religions of Mesopotamia or
Canaan. It is known that the religions of Mesopotamia influenced the religions of
Elam but Ahura Mazda, the God Almighty of Darius the Great (550-486 BC), was not
a Mesopotamian deity.
Zoroaster, often called the prophet of Ahura Mazda, was born about 628 BC and died
about 551 BC. His teaching is known from a body of writing called the Avesta. The
existing Avesta is a remnant of a much larger work that may have been destroyed by
Alexander the Great. There is a relationship between the Avesta and the much earlier
writing (Vedas) of ancient India.
The gods (devas in Indian tradition) are depicted as demons in Iranian writing whilst
ahuras (asuras) are seen as enemies of the gods in Indian writing. Some Indian gods
and Iranian gods appear to be the same. Not all Indian gods have clear-cut Iranian
equivalents. Varuna, for example, is said to match up with Ahura Mazda even though
Ahura Mazda is depicted with wings and the Indian god Varuna is not. Ahura Mazda
and Garuda might be a better match.

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Garuda is neither a deva (god) nor an asura (enemy of the gods). Indian tradition says
the sage Kashyapa was the father of Garuda and that Vinata, a wife of Kashyapa, was
the mother of Garuda. Kashyapa had many wives. His wife Aditi gave birth to the
gods known as the Sons of Aditi. Mitra and Varuna are counted amongst those sons.
Garuda and Varuna appear to have the same father but different mothers.
Kashyapa and his wife Kadru (the sister of Vinata) produced the Nagas (serpents or
dragons) that became enemies of Garuda. Kashyapa was also the father of Indra
(King of the Gods). The Nagas, Indra and Garuda feature in stories that describe how
Garuda and Vishnu joined forces.
Theses stories suggest Garuda was destined to be more powerful that he became.
Garuda was meant to replace Indra. Garuda's light rivalled the light of Agni. The
gods felt Garuda was a threat that might signal the end of the world. Garuda was a
powerful newcomer that posed a danger to the established order.
Indra, Nagas and Vishnu were known in India before Garuda: the Nagas were born
(hatched) a long time before Garuda; Indra was cursed during preparations for the
ceremony necessary to the birth of the Nagas and Garuda; Vishnu, another child of
Aditi, was older than Garuda.
Garuda is not an enemy of the gods but conflict between Garuda and the gods did
occur. Vinata had been enslaved by her sister Kadru, the mother of the Nagas, and
Garuda agreed to get the drink of the gods (soma) for the Nagas if they would free his
mother. Indra and the other gods could not withstand Garuda. He took their drink
and went to conclude his business with the Nagas.
Vishnu discovered what Garuda was up to and explained to Indra that Garuda only
wanted the soma to ransom Vinata. Garuda had undertaken only to acquire the drink
(or drug) for the Nagas. He had not agreed to let them drink it. Consequently he,
Indra and Vishnu were able to trick the Nagas into freeing Vinata without the Nagas
getting to drink the soma - a few drops of soma fell on the grass and were licked up
by Nagas.
Garuda, although he had the opportunity to do so, does not use soma. His rejection of
soma as a way to achieve immortality suggests a difference between the religion of
Garuda and the religion of ancient India. Garuda was an exceptionally powerful
entity who the Indian gods persuaded to submit to their will. Garuda appears to have
been an outsider with the attributes of a mighty god whose religion or worship did not
involve the use of the sacred drink of the Vedic religion.
Vishnu and Garuda were separate entities before Garuda stormed the home of the
gods and took their sacred drink. Garuda and Vishnu became acquainted during
Garuda's attempt to rescue his mother from the Nagas. Indra and Vishnu joined forces
with Garuda to deny the Nagas the use of soma and the chance to gain immortality.
Some effort was made to combine Vishnu and Garuda. Trickery may be suspected
because Garuda expected to receive a higher position than Vishnu but ended up as
Vishnu's means of transport. Assimilation often occurs where similarity exists.

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Ahura Mazda is the God Almighty of Zoroastrianism, the religion started by
Zoroaster. It is assumed Zoroaster lived for seventy-seven years and died about 551
BC. Darius I (the Great) of Persia, who probably made Zoroastrianism the state
religion, was born one year later (550 BC) and became king in 522 BC.
Darius was the third king of the Achaemenid dynasty, which was started by Cyrus II
(the Great) a descendant of the kings of Anshan (area and city in Elam). Darius may
have killed Bardiya, a son of Cyrus, to gain the Persian throne. Nevertheless he
claimed he was the legitimate heir and that he ruled by the grace of Ahura Mazda.
It is not known if Ahura Mazda came to Iran with the Indo-Aryan people or if the
deity featured in any religion of ancient Elam. No stories (concerning gods, heroes
and their adventures) comparable to the Mesopotamian stories have been identified
for Elam and no source for the religion of Zoroaster predates Zoroaster.
The teaching of Zoroaster must have been new or innovative: it met resistance. Ten
years after his vision, which he had when he was about thirty, Zoroaster managed to
gain the support and protection of King Vistaspa. Zoroaster prayed for King
Vistaspa's conversion. After his conversion King Vistaspa's family and Zoroaster's
family became related through marriage - which must have helped advance
Zoroaster's cause.
From its beginning Zoroastrianism had noble connections. Zoroaster was born into a
family of knights: the Spitama family. Links to the ruling family might have helped
facilitate acceptance of Zoroaster's teaching despite resistance from the local religious
and public authorities.
Zoroaster was not fond of animal sacrifice, haoma (soma) or the unrestrained
behaviour associated with its consumption. He preferred most sacrifice to be
symbolic rather than actual - including sacrifice involving haoma.
Truth was important in the religion Zoroaster introduced. Ahura Mazda was truth and
all gods (excluding Mithra and Anahita) were followers of the lie or destructive spirit
(angramainya or Ahriman). Ahura Mazda (the living wise one) was approached via
truthful thoughts, words and deeds. Followers of Ahura Mazda were encouraged to
work with him to increase the amount of truth in the world.
Although the religion of Zoroaster is supposedly related to the religion of ancient
India, Ahura Mazda is not mentioned in the Vedas. If Ahura Mazda had featured in
the Vedas no effort to identify his equivalent there would be necessary.
Iconography in the reign of Darius I portrayed Ahura Mazda as a winged disc or
circle. It is conceivable that it was in this form that the living wise one appeared to
Zoroaster.
No divine being mentioned in ancient Indian writing, including Varuna and Garuda, is
depicted as a winged disc. The nearest 'being' the Vedas have to the winged disc is
Sudarshana (auspicious vision), the Devine Discus. It represents the cosmic mind and
Vishnu's ability to make and unmake the universe. Sudarshana was produced from a
sun god who was married to a daughter of Viswa Karma (the Indian architect god).

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Approximately two thousand five hundred years before Cyrus the Great, Darius the
Great, Zoroaster, Zoroastrianism and Ahura Mazda, another god of avian form had
achieved a position of prominence in a unified Egypt. Horus, like Ahura Mazda, was
a god linked to kings and royalty: the Persians believed their kingdom was given to
them by Ahura Mazda; the Palermo Stone states King Menes received his throne from
Horus.
Between 3500 BC and 3200 BC considerable change took place in Upper and Lower
Egypt. The Stone Age was coming to an end. Gold and silver were used more often
in Upper Egypt and copper was employed to make some items (axes and blades)
previously available only in stone. In Lower Egypt metal implements were common
in Maadi - Maadi gave its name to a culture (Maadian) which existed at Maadi, Buto,
Heliopolis, Giza and several other sites; Maadian culture disappeared as Naqada
culture advanced northwards.
Three important centres developed in Upper Egypt: Naqada, Abydos and
Hierakonpolis. Naqada gave its name to a culture that advanced northwards and
southwards during its second phase (3500 BC to 3200 BC). Abydos became a notable
burial place and location associated with the mysteries of Osiris. Hierakonpolis was
home to a group (Followers of Horus) that helped bring about the merger of Upper
Egypt with Lower Egypt.
While these changes were taking place in Egypt, in Palestine the Early Bronze Age
had come into being. There was overland contact between the north of Egypt and
Palestine during this time. This contact continued as Maadian culture was
overshadowed by the advancing Naqada culture. Egypt had a significant interest and
presence in northern Sinai and southern Palestine - where a commercial network, set
up and controlled by Egypt, may have existed from the Early Bronze Age.
In the last two hundred years before unification (3200 BC to 3000 BC) Naqada
culture spread to all parts of Egypt. How this was achieved is debatable as no
evidence of a military conquest of the north by the south has been identified - despite
the many stories of conflict between Seth and Horus.
Different accounts of the conflict exist: in one account Horus is the son of Osiris; in
another he is the son of Re. Horus fought against Seth and his followers (enemies of
the sun god) in the form of a winged disc. He inflicted great damage on Seth and his
followers; after which Seth took serpent form to continue his offensive against Re.
Re and Horus are separate entities in traditions which depict Horus as the son of Re.
Even when Horus takes the form of the winged disc (Behdety) he is represented as an
individual and not as a Re-Horus construction (Re-Horakhty). Horus may have been
a sky god originally but he is better known as a solar god - pharaohs, for example,
expected to be reborn in the eastern sky as Horakhty (Horus of the two horizons).
It is assumed Horus acquired his solar disc form as a result of his union with Re.
Even so, as a solar or sun god Horus could have had a disc form or circular form
independent of the one shared with Re. The circular hieroglyph (shen) sometimes
encircles and protects the sun. When this happens the solar disc is placed inside the
shen. A similar modification could have taken place with Horus and Re.

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The hieroglyph used to denote Re is written as a small circle in the centre of a bigger
circle. In Egyptian iconography Re is often protected inside the circular shen, a
circular serpent (Wadjet) or concentric circles (Mehen). Horus fought to protect Re
from Seth and his followers and would, therefore, appear to be eligible for a circular
form with which he could encircle and protect Re.
Horus (the one on high) possibly existed before Re. His final form may have been
different from his first form. If Horus manifested in the same way as the Holy Spirit
the event would have been a private one and a correct understanding of the avian form
involved restricted to one individual. A manifestation of this kind could have
generated the first Horus-pharaoh god-king.
It is impossible to demonstrate Horus had a circular form that was independent of Re.
Nevertheless Horus can be associated with a circular form, especially when he
appears as Behdety: in that form the sun is encircled by a white halo that is encircled
by one or two serpents - the impression created is one in which it appears the solar orb
was placed inside an existing white circle.
Garuda, Ahura Mazda and Horus are the most famous of the avian deities associated
with the civilizations that developed around the Indus, Tigris, Euphrates and Nile.
These gods are comparable. Garuda joined forces with Vishnu (a sun god); Horus
joined forces with Re (another sun god); all three are associated with light; all three
are linked to a circle (Sudarshana, winged disc).
Although these gods are comparable there is no evidence to show anyone of them is
derived from any of the others. However, it is possible to set all three gods in a
common location where copying could have taken place.
Hierakonpolis may have been influential from about 4000 BC. Hierakonpolis tombs
from this period (Naqada I) reflect the appearance of an elite group (Followers of
Horus) thought to be hunter-warriors. After 3500 BC (Naqada II) this group, or its
agents, conducted more and more business by boat: south for gold, ivory and incense;
north and east for copper, stone, and seashells.
In Upper Egypt, Lower Egypt and Palestine the Stone Age was coming to an end, the
age of metals was beginning and writing was being invented. Contact between
different areas along the Nile was facilitated by an increase in the number of boats
built for travel and trade - the wood needed to manufacture the boats used in the
activities of the Upper Egyptian privileged was imported from Lebanon.
Remnants of grave goods found in various large tombs at Hierakonpolis point to trade
between Upper Egypt and locations as far away as Afghanistan. The likeness in style
of some artwork found in Hierakonpolis tombs to artwork characteristic of Susa has
allowed speculation concerning a possible southern route of contact between the two
cities.
Susa was the capital city of Elam (in south-west Iran). Contact between Susa and
Hierakonpolis would have created opportunities for Egyptian notions and concepts to
become known in Iran. Susa is one location where copying of Horus could have
taken place - Garuda and Ahura Mazda would be derived from the hawk god Horus.

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Knowledge of an avian or winged god 'the one on high' could have been in Iran (via
Susa and Elam) at least a thousand years before the Indo-Europeans or Indo-Iranians
arrived in Iran or India; two and a half thousand years, or thereabouts, before
Zoroaster had his vision of Ahura Mazda - whose form (winged disc) is similar to the
form Horus takes as Behdety.
Of course, a God Almighty would be able to appear to anyone, anywhere, at anytime.
International border lines and boundaries would not cause difficulties for, or obstruct
the activities of, a God almighty.
It seems more than coincidental that three areas important to the emergence of
civilization - Elam was near Mesopotamia - should possess powerful avian gods, two
of whom had circular form.
Garuda appeared too far east to have had an impact upon Judaism or the people of
Israel. But the Jewish people should have encountered Ahura Mazda and the
teachings of Zoroaster in Persia under Cyrus the Great, and if Moses spent his
formative years in the palace of an Egyptian Pharaoh he should have had some
knowledge of Horus.
Judaism may have been influenced by religious ideas encountered during the
Babylonian Captivity in Babylon and the Persian Empire. Jewish expectation of a
Messiah from the House of David changed into a hope of a saviour from Heaven.
Such an idea is more in line with Zoroaster's teaching of a series of world saviours
than anything proposed by the prophet Nathan, King David or King Solomon.
Ezra (1:2) says: Cyrus the Great announced that the God who had given him all the
kingdoms of the world had assigned him the task of building him a house (the temple)
in Jerusalem. Cyrus believed the kingdoms of the world had been given to him by
Ahura Mazda. He may also have imagined Ahura Mazda and Yahweh were one.
It is very unlikely that Cyrus converted to Judaism. During his reign Zoroastrianism
was an up-and-coming religion still several years away from being made the state
religion. Zoroaster died (551 BC) about eight years after Cyrus became king of Persia
(559 BC) and one year before Darius was born (550 BC). Zoroaster and Cyrus should
have known each other. Darius the Great was born one year after Zoroaster died and
he became king (521 BC) eighteen years after the end of the Babylonian Captivity.
Darius made Zoroastrianism the state religion.
A similarity shared by the God of Israel and the God of Persia is their association with
wings. Ahura Mazda is shown as a disc with wings and Yahweh supposedly lives
between the winged cherubim (2 Samuel 6). Zoroastrianism, being a young religion,
may have been inclined to view Yahweh as an expression of Ahura Mazda.
Building the temple in Jerusalem was a Persian (Babylonian) enterprise. Cyrus,
Darius and Artaxerxes made some effort and invested huge amounts of money to
facilitate the building of the temple and the rebuilding of Jerusalem. Persian
involvement in the rebuilding of the city of Jerusalem and the building of the
Jerusalem Temple allowed John to refer to Jerusalem as 'Babylon the Great, The
Mother of Harlots' (also known as the idol whore of Babylon).

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Jesus would be more easily placed in a religion which believed in heaven-sent world
saviours than in a religion expecting a descendant of a king to set up an everlasting
physical kingdom on Earth. Zoroastrianism, however, came about in the late seventh
century or early sixth century BC. Being a young religion it may not have been
known to the Jewish people before Cyrus founded the Achaemenid dynasty.
Unless Garuda is an almighty god who can appear to anyone, anywhere, at anytime,
his place of origin is, in theory, too far from Bethabara (where Jesus had his
experience) to be though of as the spirit like a dove.
Ahura Mazda has to be considered a God Almighty capable of appearing to any
individual of his choosing given he appeared to Zoroaster. Ahura Mazda may not
have been known to the Jewish people before the time of Cyrus the Great and, unless
Judaism can show Yahweh has a winged disc or circle form, cannot be the same God
as the God of Israel.
Yahweh (YHWH) is the term a God Almighty instructed Moses to call him. Moses
was the first person to use the name. Moses told his followers that this previously
unknown god was the God of their fathers. Abraham came from Ur (city of the moon
god Sin) where the Sumerian creator god An would have been recognized as the God
Almighty.
Nothing in the story of Abraham or the story of Moses would show Yahweh had
Sumerian or Akkadian origins. The name El was used, primarily by the northern
Hebrew tribes, to denote God Almighty. However, that god was probably modelled
on the Canaanite god IL and cannot be considered the God of the Hebrew fathers
(Abraham, Isaac and Jacob).
The God Almighty associated with Moses made himself known via an angel and a
burning bush. After that initial contact Yahweh met Moses in a tent and, when the
Mercy Seat had been constructed, from between the cherubim. Yahweh materialised
in a cloud or cloud of incense smoke. He did not make himself known in any kind of
avian form - the heavens did not open for Moses.
It looks impossible to identify a God Almighty that Yahweh could have been modelled
on. Yahweh may have been a new god which Moses invented and introduced. He is
not a God Almighty that can be traced to any tradition known from ancient times.
Although it is difficult to propose a model for the God Almighty involved with Moses
it is not difficult to suggest a form for the God Almighty involved with Jesus. The
most important information about the deity Christians call God the Father was handed
down by Jesus - the Spirit like a dove would have been seen by Jesus and not by John
the Baptist.
Even though Christians are badly informed about the appearance of the Spirit like a
dove they are fortunate in as much as they know their God Almighty is signified by an
avian form. The most famous god with an avian form that the Jewish people could
have been involved with is the Egyptian god Horus.

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Horus emerged from the Stone Age by way of Hierakonpolis, Upper Egypt and the
Naqada culture. Roughly speaking Upper and Lower Egypt belonged to Horus and
his followers by about 3000 BC. Horus gave the country to Menes. King Menes and
his successors were thought of as divine and human: part Horus and part man.
Several avian deities were acknowledged in ancient Egypt. Horus is the only one (Re
excluded) that had a winged disc or circle form. If it could be shown that this form
was associated with Horus before his fusion with Re it would be possible to establish
a connection between Horus and the Spirit like a dove.
Unless Horus was introduced into Egypt he came from there. Horus was accepted as
a god before the end of the Stone Age and, although the Horus name of Egyptian
kings was written as a hawk, a hawk may not be an accurate reproduction of the god's
real appearance.
Horus may have come by his hawk form via an evolutionary process. This is what
happened with the Spirit like a dove: it appeared as a white circle with white wings
and evolved into a fully fledged white dove - one man's dove is conceivably another
man's hawk or eagle (Revelation 12:14).
Jesus could without difficulty be placed in a tradition where a union of man and god
(with avian form) took place. On the other hand it looks impossible to link him to a
tradition in which god appeared in a cloud or cloud of incense smoke and
communicated from between the wings of two gold statues.
The original form of Horus and the original form of the Spirit like a dove would have
to be known to be identical before it could be stated irrefutably that Horus and the
Spirit like a dove point to the same God Almighty.
Horus and the Spirit like a dove could be the same. Yahweh and Horus could not be
the same. Yahweh (the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob) could only have been
introduced to Egypt by the Hebrews sometime after 2000 BC.
The Spirit like a dove came from heaven while Jesus was alive. The morning star
(cloven tongues of fire or day star) came from heaven after Jesus had been killed.
Jesus is identified as the bright and morning star in Revelation (22:16). The morning
star or cloven tongues of fire experience is the most significant experience a follower
of Jesus can have - it leads to union with Jesus and the Father.
Stars can be associated with various deities (Inana, Ishtar and Sopdet for example).
Only one star will be considered here: the Egyptian five pointed star which is often
shown with a circular middle. This star is not associated with evil.
The morning star was considered to be an important deity. Pharaoh (the Horus)
expected to become the morning star on his demise. As a hieroglyph the five pointed
star is associated with the priesthood and adoration. Under the Ptolemies (rulers of
Egypt from the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC to the death of Cleopatra in
30 BC) the five pointed star hieroglyph could be used to write God.

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Jesus could be placed in a tradition where an individual becomes one with a God
Almighty who makes his existence known through a vision of avian form and where
the elected one (or one anointed with the Spirit from heaven) transformed into the
morning star after death.
It would be easier to place Jesus in a tradition featuring oneness with an avian form
and rebirth as the morning star than it would be to place him in a tradition without
these features.
Christian religion may connect with some element of Egyptian religion. Judaism does
not connect with any element of Egyptian religion or any other religion known from
the ancient world. Judaism looks like a fabrication. Something made up - a deceit.
Jesus labelled the Jewish religious authorities children of the devil (John 8:44) and
insisted they did not known his God (John 8:19). He considered Judaism to be a lie.
To contradict Jesus on this issue would be problematic given the difference between
his religion and the religion imparted to the Jewish people by Moses.
According to John's first epistle Jesus came to destroy the works of the devil (1 John
3:8): which is the same as saying Jesus was opposed to Judaism and the ambitions of
its adherents and supporters.
Jesus came to frustrate the construction of a world in which Jerusalem and Judaism
would take pride of place. He intended to defeat the children of the devil by
demonstrating (through his death and resurrection) that Judaism was a false religion
with no knowledge of God, whilst his was a true religion founded by God Almighty.
The God Almighty known to Jesus and his disciples looks to have been an ancient
God that was involved with the human race - or parts of it - thousands of years before
the nation of Israel (Jacob and his children) came into existence.
-----------Bibliography: books consulted during the production of this guide: Authorized King
James Version of the Bible, Encyclopaedia Britannica (1999), The Oxford History
of Ancient Egypt edited by Ian Shaw (Oxford University Press 2000), The Complete
Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt by Richard H Wilkinson (Thames and Hudson
2003), How to read Egyptian Hieroglyphs by Mark Collier and Bill Manley (The
British Museum Press 1998).
Author: Patrick Duffy
October 2012

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