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“A Study on the Recruitment and Selection Process”

Dissertation Submitted

In Partial Fulfillment for the

Post Graduate Diploma in Business Management


Manjari Baranwal

Roll No.: GJUJUL08AA082

Batch 2008-2010

Under the Guidance of

Mr. Rajesh Srivastava


Akiko Callnet


B-II/1, MCIE, Delhi-Mathura Road, New Delhi

B-II/1, MCIE, Delhi-Mathura Road, New Delhi

This is to certify that the summer project report title “A
study on Recruitment And Selection Process” is a
bonafide work done by Miss Manjari Baranwal, Roll
No.: (GJUJUL08AA082) of Batch 2008 – 2010,
Submitted to NSB School of Business, New Delhi in
partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of
Post Graduate Diploma In Business Management, and
that the report represents independent and original
work on the part of the candidate.

Prof. Alok
orate Relations Cell


The present Report is a product of my training experience of this phase in the MBA

programme. The work incorporates various perceptible aspects of Recruitment and Selection

which comprises of economical, social and legal matters. A sincere attempt has been made to

throw light on various determinants of Recruitment and Selection environment in India. The

rapidly changing criteria of various companies has made the Recruitment and selection a

complex field. What is more penetrating that this report gives an account of latest trends

with current data base.

The aspects of Recruitment and selection and their relevance has been presented in many

places. This report has been presented in a Nutshell incorporating the techniques of Human

Resource which are relevant in the Recruitment and Selection process.


I Manjari Baranwal, student of NSB School of Business, New Delhi here by solemnly

declare that the project titled “Recruitment and Selection process of Akiko Callnet” is my

original as all the information, facts and figure in this report is based on my own experience

and study during my summer training procedures.





 CHAPTER-1 6-18

 CHAPTER-2 19-22

 CHAPTER-3 23-25

 CHAPTER-4 26-31

 CHAPTER-5 32-73

 CHAPTER-6 74-87

 CHAPTER-7 88-89

 CHAPTER-8 90-93

 CHAPTER-9 94-97

 CHAPTER-10 98-101

 CHAPTER-11 102

 CHAPTER-12 103



Akiko Sherman InfoTech was formed by Indian and Japanese entrepreneurs in Jan 1998 as

an independent division of Sherman group of companies with wide ranging business interests

in Europe & Far East Asia.

The last 10 Years have been an exciting & challenging odyssey. From a founding group of 2

visionaries to a vibrant internet solutions provider with over 20 top-flight professionals in the

areas of business process analysis, requirements engineering, system analysis & design, web

application developers, Software Developers, visualizes & graphic designers.

With over 90 clients successfully serviced during the past 10 Years we have established

Akiko Sherman InfoTech as a company with value added internet solutions.

Apart from our ever-growing pool of satisfied clients we have also ventured into designing &

developing 3 ambitious portal services for the internet community. "Delhi market ",

"Eduonline4u" & "Real estate bazaar“.

In the rapidly evolving internet industry with its focus on change, ever increasing

complexity, sophistication, multi disciplinary cross ware expertise we have sincerely strived

to " make a difference" for each client we have been involved with.

The company is also proceeding ahead with an ambitious plan for undertaking on-site & off-

shore projects (in internet & e-commerce) in UK and Japan.

The Company's strength lies in its core teams with expertise in various disciplines & skill

sets. Strength is the strong strategic & financial commitment from our parent company.

Our Technical team comprises of software engineers, programmers, projects leaders, graphic

designers having a sound knowledge of a multiplicity of web technologies like C, C++, Java,

JSP, Perl, PHP, TCL/TYK, Case Tools, ASP, UDA, ActiveX, CGI, SQL, Oracle,

Middleware, CORBA, COM/DCOM, Linux, Unix, Windows NT, Netware LAN (NOVELL),

Win2K, MS SQL Server, MS Access, My Sql, Multimedia packages etc.

Our Marketing team belongs to the management background having an in-depth

understanding and experience in the IT industry and business. Our marketing philosophy is

"Offer value by understanding requirements & proposing solutions which contribute to a

businesses bottom line. In this approach lies the secret for a sustained relationship to mutual

benefit". In it is mandatory for all marketing professionals at Akiko InfoTech to possess a

professional IT qualification.

We provide a variety of solutions ranging from Course creation to high-end multimedia

solutions involving incorporation of Audio and Video. We are also vendors of NICSI

(National Informatics Centre Services Incorporated) for all India.

Technology & Style

We believe it is necessary to provide our clients with solid technical solutions to business

problems, presented in attractive package. We believe that under most situations you cannot

sacrifice either style or substance, so we prefer to commit to exceptional levels of

presentation, performance, and quality with our clients, exceeding their expectations.

The Final Result

AKIKO SHERMAN INFOTECH believes in RESULTS, not just in dogmatically following a

process neglecting the desired end. AKIKO SHERMAN INFOTECH believes in a solid,

fundamental, repeatable approach that leaves the flexibility for innovation to respond to

customer's needs. The result is an agile approach focused on providing the maximum value

for our clients.

Long Term Relationships

Our goal is to form long-term relationships that make business sense. It reduces the up-front

trust issues and falling out of one another that add precious weeks and days to project

timelines. It forges a commitment between those in the relationship to take a vested interest

in the success of the related business.

Value in Every Contact

AKIKO SHERMAN INFOTECH believes that every contact is a chance to build loyalty, that

every sale is an opportunity to learn about and better serve the customers. Even a proposal,

which might ultimately be rejected, should provide some value in itself. We don't hold back

on putting forth bold and innovative ideas in our project proposals. Even if a prospective

client decides that someone else is better qualified to implement our suggestions, we feel we

have made an investment in the future.

ASI Empanelment

Akiko Sherman InfoTech is empanelled with the following organizations for Website / Web-

Application Development

• National Informatics Centre Services Incorporated (Govt. of India)

• Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (Govt. of India)

• Department of Personnel & Public Grievances (Govt. of India)

Based on company's quality policy and performance, the company has been awarded

following certifications:

ISO 9001:2000 (Certificate No: 2019): Akiko Sherman InfoTech is a leading solutions

developer in India web application domain. Akiko Sherman InfoTech received its ISO

9001:2000 certification from in 2006.

CMM Level 3: Akiko Sherman InfoTech has successfully achieved Software-Capability

Maturity Model (SW-CMM) Level 3 certification. The CMM certification is an industry-

recognized framework for consistent quality delivery of software products and services, and

has become the standard for measuring the effectiveness of IT organizations. It is one of the

key factors in vendor selection by firms looking for software development or outsourcing.

CMM certified companies possess organizational standard processes that integrate software

engineering and management to make its personnel more effective. This ensures continual

process improvement, and ultimately delivers quality software products on time and within


ASI Projects

 ASI’s development teams bring unmatched understanding of the unique demands of

software/internet application development to our custom projects.

 Highly qualified and experienced professionals (having national and international


 Project based training to ensure effective learning process.

 Customer satisfaction and delight is our priority.

 Our services and after sales support is of international standard.

We understand that clients have critical cost, schedule, quality, and functionality goals. We

tailor our approaches to support each client’s specific priorities. Our approach emphasizes

early delivery of critical functionality; continuous, careful control of cost, schedule, and

other management parameters; and active risk management. ASI’s development teams

bring unmatched understanding of the unique demands of software/internet

application development to our customer projects.

Our core capabilities in application development provide a critical foundation for effective

utilization of specific technologies such as Microsoft Windows and Internet programming.

Tomorrow’s hot development environment might be different from todays but these core

capabilities provide you with an enduring competitive edge regardless of the technology

du jour.

ASI specializes in Web Application development and website development. During our

long journey we have successfully executed large projects especially government domain

primarily in health and rural development sector.

ASI has also development state-of-the-art website for many government departments and


At present AKIKO SHERMAN INFOTECH is undertaking the following activities:

• Web Application Development

• Detailed System Study for large organizations to provide roadmap for


• E-Learning

• E – Commerce (B2B, B2C & C2C)

• ERP solutions including CRM and SCM

• Software development for vertical segments such as Banking, Insurance, Industrial

and Financial Services.

• Corporate Training in ERP, E- commerce and Internet Technologies.

• Sourcing of IT Manpower for Overseas Clients.

• Consulting i.e. deputation of our consultants to client premises.

Under the Corporate Level Efficiency Enhancement Program (CLEEP), we also undertake;

• Business Process Re-engineering (BPR)

• Information Strategy Planning

We have professionally qualified and very experienced team of Application Developers,

Technical architects, Web-site Designers, E-Commerce Professionals and Technical

Consultants and most of them posses advanced Degrees/Certificates in Software

Engineering, Computer Science and related fields. The company has highly capable and

experienced promoters.
Prominent ASI Web Application


EDUONLINE: This is the portal for distance education developed for prominent client of

London. The application has following area:

Admin Section

Teacher Section

Student Section

General User

Utilization Certification: This project has been developed for Ministry of health & Family

Welfare Government of India for fund disbursement to various institutions under various

schemes and utilization for the same from the institutions. The application has been

developed in such a way so that other Ministries Departments Divisions can also use it

without any additional Effort.

Medical Stores Organization: This application is being developed for indent

placementProcurementDistributionTestingPayment of medical stores by MSO.

Following actors would be involved in the application:

Indenter: They would place their annual requirement for medicines

GMSD: They would compile the requirements and place order and distribute

medicines to indenters.

MSO: They would sanction the purchase of medicines

Suppliers: They would supply the medicines

PNDT: BY using this application, Prenatal Detection Techniques division would get

district /Lab-wise daily test records. Following actors would be involved in this application:

Labs/Hospitals: They would enter the mandatory form details

District Users: They would manage the lab users and generate district-wise reports

State Users: They would manage the district user and generate State-wise/ District-

wise reports

PNDT Users: They would manage state users and generate State-wise/ District-wise


Health Facility MIS: Using this application the entry would be done at district level and the

user would enter the health facilities existing in their district right up to village level. This

data would be monitored at state and central level and GIS maps would be prepared using

this data.

PHED Uttaranchal: Complete process automation Uttaranchal Pey Jal Nigam and Jal

Sansthan has been in this application. Some of the a\major modules of the application are:

• Personnel & Payroll

• Scheme & Programme Management

• Finance & Works Accounting

• Billing

• Material & Sores Management

• Contractor & Supplier Information System

• Equipment Information System

• Court Case Monitoring System

• Pension System

Geology & Mining Department (Gujarat): This again is the process automation for the

department. The major modules covered in the system are

• Applicant Registration

• Online Application Submission

• Online Application Processing & Approval

• Online Lease Grant

• Revenue System

• Court Case / Police Cases

• Vigilance

Prominent Websites

Some of the prominent websites developed by ASI's team of dedicated professionals are as

» Central Bureau of Health Intelligence
» Border Roads Organization
» Central Social Welfare Board
» Bureau of Police Research and Development
» National Water Development Agency

» Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs
» Ministry of Water Resources
» Department of Shipping
» Ministry of Road Transport and Highways
» Ministry of North East Development
» National Resource Centre for Women
» Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports

Careers at ASI

Are you looking for a place where your innovation, technical expertise and team attitude can

make a difference?

Do you want to become a part of the team that is changing the face of communication?

ASI is a fast-paced casual environment where teamwork is essential and your contributions

are valued from day one. Our consistent growth and commitment to our employees will help

ensure that you'll be along for the ride. You can be part of the dynamic team that is defining,

designing, and delivering the new wave of the future.

We introduce Akiko Callnet as a part of the Akiko Sherman Group of Companies, an

India based MNC, having diversified business interests in the US, Europe and the Asia

Pacific markets.

Akiko Callnet is a leading Service Provider for the Call Centre Industry, having made over

18000 + placements in leading International and Domestic Call Centers in India. We have

strategic tie-ups with leading ITES companies in India.

Akiko, Chennai has 6 full fledged offices. The Chennai Operations are equipped to provide

wide spectrum of personnel whom we can offer for direct placement immediately.




Akiko Callnet is one of the youngest firm in the Sherman group has been formed in July

2000. Within short span it has spread its wings in 8 different states having centers in India

and growing fast to have its presence in other states too. The services mentioned in this

document are designed to enhance revenue streams available to clients, and to increase

customer loyalty, whilst promoting the image and branding of the client.

Akiko Callnet has centers spread all over India. At our centers, young individuals are trained

to become professional Executives in the customer centric industries

like Banking, Finance, Insurance, Retail, Telecom and Tours and Travels, call centers, BPO

(both indigenous and international) etc. At Akiko’s centers, young individuals are trained to

become Excellent Professional Executives. Akiko’s training program aims at providing

quality education in the field of Banking/Finance/Accounting/Insurance/Service/Retail

Management Telecom/BPO/Call center and IT in the sensitive area of customer centric

approach; like customer relationship management, customer handling and various other

technical skills by using state of art learning methods.

Akiko has its operations in:


Pusa Road

New Rohtak Road

Pitam Pura

Janak Puri


Vivek Vihar

Kamla Nagar





Kingsway Camp

Lajpat Nagar

Dwarka Mor


Agra – MG Road Meerut – Eves Plaza

Lucknow – Kapurthala Lucknow – Hazratganj
Kanpur – Civil Lines Kanpur – Govind Nagar
Varanasi- Bhelupur Indore – South Tukoganj
Bhopal – Mansarovar Complex Gwalior - Khebapati Colony
Patna – Boring Road Patna – Kulharia Complex
Muzzafarpur Dhanbad – Bank More, Mithu Road
Ranchi – Court Road Jamshedpur – Alipore
Rewari Kolkata – Saltlake – II
Kolkata Saltlake – V Kolkata – Garia
Kolkata – AJC Bose Road Kolkata – Rashbehari
Kolkata - Shyam Nagar Jaipur
Patna – Kankarbagh

Aligarh - Ramgath Road Muzzafarpur - Mohalla Balught

Bareilly Jamshedpur - Bodhi Peeth,

Road No. 1, New Subhash Colony,

Sanjay Path, Dimna Road Mango.

Bokaro - Center Market, harkhand - East Singhbhum

Sector 9





Akiko is a Placement Consultancy which is bridging a gap between the Employer

and the Employee. In today’s era the business world is becoming complex due to growing


Often a Company is not able to see the talents and does not have too much option. Same is

the case with ambitious Employees who want to get to the top of the business world but due

to lack of information and resources he or she is not able to fulfill his or her dream. Akiko is

a platform where candidates and the companies with their respective needs come and meet to

fulfill each other’s need.

A Company when is need of an Employee give selection criteria and Akiko calls the desired

the candidates and selects and recruits him or her. Same is the case with Employee when he

is in need of a job he gives his requirement and Akiko helps him to get to his dream job.

As said above Akiko has a tie up with many companies. Akiko has contact with the

Employer and the Employee. It has Tie up with the followings:

Finance Sector:

• Reliance Capital

• Kenstar

Retail Sector:

• Sahara

• Vishal Mega Mart

Telecom Sector:

• Vodafone

BPO sector:

• Convergy’s

• Wipro

• Genpact

• IBM Daksh


• Vodafone

• Other sectors

Government job

Jila udyog




According to Edwin B. Flippo, “Recruitment is the process of searching the candidates for

employment and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization”. Recruitment is the

activity that links the employers and the job seekers. A few definitions of recruitment are:

• A process of finding and attracting capable applicants for employment. The process begins

when new recruits are sought and ends when their applications are submitted. The result is a

pool of applications from which new employees are selected.

• It is the process to discover sources of manpower to meet the requirement of staffing

schedule and to employ effective measures for attracting that manpower in adequate numbers

to facilitate effective selection of an efficient working force.

Recruitment of candidates is the function preceding the selection, which helps create a pool

of prospective employees for the organization so that the management can select the right

candidate for the right job from this pool. The main objective of the recruitment process is to

expedite the selection process.

Recruitment is a continuous process whereby the firm attempts to develop a pool of qualified

applicants for the future human resources needs even though specific vacancies do not exist.

Usually, the recruitment process starts when a manger initiates an employee requisition for a

specific vacancy or an anticipated vacancy.


• PLANNED i.e. the needs arising from changes in organization and retirement policy.

• ANTICIPATED: Anticipated needs are those movements in personnel, which an

organization can predict by studying trends in internal and external environment.

• UNEXPECTED: Resignation, deaths, accidents, illness give rise to unexpected


Purpose & Importance of Recruitment

• Attract and encourage more and more candidates to apply in the organization.

• Create a talent pool of candidates to enable the selection of best candidates for the


• Determine present and future requirements of the organization in conjunction with its

personnel planning and job analysis activities.

• Recruitment is the process which links the employers with the employees.

• Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost.

• Help increase the success rate of selection process by decreasing number of visibly

under qualified or overqualified job applicants.

• Help reduce the probability that job applicants once recruited and selected will leave

the organization only after a short period of time.

• Meet the organizations legal and social obligations regarding the composition of its


• Begin identifying and preparing potential job applicants who will be appropriate


• Increase organization and individual effectiveness of various recruiting techniques

and sources for all types of job applicants.

Recruitment Process

The recruitment and selection is the major function of the human resource department and

recruitment process is the first step towards creating the competitive strength and the

strategic advantage for the organizations. Recruitment process involves a systematic

procedure from sourcing the candidates to arranging and conducting the interviews and

requires many resources and time. A general recruitment process is as follows:

Identifying the vacancy:

The recruitment process begins with the human resource department receiving requisitions

for recruitment from any department of the company. These contain:

• Posts to be filled

• Number of persons

• Duties to be performed

• Qualifications required

 Preparing the job description and person specification.

 Locating and developing the sources of required number and type of employees

(Advertising etc).

 Short-listing and identifying the prospective employee with required


 Arranging the interviews with the selected candidates.

 Conducting the interview and decision making

• Identify vacancy

• Prepare job description and person specification

• Advertising the vacancy

• Managing the response

• Short-listing

• Arrange interviews

• Conducting interview and decision making

The recruitment process is immediately followed by the selection process i.e. the final

interviews and the decision making, conveying the decision and the appointment formalities.

Sources of Recruitment

Every organization has the option of choosing the candidates for its recruitment processes

from two kinds of sources: internal and external sources. The sources within the organization

itself (like transfer of employees from one department to other, promotions) to fill a position

are known as the internal sources of recruitment. Recruitment candidates from all the other

sources (like outsourcing agencies etc.) are known as the external sources of recruitment.


Internal Sources of Recruitment

• TRANSFERS: The employees are transferred from one department to another

according to their efficiency and experience.

• PROMOTIONS: The employees are promoted from one department to another with

more benefits and greater responsibility based on efficiency and experience.

• Others are Upgrading and Demotion of present employees according to their


• Retired and Retrenched employees may also be recruited once again in case of

shortage of qualified personnel or increase in load of work. Recruitment such people

save time and costs of the organizations as the people are already aware of the

organizational culture and the policies and procedures.

• The dependents and relatives of Deceased employees and Disabled employees are

also done by many companies so that the members of the family do not become

dependent on the mercy of others.

External Sources of Recruitment

• PRESS ADVERTISEMENTS: Advertisements of the vacancy in newspapers

and journals are a widely used source of recruitment. The main advantage of this

method is that it has a wide reach.

• EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTES: Various management institutes, engineering

colleges, medical Colleges etc. are a good source of recruiting well qualified

executives, engineers, medical staff etc. They provide facilities for campus interviews

and placements. This source is known as Campus Recruitment.

• PLACEMENT AGENCIES: Several private consultancy firms perform

recruitment functions on behalf of client companies by charging a fee. These agencies

are particularly suitable for recruitment of executives and specialists. It is also known

as RPO (Recruitment Process Outsourcing)

• EMPLOYMENT EXCHANGES: Government establishes public employment

exchanges throughout the country. These exchanges provide job information to job

seekers and help employers in identifying suitable candidates.

• LABOUR CONTRACTORS: Manual workers can be recruited through

contractors who maintain close contacts with the sources of such workers. This

source is used to recruit labor for construction jobs.

• UNSOLICITED APPLICANTS: Many job seekers visit the office of well-

known companies on their own. Such callers are considered nuisance to the daily

work routine of the enterprise. But can help in creating the talent pool or the database

of the probable candidates for the organization.


have structured system where the current employees of the organization can refer

their friends and relatives for some position in their organization. Also, the office

bearers of trade unions are often aware of the suitability of candidates. Management

can inquire these leaders for suitable jobs. In some organizations these are formal

agreements to give priority in recruitment to the candidates recommended by the

trade union.

• RECRUITMENT AT FACTORY GATE: Unskilled workers may be recruited

at the factory gate these may be employed whenever a permanent worker is absent.

More efficient among these may be recruited to fill permanent vacancies.

Factors Affecting Recruitment

The recruitment function of the organizations is affected and governed by a mix of various

internal and external forces. The internal forces or factors are the factors that can be

controlled by the organization. And the external factors are those factors which cannot be

controlled by the organization. The internal and external forces affecting recruitment function

of an organization are:


Internal Factors Affecting Recruitment

The internal forces i.e. the factors which can be controlled by the organization are:


The recruitment policy of an organization specifies the objectives of recruitment and

provides a framework for implementation of recruitment programme. It may involve

organizational system to be developed for implementing recruitment programmes and

procedures by filling up vacancies with best qualified people.


• Organizational objectives

• Personnel policies of the organization and its competitors.

• Government policies on reservations.

• Preferred sources of recruitment.

• Need of the organization.

• Recruitment costs and financial implications.


Effective human resource planning helps in determining the gaps present in the existing

manpower of the organization. It also helps in determining the number of employees to be

recruited and what qualification they must possess.


The size of the firm is an important factor in recruitment process. If the organization is

planning to increase its operations and expand its business, it will think of hiring more

personnel, which will handle its operations.


Recruitment incur cost to the employer, therefore, organizations try to employ that source of

recruitment which will bear a lower cost of recruitment to the organization for each



Organization will employ or think of employing more personnel if it is expanding its


External Factors Affecting Recruitment

The external forces are the forces which cannot be controlled by the organization. The major

external forces are:


The availability of manpower both within and outside the organization is an important

determinant in the recruitment process. If the company has a demand for more professionals

and there is limited supply in the market for the professionals demanded by the company,

then the company will have to depend upon internal sources by providing them special

training and development programs.


Employment conditions in the community where the organization is located will influence

the recruiting efforts of the organization. If there is surplus of manpower at the time of

recruitment, even informal attempts at the time of recruiting like notice boards display of the

requisition or announcement in the meeting etc will attract more than enough applicants.


Image of the employer can work as a potential constraint for recruitment. An organization

with positive image and goodwill as an employer finds it easier to attract and retain

employees than an organization with negative image. Image of a company is based on what

organization does and affected by industry. For example finance was taken up by fresher

MBA’s when many finance companies were coming up.


Various government regulations prohibiting discrimination in hiring and employment have

direct impact on recruitment practices. For example, Government of India has introduced

legislation for reservation in employment for scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, physically

handicapped etc. Also, trade unions play important role in recruitment. This restricts

management freedom to select those individuals who it believes would be the best

performers. If the candidate can’t meet criteria stipulated by the union but union regulations

can restrict recruitment sources.


One of the factors that influence the availability of applicants is the growth of the economy

(whether economy is growing or not and its rate). When the company is not creating new

jobs, there is often oversupply of qualified labour which in turn leads to unemployment.


The recruitment policies of the competitors also affect the recruitment function of the

organizations. To face the competition, many a times the organizations have to change their

recruitment policies according to the policies being followed by the competitors.

Recruitment Policy of a Company

In today’s rapidly changing business environment, a well defined recruitment policy is

necessary for organizations to respond to its human resource requirements in time. Therefore,

it is important to have a clear and concise recruitment policy in place, which can be executed

effectively to recruit the best talent pool for the selection of the right candidate at the right

place quickly. Creating a suitable recruitment policy is the first step in the efficient hiring

process. A clear and concise recruitment policy helps ensure a sound recruitment process.

It specifies the objectives of recruitment and provides a framework for implementation of

recruitment programme. It may involve organizational system to be developed for

implementing recruitment programmes and procedures by filling up vacancies with best

qualified people.


• The general recruitment policies and terms of the organization

• Recruitment services of consultants

• Recruitment of temporary employees

• Unique recruitment situations

• The selection process

• The job descriptions

• The terms and conditions of the employment

A recruitment policy of an organization should be such that:

• It should focus on recruiting the best potential people.

• To ensure that every applicant and employee is treated equally with dignity and


• Unbiased policy.

• To aid and encourage employees in realizing their full potential.

• Transparent, task oriented and merit based selection.

• Weightage during selection given to factors that suit organization needs.

• Optimization of manpower at the time of selection process.

• Defining the competent authority to approve each selection.

• Abides by relevant public policy and legislation on hiring and employment


• Integrates employee needs with the organizational needs.


• Organizational objectives

• Personnel policies of the organization and its competitors.

• Government policies on reservations.

• Preferred sources of recruitment.

• Need of the organization.

• Recruitment costs and financial implications.

Recent Trends in Recruitment

The following trends are being seen in recruitment:


In India, the HR processes are being outsourced from more than a decade now. A company

may draw required personnel from outsourcing firms. The outsourcing firms help the

organization by the initial screening of the candidates according to the needs of the

organization and creating a suitable pool of talent for the final selection by the organization.

Outsourcing firms develop their human resource pool by employing people for them and

make available personnel to various companies as per their needs. In turn, the outsourcing

firms or the intermediaries charge the organizations for their services.

Advantages of outsourcing are:

• Company need not plan for human resources much in advance.

• Value creation, operational flexibility and competitive advantage

• turning the management's focus to strategic level processes of HRM

• Company is free from salary negotiations, weeding the unsuitable


• Company can save a lot of its resources and time


“Buying talent” (rather than developing it) is the latest mantra being followed by the

organisations today. Poaching means employing a competent and experienced person already

working with another reputed company in the same or different industry; the organization

might be a competitor in the industry. A company can attract talent from another firm by

offering attractive pay packages and other terms and conditions, better than the current

employer of the candidate. But it is seen as an unethical practice and not openly talked about.

Indian software and the retail sector are the sectors facing the most severe brunt of poaching

today. It has become a challenge for human resource managers to face and tackle poaching,

as it weakens the competitive strength of the firm.


Many big organizations use Internet as a source of recruitment. E- recruitment is the use of

technology to assist the recruitment process. They advertise job vacancies through worldwide

web. The job seekers send their applications or curriculum vitae i.e. CV through e mail using

the Internet. Alternatively job seekers place their CV’s in worldwide web, which can be

drawn by prospective employees depending upon their requirements.

Advantages of recruitment are:

• Low cost.

• No intermediaries

• Reduction in time for recruitment.

• Recruitment of right type of people.

• Efficiency of recruitment process.


The buzzword and the latest trends in recruitment is the “E-Recruitment”. Also known as

“Online recruitment”, it is the use of technology or the web based tools to assist the

recruitment process. The tool can be either a job website like naukri.com, the organization’s

corporate web site or its own intranet. Many big and small organizations are using Internet as

a source of recruitment. They advertise job vacancies through worldwide web. The job

seekers send their applications or curriculum vitae (CV) through an e-mail using the Internet.

Alternatively job seekers place their CV’s in worldwide web, which can be drawn by

prospective employees depending upon their requirements.

The internet penetration in India is increasing and has tremendous potential. According to a

study by NASSCOM – “Jobs is among the top reasons why new users will come on to the

internet, besides e-mail.” There are more than 18 million resume’s floating online across the


The two kinds of e- recruitment that an organisation can use is –

• Job portals – i.e. posting the position with the job description and the job specification

on the job portal and also searching for the suitable resumes posted on the site

corresponding to the opening in the organisation.

• Creating a complete online recruitment/application section in the companies own

website. - Companies have added an application system to its website, where the

‘passive’ job seekers can submit their resumes into the database of the organisation

for consideration in future, as and when the roles become available.

• Resume Scanners: Resume scanner is one major benefit provided by the job portals to

the organisations. It enables the employees to screen and filter the resumes through

pre-defined criteria’s and requirements (skills, qualifications, experience, payroll etc.)

of the job.

Job sites provide a 24*7 access to the database of the resumes to the employees facilitating

the just-in-time hiring by the organisations. Also, the jobs can be posted on the site almost

immediately and is also cheaper than advertising in the employment newspapers. Sometimes

companies can get valuable references through the “passers-by” applicants. Online

recruitment helps the organisations to automate the recruitment process, save their time and

costs on recruitments.

Online recruitment techniques

• Giving a detailed job description and job specifications in the job postings to attract

candidates with the right skill sets and qualifications at the first stage.

• E-recruitment should be incorporated into the overall recruitment strategy of the


• A well defined and structured applicant tracking system should be integrated and the

system should have a back-end support.

• Along with the back-office support a comprehensive website to receive and process

job applications (through direct or online advertising) should be developed.

Therefore, to conclude, it can be said that e-recruitment is the “Evolving face of


Types of Job Seekers

• Quid Pro Que: These are the people who say that “ I can do this for you, what can you

give me” These people value high responsibilities, higher risks, and expect higher

rewards, personal development and company profiles doesn’t matter to them.

• I will be with you: These people like to be with big brands. Importance is given to

brands. They are not bothered about work ethic, culture mission etc.

• I will do you what you want: These people are concerned about how meaningful the

job is and they define meaning parameters criteria known by previous job.

• Where do you want me to come: These people observe things like where is your

office, what atmosphere do you offer. Career prospects and exciting projects don’t

entice them as much. It is the responsibility of the recruiter to decide what the

employee might face in given job and thus take decision. A good decision will help

cut down employee retention costs and future recruitment costs.

Recruitment Management System

Recruitment management system is the comprehensive tool to manage the entire recruitment

processes of an organisation. It is one of the technological tools facilitated by the information

management systems to the HR of organisations. Just like performance management, payroll

and other systems, Recruitment management system helps to contour the recruitment

processes and effectively managing the ROI on recruitment.

The features, functions and major benefits of the recruitment management system are

explained below:

• Structure and systematically organize the entire recruitment processes.

• Recruitment management system facilitates faster, unbiased, accurate and reliable

processing of applications from various applications.

• Helps to reduce the time-per-hire and cost-per-hire.

• Recruitment management system helps to incorporate and integrate the various links

like the application system on the official website of the company, the unsolicited

applications, outsourcing recruitment, the final decision making to the main

recruitment process.

• Recruitment management system maintains an automated active database of the

applicants facilitating the talent management and increasing the efficiency of the

recruitment processes.

• Recruitment management system provides and a flexible, automated and interactive

interface between the online application system, the recruitment department of the

company and the job seeker.

• Offers tolls and support to enhance productivity, solutions and optimizing the

recruitment processes to ensure improved ROI.

• Recruitment management system helps to communicate and create healthy

relationships with the candidates through the entire recruitment process.

The Recruitment Management System (RMS) is an innovative information system tool

which helps to sane the time and costs of the recruiters and improving the recruitment


Outsourcing Recruitment

Outsourcing the human resource (HR) processes is the latest practice being followed by

middle and large sized organizations. It is being witnessed across all the industries. In India,

the HR processes are being outsourced from nearly a decade now. Outsourcing industry is

growing at a high rate.

Human Resource Outsourcing refers to the process in which an organisation uses the expert

services of a third party (generally professional consultants) to take care of its HR functions

while HR management can focus on the strategic dimension of their function. The functions

that are typically outsourced are the functions that need expertise, relevant experience,

knowledge and best methods and practices. This has given rise to outsourcing the various HR

functions of an organisation. HR Consultancies such as Ma Foi and Planman Consulting

provide such services through expert professional consultants. Human resources business

process outsourcing (HR BPO) is a major component of the worldwide BPO market.

Performance management outsourcing involves all the performance monitoring,

measurement, management being outsourced from a third party or an external organisation.

Many organizations have started outsourcing its recruitment process i.e. transferring all or

some part of its recruitment process to an external consultant providing the recruitment

services. It is commonly known as RPO i.e. recruitment process outsourcing. More and more

medium and large sized organizations are outsourcing their recruitment process right from

the entry level jobs to the C-level jobs.

The present value of the recruitment process outsourcing industry (RPO) in India is estimated

to be $2.5 billion and it is expected to grow at the annual rate of 30-40 per cent for the next

couple of years. According to a recent survey, only 8-10 per cent of the Indian companies are

complete recruitment processes. However, the number of companies outsourcing their

recruitment processes is increasing at a very fast rate and so is the percentage of their total

recruitment processes being outsourced.

Outsourcing organizations strive for providing cost saving benefits to their clients. One of the

major advantages to organizations, who outsource their recruitment process, is that it helps to

save up to as much as 40 per cent of their recruitment costs. With the experience, expertise

and the economies of scale of the third party, organizations are able to improve the quality of

the recruits and the speed of the whole process. Also, outsourcing enables the human

resource professionals of organizations to focus on the core and other HR and strategic

issues. Outsourcing also gives a structured approach to the whole process of recruitment,

with the ultimate power of decision making of recruiting with the organisation itself. The

portion of the recruitment cycle that is outsourced range from preparing job descriptions to

arranging interviews, the activities that consume almost 70 per cent of the time of the whole

recruitment process.

Outsourcing the recruitment processes for a sector like BPO, which faces an attrition of

almost 50-60 per cent, can help the companies in BPO sector to save costs tremendously and

focus on other issues like retention. The job seekers are also availing the services of the third

parties (consultants) for accessing the latest job opportunities.

In India, the trend of outsourcing recruitment is also catching up fast. For example: Vodafone

outsource its recruitment activities to Alexander Mann Solutions (RPO service provider).

Wipro has outsourced its recruitment process to MeritTrac. Yes bank is also known to

outsource 50 per cent of its recruitment processes.

Advantage of Outsourcing Recruitment

Traditionally, recruitment is seen as the cost incurring process in an organization. HR

outsourcing helps the HR professionals of the organisations to concentrate on the strategic

functions and processes of human resource management rather than wasting their efforts,

time and money on the routine work.

Outsourcing the recruitment process helps to cut the recruitment costs to 20 % and also

provide economies of scale to the large sized organizations.

Outsourcing is beneficial for both the corporate organisations that use the outsourcing

services as well as the consultancies that provide the service to the corporates. Apart from

increasing their revenues, outsourcing provides business opportunities to the service

providers, enhancing the skill set of the service providers and exposure to the different

corporate experiences thereby increasing their expertise.

The advantages accruing to the corporates are:

• turning the management's focus to strategic level processes of HRM

• accessibility to the expertise of the service providers

• freedom from red tape and adhering to strict rules and regulations

• optimal resource utilization

• structured and fair performance management.

• a satisfied and, hence, highly productive employees

• value creation, operational flexibility and competitive advantage

Therefore outsourcing helps both the organisations and the consultancies to grow and

perform better.

Changing Role of Recruitment Intermediaries

Recruitment consultancies, agencies or intermediaries are witnessing a boom in the demand

of their services, both by the employers and the job seekers. With an already saturated job

market, the recruitment intermediaries have gained a vital position acting as a link between

the job seekers and the employers.

But at the same time, one of the major threats faced by this industry is the growing popularity

of e-recruitment. With the changing demand, technologies and the penetration and increasing

use of internet, the recruitment consultancies or the intermediaries are facing tough

competition. To retain and maintain their position in the recruitment market, the recruitment

intermediaries or consultants (as they are

commonly known) are witnessing and incorporating various changes in terms of their role,

functions and the services.

According to a survey amongst top employers, most of them agree with the growing

influence of technology and the Internet on the recruitment processes. 70 per cent of

employers reported the use of application portal on their company’s official website. Apart

from that, the emerging popularity of the job portals is also growing.

But the fact that the intermediaries or the consultants are able to provide their expert services,

economies of scale, up to 40 percent savings in the recruitment costs, knowledge of the

market, the candidates, understanding of the requirements, and most importantly, the assess

to the suitable and talented candidates and the structured recruitment processes. The

recruitment intermediaries save the organisations from the tedious of weeding out unsuitable

resumes, co-coordinating interviews, posting vacancies etc. give them an edge over the other

sources of recruitment.

To retain their position as the service providers in the recruitment market, the recruitment

intermediaries are providing vale added services to the organisations. They are incorporating

the use of internet and job portals, making their services more efficient.

Despite of the growing use of the internet, the recruitment intermediaries are predicted to

continue dominating the recruitment market in the anticipated future.

Outsourcing Process:

How To Select A Recruitment Consultant

If an organisation decides to outsource its recruitment processes or activities, it is very

important to find and select a suitable recruitment consultant or consultancies, which can

deliver results according to the needs of the organisation. Today, there are thousands of

consulting firms (consultancies) as well as freelance consultants working independently. An

organisation looks for various considerations and qualities before selecting the suitable

recruitment consultant.

• The reputation of the consulting firm in the job market (based on expertise and


• Who are the consultant’s or firm’s past and present clients?

• Consultant’s expertise and experience (from how long has he/firm been in the


• Does the recruitment consultant have the requisite resources to complete the targets

on time?

• Get the idea of the effectiveness and the services of the recruitment consultant from

its current and past clients.

Qualities of an independent recruitment consultant:

Some of the qualities or characteristics looked in recruitment consultants are:

• Marketing skills

• Flexibility and adaptability

• Wisdom

• Exuberance

• Ability to prioritise

• Ambition

• Resourcefulness

• Diplomacy/ delicacy

Selecting the right recruitment consultant is essential for the effective recruitment processes.

A successful Recruitment consultant is someone who is determinative, focused, and able to

create opportunities for him, works harder and smarter than competitors and continually set

and achieve higher standards.

Recruitment Strategies

Recruitment is of the most crucial roles of the human resource professionals. The level of

performance of and organisation depends on the effectiveness of its recruitment function.

Organisations have developed and follow recruitment strategies to hire the best talent for

their organisation and to utilize their resources optimally. A successful recruitment strategy

should be well planned and practical to attract more and good talent to apply in the


For formulating an effective and successful recruitment strategy, the strategy should cover

the following elements:

1. Identifying and prioritizing jobs

Requirements keep arising at various levels in every organisation; it is almost a never-ending

process. It is impossible to fill all the positions immediately. Therefore, there is a need to

identify the positions requiring immediate attention and action. To maintain the quality of the

recruitment activities, it is useful to prioritize the vacancies whether to focus on all vacancies

equally or focusing on key jobs first.

2. Candidates to target

The recruitment process can be effective only if the organisation completely understands the

requirements of the type of candidates that are required and will be beneficial for the

organisation. This covers the following parameters as well:

• Performance level required: Different strategies are required for focusing on hiring

high performers and average performers.

• Experience level required: the strategy should be clear as to what is the experience

level required by the organisation. The candidate’s experience can range from being a

fresher to experienced senior professionals.

• Category of the candidate: the strategy should clearly define the target candidate.

He/she can be from the same industry, different industry, unemployed, top performers

of the industry etc.

3. Sources of recruitment

The strategy should define various sources (external and internal) of recruitment. Which are

the sources to be used and focused for the recruitment purposes for various positions.

Employee referral is one of the most effective sources of recruitment.

4. Trained recruiters

The recruitment professionals conducting the interviews and the other recruitment activities

should be well-trained and experienced to conduct the activities. They should also be aware

of the major parameters and skills (e.g.: behavioral, technical etc.) to focus while

interviewing and selecting a candidate.

5. How to evaluate the candidates

The various parameters and the ways to judge them i.e. the entire recruitment process should

be planned in advance. Like the rounds of technical interviews, HR interviews, written tests,

psychometric tests etc.

HR Challenges In Recruitment

Recruitment is a function that requires business perspective, expertise, ability to find and

match the best potential candidate for the organisation, diplomacy, marketing skills (as to sell

the position to the candidate) and wisdom to align the recruitment processes for the benefit of

the organisation. The HR professionals – handling the recruitment function of the

organisation- are constantly facing new challenges. The biggest challenge for such

professionals is to source or recruit the best people or potential candidate for the


In the last few years, the job market has undergone some fundamental changes in terms of

technologies, sources of recruitment, competition in the market etc. In an already saturated

job market, where the practices like poaching and raiding are gaining momentum, HR

professionals are constantly facing new challenges in one of their most important function-

recruitment. They have to face and conquer various challenges to find the best candidates for

their organisations.

The major challenges faced by the HR in recruitment are:

• Adaptability to globalization – The HR professionals are expected and required to

keep in tune with the changing times, i.e. the changes taking place across the globe.

HR should maintain the timeliness of the process

• Lack of motivation – Recruitment is considered to be a thankless job. Even if the

organisation is achieving results, HR department or professionals are not thanked for

recruiting the right employees and performers.

• Process analysis – The immediacy and speed of the recruitment process are the main

concerns of the HR in recruitment. The process should be flexible, adaptive and

responsive to the immediate requirements. The recruitment process should also be

cost effective.

• Strategic prioritization – The emerging new systems are both an opportunity as well

as a challenge for the HR professionals. Therefore, reviewing staffing needs and

prioritizing the tasks to meet the changes in the market has become a challenge for

the recruitment professionals.

Recruiting Expatriates

Expatriate is a person who leaves his country to work and live in a foreign country.

Generally, expatriates are the nationals from the other countries than the host and the MNC’s

parent country, i.e. expatriates are the third country nationals.

The unavailability of the required skills and talents takes the organisation to source talent

from other countries. The procedures and processes of recruiting and selecting the human

resources are never uniform even within a single organisation. The procedures vary

according to the post, the skill set required, the nature of work etc. More of it is seen in the

case of recruitment of expatriates. The recruitment and selection procedures and

considerations are drastically different for expatriates than that of the domestic employees.

Recruitment of expatriates involves greater time, monetary resources and other indirect costs.

Improper recruitment and selection can cause the expatriates to return hastily or a decline in

their performance.

A mismatch between job (its requirements) and people can reduce the effectiveness of other

human resource activities and can affect the performance of the employees as well as the


Recruiting expatriates require special considerations and skills to select the best person for

the job. Except for a few expatriate selection policies, the expatriate selection criterion is

generally organisation and nation specific.

The recruiters for recruiting the expatriates should be carefully selected and trained. The

recruitment strategies for expatriates should be aligned with requirements of the job. The

interviews of expatriates are designed in a manner to judge their:

• Adaptability to the new culture

• Intercultural interaction

• Flexibility

• Professional expertise

• Past international work experience

• Tolerance and open-mindedness

• Family situation

• Language ability

• Attitude and motivation

• Empathy towards local culture

A few researches in this field also suggest that women are morel likely to be successful in

certain positions as expatriates as they are more sensitive towards new culture and people.

Recruitment of expatriates should be followed by cultural and sensitivity training, and

language training.

Head Hunting

Headhunting refers to the approach of finding and attracting the best experienced person with

the required skill set. Headhunting involves convincing the person to join your organization.

Headhunting Process

Forms Of Recruitment

The organisations differ in terms of their size, business, processes and practices. A few

decisions by the recruitment professionals can affect the productivity and efficiency of the

organisation. Organisations adopt different forms of recruitment practices according to the

specific needs of the organisation. The organisations can choose from the centralized or

decentralized forms of recruitment, explained below:


The recruitment practices of an organisation are centralized when the HR / recruitment

department at the head office performs all functions of recruitment. Recruitment decisions

for all the business verticals and departments of an organisation are carried out by the one

central HR (or recruitment) department. Centralized from of recruitment is commonly seen in

government organisations.

Benefits of the centralized form of recruitment are:

• Reduces administration costs

• Better utilization of specialists

• Uniformity in recruitment

• Interchangeability of staff

• Reduces favoritism

• Every department sends requisitions for recruitment to their central office


Decentralized recruitment practices are most commonly seen in the case of conglomerates

operating in different and diverse business areas. With diverse and geographically spread

business areas and offices, it becomes important to understand the needs of each department

and frame the recruitment policies and procedures accordingly. Each department carries out

its own recruitment. Choice between the two will depend upon management philosophy and

needs of particular organization. In some cases combination of both is used. Lower level

staffs as well as top level executives are recruited in a decentralized manner.

Equal Employment Opportunity

Equal opportunity employment refers to the approach of the employers to ensure the practice

of being fair and impartial in the employment process. *The term "Equal Opportunity

Employment" was first given by President Lyndon B. Johnson when he signed Executive

Order 11246 which was created to prohibit federal contractors from discriminating against

employees on the basis of race, sex, creed, religion, color, or national origin*. The scope of

the order also covered the discrimination on the basis of the minority status.

Discrimination in employment

Discrimination refers to the any kind of prejudice, biasness or favoritism on the basis of

• disability

• race

• age

• sex

• sexuality

• pregnancy

• Marital status

in employment. No person should be treated less favorably than any other on the basis of the

specified issues above. Many countries (like SA) have already implemented Equal

Opportunity Act, making it against the law to treat anybody unfairly.

Diversity in workforce

With the globalization and the increasing size of the organisations, the diversity in the

workforce is increasing i.e. people from diverse backgrounds, educational background, age

groups, race, gender, abilities etc come together to work for one organisation and common

objectives. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the employer to create an equality-based and

discrimination-free working environment and practices.

Equal opportunity means treating people equally and fairly irrespective of their race, religion,

sex, age, disability etc. Giving women an equal treatment and access to opportunities at the

workplace. Any employee should be ill-treated or harassed by the employer or other


Equal Employment Opportunity principles help to realize and respect the actual worth of the

individual on the basis of his knowledge, skills, abilities and merit. And the policy should

cover all the employees of an organisation whether permanent or temporary, contractual etc.

Equal employment opportunity is necessary to ensure:

• To give fair access to the people of all development opportunities

• To create a fair organisation, industry and society.

• To encourage and give disadvantaged or disabled people a fair chance to grow with

the society…..




Employee Selection is the methodical placement of individuals into jobs. Its impact on the

organization is realized when employees achieve years or decades of service to the employer.

The process of selection follows a methodology to collect information about an individual in

order to determine if that individual should be employed. The methodology used should not

violate any laws regarding personnel selection.

A selection procedure has "validity" if a clear relationship can be shown between the

selection procedure itself and the job for which the individuals are being selected. Thus, an

important part of selection is Job Analysis. A job analysis is usually conducted prior to, and

is often used in, the development of the selection procedures. However, a selection procedure

may be "validated" after it has been implemented by conducting a job analysis and showing

the relationship between the selection procedure and the job.

Practical Steps to Employee Selection

While keeping within the law, who an employer hires is pretty much her determination--

but one that ought not be taken casually. Hiring the right person for the job may be the

most critical management decision you will make. Consider the farm manager who lost

$80,000 in alfalfa. He had trusted an employee who claimed to know how to bale. Or, the

thousands of dollars lost by a hog producer in only three months as a result of hiring the

wrong person. Although employee termination is normally an option, it is one plagued

with both legal and practical consequences. Once a person is hired, there often needs to

be a compelling reason for termination. If an employee is not working out, action must

be taken promptly, however. The longer a worker is permitted to retain a job, the greater

the potential consequences associated with a discharge. Given the importance of

employee selection, two chapters are dedicated to the topic. This one describes a step-by-

step sequence to selection. We consider such factors as needed skills for the job, the

design of a selection process, getting the most out of the various selection tools, and

conclude with suggestions on how to bring the new employee aboard the organization.

The next chapter illustrates the process of validating your selection approach. An outline

of a practical, yet apprehensive, approach to selection follows. You will need to adapt it

to your needs and special circumstances.

Decide What You Need

Step 1: Determine whether a temporary employee is needed

Sometimes a new employee is urgently needed. Hiring a temporary worker is a good

alternative to employing a less suitable replacement under pressure. Written employment

contracts for such fixed-term work may help you avoid misunderstandings and possible

litigation when the employee is laid off at the conclusion of this work period.

Exceptional temporary workers can be encouraged to apply for permanent positions. You

can share with such workers the criteria that will be used to make the final selection

decision, and offer additional help and training.

A temporary employee has the advantage of having one foot in the door and the

opportunity to learn what is important to you. Management benefits by having the

occasion to better evaluate the individual's performance and personality. The down side

has to disappoint the temporary employee who does not get the job--or the co-workers

who were rooting for him. The statistical chances are not high that a temporary employee

turns out to be the best candidate once the position is opened. Clear communication will

help alleviate possible disappointment but is unlikely to eliminate it totally. At the end,

the responsibility for qualifying for the job needs to be the employee's.

Seasonal employees, hired without the benefit of a careful selection process, can also be

evaluated for future regular employment. The best workers can be invited to return back

for the next season.

Step 2: Complete a job analysis, description and specification

One would not dream of selecting an individual to represent one's nation at the Olympics

on attitude alone. Successful employee selection is dependent on a clear understanding of

a job’s components. A job analysis is used to identify job tasks and responsibilities. This

may be accomplished by collecting information about the position; by interviewing

workers, supervisors, and other employers; and by observing current employees. Other

sources, such as the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) or its replacement, the

Occupational Information Network (O*NET), provide written job analysis data to get

you started. Figure 2-1 shows an example DOT for a poultry hatchery manager. End

products of a job analysis include a job analysis schedule, job specifications, and a job

description. Figure 2-1. Sample DOT job description

180.167-046 MANAGER, POULTRY HATCHERY (agriculture) 3

Manages poultry hatchery: Plans, develops, and implements policies

and practices for operation of hatchery to ensure attainment of goals

and profitable operation. Arranges with farmers to supply eggs or

obtains eggs from company flocks. Directs and coordinates, through

subordinate supervisory personnel, hatchery activities, such as hatching

of eggs, sorting, vaccinating and shipping of chicks, and maintenance


Facilities and equipment. Prepares hatching schedules for variety of

chicks, considering such factors as customer orders, market forecasts,

and hatchery facilities and equipment.

Arranges for sale of chicks to farmers or commercial growers.

Interprets hatchery records and genetic data on chicks and advises

customers regarding breeding, brooding, feeding, and sanitation

practices to follow for various species of poultry.

Arranges for purchases of equipment and supplies, such as brooders,

incubators, feeds, and medicines. Prepares reports on hatchery

activities, such as chick production and sales reports, required by

regulatory bodies. May be designated by species of poultry hatched.

Job analysis schedule. This is a fancy name for a detailed, extensive, written job

analysis. Elements of the analysis may include physical and intellectual requirements

for the job, a comprehensive list of tasks to be performed, and perhaps an

organizational chart showing how this position fits into the overall operation. The job

analysis schedule serves to create job specifications and a job description.

Job specification. This tool consolidates the necessary employee qualifications

identified in the job analysis schedule and lists them in terms of knowledge, abilities,

skills, or licenses. For instance, if a job analysis shows that an assistant herdsman has

to lift 50-pound feed sacks, 100-pound calves, and 120-pound alfalfa bales, the job

specification would simply read "ability to lift and carry 120 pounds." Likewise, if a

pesticide handler had to read pesticide labels and special reports, the job specification

might state "ability to follow written instructions." The employee selection

requirements may emphasize skills and knowledge not easily learned on the job. It is

often wise to select candidates who already have these skills rather than hope a

candidate will be able to learn them after hiring. A word of caution is not to take any

skill, ability, or knowledge for granted. Is reading or math skills critical to the job

you are trying to fill? At higher-level jobs, other basic skills are often missing. Lack

of knowledge in these areas may be even more serious.

Title. Whatever title is used must accurately reflect the duties of the job. Job titles

communicate subtle messages to applicants about the job. For instance, though the

jobs might be identical, there is a difference in connotation between the titles of

"Technician" and “manager."

Job summary. The job summary is usually a brief narrative containing information

on duties. Additional information, such as hours of work, vacation, and other benefits

may be included in this section.

Figure 2-2: Job description structure

Job Title
Last Revised: _________________

Job Summary:
Examples Of Job Responsibilities:
10. Other duties as assigned.


Working Conditions:

Salary and Benefits:

Job responsibilities. The list of duties usually starts with the most important or most

frequently performed. Providing estimates of the percentage of time to be spent on

important tasks can give workers a sense of the job components. Arbitrators

recognize that management generally has the prerogative to add duties to an

individual's job description. This is also true where employees are represented by a

union.4 Nevertheless, it is a good practice to include, under examples of duties, the

line "other duties as assigned." From a practical perspective, however, employees

need to be exposed to a large variety of duties within a short time of their selection.

Employee morale is likely to fall when they feel that a certain task is truly not part of

their job description.

Relationships. This section includes information on reporting (who this individual

will work for), as well as supervisory responsibilities, if any.

Working conditions. This is a good place to give applicants an idea of the hours of

work and overtime requirements, how much work is performed inside or outside, and

the type and condition of tools and machinery to be used.

Salary and benefits. Employees determine what they feel a job is worth and what is

an appropriate starting salary for a qualified applicant. Setting a salary is a delicate

process. Using the term starting salary implies that employees will obtain raises as

they acquire experience on the job.

The salary and benefits section should also detail information about the location and

condition of any housing provided and about other benefits, such as paid vacation,

sick leave, and health insurance coverage.

Step 3: Weight the job specification items

Weighting job duties can help the employer assess the qualifications of competing

candidates. Each skill, knowledge area, and ability is rated according to its

importance to the job. A skill may be given less importance, for instance, if it can be

easily acquired or is seldom used. To arrive at the proper weight for a given factor,

you can make forced comparisons between two skills, abilities, or knowledge areas.

Step 4: Determine the recruitment strategy

Among the most frequent objections to the systematic selection approach discussed

in this chapter, are concerns about getting enough applicants. How many people

apply partly depends on your recruitment efforts, the type of job, labor market, pay,

and the reputation of your company. The larger the applicant pool, the greater the

chance of finding qualified applicants. The most thorough selection approach cannot

make up for a poor candidate pool. Sources to help you advertise the position include

present employees, other employers, previous applicants, trade journals, newspapers,

vocational schools, universities, and employment agencies. The radio is a particularly

good recruitment source for many jobs.

Paul and Laura Fouts of Cortland, New York, found that radio ads allowed them to

be quite creative, such as using sound effects. The radio station personalities helped

write and read these. Their success with the radio spots led them to be more creative

with their newspaper ads. Employees help by giving feedback or helping with ideas.
Despite all your efforts to ensure that the best worker is hired, it is still possible for

unexpected challenges to develop. For instance, the chosen applicant may not

accept the job offer. Perhaps the applicant’s current employer gave him a large

raise to avoid losing him, or personal reasons kept him from taking the job. If the

new employee is not able to do part of the job as originally designed, he may be

able to compensate in other ways. These changes may need to be reflected in a

revised job description.

Step 5: Oversee the post-offer pre-employment medical screening

A well-planned physical exam requires that the Examining physician understand

the job requirements. Some doctors are willing to work closely with agricultural

enterprises to develop a job-related physical examination. Tests of important

factors such as blood cholinesterase level, hearing ability, lifting strength, and

tolerance for wearing a respirator will be useful in making employment decisions.

Step 6: Conduct orientation

Seldom in their careers will employees be so pliable or receptive to change as

during their orientation period. This is particularly true when such changes have

been clearly outlined through a realistic job preview. In psychological terms, new

personnel go through an "unfreezing" period, in which they are receptive to new

ideas and new ways of doing things. The very step of looking for a new job often

means applicants are receptive to change. A new hire may act readily on a

suggestion to take classes at the local community college, for instance, even after

resisting the same idea a year earlier. During this period, workers can make a

successful transition into supervisory work. A person who has never been in a

leadership position might have to adjust his thinking to that of a manager.

Employees can learn to be part of a committed team that contributes to decision

making. Unwritten rules, traditions or informal perks should be discussed with

employees as part of the orientation period. Co-workers also realize that the

orientation period can be used to gain the sympathy of a new worker. Some

workers will attempt to "orient" employees to their way of thinking. Others may

engage in hazing. Such activities can be destructive, even leading new employees

to quit. Anti-hazing policies and assigning new employees a respected mentor may

help. These established workers can help orient new hires to their jobs, to other co-

workers, and to the work environment through a continuing informal relationship.

Test and interview results can be analyzed so that a Comprehensive training and

development plan can be drawn up. New employees should be exposed to as wide

an array of tasks as practical, within their job description, early on in their careers.

Even before new personnel arrive for their first day at work, they may need

information about such things as local banks, housing, utilities, and community

activities. If it is available and applicable, supplying information about children’s

schooling, possible jobs for a working spouse, or community activities can be

helpful, though some applicants will prefer to investigate these factors on their

own. A checklist of items to be discussed during the orientation period is useful. It

should clearly outline management expectations and help answer typical questions

asked by new employees. You may also want to take new personnel out to eat and

to meet community members at the local hangout. Building a good working

relationship is a long-term endeavor. The orientation period provides key

opportunities towards this end. If a probationary period is set up before the

employee is hired, it needs to be structured so an employer does not feel forced to

make a pass/fail decision at the end of such a period. A probationary period is most

useful when the employer allows for extending the probation when warranted. Such

an evaluation needs to take place before the probationary period expires

Recruitment Vs Selection

Both recruitment and selection are the two phases of the employment process. The

differences between the two are:

• Recruitment is the process of searching the candidates for employment and

stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organisation WHEREAS selection

involves the series of steps by which the candidates are screened for

choosing the most suitable persons for vacant posts.

• The basic purpose of recruitments is to create a talent pool of candidates to

enable the selection of best candidates for the organisation, by attracting

more and more employees to apply in the organisation WHEREAS the

basic purpose of selection process is to choose the right candidate to fill the

various positions in the organisation.

• Recruitment is a positive process i.e. encouraging more and more

employees to apply WHEREAS selection is a negative process as it

involves rejection of the unsuitable candidates.

• Recruitment is concerned with tapping the sources of human resources

WHEREAS selection is concerned with selecting the most suitable

candidate through various interviews and tests.

• There is no contract of recruitment established in recruitment WHEREAS

selection results in a contract of service between the employer and the

selected employee.


• As a requisition form is not used, what process is used to notify the appropriate


that there is a position vacant?

• How does the organisation decide that the position actually needs to be filled?

• Is the selection criteria developed by the HR manager?

• If the selection criteria are different to the current job description, what process is

used to decide on the correct information?

• What reasons, if any, would you give to explain the high turnover in the lower skilled

employees versus the low turnover of high skilled employees?

• What process is used for internal recruitment?

• Once you have identified that a position will be filled externally, how do you

determine what method of recruitment should be used.

• Which source of recruitment do you find the best and why?

• What benefits do you recognize by using a recruitment?

What specific information do you provide to a recruitment agency?

• How do you ensure legislative requirements are addressed when recruiting?

• Who is responsible for writing vacancy promotion?

• What is your strategy for vacancy advertising?

• Does a member of upper management check the advertisement before it is placed?

• Does the application form apply to all types of employees ?

• If not, is there another method used?

• To your knowledge, does the application form comply with legislative requirements?

How do you determine if you have suitable candidates if positions are not advertised


• What process is used to perform a job analysis?

• Once the job analysis is performed, how do you go about changing or updating the job


• What specific interview strategy do you use?

• Does this process differ for internal recruitment versus external recruitment?

• What type of information is given to the applicant about the organisation during the


• Please describe the room used to interview applicants

Is this area private and quiet?

• Do you believe that the room provides a comfortable environment for both the

interviewer and the applicant?

• What strategies are used to try and make the applicant relaxed?

• What process do you use to select applicants after interviews?

• Who is involved in this process?

• What process is used to notify applicants of the outcome?

• How do you ensure that all job expectations are clearly defined for a new employee?


1. What type of industry does your organisation participate in?


2. How many staff do you employ?


3. What percentage of your workforce is high skilled?


4. What percentage of your workforce is low skilled?


5. What percentage of your workforce is unskilled?

What percentages of your employees are employed:

Full time _________%

Part time _________%

Casual ___________%

Temporary ________%

Contract __________%

7. How involved are the unions in your particular industry? (please circle)

Not at all

Low level

Medium Level

High Level

8. How would you rate the turnover of staff in your organisation? (please circle)




9. Do you have more than one category or type of employee? If yes, please list.


10. Does the recruitment and selection strategy differ for each category?


11. Who is responsible for recruitment in the organisation?

12. Who is responsible for selection in the organisation?

13. Do you have an Internet site? (Please circle) Yes No

If yes, do you use the Internet site for recruitment? Yes No

14. Do you have a requisition form for vacant or new positions? Yes No

15. Do you take into account any legislative requirements when recruiting? (please list)

16. Do you use job descriptions and/or duty statements? Yes No

17. How often are job descriptions reviewed? (please circle)

Not at all


Every 3months

Every 6 months


As position becomes vacant

18. Which of the following sources do you use for recruitment? (please circle)




University Notice Boards Word of Mouth

Graduate Recruitment Services

Executive Search

Employment Consultant

Recruitment Agency

Other (please list)

19. If you advertise a position in the newspaper, what paper do you use? (please circle)


Metropolitan daily


20. Do you have an application form? Yes No

21. Does the organisation have a policy regarding internal recruitment versus external



22. In the last five positions that you filled, what percentage was internal to external?

Internal _________%

External _________%

23. Do you use employment consultants? Yes No

If yes, how often? ________________________________

24. Do you use recruitment agencies? Yes No

If yes, how often? ________________________________

25. If you require applications and resumes to be sent in, do you acknowledge the application?

Yes No

26. Do you use interviews as part of your recruitment process? Yes No

27. What type of interview process do you use? (Please circle)


One on one



Video conference

Telephone interview

Computer-assisted interview

Other (please list) _________________________________

28. How would you class your interview structure? (please circle)

Formal & structured



29. What type of interview technique do you use? (please circle)




Other (please list) _______________________________

30. Do you have a specific room to conduct interviews in? Yes No

31. Do you have an orientation program? Yes No

32. Do you notify all applicants even if they are unsuccessful? Yes No

33. Do you have an evaluation process for recruitment & selection? Yes No




Selection Process at ICICI

To improve the selection process for recruitment at all levels in ICICI Bank, they have

carried out an in-depth study of the competencies required to succeed in ICICI Bank. As per

ICICI research, the competencies which indicated success at the entry level in ICICI Bank


Drive for results

Process Orientation

Interpersonal Effectiveness

Analytical Thinking

Innovation & Team Effectiveness

In order to assess the same ICICI use a set of 3 tools -

A Mental Ability Tests (for candidates with 0-2 years of work experience)

a Personality profiling system

The Mental Ability Test to find a fair and objective assessment of candidates’ skills in the

areas of verbal reasoning, numerical reasoning & diagrammatic reasoning. These are

important skills for the role of an entry level manager and people who do well in these

tests tend to do well in their jobs at ICICI Bank. The total time taken in this exercise is 2

hours with each of the three sections lasting 40 minutes.

Candidates (at all levels regardless of the number of years of work experience) are also

required to complete the Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPQ ) before they

appear for the interview, the results of which are integrated into ICICI interview



Infosys Technologies has got the most structured recruitment process among all IT

companies in India. First of all, they do not have any distinction between any branches of

Engg. Whatever be the branch, you can sit up for the selection process if you qualify their

other eligibility criteria like marks and time gap. i.e Once you had appeared for any test at

Infosys, you will have to wait for 9 months until you appear for any of their recruitment


For Off-campus, send in your resumes to the mail Id mentioned and you are sure to get a call

latter if you meet their academic criteria. Hence once you send the resume, start preparing for

the exam, because you are sure to get a call. You may get call through e-mail invitation and

further the admit card will be send to your postal address through courier/post.

Latest selection process. (As on March 2006)

The duration of the selection process is 2.5 hrs which includes filling in an application form,

an Aptitude Test (Analytical Thinking and Arithmetic Reasoning) and a test of

Communicative English Language. The duration of the tests alone will be 90 minutes. The

Aptitude Test will be generally of Puzzles type and the no. of questions will vary between 9

to 15. The best way to practice for the tests is to go through the previous question papers at

Freshersworld.com or refer books like Sakuntala Devi or George Summers. Go through the
Maximum No. of previous question papers and prepare well for the puzzles.


The actual steps involved in recruitment follow a well defined path :

Application shortlist: In this step, we shortlist the CVs received from various sources based

on the suitability for the requirement.

Preliminary Assessment: The short listed candidates go through a preliminary round of

interviews. This interview lays more emphasis on functional competencies. To have more

data on the functional skills, the candidates may be given a business case for analysis and

presentation (This is done for certain positions only).

Final interview: Here the candidates who successfully clear the first round of interview go

through another round of interview with one or more of the functional heads.

Medical Evaluation: Candidates who are selected by Colgate are asked to undergo a

medical test.



When to use a recruitment company and when to go it alone

By Tracey Bowyer | Published 09/16/2006

When to use a recruitment company and when to go it alone

Life is hard for businesses looking to recruit new staff at present. There is a worldwide skills

shortage and online job advertisements are at a record high. In response, the recruitment

business is booming as employers look for external assistance to ease their plight.

The question is, when should you use a recruitment agency and when should you go it alone?

Recruitment agency fees are expensive and you want to be sure you are getting value for

your money.

The first thing it is important to understand is that most recruitment firms are really just job

advertisers and do not undertake employee selection for you as well. There are some

agencies that do and if you require this from them this should be an important part of your

selection criteria when deciding which firm to use.

Given that most recruitment firms don\'t provide selection services, if you are able to write an

effective job advertisement or have other arenas through which you can source potential job

applicants yourself, such as through word of mouth from your current employees or through

other contacts; or via signs in your place of employment or local area, then you will save

considerable amounts of money by undertaking all of your employee recruitment and

selection process yourself.

A recruitment firm can offer you great benefits if you are looking to hire staff for short

periods of time and also wish to use the recruitment company\'s services as an outsourced

employer. The recruitment firm will charge you an hourly or daily rate for the contractor and

also act as the Worker’s employer and will be responsible for insurances, salary,

superannuation and all employee benefits. Although this is generally more expensive than if

you act as the employer yourself, there is just a single invoice to be paid rather than the

workload associated with an additional employee. Also the recruitment firm takes all the risk

and you can ask for replacement staff at any time if the employee is not working out like you

hoped or if you no longer require their services. This can be particularly useful if you require

particular skills for only a short period of time, for example you need an accountant to help

you out at tax time or a receptionist to fill in whilst your regular employee is on leave. Using

a contractor through a recruitment firm can also often be cheaper than using a professional

services firm.

A recruitment firm can also provide you with benefits if they are expert in a particular

industry or employee market. They may have specialized knowledge of where to find and

how to attract employees of particular skills types. If you are unable to attract the employees

you want yourself, you may require the services of a recruitment agency that has good

industry contacts and can headhunt the appropriate staff you require.

Whilst most recruiters are sales professionals (not employee selection specialists), some

agencies hire staff with extensive experience in a field (e.g. electrical engineering) and teach

them how to recruit and place. Recruitment consultants who themselves have the particular

skills and experience you require, are generally better able to understand and assess what it is

that you are looking for. This means that the quality of the short listed candidates that are

provided to you to assess will be higher.

Many employment markets are so large that for a business to initially screen all applications

for a position would be so time consuming that it could result in lost business whilst this

process occurs. This is particularly the case in large cities such as New York and London,

however this problem also occurs in cities within the EU where applicants readily apply for

and move to new jobs right throughout the region. The use of recruitment firms in this

instance can save considerable time and stress provided that correct selection and screening

procedures are utilized.

Similarly, if you do not have the time to undertake the recruitment and selection process

yourself and the cost to your business in lost business or business development opportunity

during the recruitment process is more than the cost of utilizing a recruitment firm, you

should definitely consider outsourcing your recruitment. If you choose to go this route

however you should insist that your chosen firm undertakes the whole process for you and

uses scientific selection methodology.

At the very least your recruiter should undertake background and reference checks on your

behalf and use behavioral based interviews. Otherwise you will end up having to put in just

as much time and effort yourself anyway to assess the applicants they send you. If not, the

effect of your outsourced employee selection process will be just as effective as taking a

lucky dip from a hat. And you will have to deal with the consequences, which could not only

include you being stuck with a less than productive employee, but even a disaster. I can

assure you that the time and effort required to performance manage a poorly performing

employee or one with a bad attitude is much, much more than would be required to undertake

a successful selection process in the first instance.

In summary, recruitment firms can provide you with many valuable services, particularly in

such a tight employment market as it is at present. It is important however to assess potential

recruiters carefully and ensure that they provide you with the services you require. The free

industry guide \"recruitment agency secrets\" provides more information on how to assess

potential recruitment firms well as inside information to assist you in getting value for money

when you do decide to use them.


Employers need to understand the skills and abilities that are required in a particular job and

determine which candidates have those capabilities. Interviews, reference checks, tests,

applications, and résumés can all help identify differences among candidates. The

comprehensive process described here does not guarantee the selection of the right person,

but it does help avoid many common mistakes. Employers can make their selection decisions

with a fuller awareness of the applicants’ strengths and weaknesses. Combined with a good

orientation period, careful selection enables the employer and new personnel to start out on a

positive path.











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