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Learning objectives

1. To understand the functioning of different exchange/monetary systems.

2. To comprehend the links among exchange/monetary systems, and

economic systems, and social systems.

3. Eventually,

to

appreciate

the

role

of

images/symbols/values/materials of the coins/monies.

the

different

The objective is to obtain as many meals as possible. Meals are symbol of a

decent life, by the production of food for us and for the others. The player who

obtains the maximum number of meals will be awarded.

Each player starts with 4 mixed raw material cards from the shuffled raw

material card set. Players exchange raw material cards to make sets of 4

identical cards (E.g. a set of 4 apples). Players define them-selves the

prices/exchange rates, as prices are freely fixed by players. Each set of 4

identical cards is exchanged by (or under the supervision of) the Dealer for 4

new mixed raw material cards and one meal. The meals are kept by the players

till the end of the play (also in case of the virtual death of the player and even

if the player is virtually jailed).

Each play has specific rules for the exchange of the raw material cards

between players. The players, who do not respect the specific rules, are judged

by the Dealer, the Accountant or the Speaker as criminals and the players are

virtually jailed till the end of the play.

Timing:

different systems. The minimum proposal is to run 2 plays/variations in 1 hour

20 minutes. The best proposal is to run the 5 plays in 2 hours 50 minutes.

A play has 4 rounds. A round lasts 2 minutes 30 seconds. 1 minute of play

equals 10 years of real life, hence a 10 minute play equals to 100 years. The

life expectancy of the players is 100 years and every player virtually dies when

the player is 100 years old. The player keeps the won meals as they are a

collective output of a decent life, not a strictly individual one. Each player has a

different starting age: a player can be 20, 40, 60 or 80 years old at the

beginning of the play. The age of the players in different plays/variations

changes in order to let everyone experience the virtual death in a different

moment of the play. See the specific spreadsheet Trading Floor for Students

for the starting age for each play.

At the beginning of each play:

the Dealer distribute the cards (4 mixed cards for each player) and the

complementary appropriate means of exchange, specific for each

variation.

The Accountant shows the specific spreadsheet of the starting age for

each player

The Dealer receives back the cards from the dying people who are 100

years old. These players keep the won meals. These players restart the

play as a new born.

The Speaker asks: How did you feel the exchanges and the play in

general?

The Accountant fills the spreadsheet about the meals won. The

Accountant identify the winners (the ones with the highest number of

meals won). The winners receive an award.

3

At the end of the sequence of plays:

why? Did you perceive any difference in the economic system of meal

production? Could this difference being influenced by the monetary

system? Did you perceive any difference in the social system of human

relationships? Could this difference being influenced by the monetary

system?

Economic efficiency index (SumOfMeals/PlayingTime/NumberOfPlayers

ratio)

and

Social

equity

index

(StandardDeviationOfMeals/PlayingTime/NumberOfPlayers ratio).

Requirements

Facilitators:

1. Speaker in charge of explaining the rules

2. Accountant in charge of the spreadsheet and countdown/timer

3. Dealer in charge of the distribution and collection of the cards

Number of students:

the critical mass to be effective

enough

Room:

A serious game room or a room with mobile desks and chairs.

Time required:

3 hours for experimenting

exchange/monetary system.

at

least

different

variations

of

the

Printed material:

of players. Example for 40 players= 40 sets of 5 equals cards of raw

material.

players: (40*10)= 400.

40 players: (40*10)= 400. Commodity money is proposed as Beaver pelts

cards and Cacao beans cards. Beaver pelts was effectively used in North

America,

and

Cacao

beans

in

South

America

(see:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commodity_money). The choice would allows

to appreciate the role of the different images/symbols/values/material of

the coins/monies.

players. Example for 40 players: (40*20)= 800.

the number of rounds for the complete devaluation plus 1. Example for

40

players

and

for

2

rounds

for

the

complete

devaluation=40*(2+1)=120.

Meal cards, symbol of decent life, twice the number of players by the

number of minutes of each play. Example for 40 players and for 10

minutes of play: (2*40*10)= 800.

Mutual credit wallet cards, equal to the number of players. Example for

40 players=40.

3 labels for the 3 different baskets, (1) for collecting cards (2) for

distributing mixed cards, (3) for meals.

Electronic material:

Countdown timer, for keeping the time of the play. Example available at

http://www.timeanddate.com/countdown/create

Physical material:

Paper clips, equal to the number of players, to register the debt and

credit on the mutual credit wallet. Example for 40 players=40.

Basket for collecting the sets of 4 identical cards and the cards of the

virtually dying players. These cards are shuffled and put in the basket for

4 new mixed cards.

Basket for 4 new mixed cards. 4 cards are picked up by the player after

discarding the set of 4 identical cards and winning a meal and for the

virtually new born players.

Basket of meals. The player, who has discarded the set of 4 identical

cards in the basket of discarded cards, can take one meal.

Teaching material

Trading floor Slides

http://www.valeureux.org/blog/les-jeux/jeu-la-corbeille/

Licence

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/legalcode

Claudio Vitari, Grenoble Ecole de Management

All cliparts are released into the public domain except:

Cacao beans by Everjean: https://www.flickr.com/photos/evert-jan/

Mutual credit wallet by Valeureux: http://www.valeureux.org/blog/wpcontent/uploads/2013/07/La-Corbeil-cre%CC%81dit-mutuel-5.jpg

Beaver

Pelt

by

Mickey

Bohnacker

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Castor_fiber_canadensis_(Canadian_bea

ver)_fur_skin_(cut).jpg#/media/File:Castor_fiber_canadensis_(Canadian_beaver)

_fur_skin_(cut).jpg

play/variation

Bartering play/variation

The Speaker tells that the players have to find double reciprocity to exchange

cards. Players may only accept cards matching a card they already have. The

players cannot help each other by doing exchanges which benefit one

participant only.

The Speaker explains that players record each exchange by a credit on sellers

wallet and a debt on buyers wallet, up to max 5 credit units and down to max

5 debt units. The exchange rate between cards and credit/debt units is freely

defined by the counterparts.

Inheritance: the dying people have to reach back the equilibrium (Zero) of their

mutual credit wallet, before giving them back to the Dealer.

New born: the new players start as young people with a new mutual credit

wallet at zero.

The Dealer distributes 1 mutual credit wallet per player.

Cacao bean is the currency. The Speaker tells that the unequal distribution of

the cocoa-beans among the players is based on the unfair life existing today.

The proposed money unequal distribution is around the 0.5 Gini index. The sum

of the distributed cocoa-beans is equal to the number of players and between 3

cocoa-beans to 0 cocoa-beans. It means that out of 40 students: 14 students

will not receive any cocoa-bean; 14 students will receive 1 cocoa-bean, 10

students will receive 2 cocoa-beans, 2 students will receive 3 cocoa-beans. A

possible distribution is given in the Accountant spreadsheet.

Players have to buy and sell cards using their cocoa-beans.

At each round a random event could occur to any participant.

10% chance to decompose the cocoa-beans

10% chance to find a new cocoa tree

Inheritance: the dying people can give their cocoa-beans to someone else.

New born: the new players start as young people without cocoa-beans.

The Dealer distributes cocoa-beans.

The Accountant, at each round, tests for the random events.

10

Commodity

play/variation

(beaver

pelt)

Money

Beaver pelt is the currency. The Speaker tells that the unequal distribution of

the beaver-pelt among the players is based on the unfair life existing today.

The proposed money unequal distribution is around the 0.5 Gini index. The sum

of the distributed beaver-pelts is equal to the number of players and between 3

cocoa-beans to 0 beaver-pelts. It means that out of 40 students: 14 students

will not receive any beaver-pelt; 14 students will receive 1 beaver-pelt, 10

students will receive 2 beaver-pelts, 2 students will receive 3 beaver-pelts. A

possible distribution is given in the Accountant spreadsheet.

Players have to buy and sell cards using their beaver-pelts.

At each round a random event could occur to any participant.

10% chance to decompose the beaver-pelts

10% chance to catch a new beaver

Inheritance: the dying people can give their beaver-pelts to someone else.

New born: the new players start as young people without beaver-pelts.

The Dealer distributes beaver-pelts.

The Accountant, at each round, tests for the random events.

11

The Speaker tells that the unequal distribution of the money among the

players is based on the unfair life existing today.

The proposed money unequal distribution is around the 0.5 Gini index. The sum

of the distributed coins is equal to the number of players and between 3 coins

to 0 coins. It means that out of 40 students: 14 students will not receive any

coin; 14 students will receive 1 coin, 10 students will receive 2 coins, 2

students will receive 3 coins. A possible distribution is given in the Accountant

spreadsheet.

Players have to buy and sell cards using their coins.

The Speaker invites players to ask for loans to the bank. Players can borrow

coins. They can borrow 2, 4 or 6 coins. The interest rate is of 2.5%/year and the

loan is for 20 years exclusively, no shorter, no longer. As a consequence, when

they borrow 2 coins they will give back 3 coins in the following round. When

they borrow 4 coins they will give back 6 coins in the following round. When

they borrow 6 coins they will give back 9 coins in the following round. The bank

does not lend coins to the 80 years old players, because the risk is too high of

not being paid back.

Inheritance: the dying people can give their money to someone else.

New born: the new players start as young people without money.

The Dealer distributes coins.

The Accountant, at each round, gives loans, calls in debts, excludes bankrupt

debtors (who go to jail and they do not play any more) and fills the Trading floor

spreadsheet.

12

The Speaker explains that the players will receive an incremental Universal

Dividend (UD) is distributed at each round. 1 UD at the first round, 2 UD at the

second round, 3 UD at the third round, 4 UD at the fourth round, 5 UD at the

fifth round, 6 UD at the six at the sixth round......

The Accountant shows the specific spreadsheet of the starting age for each

play.

Inheritance: the dying people can give their dividend to someone else.

New born: the new players start as young people. The new players will receive

the new UD as all the other players.

At the beginning of each round:

The Dealer distributes to each player the UD.

13

The Speaker explains that the players will receive a depreciating Universal

Dividend (UD) at each round. The universal dividend relatively depreciates at

each round. To recognize the depreciation, at every round, the Dealer

distributes a new depreciating universal dividend but of a different color. See

the relative depreciation table directly on the depreciating universal dividend to

keep in mind the dividend value.

The Accountant shows the specific spreadsheet of the starting age for each

play.

Inheritance: the dying people can give their dividend to someone else.

New born: the new players start as young people. The new players will receive

the new UD as all the other players.

At the beginning of each round:

The Dealer distributes to each player the UD.

14

The Speaker tells that the unequal distribution of the money among the

players is based on the unfair life existing today.

The proposed money unequal distribution is around the 0.5 Gini index. The sum

of the distributed coins is equal to the number of players and between 3 coins

to 0 coins. It means that out of 40 students: 14 students will not receive any

coin; 14 students will receive 1 coin, 10 students will receive 2 coins, 2

students will receive 3 coins. A possible distribution is given in the Accountant

spreadsheet.

Players have to buy and sell cards using their coins.

Inheritance: the dying people can give their money to someone else.

New born: the new players start as young people without money.

The Dealer distributes coins.

The Accountant plays the role of banker-trader. The banker-trader has

unlimited amount of money. He can buy and sell cards with that money in order

as all the other plays to win meals.

15

and for dying people)

16

winning a meal and for new born)

17

when you depose a set of 4 in the

basket of discarded cards)

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