Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 6

Lab Section: W / Th / F @_________

Name: _______KEY________________

Homework for lectures 1 through 7


Homeostasis, temperature, and enzyme activity:

Metabolic rate in arbitrary units

1a. Provide numerical answers for the questions to the right of the graph. The temperature
scale is in x, not Fahrenheit or Celsius, so dont assume typical temperatures. Pay
attention to the different axis scales. Units of metabolism are MRUs.
What is the basal metabolic rate
Metabolic Rate of a resting animal
of this animal?
as a funciton of environmental
30 MRU
temperature
What is the body temperature of
60
this organism?
55
50
40 MRU
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

What are the lower and upper


critical temperatures of this
organism?
20,30x
0

10

20

30

40

50

Environmental Temperature (x)

What is the range between the


critical temperatures called?
Thermoneutral range

1b: Name the mechanism(s) this animal may be using to regulate body temperature at an environmental
temperature of 32 x. Evaporative cooling(Sweating, panting). ALSO shifting blood flow TOWARD THE
PERIPHERYAWAY FROM THE CORE.
1c. In what temperature range does this animal regulate temperature without spending additional energy to
do so? How does it accomplish this regulation? 20-30x Regulation of blood flow (vasoconstriction and
vosodilation at surface), moving blood to and away from the surface to control the rate of heat loss.
1d. Describe the mechanism(s) this animal may be using to regulate body temperature at an environmental
temperature of 12 x. Regulation of blood flow (vasoconstriction at surface),metabolic thermogenesis and
shivering
1e. How much energy does this animal use to heat itself when below the thermoneutral range?
_1.5_MRU/degree
1f. If this animal added a thick fur coat and became more cold acclimated with a Lower critical temperature
of 15x with no change in BMR it would have a heating cost of __1.2_ MRU/degree
1g. If this animal became more cold acclimated with a Lower critical temperature of 15x by adding brown
fat and raising its BMR by 5 it would have a heating cost of ___1.4___ MRU/degree
(35-0)/(40-15)

Bi212 HW#1

Due Wednesday of week 3

page 1 of 6

The enzyme Katrinase catalyzes the conversion of Fabric-Acid to Cloothink.


Animals lacking a functional copy of the Kb gene (Kb- individuals) have
altered cellular Katrinase concentrations.
Snarl is an allosteric regulator of Katrinase activity.

2a. Draw in the line to complete the upper right graph. Make it clear what 2
points you used to generate your line!
2b. Draw in the bar to complete the lower left graph.
2c. Add a line to the upper left graph to represent the kinetics of Katrinase in
a wild type individual when SNARL is active.
2d. Which is most likely?
a. Kb is the gene that codes for Katrinase if so Kb- no katrinase
b. Kb is a gene coding for a transcription factor that helps increase
Katrinase gene expression then wt katrinase would be greater
c. Kb is a gene coding for a transcription factor that helps decrease
Katrinase gene expression
d. Kb codes for an allosteric activator of Katrinase Km changed, not allostery
e. Kb codes for an allosteric inhibitor of Katrinase Km changed, not allostery

Bi212 HW#1

Due Wednesday of week 3

page 2 of 6

3. Add to the diagram below to show how metabolic thermogenesis alters metabolism.
Indicate where cytochrome oxidase, hexokinase and PFK belong in the diagram as well.
Label the mitochondrial matrix, intermembrane space and cytoplasm. The electronic
version will have a matching format.

4. Describe and /or sketch the paired negative feedback loops that control the rate of
aerobic cellular respiration. Your answer should include how regulation connects the
electron transport chain to the rate of glycolysis.
High ATP levels reduce PFK activity, Low ATP levels lead to high AMP levels which
increase PFK activity. PFK is the rate limiting step of glycolysis, and therefore regulating
PFK rate regulates the rate of all of respiration.
Uncoupler proteins are NOT part of this answer. Uncouplers allow cells to increase the
rate of respiration by uncoupling it from ATP production. Uncouplers provide a
mechanism to avoid the negative feedback loop when respiration is required to produce
heat but not work.
5a. Plant (or bacterial) cells but not animal cells can cells become turgid. Why?
Cell walls
5b. Define turgid as an inequality. p > 0
5c. Define flaccid as an equality.

p = 0

5d. Define tension as an inequality

p < 0

Bi212 HW#1

Due Wednesday of week 3

page 3 of 6

[Hornic Acid]

Hornic acid production per minute using 1mg/


ml Hornase
Substrate in
excess

13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

Time in minutes
This figure shows the rate of activity of the enzyme Hornase. Hornase catalyzes the
reaction that converts Lukanate to Hornic Acid. The Km of this enzyme at this
concentration is 6. The pH at which it works best is 6.8.
Use the data found in the figure and legend above to answer the questions below. The
enzyme and substrate quantities for 6e may be different in the electronic version.

6a. The Vmax of 1mg/ml Hornase is ___3______. A lower concentration of enzyme would provide A
GREATER / A LOWER / THE SAME (circle one) Vmax. If a substrate concentration of 6 were used to
carry out this experiment, at 3 minutes we would expect _9/2=4.5_units of product to have been produced.
6b. The units of enzyme Km for this question would be (choices below, please circle the correct letter):
a
b
c
d
e
f
6c. The units of enzyme Vmax for this question would be (choices below, please circle the correct letter):
a
b
c
d
e
f
a. mg/minute Hornase
b. mg/ml Hornase c. mg/ml Lukanate
d. mg/minute Lukanate e. mg/ml Hornic acid f. mg/minute Hornic acid
6d. What would be the Km of 2mg/ml Hornase ? ____6______ Km same for any [enzyme]
6e. What would the activity rate of 1mg of Hornase be in a tube with 3 units of Lukanate? _.75__
(Electronic version will have different hornase and/or Lukanate numbers for this question)
6f. Which of the following are possible kinetics for 1mg/ml Hornase while being regulated by an allosteric
inhibitor ?
a. Km = 4, Vmax = 6 b. Km = 6, Vmax = 6

Bi212 HW#1

c. Km = 8, Vmax = 3 d. Km = 4, Vmax = 3 e. Km = 8 Vmax = 6

Due Wednesday of week 3

page 4 of 6

7. Write the formula for water potential, and give the name for each component. Using
the appropriate term(s) in the formula, when will water will enter a cell or exit a cell?

8. Beans increase or decrease the turgidity of PULVINI cells to change the orientation of
leaves. In order to raise the leaf blades to a horizontal position (as in the right side of the
picture) pulvini cells at the junction between petiole and blade import sugar and
potassium ions to increase their p from .40 Mpa to .75 Mpa. The pulvini cells are at
equilibrium both before (leaf held more vertically) and after (leaf held horizontally)
moving with an interstitial fluid that is not under pressure and has an unchanging osmotic
potential of -1.25 Mpa.
[The numbers vary on the electronic version]
What is the osmotic potential of the pulvini cell when the leaf blade is horizontal?
When the leaf is horizontal the pulvini cell is at equilibrium with interstitial fluid with a
w of 1.25 Mpa (The o because no pressure), so the w of the cell is 1.25Mpa
(thats equilibrium) so: 1.25 = .75 + ocell so ocell = 2Mpa
Size and Surface area
9.
70
MR

Urb

50
Dnu

30
10

Te
Use the diagram above to answer these questions. Assume relationships that fit Kleibers
law. (circle < = or > for each )

!
!

TWO Dnus weigh <

= > ONE Urb


DNU pulse < = > URB pulse

Bi212 HW#1

TWO Urbs weigh <

= > ONE Dnu

DNU cellular BMR < = > URB cellular BMR

Due Wednesday of week 3

page 5 of 6

Plant Growth and structure

10.
How many leaves are drawn here? (A different
number may appear on the elctronic version) 1 in this case, only one axillary bud
Plant Growth and Development

11a. Indicate the amount of root hairs produced by the plants below using the choices
A,B or C provided on the graph above.
__A__ Caprice (CPC) Loss of function mutation
__B___ Glabra 2 (GL2) Loss of function mutation
__B___ Werewolf (WER) Loss of function mutation
___B___ A Glabra loss of function mutant plant engineered to contain a 35s::WER construct

11b. Add a bar to the graph above in the space indicated by the star X-axis label so that it
represents a double mutant plant lacking functional versions of both CPC and GL2 genes
When the glabra gene is missing it doesnt matter is CPC is present or not, because CPC cant turn on gene expression
of a gene that isnt present (or if it does the gene isnt functional so it doesnt show up in the phenotype)

SAME AS B

Bi212 HW#1

Due Wednesday of week 3

page 6 of 6