Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 100

2009:152 CIV

MASTE RS THESIS
Numerical Modelling of the
Vindel River Railway Bridge
Upgrade of a finite element model from dynamic measurements

Jens Hggstrm
Frida Martinsson

MASTER OF SCIENCE PROGRAMME


Civil and Mining Engineering
Lule University of Technology
Department of Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering
Division of Structural engineering
Universitetstryckeriet, Lule

2009:152 CIV ISSN: 1402 - 1617 ISRN: LTU - EX - - 09/152 - - SE

MASTER'S THESIS

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River


Railway Bridge
Upgrade of a Finite Element Model from Dynamic Measurements

Jens Hggstrm and Frida Martinsson

Lule 2009

Division of Structural Engineering


Department of Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering
Lule University of Technology
SE - 971 87 LULE
www.ltu.se/web/shb
cee.project.ltu.se/~cam

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge Upgrade of Finite


Element Model from Dynamic Measurements
Hggstrm Jens, Martinsson Frida

The Vindel river railway bridge, Martinsson (2009)

Master's Thesis 2009:152


ISSN 1402-1617,
1st Edition
AUTHOR(S) NAME(S), October 2009
Division of Structural Engineering
Department of Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering
Lule University of Technology
SE-971 87 LULE, SWEDEN
Telephone: + 46 (0)920 491 363
Universitetstryckeriet, Lule 2009
Cover: Photo Frida Martinsson, 30-09-2009

PREFACE

Writing a master thesis is usually the final step towards getting a Master of
Science degree in Civil Engineering. However, that is not the case for us. In
order to complete our studies earlier we decided to write our thesis earlier than
it was stated in the course plan, therefore we spent the whole summer of 2009
at LTU. The summer of 2009 was also the summer when Lule finished at
second place on the sun-hour-list after Visby, Gotland. After the thesis is
completed we will continue and take our final courses in order to graduate by
Christmas 2009.
The research presented in this thesis was initiated by Banverket and has been
carried out at the Division of Structural Engineering, Department of Civil,
Mining and Environmental Engineering at Lule University of Technology.
Along the way we have faced a variety of problems, and had our ups and
downs. When the road is narrow and the wind is blowing it feels good to have
some people to rely on, who supports both with knowledge, time, and opinions.
There are several people we would like to thank and some are listed below.
Special thanks go to Jens Malmborg and Johan Klfors at Scanscot
Technology for letting us borrow a license for Brigade, and also for all the time
they have spent supporting and teaching us Brigade.
Our supervisor Lic. Ola Enochsson has supported us with great words of
encouragement during the whole project.
Prof. Lennart Elfgren for his never ending knowledge and rewarding
discussions.

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

Anders Carolin at Banverket for feedback and discussions.


Lic. Anders Bennitz for the discussions and insights.
Senior Lecturer Ulf Ohlsson for his interest and encouragement in our work.
Ph.D Hendrik Gabrielsson at Reinertsen AB.
Ph.D Palle Anderssen at Structural Vibrations, for letting us borrow licenses
for ARTeMIS
Finally, we would like to thank everyone else that has supported us in this
project.
Lule, September 2009
Jens Hggstrm, Frida Martinsson

II

ABSTRACT

The Vindel river railway bridge is located outside of Vindeln. The bridge is a
concrete arch bridge with a total length of 226 m. It was built in 1952 and was
originally constructed to carry an axle load of 25 tons but has been classified to
carry 22.5 tons until a couple of years ago when the allowed axle load was
increased to 25.0 tons.
In 1997 the bridge was investigated and cracks were found in the sections
closest to the crown, movements were also noticed when trains passed by,
which led to further investigations.
The bridge has been the subject to two earlier reports, Bennitz (2006) and He et
al (2005). Complab at LTU made measurements on the bridge and Bennitz
evaluated these in order to find the eigenfrequencies and their correlating
eigenmodes. Hes work resulted in FE-models with which he analysed the
bridge.
The purpose with this report is to continue where Bennitz and He left of and to
continue the analysis in order to find out more about the dynamic behavior of
the bridge. Creating a new FE-model and evaluating new measurements was a
part of this but unfortunately the measuring was delayed and the analysis of
those results will be presented in a report by Ola Enochsson.
From the FEM-analysis that has been performed ten eigenmodes with
frequencies up to 7 Hz was identified, the nine that Bennitz found and one
more to add. The frequencies found are relatively close to the earlier
measurements.

III

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

The static deflections of the bridge have been simulated with Brigade using
loads representing the heaviest test train, BV-3 in three different positions on
the bridge. The initial deflection based on the self weight of the bridge was 8.3
mm and the largest deflections from the different train loads were 2.0 mm, 2.0
mm and 8.0 mm.
The dynamic live load effect has also been simulated. For the dynamic analysis
have the load from three different trains have been evaluated, the trains are
BV-3, D-2 and the steel train. These trains have been simulated for velocities
between 50-120 km/h with the interval 10. The largest deflections from the
dynamic live load analysis are when the train is positioned covering half the
bridge, and they are 8.3 mm for BV-3 in the speed 80 km/h, 6.6 mm for D-2
travelling in the speed of 90 km/h and for the steel train 6.5 mm at the speed of
90 km/h.
The values from the dynamic live load compared to the values from the static
live load test are almost the same as for the largest deflection. This indicates
that the bridge does not swing with its eigenmodes for the velocities tested.

IV

SAMMANFATTNING

Numerisk Modellering av Vindellvsbron Uppgradering av Finit


Element-modell frn Dynamiska Mtningar
Vindellvsbron r belgen utanfr Vindeln. Bron r en bgbro i betong med en
total lngd p 226 m. Den byggdes 1952 och var ursprungligen konstruerad fr
att klara en axellast p 25 ton, men har varit klassifierad att bra 22.5 ton tills
fr ngra r sedan d berkningar gjordes och strsta tilltna axellast hjdes till
25 ton, vilket r det som gller idag.
r 1997 undersktes bron och d upptcktes sprickor i farbanebalkarna i
facken nrmast hjssan. Man noterade ocks att bron rrde sig mycket vid
tgpassager, vilket har lett till vidare underskningar.
Bron har drefter varit mne fr flera utvrderingar, bl.a. Bennitz (2006) och
He et al (2005). Complab genomfrde mtningar och Bennitz utvrderade
dessa fr att hitta de egensvngningar som existerade p bron. He har
modellerat och analyserat bron med hjlp av FEM.
Syftet med den hr rapporten r ta vid dr Bennitz avslutade och driva analysen
vidare. Skapandet av en ny FE-modell och utvrdering av ny mtdata var en
del av detta. Tyvrr har de nya mtningarna blivigt uppskjutna men kommer att
presenteras i en senare rapport av Ola Enochsson.
Utifrn den FEM-analys som gjorts kunde tio egenmoder med egenfrekvenser
upp till 7 Hz identifieras. Av dessa har Bennitz identifierat 9, och ytterligare en
har nu kommit till. Egenfrekvenserna stmmer bra verens med tidigare
mtningar och FEM-analyser.

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

Statiska nedbjningar p bron har simulerats i Brigade med last frn det tyngsta
av testtgen, BV-3, vilket sedan har placerats p tre olika stt p bron vid
berkning. Grundnedbjningen med bara brons egenvikt var p 8.4 mm, och de
strsta nedbjningarna med tglaster var 2.0 mm, 2.0 mm respektive 8.0 mm.
I Brigade har ven de dynamiska effekterna av tg simulerats. Fr den
dynamiska analysen har tre olika tg anvnts, BV-3, D-2 och stlpendeln.
Dessa har simulerats med hastigheter mellan 50-120 km/h med intervall 10. De
strsta nedbjningarna vid den dynamiska analysen r 8.3 mm fr BV-3 i
hastigheten 80 km/h, 6.6 mm fr D-2 i hastigheten 90 km/h och fr stlpendeln
6.5 mm vid hastigheten 90 km/h.
Vrdena frn den dynamiska analysen jmfrt med vrden erhllna frn den
statiska analysen r vldigt lika, vilket tyder p att bron inte kommer i
egensvngning vid dessa hastigheter.

VI

NOTATIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS

Explanations in the text of notations or abbreviations in direct conjunction to


their appearance have preference to what is described here.
Roman upper case letters
[m2]

Area

Displacement dynamic amplification factor

Modulus of elasticity

Force

Moment of Inertia

Normal Force

[N]

Length

[m]

Period time

[s]

Fs

Spring force

[N]

Fd

Damping force

[N]

Stiffness matrix

[-]
[N/m2]
[N]
[mm4]

[EI/L3]

Roman lower case letters


a

Acceleration

[m/s2]

Distributed designing bending moment

[kNm]

Spring constant

[N/m]

VII

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

Displacement

Acceleration vector

[m/s2]

Damping coefficient

[Ns/m]

Velocity

[m/s]

fn

Frequency

[Hz]

[m]

Greek lower case letters

Poissons ratio

[-]

Damping ratio

[-]

Damped angular frequency

Natural frequency

[Hz]

Natural frequency of the load

[Hz]

Abbreviations
DOF

Degrees of freedom

CFDD

Curve-fit Frequency Domain Decomposition

CVA

Canonical Variate Analysis

EFDD

Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition

FEM

Finite Element Method

FDD

Frequency Domain Decomposition

GUI

Graphical User Interface

LTU

Lule University of Technology

PC

Principal Component

SLS

Serviceability Limit State

ULS

Ultimate Limit State

UPC

Unweighted Principal Component

VIII

[rad/s]

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PREFACE ............................................................................................................I
ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................... III
SAMMANFATTNING ...................................................................................... V
NOTATIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS ....................................................... VII
TABLE OF CONTENTS .................................................................................. IX
1

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................... 1
1.1 Background ...................................................................................... 1
1.2 Purpose ............................................................................................. 2
1.3 Objectives ......................................................................................... 2
1.4 Limitations ....................................................................................... 3
1.5 Previous work ................................................................................... 3
1.6 Work Process.................................................................................... 4
1.7 Outline .............................................................................................. 5

CONDITION ASSESSMENT OF CONCRETE ARCH BRIDGES ........ 7


2.1 Arch Bridges .................................................................................... 7
2.1.1 History of Arch Bridges ....................................................... 7
2.1.2 Properties of Arch Bridges ................................................... 7
2.2 Concrete ........................................................................................... 8
2.2.1 Elasticity ............................................................................... 9
2.2.2 Cracking ............................................................................... 9
2.3 Condition Assessment .................................................................... 10

STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS ................................................................. 11


3.1 Natural frequencies ........................................................................ 11
3.2 Free vibration ................................................................................. 12

IX

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7

Forced vibration ............................................................................. 13


Eigenfrequencies ............................................................................ 14
Damping ......................................................................................... 15
Modal Analysis .............................................................................. 16
Measurement .................................................................................. 16

GEOMETRY, MATERIALS AND LOADS .......................................... 17


4.1 General ........................................................................................... 17
4.2 Geometry........................................................................................ 17
4.3 Material Properties ......................................................................... 18
4.3.1 Concrete ............................................................................. 18
4.4 Boundary conditions ...................................................................... 19
4.5 Loads .............................................................................................. 19
4.5.1 Dead load ........................................................................... 19
4.5.2 Dynamic live load .............................................................. 19
4.6 Drawings ........................................................................................ 20

FINITE ELEMENT METHOD............................................................... 21


5.1 General ........................................................................................... 21
5.2 Preprocessing in Brigade ............................................................... 22
5.2.1 Element types ..................................................................... 24
5.2.2 Analysis types .................................................................... 25
5.3 Processing ...................................................................................... 26
5.4 Postprocessing................................................................................ 31
5.5 FEM-Software................................................................................ 31
5.5.1 ABAQUS/CAE .................................................................. 31
5.5.2 Brigade ............................................................................... 32
5.5.3 Other FEM Softwares ........................................................ 32
5.6 The FE-Model of the Vindel River Railway Bridge ...................... 32
5.6.1 Convergence test ................................................................ 36
5.6.2 Effective mass and participation factors ............................ 38

MODAL IDENTIFICATION ................................................................. 41


6.1 General ........................................................................................... 41
6.2 Modal identification by using output-only information................. 41
6.3 Creating a model ............................................................................ 42
6.4 Methods for evaluation .................................................................. 42
6.4.1 FDD (Frequency Domain Decomposition) ........................ 42
6.4.2 Stochastic Subspace Identification (SSI) ........................... 43
6.5 Measurement methods ................................................................... 46
6.5.1 Accelerometers................................................................... 46

RESULTS ................................................................................................ 47
7.1 Brigade ........................................................................................... 47
7.2 Eigenmodes and eigenfrequencies from Brigade ........................... 47
7.3 Deflections ..................................................................................... 52
7.3.1 Dead load ............................................................................ 52
7.3.2 Static Live Load ................................................................. 53
7.3.3 Dynamic Live Load ............................................................ 55

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS ................................................... 59


8.1 Discussion ...................................................................................... 59
8.1.1 The Model in Brigade......................................................... 59
8.1.2 The Results ......................................................................... 60
8.2 Conclusions .................................................................................... 60
8.3 Suggestions for further research ..................................................... 61

REFERENCES.................................................................................................. 63

APPENDIX A CONVERGENCE TEST ....................................................... 65


APPENDIX B CONSTRAINTS TEST ......................................................... 71
APPENDIX C DEFLECTIONS FOR D-2 .................................................... 73
APPENDIX D ARTEMIS INPUT FILE ....................................................... 75

XI

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

XII

Introduction

INTRODUCTION

1.1

Background

The railway bridge is located outside of Vindeln, a small community, about 60


km northwest of Ume. The bridge was built in 1952, replacing an old bridge
with less capacity. It is a concrete arch bridge with a main span of 112 m and
the sides are divided in to four spans with a total length of 57 m, which gives a
total length of 226 m. The maximum free height of the main span varies
between 28 and 37 m depending on the level of the water surface.
The bridge is operated by trains that transport people and freight from north to
south in Sweden and is located on the line Vnns to Hllns. Since norra
stambanan is the only electrified railway covering that area, it turns out that
all the heavy transports passes the Vindel river railway bridge. The heaviest
trains are those carrying steel and timber. Originally the bridge was designed
for a maximum axle load of 25 tons for the locomotives and a distributed load
of 85 kN/m for the following carriages according to the design code valid at the
time of the design. An early assessment of the bridge done by strm (1997)
resulted in a load-carrying capacity corresponding to BV-2, Bv Brighet (1997)
with a maximum axle load of 25 tons and a distributed load 72 kN/m. During
strms work cracks were discovered in the beams in the longitudinal
direction, especially in the section closest to the crown. The movements in the
bridge have been experienced as big when standing on the bridge when trains
pass by. The cracks and the movement in the bridge gave rise to doubts
whether the carrying capacity was sufficient. The owner of the bridge wanted
to investigate these doubts more thoroughly and decided to monitor the
structural behaviour of the bridge. In 2005 Complab at Lule University of
Technology performed dynamic and static measurements which were evaluated
in the master thesis Bennitz (2006). At the same time a FE-model was created

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

for evaluation of the bridges structural behaviour He et al (2006). The result


from the measurement and the modelling was used to investigate the response
for an axle load of 22.5 and 25 tons.

Figure 1-1

1.2

Location of the Vindel river railway bridge

Purpose

The Division of Structural Engineering at LTU has been working on the Vindel
river bridge for some years. Recently the bridge was upgraded to carry a 25 ton
axle load instead of 22.5 ton.
The purpose with this dissertation is to
Evaluate the dynamic and static behaviour of the bridge due to the
increased axle load.
1.3

Objectives

Our objective is to upgrade and calibrate the FE-model to a three dimensional


model in Brigade using beam and shell elements so that the model can be used
for dynamic and static calculations. The calibration will be done by comparing
the results from the model to the measurements Bennitz did in 2005.

Introduction

The model is then used to find the deflections for vehicles with axle loads of
22.5 kN and 25 kN both for dynamic and static loading.
Create a model of the bridge in ARTeMIS that can be used to evaluate the
measured values that will be sampled in September 2009.
1.4

Limitations

Since the project is relatively short (20 weeks), there is a limitation in time for
the upgrading of the FEM-model. Therefore the amount of details in the model
will be adapted to the time available for modelling.
The measurement data that will be used in the model is the data collected in
September and December 2005. New measurements are to be done, but not
until September 2009, which will be after this master thesis project is finished
which means that there is no possibility for us to take them into account. These
results will be presented in a report by Ola Enochsson.
The measurements that were done in 2005 did not use a reference point which
might cause trouble when evaluating the data in ARTeMIS. Therefore we will
create a model in ARTeMIS that can be used for the measurements that are to
be done.
1.5

Previous work

There are several reports about the Vindel river railway bridge, considering the
upgrade of maximum axle load, Bennitz (2006), He et al (2006, 2009). Two
different FEM-models have been developed, one beam model and one shell
model that shows the main structure of the bridge, He (2009).
Along with these models measurements were done on the bridge. The
measurement that was done was performed with Vibration sensors (Harbin 891
and 941B) and laser equipment to determine the deflections of the bridge. At
the time the field work was done trains with 25 tons axle load had not yet
started to traffic the bridge. Therefore new measuring will be done during
September 2009 for the heavier trains to complement the earlier measurements.

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

1.6

Work Process

Project start

Litterature
study

Training on
Abaqus and
Brigade
FEM

Working
on report

Create 3Dmodel of
the bridge
in Brigade

Analyse
the reulsts

Deliver
report
Figure 1-2

Present
the results

Description of the work process

Dynamic
loads

Arch bridges

Introduction

1.7

Outline

Chapter 1 - Introduction. Describes the problem, background, purpose,


objectives, limitations and the previous work.
Chapter 2 - Condition Assessment of Concrete Arch Bridges. This chapter
describes the need and background for condition assessment of concrete
bridges. It also deals with concrete as a material.
Chapter3 - Structural dynamics. Briefly explains about dynamic loads,
eigenfrequencies and eigenmodes.
Chapter 4 - Geometry, materials and loads. Contains the indata for the Bridge
such as geometry, boundary conditions, loads and drawings.
Chapter 5 - Finite Element Method. Description of FEM as a technique for
analysis and also how the FEM-model for the Vindel River Railway Bridge is
designed in this project.
Chapter 6 Modal Identification. Description of ARTeMIS and how to analyse
the collected data.
Chapter 7 - Results. The results from Brigade are presented, such as
eigenmodes, eigenfrequencies and deflections for static and dynamic load.
Chapter 8 - Discussion and Conclusions. Discussion about the results and the
FE-model in Brigade. And also suggestions for further research are given here.

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

Condition Assessment of Concrete Arch Bridges

CONDITION ASSESSMENT OF CONCRETE


ARCH BRIDGES

2.1

Arch Bridges

2.1.1 History of Arch Bridges


Arches are the second oldest type of bridge structure, the oldest are beams.
Even if the technique of using arches was known by both the ancient Greeks
and the Etruscans the idea of using arches in bridges was first realised by the
Romans, many of them are intact and still in use. A problem when building
solid arch bridges is that the type of construction requires a large amount of
building material.
During the last centuries there have been some major improvements in building
arch bridges. In comparison to the early masonry arches where stone was used,
reinforced concrete is now used instead. By reinforcing concrete which is
strong in compression with steel that is strong in tension it is possible to create
a material that is relatively strong in tension as well as in compression, and
therefore it is possible to design more slender structures.
2.1.2 Properties of Arch Bridges
Arch bridges works by transforming vertical loads and self weight into
horizontal forces which are restrained at either side. Compared to girders, arch
bridges are well suited for the use of stone materials. This is due to the fact that
most of the parts are in compression, Xanthakos (1994).
There are several different types of arch bridges, four of them are described
here; hinge-less, two-hinged, three hinged and tied arch.

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

(a) Hinge-less arch bridge

(b) Two-hinged arch bridge

(c) Three-hinged arch bridge

(d) Tied arch bridge

Figure 2-1

Different types of arch bridges

The hinge-less bridge (a) is very stiff with little deflection compared to the
other types. It is only suitable to build this type of structure on stable ground
since it gives rise to big forces in the foundation.
The two-hinged arch bridge (b) is hinged to the foundation which only gives
horizontal and vertical forces compared to the hinge-less which also have
bending. This is probably the most common type of arch bridge since it is
generally an economical design.
The three-hinged (c) arch bridge is generally the same as the two-hinged except
that it is hinged on the crown as well. The result is a construction less sensitive
to movements such as earthquakes etc. The negative aspect of this type of
bridge is that it suffers from larger deflections and that the hinges can be hard
to maintain. These types of bridges are rarely used today.
The tied arch bridge (d) relies on the girder instead of the ground to take
horizontal forces. Therefore this type of bridge can be used when the ground is
not solid enough to build on for example a two-hinged arch bridge,
http://www.matsuo-bridge.co.jp/english/bridges/basics/arch.shtm(accessed
2009-06-10).
2.2

Concrete

Concrete is a construction material that was invented by the Romans. In the


18th century it was rediscovered and the mixture was modified to make a

Condition Assessment of Concrete Arch Bridges

material stronger and more easy to use. Concrete contains of cement, water,
sand and chemical admixtures depending on the properties that are required. To
get a more stable and reliable construction reinforcement is used. There is a lot
of research on concrete and the technique and material develops continuously.
Concrete is a unique material in many ways. Its compressive strength is
relatively much higher than its tensile strength. The tensile strength is
approximately 10-15 % of the compressive. To handle this problem concrete is
often used in combination with steel as reinforcement, since steel has a high
tensile strength. The use of prestressed concrete is a technique that is
commonly used and means that the concrete is compressed from the start. This
method helps to overcome concretes natural weakness in tension which leads
to a stronger material.
2.2.1 Elasticity
The modulus of elasticity of concrete is a function of the modulus of elasticity
of the aggregates and the cement matrix and their relative proportions. The
modulus of elasticity of concrete is relatively constant at low stress levels but
starts to decrease at higher stress levels as matrix cracking develops. The
elastic modulus of the hardened paste may be in the order of 10-30 GPa and
aggregates about 45-85 GPa. The concrete composite is then in the range of
30-50 GPa, Bellander (1982).
2.2.2 Cracking
The fact that concrete is a brittle material with low tensile strength means that
cracks can easily occur. This is something that is needed to take in to account
when designing concrete structures. Reinforcement is usually used in order to
reduce and control the cracks. By using joints it is possible to get the
movement and cracks in the structure to where it is wanted. In many large
structures joints or concealed saw-cuts are placed in the concrete as it sets to
make the inevitable cracks occur where they can be managed and out of sight.
Structures exposed to water pressure and highways are examples of structures
requiring crack control.
There are several ways that cracks can occur in a concrete structure. They can
be divided into categories depending on the main cause that give rise to the
actual crack. The different types of cracks and when they occur are illustrated
in Figure 2-2.

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

Figure 2-2

2.3

Approximate moment for appearance of the different types of cracks

Condition Assessment

Because of the special behaviour of concrete and the safety aspects working
with bridges, condition assessment becomes necessary and is performed either
with certain time intervals or if there has been some damage on the bridge or if
the purpose for the bridge changes.
Concrete has been used as construction material for bridges for a long time.
This results in that there are several bridges all over the world that needs
surveillance and condition assessment in the future to secure the safety using
these bridges. Developing standards for condition assessment of bridges will
save both time and money.
Sustainable Bridges is a European research project initiated by LTU which
assesses the readiness of railway bridges to meet the demands of 2020 scenario
and provides the mean for upgrades, if they fall short. The 2020 scenario
comprehend heavier loads, longer and faster trains, and mixed traffic. Due to
this scenario it is important to upgrade existing bridges so that they will meet
the present and future demands and behave properly under these conditions,
www.sustainablebridges.net (accessed 2009-07-03).

10

Structural dynamics

STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS

3.1

Natural frequencies

The normal mode of an oscillating system is when all the parts move
simultaneously in the same direction with the same frequency, so called natural
frequency or resonant frequencies. Structures have a set of natural modes
which depend on the composition of the structure. If for an example an
earthquake or a dynamic load is to excite a structure near one of its natural
frequencies the displacements may exceed more than the system can tolerate in
order to not collapse. Modelling the structure with modern FE-programs in
order to find its normal frequencies is one way to find and avoid normal
frequencies near to the frequencies it may be exposed to.
The essential physical properties of a linearly elastic structural system
subjected to external loading are its mass, stiffness properties and energy
absorption capability or damping. The principle may be illustrated through a
single-storey structure as shown in Figure 3-1, where f(t) is the time-varying
force, k is the spring constant that relates the stiffness of the structure and the
dash pot relates the damping force due to the velocity by a damping coefficient
c.
=

(3.1)

= =

(3.2)

= =

(3.3)

The equations above combined form the equation of motion, a second order
differential equation for displacement as a function of time.

11

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

+ + =

(3.4)

x
m

f(t)
c
k

Figure 3-1

3.2

Damped 1 DOF structure

Free vibration

Free vibration is when a system is set in motion with lack of damping.


Therefore the system will continue to swing at one or more of its natural
frequencies after set in motion. An example of this is when pulling a child back
on a swing and then letting go.
In order to simplify equation (3.4) the parameters and are introduced,
where

c
2 km

k
m

(3.5)

(3.6)

The first parameter is called damping ratio and is a dimensionless unit. The
second is called the natural frequency of the system and is expressed in
radians/s. By using this parameters equation (3.4) can be rewritten as
+ 2x + 2 x = 0

(3.7)

The solution to equation (3.7) depends on whether the vibrations are damped or
undamped. If the system is undamped (c = 0) the solution is

12

Structural dynamics

= t + Bcos t

(3.8)

The system will oscillate indefinitely with an amplitude of

natural frequency of = 2 .

2 + 2 and the

If the system is damped the system will oscillate around its natural position and
decay with time, as illustrated in Figure 3-2. The damped angular frequency is
defined as
=

(1 2 )

(3.9)

Damping with 2 = 1 is called critical damping, this is the case when


minimum damping is needed to prevent oscillation, Ryall (2000).
1,5
1
0,5
x(t) 0
-0,5

-1
-1,5

Figure 3-2

3.3

Undamped 1-DOF system

Forced vibration

When a structure is subjected to sinusoidal motion such as ground acceleration,


it will oscillate and after some time reach a steady state. The system will
vibrate at constant amplitude and frequency, this is called steady state
response.
The amplitude of the vibration is equal to the product of the static deformation
multiplied with the dimensionless displacement amplification factor D

13

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

(3.10)

2 2

Where is the natural frequency and is the frequency of the load. The
dynamic displacement amplification factor as a function of the damping ratio
( ) and the frequency ratio ( /) is shown in Figure 3-3. As seen in the figure
a system which is exposed to a dynamic force with a frequency close to one of
its natural frequencies, the displacement increases significantly. Should the
system lack damping ( = 0) its likely to collapse. This phenomenon is called
resonance. The most famous example of resonance is probably the collapse of
Tacoma Narrows Bridge which collapsed in 1940 due to resonance from wind
loads.
6
5

=0

= 0,2

D 3

= 0,5

= 0,7

= 1,0

0
0

Figure 3-3

3.4

/n 2

Variation of displacement amplification factor with damping and


frequency

Eigenfrequencies

For a beam with constant stiffness and mass distribution over the length, its
eigenfrequencies may be expressed as

14

(3.11)

Structural dynamics

Where is a constant that depends on the boundary condition.


Table 3-1 Eigenvalues.

Boundary condition Eigenvalue kn


n=1

n=2

n=3
2

Pinned-Pinned

(2)

(3)2

Fixed-Fixed

22,4

61,7

120,9

Fixed-Pinned

15,4

50,0

104,3

Cantilever

3,5

22.0

61,7

The shape of the first four eigenmodes for a pinned-pinned beam is visualised
in Figure 3-4.
1
2
3
4

Figure 3-4

3.5

Pinned-Pinned beam

Damping

Damping is found to increase with the increasing of amplitude of vibration. It


arises from the dissipation of energy during vibration. The most common
mechanisms that contribute to damping is; material damping, friction at
interfaces between components and energy dissipation due to foundation
interacting with soil, among others.
The amount of damping in a structure can never be predicted precisely, so
design values are generally based on dynamic measurements of structures of a

15

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

similar type. Damping can be measured based on the rate of decay of a free
vibration following an impact; by spectral methods based on analysis of
response to windloading; or excitation by a mechanical vibrator at varying
frequencies in order to establish a steady state resonance curve. These methods
may not be easily carried out if there are several modes of vibration close to
each other.
3.6

Modal Analysis

Modal analysis is the process of determining the inherent dynamic


characteristics of a system in forms of natural frequencies, damping factors and
mode shapes in order to create a mathematical formula to describe the dynamic
behaviour of the system. The created model is known as the modal model and
model data is the known information of the system. Modal analysis are based
on the fact that the systems response to vibrations can be described in a
combination of sets of harmonic motions. This is called the natural modes of
vibrations and is illustrated in Figure 3-4.
Modal analysis uses both theoretical and experimental techniques. The
theoretical analysis is based on a physical model that comprises weight,
stiffness and damping ratio. The solution to the equation provides natural
frequencies and mode shapes. Modern finite element analysis makes it possible
to perform analysis on almost any linear dynamic structure and has therefore
enhanced capacity of the theoretical analysis.
The improvement in data acquisition and processing capabilities has improved
the experimental realm of modal analysis (which also is known as modal
testing) significantly.
3.7

Measurement

New measurements have not been done on the Vindel river railway bridge
during this thesis, but are to be done during September 2009. More information
about the earlier measurements can be found in Bennitz (2006).

16

Geometry, materials and loads

GEOMETRY, MATERIALS AND LOADS

4.1

General

The dimensions of the bridge are from drawings and previous reports, He et al
(2006) and Bennitz (2006) about the Vindel river railway bridge.
4.2

Geometry

Figure 4-1

The Vindel river railway bridge

The deck is 6,9 m wide and 1,9 m high and made of concrete. On top of the
deck there is macadam which makes the foundation for the railroad. The cross
section of the deck is described in Figure 4-2. There are 14 pairs of concrete
columns with different heights that support the deck in addition to the arch.

17

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

The arch is constructed as a box with two cells as shown in Figure 4-3. The
dimensions of the arch vary along the arch.

Figure 4-2

Cross section of the deck

Figure 4-3

Cross section of the arch (the dimensions varies along the arch)

4.3

Material Properties

4.3.1 Concrete
The Bridge over the Vindel River was designed with concrete of quality K400
which represent C28/35 in the quality class used today. Testing indicates that

18

Geometry, materials and loads

the concrete has hardened with time so that the strength of the material has
increased and now can be classified as C60/75, Enochsson (2009).
Table 4-1 Material properties for the structural parts of the bridge.

Structural
Part

Concrete
Class

Deck

C75

Youngs
modulus, E
[GPa]
40

Columns

C75

40

2,4

Arch

C75

40

2,4

Ballast

4.4

Mass density,
[tons/m3]
2,4

Boundary conditions

The boundary conditions for the construction of the bridge are as follows. The
arch is fixed to the abutments and the columns are attached to the deck and the
arch with a joint that is both fixed and/or moveable. The columns that are on
the side spans are fixed both to the deck and the ground. The entrances are free
to move in the length direction of the bridge and free to rotate in the vertical
direction. There is a more detailed description of the boundary conditions and
the assumptions being done for connections in chapter 5.6.
4.5

Loads

4.5.1 Dead load


The dead load contains the self weight of the construction as well as the ballast
and is for the main span approximately 5000 tons, 50 MN. This includes the
weight of the deck, columns and the arch, He et al (2006).
4.5.2 Dynamic live load
The load that appears when a train passes the bridge is called live load, or
dynamic live load. In this case the dynamic live load is represented by three
different types of trains. Two of them are defined in BVS 583.11
Brighetsberkning av jrnvgsbroar, and one is the train transporting steel.
These trains are presented in Table 4-2 and the load distribution is described in
Figure 4-4 and 4-5. The steel train and D-2 are very similar. The length of the
trains is defined as at least the total length of the bridge, Scanscot (2006).

19

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

Table 4-2 Train loads.


Type of train

Axle load
[KN]

Distributed load
[KN/m]

Length of the train


[m]

D2

225

64

236

BV-3

250

80

233

Steel train

225

64

240

Q/4
1,5
0

Q/4

Q/4

1,8
0

7,45

Q/4

1,8
0

1,5
0

14,05

Figure 4-4
Q/4

Q/4
1,5
0

Load distribution for load type D-2


Q/4

1,8
0

5,90

1,8
0

Q/4
1,5
0

12,5

Figure 4-5
Q/4
1,6
20

Load distribution for load type BV-3

Q/4

Q/4

1,8
0

7,40

1,8
0

Q/4
1,6
0

14,2

Figure 4-6

4.6

Load distribution for load type Steel train

Drawings

Copies of the original drawings are provided by Banverket.

20

Finite Element Method

FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

5.1

General

To be able to analyse the movements of the bridge the finite element method,
FEM will be used. FEM is a numerical technique for finding approximate
solutions to partial differential equations. The technique used in FEMmodelling is that the construction is divided into smaller parts, a mesh or finite
elements. A mesh is when a part is divided in to a pattern of squares, triangles
or hexagons over the surface of the construction parts, the calculations are then
performed on these smaller parts. The smaller the pieces are the more points
will be calculated which results in more accurate results.
The principle of finite element method was first given in a paper by a
mathematician Courant in 1943. There was no impact but a couple of years
later the principles were developed independently by aeronautical engineers
R.W Clough in the USA and J.H Argyris in England, Samuelsson (1998).
FEM can be used in many different engineering fields, it all started because of
the need to solve complex structural problems in the aeronautical engineering
field. Now the technique is used for calculations in thermal, electromagnetic,
fluid, and structural working environments. FEM is an effective tool for
visualizing stiffness, strength, and provides great possibilities to minimize the
amount of material and by doing so, save money.
The procedure when working with FEM can be described in six steps. Step 1-2
is preprocessing step 3-4 is processing and step 5-6 is postprocessing. These
steps will be described further on. The procedure is described in Figure 5-1.

21

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

Step 1: Idealization +
Mathematical model
Step 2:Discretization
Numerical model
Step 3: Element analysis

Step 4: Coupling
Structure analysis

Step 5: Post-processing
Step 6: Manual control
and interpretation of
results

Figure 5-1

5.2

Procedure when using FEM-analysis

Preprocessing in Brigade

When creating a model there are some decisions that needs to be done. It is
important to note that the model is just a model, which means that it can be
more or less accurate, depending on what values are put into it. It is the users
task to define boundary conditions, what type of model, which structural parts
that needs to be included and so on. The access to drawings is important to be
able to make a proper model with correct constraints and boundary conditions.
The first step in preprocessing is generating a model. The model can either be
designed graphically, GUI (Graphical user interface) or by code. It is easier to
create a model of this size using GUI. The first step is to create the parts that
the model contains of in the part module. Three different types of elements are
possible at this time, beam elements, shell elements and solid elements, or a
combination of those. The different element types will be described further on
in the report. Different materials can be defined in the property module and
later on applied on the elements that are present. When defining the material
different properties are applied, for example, if it is a non-linear model values
for elastic and plastic deformations have to be defined, also thermal and
acoustic behaviour can be applied. To create the full model the parts are being
assembled together in the assembly module and boundary conditions are

22

Finite Element Method

defined. The analysis procedure is performed in steps which are defined in the
step module, for example one step could be static analysis and another step
could be dynamic analysis. To connect the parts with each other constraints are
set in the interaction module by defining degrees of freedom in the connection.
When shape and boundaries are set the loads are defined and applied in the
load module. The loads and boundary conditions can be defined to vary over
time as well as in different steps.
Step 2 is to create the mesh in the mesh module, there are several techniques
and the mesh can be designed so that the mesh is finer on those areas that are
critical and of more interest by using partitions. This is also useful for
complicated geometries. Creating the mesh is the main step, and is mainly what
FEM-modelling is all about. Depending on the size and type of the mesh that is
created, a certain number of nodes will appear, one in each corner of the
geometrical shape. For each node in the model; strain, stress and deflection will
be calculated. To get reliable results it is important to choose the mesh so that
no important information will be lost. For example if the mesh is designed with
large distance between the nodes the values of interest for shear or moment that
appears in a specific area can be missed. An example of that can be seen in
Figure 5-2 where the shear force is plotted for a plate with a point at x=1, the
mesh is quadratic with element sizes 0.05x0.05 m and 0.5x0.5 m. If the mesh
size is 0.5 m the maximum and minimum values between the nodes are lost.
Due to this it is important to be careful when evaluating the results from a FEmodel, Davidsson (2003).

23

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

800
600

vy [kN/m]

400
200
Mesh 0.05

-200 0

Mesh 0.5

-400
-600
-800

Figure 5-2

y [m]

Shear force vy along the y-axis for x=30m

Depending on what type of calculation that is performed different calculationsteps are to be created. The type of calculation has to be defined and limitations
in the amount of increments are to be set. When the model is completed it is
time to move to the processing step which is performed by the computer, see
5.3 Processing.
5.2.1 Element types
The element types available are as mentioned earlier beam elements, shell
elements and solid elements and the modelling space is divided into 3D space,
2D planar space and axisymmetric space. The model can consist of a mixture
of these types depending on what outputs are of interest, the limitations of
computer power and the time available for modelling.
Beam elements
A beam element is an element that has a length, direction and a defined crosssection. It is made with assumptions so that it can be considered a one
dimensional problem. The primary solution variable is then a function of the
length direction, which to be valid must be large compared to its cross-section.
There are two main types of beam element formulations, the Euler-Bernoulli
theory and the Timshenko theory.

24

Finite Element Method

The Euler-Bernoulli theory is based on the assumption that plane cross faces
remain plane and undistorted. All beam elements in Brigade that use linear or
quadratic interpolation are based on this theory. When modelling with thick
beams the Timshenko theory is more useful since it allows the beam to have
transverse shear strain, which means that the cross section does not have to stay
normal to the beam axis, Andersson, Malm (2004).
A beam element generates two nodes, which means four unknown parameters
per element, which are displacement and rotation in each node. The beam is
also assigned a cross section which is defined in the program.
Shell elements
In Brigade there are three different kinds of shell elements, thin, thick and
general-purpose elements. Thin elements are based on the Kirchoff shell theory
and the thick elements are based on the Reissner-Mindlin shell theory. The
Reissner-Mindlin theory assumes that transverse shear deformation occurs
which makes it more suitable for thick shells. General-purpose shells can
provide solutions for both thin and thick shells, Andersson, Malm (2004).
Depending on what type of mesh is generated each element has three or four
nodes, the number of unknown parameters are two in each node, which means
that the number of equations increases rapidly compared to the beam model.
Solid elements
Solid elements can be generated in two or three dimensions. Two-dimensional
solid elements are suitable when modelling plane or axisymmetric problems.
When defining the mesh for solid parts isoparametric hexahedra is the most
common shape for the elements, when it is not possible to create a satisfactory
mesh because of complex geometry, tetrahedron elements can be used. Brigade
provides first-order linear and second-order quadratic interpolation of the solid
elements, Andersson, Malm (2004).
When modelling with solid elements the amount of nodes increases. The total
number of nodes for an element is eight respectively four for hexahedrons and
tetrahedrons, one in each corner of the geometry.
5.2.2 Analysis types
In a model sequences of analysis steps can be created in the steps module.
Using steps makes it possible to change the loads and boundary conditions

25

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

throughout the analysis. The types of analysis that will be used in the model of
the Vindel river railway bridge will be described. In all models created in
Brigade there is an initial step where the boundary conditions, interactions and
other parameters that are to be applicable in the very beginning of the analysis
are defined.
General static linear perturbation
This step is used to calculate the behaviour of the bridge with static conditions
and generates values for deflections, stresses and so on due to static load. A
criterion to be able to run this analysis is that the construction is stable. This
step uses time increments which makes it possible to evaluate the results over
time. The final result is the result that is carried on to the next step. If a
nonlinear result is expected such as a friction, contact, large displacements or
material nonlinearities the NLGEOM command should be used. If the structure
is unstable and a collapse or buckling is expected the modified Riks method
can be used.
Linear Eigenvalue analysis
To perform an eigenvalue extraction and calculate the natural frequencies and
the corresponding mode shapes the linear eigenvalue analysis is used. Three
different eigensolver algorithms can be used, Lanczos, subspace or AMS.
Lanczos is the fastest eigensolver when a large number of eigenmodes are to be
calculated, for smaller systems the subspace might work better. When using
Lanczos it is possible to limit the range of eigenvalues that are of interest,
therefore this is the algoritm that will be used in this analysis.
5.3

Processing

Processing is the step where the calculations are being done. The calculation
steps will be described for a beam element.
Theory
FEM-calculations have become more advanced and accurate as computers
have been improved. In this chapter the calculation steps will be described
which are performed for a beam element using the Euler-Bernoulli theory.
The beam is illustrated in Figure 5-3. In each of the two nodes there are two
variables, rotation around the y-axis and displacement in the z-direction. These
are called w1, 1 , w2 , 2.

26

Finite Element Method

z
W1

W1

1
EI,L
1

Figure 5-3

Beam element

The idea is to describe the beam deformation in form of the four variables. In
order to do this the deflection of the beam is expressed as a third dimension
polynomial with four variables a1, a2, a3 and a4.
= 1 + 2 + 3 2 + 4 3 = 1 2 3

1
2

3 =
4

(5.1)

The idea is to express the a-matrix in a form of the variables w1, 1 , w2 and 2
and use the hypotheses of the minimum potential energy in order to find a
relation to the unknown node displacement. Therefore the vector u is
introduced.
1

= 1
2
2

(5.2)

The a-matrix can be expressed in forms of the unknown variables.


1 = 0 = 1
1 = 0 = 2
2 = = 1 + 2 + 3 2 + 4 3
2 =

= 2 + 23 + 34 2

(5.3)
(5.4)
(5.5)
(5.6)

Which can be expressed in form of a matrix

27

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

1
0
= 1
0

0 0
1 0
2
1 2

0
0
3
32

1
2 =
3
4

(5.7)

C
Since the matrix is not singular the coefficients in a may be expressed as
= 1

(5.8)

Equation 5.8 combined with equation 5.1 gives


= 1 = 1 2 3 4

(5.9)

Where the functions


2

1 = 1 3 2 + 2 3
2 = 2
2

+ 3
3

3 = 3 2 2 3
4 =

+ 2

(5.10)
(5.11)
(5.12)
(5.13)

are called form-functions or base-functions, graphical representations of these


are illustrated in Figure 5-4.

28

Finite Element Method

1
0,9
0,8
0,7
0,6
0,5
0,4
0,3
0,2
0,1
0
-0,1 0
-0,2
-0,3
-0,4
-0,5

N1
dN2/dx
N3
dN4/dx
0,2

0,4

0,6

0,8

x/L

Figure 5-4

Form-functions

A load q(x) is applied on the beam as described in Figure 5-5.


P1

q(x)

P2
M2
x

M1
EI,L
1

Figure 5-5

Load on the beam

In order to determinate the unknown node-displacements the hypothesis of


minimum potential energy is used. Defined as
=

(5.14)

Where W is the internal energy and defined as



0 2

(5.15)

And A is the energy of the external force which is defined as

29

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

+ 1 0 + 2 + 1 0 + 2 ()

(5.16)

The second derivative for the deflection is received from equation 5.9 as
2
2

= 2 = ()

(5.17)

Where
() =

2 +

12
3

+ 2

6
2

12
3

+ 2

(5.18)

The internal energy of the beam is

=2

(5.19)

Where the K-matrix is a 4x4-matrix representing the stiffness of the structure.

= 3

12
6
12
6

6
42
6
22

12 6
6 22
12 6
6 42

(5.20)

The energy from the external load is


=

=0

+ 1 +

=0

+ 2 +

1 0
0 0

0 1
0 0
+ 1 1 2 2
0
0 0
1 0
0 0
0 1

fv

(5.21)

fb

Where fv is called the consistent nodal load vector and fb called the external
nodal load vector. The potential energy can finally be written on the compact
form of

30

Finite Element Method

= 2

(5.22)

The potential energy now needs to be minimized to find the unknown node
displacements which can be found in the u-vector. The minimum value for u is
when the derivative is equal to zero, which gives:
= +

(5.23)

This is the linear equation system of which the solution gives the unknown
node-displacements. This will give a linear solution, in order to get more
accurate results it is necessary to divide the beam in to smaller sections, and is
referred to as meshing, Faleskog (2003).
5.4

Postprocessing

In the postprocessing step the results are evaluated. The program generates a
lot of information and depending on what is of interest for the user, different
outputs can be chosen.
One way to show the results are by contour plots. A contour plot shows the
values by colour codes and one colour represents a certain value. It is possible
to present the plots with deformations using scale factors. The outputs available
in contour plots are deformation, stress, strain etc. These plots can be
supplemented by tables with numerical values, but since numerical values are
in one single node it is important to present these together with the plots.
It is also possible to present the results in diagrams where one for example can
pick nodes along the bridge to see the variation in stress or strain along the
bridge.
To ensure that the results are reliable and that the model does not contain
incorrect boundary conditions that cause misleading outcomes a step in the
postprocessing is convergence tests. Convergence tests means that the model is
tested by changing parameters and makes sure that the results correspond to the
changes in a predictable way.
5.5

FEM-Software

5.5.1 ABAQUS/CAE
ABAQUS is a software by Simulia, (www.simulia.com) used for FEMmodelling and calculations. Abaqus/CAE has an interactive environment where

31

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

the finite element model is created, graphical user interface, GUI. The same
software is used for analysing, monitoring and diagnosing jobs.
5.5.2 Brigade
Brigade is a software by Scanscot Technology, (www.scanscot.com). It is
based on ABAQUS but adapted to simulation of bridges and dynamic loads. It
contains special features for analysing for example arch bridges and long span
bridges. Brigade also includes a special operation for applying dynamic loads
and to evaluate the static response.
5.5.3 Other FEM Softwares
There are several FEM-softwares on the market, for example Strusofts FEMdesign, LUSAS, CATIA, ANSYS, DIANA and many more. The softwares are
usually adapted for certain fields and depending on what the purpose with the
FE-modelling different programs are used, Maekawa (2008)
5.6

The FE-Model of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

The Vindel river railway bridge is modelled as a combination of beam and


shell elements. The first attempt was to create a model of solid elements but
due to the size of output files and the type of output data and also the time
available for analysis, the decision was taken to focus on keeping the model
small and still get the results requested. When modelling with solid elements
the amount of nodes are several times larger than for shell and beam models.
The extra information generated is sometimes not necessary.
The bridge is modelled in two parts that are assembled in the assembly module.
The reason for this is to save time and use the facts that the bridge is symmetric
around its middle span. On the side spans the height of the columns differs,
other than that the whole bridge is symmetric. SI-units are used in the entire
model. The coordinate system for the model is located with the x-axis running
along the bridge, the y-axis is in vertical direction and z-axis is in transversal
direction. Origo is located where the arch is attached to the abutment on the
south side.

32

Finite Element Method

Figure 5-6

Type sketch of the bridge showing the symmetry over the mid span and
the differences on the side spans

Parts modelled as shell elements are the arch, the deck, stiffeners and parts of
the column above the abutments. The beams that are a part of the deck and the
columns are modelled as beam elements.

Figure 5-7

Part 1of the model from Brigade

Since the geometric properties for the deck and the arch are not symmetrical,
moment of inertia is calculated and used to give the parts representative values
for the thickness of the shell. For the arch, where the size varies in two
directions moment of inertia is calculated for different cross sections along the
arch. The total cross section area of the arch turns out to be larger in the model
than in reality, due to this fact the density in the arch is reduced to represent the
actual weight of the arch. The parts are defined with nodes representing the
bottom line of the construction part. The deck is divided into three construction

33

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

parts in the model, one that represents the top of the deck, and two that
represents the beams that are located under the deck. The beams are modelled
as beams with a rectangular cross section and the deck is a shell element.

Figure 5-8 Cross section of the deck

Figure 5-9

Cross section of the arch

The columns above the abutments can be seen in Figure 5-10. The wall that is
between the columns is modelled as a shell with the thickness 0.3 m. The
columns are modelled with beam elements with a circular cross-section with
the radius of 0.535 m.

Figure 5-10

Cross section of column above the abutments [mm]

Figure 5-11 shows the bridge with numbered columns to easier understand how
the boundary conditions and constraints are set. The columns that support the
bridge are modelled as beam elements with a radius 0.5 m. On the side spans
the constraints for the columns are set to zero degrees of freedom where they
are connected to the deck beams and the same constraint is set where they are
connected to the ground. For columns no 4 and 9 in the middle span the
constraints are set to zero degrees of freedom both where they are connected to
the arch and the deck beams. Column no 5-8 are free to rotate in all directions
where they are connected to the arch, and free to rotate around the z-axis where

34

Finite Element Method

they are connected to the deck beams, these constraints are defined by using
the function coupling. The boundary conditions for the arch are defined with
zero degrees of freedom to the abutments.

Figure 5-11

The bridge with numbered columns

The crown on the bridge is very stiff and the construction parts that are
modeled are the stiffeners and the sides are modeled as shells. This can be seen
in Figure 5-12.

Figure 5-12

The crown of the bridge

Stiffeners located between the deck beams are modelled as shell elements with
a thickness of 0.6 m and a height of 1.040 m. They are connected to the deck
and the deck beams using the constraint tie which gives them no degrees of
freedom. The constraint is created by using the function partition on the deck.
The partitions are the same size as the cross section of the stiffener.
The deck is divided into three sections, mid span and two side spans. On the
land piers the deck is free to rotate and move in the x-direction. Over the

35

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

abutment columns the mid span deck is connected to the column with a joint so
that it is free to rotate around the z-axis and move back and forth along the xaxis. The deck from the side span is connected with a joint so that it is free to
rotate around the z-axis, but fixed in all other directions. These connections are
set by using the constraint coupling. Due to outer factors such as climate and
friction it is not sure that the connections behave as they are described in the
drawings, it might be that a connection that is supposed to be free behaves as a
combination of fixed and free, which makes it difficult to model. Therefore the
extreme cases will be tested to get a span of values where the true results most
likely are.
The bridge is tested for static response due to live loads. Brigade has a module
for this, but due to lack of computer capacity it was not possible to run the
calculations. Therefore the live load was tested by placing a train at different
positions on the bridge. Three positions were tested with two types of trains,
BV-3 and D-2, to see how the results correspond with the results from the
dynamic live load test.
To be able to test the bridge for dynamic live loads a rail is modelled on the
deck. The distance between the rails is 1435 mm. The trains that are of interest
are created in the dynamic live load module. When defining the trains the
distances between the axles are put in to the program. After that the speeds and
the speed intervals are decided, and also what part of the bridge the results are
to be taken from. Information about these trains is found in Table 4-2 in
chapter 4.
5.6.1 Convergence test
A convergence test is performed to ensure that the results correspond correctly
to changes in the model. The parameters changed are for example material
parameters, boundary conditions and connections. The results from these tests
are presented in Appendix A. In Figure 5-13 the variation for each test
compared to Bennitz (2006) is visualized. In Table 5-1the changes for each
setup are described. What was proven doing these tests was that the model
corresponds in the way we want, the equation for eigenfrequency is

(5.24)

For example by increasing the elastic modulus we expected to get higher


values for the eigenfrequencies. The moment of inertia was changed by
increasing or decreasing the thickness of parts, which also affected the weight.

36

Finite Element Method

Variation compared to measurements

To just change the weight the density for the materials was increased or
decreased.
140,00%
120,00%

100,00%

80,00%

3
4

60,00%

40,00%

20,00%

7
8

0,00%
0

10 11 12 13

Test no.

Figure 5-13

Convergence test, values from Brigade-model comparing to measured


values. Test numbers according to table 5-1.

37

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

Table 5-1 Changes for each test setup

Test nr

Variation

Default

Thickness on deck + 25%

Thickness on deck - 25%

Modular of elasticity + 50%

Modular of elasticity + 50% except columns

Column on the sidespans pinned instead of fixed

Fixed entrance instead of free in bridge-direction

Bridge entrance free for rotation

9
10

All columns on the main span is free for rotation around x-axis
(direction of the bridge)
Changed value of density on concrete in the arch bow

11

Modul of elasticity + 1/3 and density of concrete as in test 10

12

As in test 11 but used section integration before instead of during

5.6.2 Effective mass and participation factors


If considering a spring in motion with a weight at the end. The weight of the
spring has an influence on the motion but since not all of the spring moves with
the same velocity as the weight the masses cant simply just be added.
Therefore effective mass is introduced; in a single Dof-system only a third of
the springs mass (effective mass) would be added to the weight.
In FEM-analysis the effective mass can be used for judging the significance of
natural frequencies. The effective mass is compared to the total mass to
evaluate the significance. Modes with high effective mass can be readily
excited by base excitation while modes with low effective mass cant since
these are more theoretical.
The effective mass also helps when trying to determine how many modes that
should be included in the analysis. The effective mass of all considered modes
should together add up to at least 90% of the total weight in x, y and the zdirection. Some of the total mass should be removed since it cannot move due

38

Finite Element Method

% of total mass

to constraints. In Figure 5-14 is the added effective mass for the modes up to
30 Hz illustrated, Irvinge (2009).
1
0,9
0,8
0,7
0,6
0,5
0,4
0,3
0,2
0,1
0

Y-COMPONENT
X-COMPONENT
Z-COMPONENT
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

Mode no.

Figure 5-14

Cumulative effective mass

Definition
Consider a discrete dynamic system which is controlled by equation 5.24.
+ =

(5.25)

M is the mass matrix


K is the stiffness matrix
is the acceleration vector
is the displacement vector
is the forcing function or base excitation function
A solution to equation 5.25 can be found in forms of eigenvalues and
eigenvectors where the eigenvectors represent vibration modes.
The systems generalized mass matrix can then be written as
=

(5.26)

Where is the eigenvector matrix. is introduced as the the vector which


represent the displacement of the masses resulting from static application of a
unit ground displacement, Irvinge (2009).
A coefficient vector is defined as

39

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

(5.27)

The modal participation factor can then be defined as

i =

Li

(5.28)

m ii

And the effective modal mass is defined as

, =

(5.29)

Where , is the effective mass in motion for an eigen mode which is


compared to the total mass of the bridge for validation of the model.

40

Modal identification

MODAL IDENTIFICATION

6.1

General

ARTeMIS stands for Ambient Response Testing and Modal Identification


Software, and is a tool used for modal identification of civil engineering
structures such as buildings, bridges, dams and offshore structures. The
software estimates natural frequencies of vibration and associated mode shapes
and modal damping of a structure from measured responses only, ARTeMIS
(2009)
6.2

Modal identification by using output-only information

Modal identification means to determine modal parameters from experimental


data. The parameters that have been taken in to account are mode shapes,
natural frequencies and damping ratios.
The software that is to be used for evaluation of the measurements is
ARTeMIS Extractor Pro 2010, Release 5.0.
Traditionally structures are measured through input output modal
identification which means that the structure is excited artificially, excitation
and response is measured at the same time. In large structures such as
buildings, offshore structures and bridges which usually are exposed to natural
loads that excite the structure, there is however no need for this. Since the
structure already is in motion its unnecessary to deal with the natural
excitation as an unwanted noise source. Instead its possible to use output
only for modal identification, Brinker (2000).

41

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

6.3

Creating a model

Since ARTeMIS isnt made for modeling a in data script is created in order to
define the shape, properties and where measurements are applied. The script is
modified in Notepad and the node-points are calculated by help from MS
Excel. When the node-points are defined, the shape is created by connecting
nodes with lines or surfaces.

Figure 6-1

Bridge-model created in ARTeMIS

The raw measurement files from the field test are stored in a format called .mea
which is used by the program Catman. Catman was therefore used to open
these files and export the measurements of interest to .asc; a file format that is
supported by ARTeMIS. The measurement files are assigned to nodes where
the direction of the acceleration is defined.
In ARTeMIS it is possible to apply constrains and describe how node-points
move in consideration to each other. This is used in order to get fixed nodes at
the supports and in nodes on half the bridge in order to get homogeneous
motion since measurements are only preformed on one side.
6.4

Methods for evaluation

In ARTeMIS there are several ways to evaluate and find eigenfrequencies.


There are two general types of evaluations; Frequency Domain Decomposition
(FDD) and Stochastic Subspace Identification (SSI).
6.4.1 FDD (Frequency Domain Decomposition)
The FDD method is a technique for modal identification of output-only
systems, i.e. in the case where the modal parameters must be estimated without
knowing the input exciting the system. By decomposing the spectral density

42

Modal identification

function matrix, the response spectra can be separated into a set of single
degree of freedom systems, each corresponding to an individual mode. By
using this decomposition technique close modes can be identified with high
accuracy which may prove difficult when using the classic approach when
exciting the structure artificially. In ARTeMIS there are three different types of
FDD analysis described below.
The Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD) technique where each mode is
estimated as a decomposition of the systems response spectral densities into
several single-degrees-of-freedom (SDOF) systems.
The Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition (EFDD) emerges as an
improvement of the first technique with the difference that the damping ratio
estimation is available as an extra feature as well as enhanced eigenfrequencies
and averaged mode shapes
The Curve-fit Frequency Domain Decomposition (CFDD) is similar to EFDD.
The extension to the FDD relies on a frequency domain least squares
estimation technique, Brinker (2000).
6.4.2 Stochastic Subspace Identification (SSI)
In the Stochastic Subspace Identification (SSI) a parametric model is created
directly from the raw time series of data. A parametric model is a mathematical
model with parameters which can be adjusted in order for the model to fit the
data. Most commonly a set of parameters which makes the models predicted
values correlate to the measured ones is wanted. This process is often called
model calibration. See Figure 6-2.

43

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

Figure 6-2

Model calibration

All known time domain modal identification techniques can be formulated in a


generalized form as an innovated state space formulation
+1 = +

(6.1)

= +

(6.2)

Where the
A-matrix contains the physical information
C-matrix extracts the information that can be observed in the system response
K-matrix contains the statistical information.
Choosing the right state space dimension is essential in the Stochastic
Subspace Identification techniques. If the dimension is too small, then the
dynamics cannot be modeled correctly. On the other hand, if the dimension is
too high, then the estimated state space model becomes over-specified, and as a
result, the statistical uncertainty on the estimated parameters increases
unnecessarily. This dilemma is illustrated in Figure 6-3.

44

Modal identification

Figure 6-3

The art of parametric model estimation is to determine a model with a


reasonable number of parameters. This means it is crucial to choose the right
model order also known as the state space dimension, which is the dimension
of the A-matrix.
The Stochastic Subspace Identification techniques all use the same estimation
engine for estimation of state space realizations (models). In ARTeMIS there
are three different implementations of the Stochastic Subspace Identification
technique and the difference between these is how the matrix is weighted,
ARTeMIS (2009).
Unweighted Principal Component (UPC)
The Unweighted Principal Component algorithm is the most simple because no
weighting is performed at all. The input to the estimation engine is the
Common SSI Input matrix itself. This algorithm works best with data having
modes with comparable energy level. In such cases it will produce good results
using reasonably small state space dimensions.
Principal Component (PC)
The PCA analysis was invented by Karl Pearson in 1901. The Principal
Component Analysis involves a mathematical procedure that transforms a
number of possible correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated
variables called principal components.

45

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

Canonical Variate Analysis (CVA)


This algorithm typically forces the use of a larger state space dimension than
the two other available algorithms. The reason is its ability to estimate modes
with a large difference in energy levels. In order to see low excited modes
among well-excited modes, it is necessary to force a large state space
dimension. For data with only well-excited modes it is better to use the
Unweighted Principal Component algorithm instead.
These three methods are described mathematically in both the help files in
ARTeMIS and in several papers but this thesis will not cover that,
Brinker (2006).
6.5

Measurement methods

The earlier measurements used in this study was sampled in September and
December 2005, Bennitz (2006). New measurements will be done in
September 2009 but since this master thesis project is finished by then there is
no possibility to apply them on this analysis. The setup for the new
measurements will be done in another way compared to the previous ones. The
new measurements will be measured with two fixed points in order to get
reference-values in all measurements.
6.5.1 Accelerometers
An accelerometer is a device that is used to measure accelerations.
Acceleration is the rate of change in velocity with respect to time. In the
measurements done on the Vindel bridge an electronical device is used which
gives results in form of voltage, proportional to the acceleration. When
calibrating the accelerometer the scale factor for transforming the
electronically output to acceleration is determined. The used accelerometers
can only measure acceleration in one dimension and therefore two sensors are
used in every measuring point.

46

Results

RESULTS

7.1

Brigade

In Table 7-1 information about the final model in Brigade is given.


Table 7-1 Data from Brigade.

Data about the model from Brigade


Number of elements

9993

Number of nodes

13495

Number of nodes defined by the user

11047

Number of internal nodes defined by the program

2448

Total number of variables in the program

66354

Total mass of the model

8178076

7.2

Eigenmodes and eigenfrequencies from Brigade

The settings used for the model are based on the convergence test and then
modified with different constraints. According to the drawings some joints are
pinned, but due to friction, cold climate and with relatively small movements
the joints are found to behave more as fixed joints. This conclusion is drawn
based on the measurements done by Bennitz in Dec 2005.
Instead of using semi-fixed constraints the both extreme cases (fixed and free)
have been calculated and compared. Three different constraints have been
modified. These constraints are, for the column above the abutments where the
column is connected to the deck, the constraints for column number 5,6,7 and
8, see Figure 5-11 chapter 5 at the mid span in rotation and also the boundary

47

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

condition for the bridge entrances. See Table 7-2 in order to see each test setup
of boundary conditions. Figure 7-1 shows the frequencies estimated from each
FE-analysis compared to Bennitz (2006) measurements. All frequencies are
illustrated as test results over measured results, 1,0 means the same frequency
and 1,1 10 % higher compared to the measured result.

Variation compared to
measurements

1,2

1,1

0,9

4
5

0,8

0,7

0,6
0

8
9

Test no.

Figure 7-1

The eight different setups compared to Bennitz. Setup numbers


according to table 7-1.

Setup 6 was found to fit best to the previous results and its frequencies together
with the results from Bennitz are illustrated in Figure 7-2. Mode number 8 is
not presented in Bennitz measurements but is in the range of frequencies where
the modes have been found which makes it interesting for the results. There are
eigenmodes generated by Brigade that are not of interest for us, these have
been excluded from the results.

48

Results

7
6

Frequncy

5
4
3

Reference

Test 6

1
0
0

10

12

Mode no.

Figure 7-2

Frequencies from Bennitz and setup 6.

Table 7-2

Test setup of boundary conditions.

Test no

Column side
span (rotation
around z-axis)

Column main span


(rotation around zaxis and x-axis)

Bridge entrance
(movable in xdirection)

Free

Free

Free

Free

Free

Fixed

Free

Fixed

Fixed

Free

Fixed

Free

Fixed

Fixed

Free

Fixed

Fixed

Fixed

Fixed

Free

Free

Fixed

Free

Fixed

The eigenmodes generated by Brigade based on the model described in chapter


5.6 are presented in Figure 7-3 to 7-11. Mode 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 8 are mainly
moving in the transversal direction while mode 4, 6, 9 and 10 are mainly

49

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

moving in the vertical direction. They are visualized with the undeformed
shape in the background, and a scale factor of 10. Mode number 8 is not
compared to earlier measurements. The modes are presented in the same order
as they are presented in Bennitz (2006) to make it easier to compare, with an
exception for mode 9 and 10 from the analysis which should be compared with
mode 8 and 9. This is even though mode 9 has a higher frequency than mode
10.

Figure 7-3

Mode 1

f=1,16 Hz

Figure 7-4

Mode 2

f=1,70 Hz

Figure 7-5

Mode 3

f=2,13 Hz

Figure 7-6

Mode 4

f=2,43 Hz

50

Results

Figure 7-7

Mode 5

f=3,89 Hz

Figure 7-8

Mode 6

f=4,10 Hz

Figure 7-9

Mode 7

f=4,93 Hz

Figure 7-10

Mode 8

f=5,83 Hz

Figure 7-11

Mode 9

f=6,47 Hz

51

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

Figure 7-12

Mode 10

f=6,16 Hz

Table 7-3 Frequencies for setup 6

Mode
no
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
7.3

Frequency Frequency
Bennitz. (2005)
1,16
1,7
2,13
2,43
3,89
4,1
4,93
5.83
6.47
6.16

1,2
1,9
2,3
2,6
3,4
3,8
4,6
5,4
6,5

Vertical or
transversal
Transversal
Transversal
Transversal
Vertical
Transversal
Vertical
Transversal
Transversal
Vertical
Vertical

Deflections

The result of deflections are presented with only dead load and with dead load
combined with live load to be able to see the actual deflection when a train
enters the bridge.
7.3.1 Dead load
The deflections of the bridge due to dead load are presented in Figure 7-13
with a scale factor of 1000, this is just a schematic picture to show how the
bridge reacts to its own weight. This gives that the largest deflections are on
the sides of the crown and has a magnitude of 8.365 mm. Since the deflection
due to dead load is always there it is not possible to measure this in reality.

52

Results

Figure 7-13 Deflection with dead load (scale factor 1000)

7.3.2 Static Live Load


To see the possible maximum deflections when a train is standing on the bridge
three different load cases was created. Case 1, Figure 7-14 where the train is
placed over the whole bridge. Case 2, Figure 7-16 is the train placed over one
side span and the mid span. Case 3, Figure 7-18 is the train placed over half the
bridge. The distributed load is from the test trains BV-3 and D-2, the steel train
has almost the same load and distances between the axles as D-2, therefore
only D-2 is taken into consideration. When doing the calculations for static live
load, the self weight is not taken into consideration in order to get results that
are comparable to the measured values. The plots in this chapter are for BV-3,
and the plots for D-2 can be seen in Appendix C.

Figure 7-14

Load case one (schematic figure)

For load case 1 with BV-3 the maximum deflection is 1.99 mm, as can be seen
in Figure 7-15. The maximum deflection for D-2 is 1.59 mm.

53

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

Figure 7-15

Deflections from load case 1 (m)

Figure 7-16

Load case 2 (schematic figure)

The maximum deflection for load case 2 is 2,00 mm. The plot is shown in
Figure 7-17. The maximum deflection for D-2 is 1.60 mm.

Figure 7-17

54

Deflections from load case 2 (m)

Results

Figure 7-18

Load case three (schematic figure)

Load case 3 with BV-3 gives the largest deflection and for this load the
maximum deflection is 8.04 mm. Shown in Figure 7-19. The maximum
deflection for D-2 is 6.43 mm.

Figure 7-19

Deflections from load case 3 (m)

7.3.3 Dynamic Live Load


The results from the dynamic live load test are presented in this chapter. Three
trains was tested, BV-3, D-2 and the steel train. They were all tested for
velocities between 50-120 km/h with intervals of 10 km/h. The data was saved
every 10 increment. The largest deflection for each train and speed is presented
in

55

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

Table 7-4. The column with the position of the last wagon gives the position of
the train when the largest deflection appears. This corresponds very well to the
results in the static live load chapter.
Since the arch span is symmetrical only results for half the mid span is
monitored, see Figure 7-20.
The deflections in transversal direction are less than 0.2 mm, since no load in
transversal direction is applied. Because of this those results are not presented.

Figure 7-20

Showing the part of the bridge where the deflections in vertical


direction are calculated

Figure 7-21

Distance to the last axle load (table 7-4)

56

Results

Table 7-4 Vertical deflections with dynamic loads.

Vertical deflections
BV-3

D-2

Steel train

Speed
[km/h]

Maximum
Deflection
[mm]

Position
of last
axle x
[m]

Maximum
Deflection
[mm]

Position
of last
axle x
[m]

Maximum
Deflection
[mm]

Position
of last
axle x
[m]

50

8.01

113.36

6.36

116.89

6.31

113.31

60

8.00

114.17

6.43

115.50

6.32

114.33

70

8.03

112.50

6.45

113.97

6.33

112.50

80

8.26

107.78

6.48

115.67

6.34

113.89

90

8.11

112.50

6.62

114.50

6.52

111.25

100

8.10

113.50

6.43

116.89

6.36

115.67

110

8.03

114.94

6.49

116.83

6.38

116.81

120

8.12

110.33

6.57

116.00

6.45

115.33

The frequency of which the axle load is applied corresponds to the velocity of
the train. Therefore the frequency of the loading due to speed of the train is
presented in Table 7-5. These can be compared to the eigenfrequencies that are
presented in chapter 7.3.
Table 7-5 Frequency of the axis due to velocity.
Speed [km/h]
Axle distance [m]

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

120

1.8 7.72 9.26 10.80 12.35 13.89 15.43 16.98 18.52


3.0 4.63 5.56 6.48 7.41 8.33 9.26 10.19 11.11
5.9 2.35 2.82

3.30

3.77

4.24

4.71

5.18

5.65

57

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

58

Discussion and conclusions

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

8.1

Discussion

8.1.1 The Model in Brigade


A FE-model of an existing construction is always the designer of the models
interpretation of drawings and the real structure. Assumptions can be done in
many different ways and there are many tools in the software that makes it
possible to create the same function in many different ways. If this project
would not have a deadline it would have been interesting to create a three
dimensional solid model. Furthermore with the computers obtainable it would
have taken us weeks to do the dynamic and live load tests. Lastly if time would
not have been a limiting factor, the amount of details could have been much
greater and more accurate. More details and solid elements generate a larger
model, but that does not necessarily mean that the results generated are more
accurate. Sometimes the results from a smaller model are as good as from a
larger.
When modelling with shell elements where the cross section is not
symmetrical, we decided to calculate the moment of inertia and use the
thickness that corresponded to the real cross section. Depending on the cross
section the modelled thickness might cause a heavier construction than the real
bridge. To compensate for this the density was reduced for these parts so that
the total weight of the bridge would be correct. The fact that some of the parts
are hollow on the bridge and they are designed as a solid plate might affect the
stiffness of the structure.
Constraints are necessary to make the model work and they can be defined in
different ways. When working with constraints one surface is set as the slave
surface and one as the master surface. The fact that one specific node can only
be slave in one constraint but master in several constraints results in that a plan

59

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

for defining constrains will made before start in future work, if not there is an
imminent risk of ending up in a situation where both nodes that are to be
connected are slaves in other constraints. To work around this problem creating
partitions could help out. It is also important to know that when the constraint
tie is used to tie a surface and a beam together, will result in that one node on
the beam is tied so several nodes on the surface, which results in a stiff surface.
If we were to create a new model knowing what we know today about Brigade
and FE-modelling the model would probably look slightly different. For
example would partitions have been created later in the modelling process, all
surfaces and beams would have been defined as sets, and a plan for the
constraints would have been set up from the beginning. Also more knowledge
about the different element types would result in a different design of the
Bridge, for example the stiffeners would have been designed as beam elements,
to decrease the amount of constraints and still get the same results. The time it
would take to create the model of the bridge would probably be much shorter
with the knowledge and practise we have encountered during the project.
Finding a routine and discovering the finesses in Brigade will help a lot for
future modelling.
8.1.2 The Results
If the model would have been done in another way it is possible that the results
could have been different. The measured values that we compare our
deflections with are sampled with laser equipment that might have had an angle
from the set up point compared to the point on the bridge where the
measurements was done. This might have given some misleading values. But
hopefully the field work that is to be done will support our assumption of
having a model that corresponds to the true behaviour of the bridge.
The deflections in transversal direction are very small; this is due to the fact
that no load in that direction, such as wind, is taken into account.
8.2

Conclusions

The results from Brigade correspond well to the earlier measurements that have
been performed, which gives reliability to our model. And the fact that the
values from the static live load test and the values from the dynamic live load
test are almost the same for the largest deflections gives us an indication on
that the bridge does not start to swing with its eigenmodes, at least not for the
velocities tested.

60

Discussion and conclusions

The task was to update the already existing FE-models and calibrate it so that it
would correspond correctly to already existing measurement data. From the
results the conclusion drawn is that the model in Brigade in can represent the
bridge. There are speculations from our point of view about the boundary
conditions and the connections whether they are totally fixed, pinned or if it is
some kind of combination of these depending on weather and so on.
8.3

Suggestions for further research

More field work is already planned and from what we have found out that is
necessary. To be able to use the model in ARTeMIS the measurements needs
to be done with reference points in order to be able to find the frequencies.
ARTeMIS also recommends using more measure points in field work in order
to e the data correctly.
The update of the FE-model was suppose to be done as a 3D solid model this
time, but due to lack of computer capacity in combination with the time
available for a master thesis project this was not possible to carry out. But it
would still be interesting to create such model.

61

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

62

References

REFERENCES

Websites
Structural Vibration Solutions http://www.svibs.com/ (2009-05-26)
Sustainable Bridges, Guideline for Inspection and Condition Assessment of Existing
European Railway Bridges
http://www.sustainablebridges.net/main.php/SB3.15_Guideline_ICA.pdf?fileitem=28
868625 (2009-07-03)
Scanscot Technology http://www.scanscot.se/ Lund Sweden
Matsuo Bridge Co http://www.matsuo-bridge.co.jp/english/ (2009-07-10)
Litterature
Bellander et al (1982): Betonghandbok, Material, AB Svensk Byggtjnst, Liber
Stockholm, p no of pages 619, ISBN 91-7331-060-9
Boverket (2004): Boverkets handbok om betongkonstruktioner (BBK04), no of pages
273
Chandrupatla, Tirupathi R, Belegundu Ashok D (2002): Introduction to finite elements
in engineering, Editor, Volym, Edition. Printing city: Printing office. p no of pages.
ISBN 0-13-061591-9.
Jimin He, Zhi-Fang Fu (2001): Modal Analysis, A Butterworth-Heinemann Title 2nd
edition, nr of pages 304: ISBN: 978-0-7506-5079-3
Maekawa K, Vecchio F, Foster S Task Group 4.4 (2008): Practitioners guide to finite
element modelling of reinforced concrete structures, 1st edition, Lausanne
Switzerland, International Federation for Structural Concrete (FIB), no of pages:
337. ISBN 978-2-88394-085-7
Ryall M, Plake G & Harding J (2000): Manual of bridge engineering, Editor, Volym,
no of pages: 1012. ISBN 0 727727745. Thomas Telford, London

63

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

Samuelsson A, Wiberg N-E, (1998): Finite Element Method Basics no of pages: 430.
Studentlitteratur, Lund ISBN 91-44-00927-5.
Xanthakos P, Petros (1994): Theory and design of bridges, Washington, DC, John
Wiley & Sons inc. ISBN 0-471-57097-4

Reports
Andersson A, Malm R (2004): Measurement Evaluation and FEM Simulation of
Bridge Dynamics A case study of a langer beam bridge. Master thesis report
Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm
Bennitz A (2006): Dynamic Behavior of the Vindel River Railwaybridge,
Measurements and Evaluation for Displacements and Eigenfrequencies. 2006:154
CIV, Master thesis report, Lule University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1617
Brincker R, Andersen P (2006): Understanding Stochastic Subspace Identification
Univerity of Aalborg and Structural Vibration Solutions, Denmark
Brincker R, Zhang L, Andersen P (2000): Modal identification of output-only systems
using frequency domain decomposition. Institute of physics publishing, Smart
materials and structures
Enochsson O (2009): Projektfrslag Vindellven. Lule Tekniska Universitet,
Instutionen fr Samhllsbyggnad
Faleskog J (2003): Finita element-metoden fr euler-bernoulli balk, KTH,
Instutitionen fr hllfasthetslra
He et al (2006): Vindel river railway bridge, Division of structural engineering, ISSN
1402-1536
He G,Enochsson O,Elfgren L, Bennitz A, Zou Z, Kronborg A, Tyr B and Paulsson
B (2009): Assessment of a railway concrete arch bridge by measurement and
model updating, Lule University of Technology
He G,Enochsson O,Elfgren L, Bennitz A, Zou Z, Kronborg A, Tyr B and Paulsson
B (2006): Numerical modeling and dynamic behavior of a railway concrete arch
bridge over the Vindel River in Sweden, Lule University of Technology
Irvine T (2009): Effective modal mass & modal participation factors, Vibrationdata
Scanscot (2006): Dynamic response to high-speed trains, tutorial edition 1, Scanscot
technology, no of pages: 116, Lund
strm L (1997): Bro over vindellven, Berkningar, Banverket
(2009): Help files from ARTeMIS Structural Vibration Solutions, Aalborg Denmark

64

Appendix A

APPENDIX A
Starting values for convergence test
Interactions
Brigade namn
Innebr
Anfang-mdeck1a
Anfangspelare till mittdeck
Anfang-mdeck1b
Anfangspelare till mittdeck
Anfang-mdeck2a
Anfangspelare till mittdeck
Anfang-mdeck2b
Anfangspelare till mittdeck
Anfang-sdeck1a
Anfangspelare till sidospann
Anfang-sdeck1b
Anfangspelare till sidospann
Anfang-sdeck2a
Anfangspelare till sidospann
Anfang-sdeck2b
Anfangspelare till sidospann
Extra uppe 1
Pelartopp mot verbyggnad ver bge
Extra uppe 2
Pelartopp mot verbyggnad ver bge
Extra uppe 3
Pelartopp mot verbyggnad ver bge
Extra uppe 4
Pelartopp mot verbyggnad ver bge
Extra uppe 5
Pelartopp mot verbyggnad ver bge
Extra uppe 6
Pelartopp mot verbyggnad ver bge
Extra uppe 7
Pelartopp mot verbyggnad ver bge
Extra uppe 8
Pelartopp mot verbyggnad ver bge
Belarbage u1a
UK Pelare mot bge
Belarbage u1b
UK Pelare mot bge
Belarbage u2a
UK Pelare mot bge
Belarbage u2b
UK Pelare mot bge
Belarbage u3a
UK Pelare mot bge
Belarbage u3b
UK Pelare mot bge
Belarbage u4a
UK Pelare mot bge
Belarbage u4b
UK Pelare mot bge
Boundery conditions
Anfang 1
Inspnning bge
Pafart
Farbana
Pafart rorlig
Farbana
Pelare hoger
Samtliga pelare hger exkl. bge
Pelare vanster
Samtliga pelare vnster exkl. bge
Materialparametrar
E-modul btg
30000000000
Poisons
0,2
Densitet
2400

Constrained degrees of freedom


U2
U3 UR1 UR2 UR3
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0

U1

1
0
0
1
1

1
1
1
1
1

densitet
utbredning

1700
3,6

Kg/m2
m2

Tjocklek

0,49

Pa
Kg/m3

Ballast

Farbana

1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
Svngning
n
Freq
1
0,91
2
1,35
3
1,63
4
1,45
5
3,06
6
3,01
7
3,85
9
4,87
10
4,49

65

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

Test 2
Materialparametrar

Svngning

E-modul btg

30000000000

Poisons

Pa

0,2

Densitet

2400

Kg/m

Ballast
densitet

Farbana

1700

Tjocklek

0,6

Kg/m

Freq

0,89

1,33

1,63

1,44

3,10

2,98

3,93

4,78

10

4,44

Test 3
Materialparametrar

Svngning

E-modul btg

30000000000

Poisons

Pa

0,2

Densitet

2400

Kg/m

Ballast
densitet

Farbana

1700

Tjocklek

0,35

Kg/m

Freq

0,92

1,38

1,62

1,47

2,98

3,04

3,73

4,87

10

4,57

Test 4
Materialparametrar

Svngning

E-modul btg

45000000000

Poisons

Pa

0,2

Densitet

2400

Kg/m

Ballast
densitet

Farbana

66

Tjocklek

1700

0,49

Kg/m

Freq

1,10

1,65

2,00

1,78

3,75

5,96

4,72

3,68

10

5,50

Appendix A

Test 5
Materialparametrar

Svngning

E-modul btg

45000000000

Poisons

(30e9 i pelare)

0,2

Densitet

2400

Kg/m

Ballast
densitet

Farbana

1700

Tjocklek

0,49

Kg/m

Freq

1,10

1,60

1,95

1,76

3,71

3,67

4,65

5,94

10

5,39

Test 6
Boundery conditions
Anfang 1

Inspnning bge

Pafart

Farbana

Pafart rorlig

Farbana

Pelare hoger
Pelare
vanster

Samtliga pelare hger exkl. bge

Samtliga pelare vnster exkl. bge

Materialparametrar
E-modul btg

Svngning
30000000000

Poisons

Pa

0,2

Densitet

2400

Kg/m

Ballast
densitet

Farbana

Tjocklek

1700

0,49

Kg/m

Freq

0,88

1,23

1,51

1,43

2,96

3,00

3,67

4,87

10

4,52

Test 7
Boundery conditions
Anfang 1

Inspnning bge

Pafart

Farbana

67

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

Pafart rorlig

Farbana

Pelare hoger
Pelare
vanster

Samtliga pelare hger exkl. bge

Samtliga pelare vnster exkl. bge

Materialparametrar
E-modul btg

Svngning
30000000000

Poisons

Pa

0,2

Densitet

2400

Kg/m

Ballast
densitet

Farbana

1700

Tjocklek

0,49

Kg/m

Freq

0,91

1,39

1,76

1,55

3,20

3,02

4,20

4,86

10

4,40

Test 8
Boundery conditions
Anfang 1

Inspnning bge

Pafart

Farbana

Pafart rorlig

Farbana

Pelare hoger
Pelare
vanster

Samtliga pelare hger exkl. bge

Samtliga pelare vnster exkl. bge

Materialparametrar
E-modul btg

Svngning
30000000000

Poisons

Pa

0,2

Densitet

2400

Kg/m

Ballast
densitet

Farbana

68

Tjocklek

1700

0,49

Kg/m

Freq

0,89

1,23

1,53

1,35

2,86

3,00

3,42

4,87

10

4,55

Appendix A

Test 9
Section integration (Before istllet fr during p alla skal)
Materialparametrar

Svngning

E-modul btg

30000000000

Poisons

Pa

0,2

Densitet

2400

Kg/m

Ballast
densitet

Farbana

1700

Tjocklek

0,49

Kg/m

Freq

0,91

1,38

1,72

1,55

3,19

3,02

4,14

4,87

10

4,39

Test 10
Materialparametrar
E-modul
btg

Svngning
30000000000

Poisons

Pa

0,2

Densitet

2400

Kg/m

Ballast
densitet

Farbana

1700

Tjocklek

0,49

Korrigerade vrden p massa i bgen

Kg/m

p=1300

Freq

0,98

1,40

1,77

1,82

3,38

3,50

4,26

5,50

10

5,02

Test 11
Materialparametrar

Svngning

E-modul btg

40000000000

Poisons

Pa

0,2

Densitet

2400

Kg/m

Ballast
densitet

Farbana

Tjocklek

Korrigerade vrden p massa i bgen

1700

0,49
p=1300

Kg/m

Freq

1,13

1,61

2,04

2,10

3,90

4,04

4,92

6,43

10

5,80

69

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

Test 12
Section integration (Before istllet fr during p alla skal)
Materialparametrar
E-modul btg

Svngning
4,00E+10

Poisons

Pa

0,2

Densitet

2400

Kg/m

Ballast
densitet

Farbana

Tjocklek

Korrigerade vrden p massa i bgen

70

1700

0,49
p=1300

Kg/m

Freq

1,13

1,61

2,04

2,10

3,91

4,04

4,92

6,43

10

5,80

Appendix B

APPENDIX B
Test.nr
N
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

1
Freq
1,14
1,57
1,94
1,79
3,46
3,94
4,09
6,40
5,87

1,17
1,60
1,96
1,89
3,47
3,98
4,12
6,46
6,00

1,11
1,50
1,88
1,80
3,56
3,99
4,23
5,18
6,43
5,92

1,13
1,61
2,03
2,11
3,88
4,04
4,85
5,63
6,43
5,80

1,16
1,65
2,06
2,24
3,88
4,10
4,88
5,65
6,46
5,98

1,14
1,53
1,9
1,9
3,57
4,03
4,76
5,19
6,47
6,04

1,14
1,58
1,96
1,90
3,58
4,07
4,35
5,38
6,49
4,96

1,16
1,70
2,13
2,43
3,89
4,10
4,93
5,83
6,47
6,16

71

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

72

Appendix C

APPENDIX C
Deflections for D-2 with the load cases described in chapter 7.3.2.

73

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

74

Appendix D

APPENDIX D
Structural Vibration Solutions A/S - www.svibs.com
SVS Configuration File written for PC system
File was generated by ARTeMIS Analyzer version 1.0
Header
Vindelalvsbron - Measurements made by Jens & Frida
T
0.005
Nodes
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

1024
5582
10146
14713
19285
23862
28445
33032
37624
42221
46822
51424
56035
1024
5582
10146
14713
19285
23862
28445
33032
37624
42221
46822
51424
56035
111046
106488
101924
97357
92785

-1197
2577
5940
8915
11524
13784
15719
17334
18646
19664
20392
20836
21000
-1197
2577
5940
8915
11524
13784
15719
17334
18646
19664
20392
20836
21000
-1197
2577
5940
8915
11524

-3150
-2953
-2812.5
-2728
-2700
-2700
-2700
-2700
-2700
-2700
-2700
-2700
-2700
3150
2953
2812.5
2728
2700
2700
2700
2700
2700
2700
2700
2700
2700
-3150
-2953
-2812.5
-2728
-2700

75

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75

76

88208
83625
79038
74446
69849
65248
60646
111046
106488
101924
97357
92785
88208
83625
79038
74446
69849
65248
60646
-43050
-28700
-14350
-1530
9970
21470
32970
79100.00
90600.00
102100.00
113600.00
126420.00
140770.00
155120.00
-43050
-28700
-14350
-1530
9970
21470
32970
79100
90600
102100
113600

13784
15719
17334
18646
19664
20392
20836
-1197
2577
5940
8915
11524
13784
15719
17334
18646
19664
20392
20836
24500
24500
24500
24500
24500
24500
24500
24500
24500
24500
24500
24500
24500
24500
24500
24500
24500
24500
24500
24500
24500
24500
24500
24500
24500

-2700
-2700
-2700
-2700
-2700
-2700
-2700
3150
2953
2812.5
2728
2700
2700
2700
2700
2700
2700
2700
2700
1800
1800
1800
1800
1800
1800
1800
1800
1800
1800
1800
1800
1800
1800
-1800
-1800
-1800
-1800
-1800
-1800
-1800
-1800
-1800
-1800
-1800

Appendix D

76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119

126420
140770
155120
-43050
-28700
-14350
-1530
113600.00
126420.00
140770.00
155120.00
-43050
-28700
-14350
-1530
113600.00
126420
140770
155120
9970
21470
32970
79100
90600
102100
9970
21470
32970
79100
90600
102100
-43050
-28700
-14350
-1530
9970
21470
32970
56035
79100
90600
102100
113600
126420

24500
24500
24500
14830
8880
-1370
1197
1197
6830
11980
12580
14830
8880
-1370
1197
1197
6830
11980
12580
5810
12603
17312
17312
12603
5810
5810
12603
17312
17312
12603
5810
24500
24500
24500
24500
24500
24500
24500
24500
24500
24500
24500
24500
24500

-1800
-1800
-1800
1800
1800
1800
1800
1800
1800
1800
1800
-1800
-1800
-1800
-1800
-1800
-1800
-1800
-1800
1800
1800
1800
1800
1800
1800
-1800
-1800
-1800
-1800
-1800
-1800
3450
3450
3450
3450
3450
3450
3450
3450
3450
3450
3450
3450
3450

77

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138

140770
155120
-43050
-28700
-14350
-1530
9970
21470
32970
56035
79100
90600
102100
113600
126420
140770
155120
56035
56035

Lines
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72

79
80
81
82
95
96
97
98
99
100
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
101
102
103
104

78

24500
24500
24500
24500
24500
24500
24500
24500
24500
24500
24500
24500
24500
24500
24500
24500
24500
24500
24500

3450
3450
-3450
-3450
-3450
-3450
-3450
-3450
-3450
-3450
-3450
-3450
-3450
-3450
-3450
-3450
-3450
1800
-1800

Appendix D

73
74
75
76
77
78

105
106
91
92
93
94

Surfaces
1
15
3
17
4
17
6
19
8
21
9
23
10
23
11
25
12
25
13
38
38
50
37
49
36
48
35
47
33
45
31
43
30
42
28
40

2
14
4
16
5
18
7
20
9
22
10
22
11
24
12
24
13
26
26
50
37
49
36
48
35
47
34
46
32
44
30
42
29
41
27
39

14
2
16
4
17
5
19
7
21
9
22
10
23
11
24
12
25
13
38
26
50
37
49
36
48
35
47
34
45
32
43
30
42
29
40
27

79

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

31
43
32
32
31
31
28
40
29
29
28
28
45
33
46
46
45
45
8
21
7
7
8
8
3
16
2
2
3
3
5
18
6
6
5
5
51
51
52
52
53
53
54
54

80

105
99
99
105
105
99
106
100
100
106
106
100
98
104
104
98
98
104
103
97
97
103
103
97
101
95
95
101
101
95
102
96
96
102
102
96
52
66
53
67
54
68
55
69

32
44
44
99
99
43
29
41
41
100
100
40
46
34
34
104
104
33
7
20
20
97
97
21
2
15
15
95
95
16
6
19
19
96
96
18
66
65
67
66
68
67
69
68

Appendix D

55
55
56
56
71
137
137
58
58
59
59
60
60
61
61
62
62
63
63
64
107
107
108
108
109
109
110
110
111
111
113
113
114
114
114
115
115
116
116
117
117
118
118
119

56
70
57
71
57
138
138
72
59
73
60
74
61
75
62
76
63
77
64
78
108
51
109
52
110
53
111
54
112
55
114
57
115
58
137
116
59
117
60
118
61
119
62
120

70
69
71
70
137
71
58
138
72
72
73
73
74
74
75
75
76
76
77
77
52
52
53
53
54
54
55
55
56
56
57
138
58
137
57
59
58
60
59
61
60
62
61
63

81

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

119
120
120
65
66
66
67
67
68
68
69
69
70
70
71
138
128
129
72
130
72
131
73
132
74
133
75
134
76
135
77
90
82
91
83
56
112

63
121
64
122
65
123
66
124
67
125
68
126
69
127
70
71
129
138
130
131
73
132
74
133
75
134
76
135
77
136
78
68
54
75
91
57
57

Setups
Measurement 1
14011.asc
131
0
Acc

82

62
64
63
123
123
124
124
125
125
126
126
127
127
128
128
128
138
72
129
72
131
73
132
74
133
75
134
76
135
77
136
54
90
61
61
112
113

0
Kanal 1

m/s

Appendix D

129

0
Acc
131
0
Acc
129
0
Acc
Measurement 2
29.asc
135
0
Acc
129
0
Acc
135
0
Acc
129
0
Acc
Equations
node(79,1)=0
node(79,2)=0
node(79,3)=0
node(80,1)=0
node(80,2)=0
node(80,3)=0
node(81,1)=0
node(81,2)=0
node(81,3)=0
node(82,1)=0
node(82,2)=0
node(82,3)=0
node(83,1)=0
node(83,2)=0
node(83,3)=0
node(84,1)=0
node(84,2)=0
node(84,3)=0
node(85,1)=0
node(85,2)=0
node(85,3)=0
node(86,1)=0
node(86,2)=0
node(86,3)=0
node(87,1)=0
node(87,2)=0

0
Kanal 2
1
Kanal 3
1
Kanal 4

m/s

m/s

m/s

0
Kanal 1
0
Kanal 2
1
Kanal 3
1
Kanal 4

m/s

m/s

m/s

m/s

node(87,3)=0
node(88,1)=0
node(88,2)=0
node(88,3)=0
node(89,1)=0
node(89,2)=0
node(89,3)=0
node(90,1)=0
node(90,2)=0
node(90,3)=0
node(91,1)=0
node(91,2)=0
node(91,3)=0
node(92,1)=0
node(92,2)=0
node(92,3)=0
node(93,1)=0
node(93,2)=0
node(93,3)=0
node(94,1)=0
node(94,2)=0
node(94,3)=0
node(107,1)=0
node(107,2)=0
node(107,3)=0
node(51,1)=0
node(51,2)=0

83

Numerical Modelling of the Vindel River Railway Bridge

node(51,3)=0
node(65,1)=0
node(65,2)=0
node(65,3)=0
node(122,1)=0
node(122,2)=0
node(122,3)=0
node(121,2)=0
node(121,3)=0
node(64,2)=0
node(64,3)=0
node(78,2)=0
node(78,3)=0
node(136,2)=0
node(136,3)=0
node(1,1)=0
node(1,2)=0
node(1,3)=0
node(14,1)=0
node(14,2)=0
node(14,3)=0
node(27,1)=0
node(27,2)=0
node(27,3)=0
node(39,1)=0
node(39,2)=0
node(39,3)=0
node(114,2)=node(129,2)
node(137,2)=node(129,2)
node(138,2)=node(129,2)
node(120,2)=node(135,2)
node(63,2)=node(135,2)
node(77,2)=node(135,2)
node(114,3)=node(129,3)
node(137,3)=node(129,3)
node(138,3)=node(129,3)
node(120,3)=node(135,3)
node(63,3)=node(135,3)
node(77,3)=node(135,3)
node(73,2)=node(131,2)
node(59,2)=node(131,2)
node(116,2)=node(131,2)
node(73,3)=node(131,3)
node(59,3)=node(131,3)

84

node(116,3)=node(131,3)
node(70,2)=node(127,2)
node(56,2)=node(127,2)
node(112,2)=node(127,2)
node(68,2)=node(125,2)
node(54,2)=node(125,2)
node(110,2)=node(125,2)
node(70,3)=node(127,3)
node(56,3)=node(127,3)
node(112,3)=node(127,3)
node(68,3)=node(125,3)
node(54,3)=node(125,3)
node(110,3)=node(125,3)