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This article is about current oscilloscopes, providing

general information. For history of oscilloscopes, see
Oscilloscope history. For detailed information about various types of oscilloscopes, see Oscilloscope types. For
the lm distributor, see Oscilloscope Laboratories.
An oscilloscope, previously called an

A modern PicoScope 6000 USB digital oscilloscope using a laptop

computer for its display

The interior of a cathode-ray tube for use in an oscilloscope. 1.

Deection voltage electrode; 2. Electron gun; 3. Electron beam;
4. Focusing coil; 5. Phosphor-coated inner side of the screen

A Tektronix model 475A portable analog oscilloscope, a very

typical instrument of the late 1970s

A modern Siglent SHS800 handheld digital storage oscilloscope

(DSO) using an LCD for its display

oscillograph,[1][2] and informally known as a scope,

CRO (for cathode-ray oscilloscope), or DSO (for the
more modern digital storage oscilloscope), is a type
of electronic test instrument that allows observation of
constantly varying signal voltages, usually as a twodimensional plot of one or more signals as a function of
time. Non-electrical signals (such as sound or vibration)
can be converted to voltages and displayed.

calibrated scale. The observed waveform can be analyzed for such properties as amplitude, frequency, rise
time, time interval, distortion and others. Modern digital instruments may calculate and display these properties
directly. Originally, calculation of these values required
manually measuring the waveform against the scales built
Oscilloscopes are used to observe the change of an elec- into the screen of the instrument.
trical signal over time, such that voltage and time de- The oscilloscope can be adjusted so that repetitive signals
scribe a shape which is continuously graphed against a can be observed as a continuous shape on the screen. A


An oscilloscope displaying capacitor discharge

storage oscilloscope allows single events to be captured by

the instrument and displayed for a relatively long time, al- Basic oscilloscope
lowing human observation of events too fast to be directly
switch and the vertical (primary) input for the instrument.
Oscilloscopes are used in the sciences, medicine, en- Additionally, this section is typically equipped with the
gineering, and telecommunications industry. General- vertical beam position knob.
purpose instruments are used for maintenance of electronic equipment and laboratory work. Special-purpose The horizontal section controls the time base or sweep
oscilloscopes may be used for such purposes as analyzing of the instrument. The primary control is the Secondsan automotive ignition system or to display the waveform per-Division (Sec/Div) selector switch. Also included is
a horizontal input for plotting dual X-Y axis signals. The
of the heartbeat as an electrocardiogram.
horizontal beam position knob is generally located in this
Before the advent of digital electronics, oscilloscopes section.
used cathode ray tubes (CRTs) as their display element
(hence were commonly referred to as CROs) and linear The trigger section controls the start event of the sweep.
ampliers for signal processing. Storage oscilloscopes The trigger can be set to automatically restart after each
used special storage CRTs to maintain a steady display of sweep or it can be congured to respond to an internal or
a single brief signal. CROs were later largely superseded external event. The principal controls of this section will
by digital storage oscilloscopes (DSOs) with thin panel be the source and coupling selector switches. An external
displays, fast analog-to-digital converters and digital sig- trigger input (EXT Input) and level adjustment will also
nal processors. DSOs without integrated displays (some- be included.
times known as digitisers) are available at lower cost and In addition to the basic instrument, most oscilloscopes are
use a general-purpose digital computer to process and dis- supplied with a probe as shown. The probe will connect to
play waveforms.
any input on the instrument and typically has a resistor of
ten times the oscilloscopes input impedance. This results
in a .1 (10X) attenuation factor, but helps to isolate the
capacitive load presented by the probe cable from the sig1 Features and uses
nal being measured. Some probes have a switch allowing
the operator to bypass the resistor when appropriate.[3]



The basic oscilloscope, as shown in the illustration, is typically divided into four sections: the display, vertical controls, horizontal controls and trigger controls. The display
is usually a CRT or LCD panel which is laid out with both
horizontal and vertical reference lines referred to as the
graticule. In addition to the screen, most display sections
are equipped with three basic controls: a focus knob, an
intensity knob and a beam nder button.

1.1.1 Size and portability

Most modern oscilloscopes are lightweight, portable instruments that are compact enough to be easily carried
by a single person. In addition to the portable units, the
market oers a number of miniature battery-powered instruments for eld service applications. Laboratory grade
oscilloscopes, especially older units which use vacuum
The vertical section controls the amplitude of the dis- tubes, are generally bench-top devices or may be mounted
played signal. This section carries a Volts-per-Division into dedicated carts. Special-purpose oscilloscopes may
(Volts/Div) selector knob, an AC/DC/Ground selector be rack-mounted or permanently mounted into a custom



instrument housing.


The signal to be measured is fed to one of the input connectors, which is usually a coaxial connector such as a
BNC or UHF type. Binding posts or banana plugs may
be used for lower frequencies. If the signal source has
its own coaxial connector, then a simple coaxial cable
is used; otherwise, a specialised cable called a "scope
probe", supplied with the oscilloscope, is used. In general, for routine use, an open wire test lead for connecting to the point being observed is not satisfactory, and
a probe is generally necessary. General-purpose oscilloscopes usually present an input impedance of 1 megohm
in parallel with a small but known capacitance such as 20
picofarads.[4] This allows the use of standard oscilloscope
probes.[5] Scopes for use with very high frequencies may
have 50ohm inputs, which must be either connected directly to a 50ohm signal source or used with Z0 or active

a resistive divider; at high frequencies (resistance much
greater than reactance), the circuit looks like a capacitive
The result is a frequency compensated probe for modest frequencies that presents a load of about 10 megohms
shunted by 12 pF. Although such a probe is an improvement, it does not work when the time scale shrinks to
several cable transit times (transit time is typically 5 ns).
In that time frame, the cable looks like its characteristic impedance, and there will be reections from the
transmission line mismatch at the scope input and the
probe that causes ringing.[7] The modern scope probe
uses lossy low capacitance transmission lines and sophisticated frequency shaping networks to make the 10X
probe perform well at several hundred megahertz. Consequently, there are other adjustments for completing the

Probes with 10:1 attenuation are by far the most common; for large signals (and slightly-less capacitive loading), 100:1 probes are not rare. There are also probes that
contain switches to select 10:1 or direct (1:1) ratios, but
Less-frequently-used inputs include one (or two) for trig- one must be aware that the 1:1 setting has signicant cagering the sweep, horizontal deection for XY mode dis- pacitance (tens of pF) at the probe tip, because the whole
plays, and trace brightening/darkening, sometimes called cables capacitance is now directly connected.
z'axis inputs.
Most oscilloscopes allow for probe attenuation factors,
displaying the eective sensitivity at the probe tip.
Historically, some auto-sensing circuitry used indicator
1.1.3 Probes
lamps behind translucent windows in the panel to illuminate dierent parts of the sensitivity scale. To do so, the
Main article: Test probe Oscilloscope probes
probe connectors (modied BNCs) had an extra contact
to dene the probes attenuation. (A certain value of reOpen wire test leads (ying leads) are likely to pick up sistor, connected to ground, encodes the attenuation.)
interference, so they are not suitable for low level signals. Because probes wear out, and because the auto-sensing
Furthermore, the leads have a high inductance, so they are circuitry is not compatible between dierent makes of
not suitable for high frequencies. Using a shielded cable oscilloscope, auto-sensing probe scaling is not foolproof.
(i.e., coaxial cable) is better for low level signals. Coaxial Likewise, manually setting the probe attenuation is prone
cable also has lower inductance, but it has higher capaci- to user error and it is a common mistake to have the probe
tance: a typical 50 ohm cable has about 90 pF per meter. scaling set incorrectly; resultant voltage readings can then
Consequently, a one meter direct (1X) coaxial probe will be wrong by a factor of 10.
load a circuit with a capacitance of about 110 pF and a
There are special high voltage probes which also form
resistance of 1 megohm.
compensated attenuators with the oscilloscope input; the
To minimize loading, attenuator probes (e.g., 10X probe body is physically large, and some require partly
probes) are used. A typical probe uses a 9 megohm se- lling a canister surrounding the series resistor with
ries resistor shunted by a low-value capacitor to make volatile liquid uorocarbon to displace air. At the osan RC compensated divider with the cable capacitance cilloscope end is a box with several waveform-trimming
and scope input. The RC time constants are adjusted adjustments. For safety, a barrier disc keeps ones nto match. For example, the 9 megohm series resistor is gers distant from the point being examined. Maximum
shunted by a 12.2 pF capacitor for a time constant of 110 voltage is in the low tens of kV. (Observing a high voltmicroseconds. The cable capacitance of 90 pF in parallel age ramp can create a staircase waveform with steps at
with the scope input of 20 pF and 1 megohm (total ca- dierent points every repetition, until the probe tip is in
pacitance 110 pF) also gives a time constant of 110 mi- contact. Until then, a tiny arc charges the probe tip, and
croseconds. In practice, there will be an adjustment so its capacitance holds the voltage (open circuit). As the
the operator can precisely match the low frequency time voltage continues to climb, another tiny arc charges the
constant (called compensating the probe). Matching the tip further.)
time constants makes the attenuation independent of freThere are also current probes, with cores that surround
quency. At low frequencies (where the resistance of R is
the conductor carrying current to be examined. One type
much less than the reactance of C), the circuit looks like

has a hole for the conductor, and requires that the wire
be passed through the hole; they are for semi-permanent
or permanent mounting. However, other types, for testing, have a two-part core that permit them to be placed
around a wire. Inside the probe, a coil wound around the
core provides a current into an appropriate load, and the
voltage across that load is proportional to current. However, this type of probe can sense AC, only.
A more-sophisticated probe includes a magnetic ux sensor (Hall eect sensor) in the magnetic circuit. The probe
connects to an amplier, which feeds (low frequency) current into the coil to cancel the sensed eld; the magnitude
of that current provides the low-frequency part of the current waveform, right down to DC. The coil still picks up
high frequencies. There is a combining network akin to
a loudspeaker crossover network.


Front panel controls

Focus control

This control adjusts CRT focus to obtain the sharpest,

most-detailed trace. In practice, focus needs to be adjusted slightly when observing quite-dierent signals,
which means that it needs to be an external control. Flatpanel displays do not need focus adjustments and therefore do not include this control.


screen. Beam-nder circuits often distort the trace while

1.2.5 Graticule
The graticule is a grid of squares that serve as reference
marks for measuring the displayed trace. These markings, whether located directly on the screen or on a removable plastic lter, usually consist of a 1 cm grid with
closer tick marks (often at 2 mm) on the centre vertical
and horizontal axis. One expects to see ten major divisions across the screen; the number of vertical major
divisions varies. Comparing the grid markings with the
waveform permits one to measure both voltage (vertical
axis) and time (horizontal axis). Frequency can also be
determined by measuring the waveform period and calculating its reciprocal.
On old and lower-cost CRT oscilloscopes the graticule is
a sheet of plastic, often with light-diusing markings and
concealed lamps at the edge of the graticule. The lamps
had a brightness control. Higher-cost instruments have
the graticule marked on the inside face of the CRT, to
eliminate parallax errors; better ones also had adjustable
edge illumination with diusing markings. (Diusing
markings appear bright.) Digital oscilloscopes, however,
generate the graticule markings on the display in the same
way as the trace.

External graticules also protect the glass face of the CRT

from accidental impact. Some CRT oscilloscopes with
1.2.2 Intensity control
internal graticules have an unmarked tinted sheet plastic
This adjusts trace brightness. Slow traces on CRT oscil- light lter to enhance trace contrast; this also serves to
loscopes need less, and fast ones, especially if not often protect the faceplate of the CRT.
repeated, require more. On at panels, however, trace Accuracy and resolution of measurements using a graticbrightness is essentially independent of sweep speed, be- ule is relatively limited; better instruments sometimes
cause the internal signal processing eectively synthe- have movable bright markers on the trace that permit insizes the display from the digitized data.
ternal circuits to make more rened measurements.
Both calibrated vertical sensitivity and calibrated horizontal time are set in 1 - 2 - 5 - 10 steps. This leads,
1.2.3 Astigmatism
however, to some awkward interpretations of minor diviCan also be called Shape or spot shape. Adjusts the sions
relative voltages on two of the CRT anodes such that a displayed spot changes from elliptical in one plane through
a circular spot to an ellipse at 90 degrees to the rst. This 1.2.6 Timebase controls
control may be absent from simpler oscilloscope designs
or may even be an internal control. It is not necessary These select the horizontal speed of the CRTs spot as
it creates the trace; this process is commonly referred to
with at panel displays.
as the sweep. In all but the least-costly modern oscilloscopes, the sweep speed is selectable and calibrated in
1.2.4 Beam nder
units of time per major graticule division. Quite a wide
range of sweep speeds is generally provided, from secModern oscilloscopes have direct-coupled deection am- onds to as fast as picoseconds (in the fastest) per divipliers, which means the trace could be deected o- sion. Usually, a continuously-variable control (often a
screen. They also might have their beam blanked with- knob in front of the calibrated selector knob) oers unout the operator knowing it. To help in restoring a visi- calibrated speeds, typically slower than calibrated. This
ble display, the beam nder circuit overrides any blanking control provides a range somewhat greater than that of
and limits the beam deected to the visible portion of the consecutive calibrated steps, making any speed available


Front panel controls

1.2.9 Horizontal sensitivity control
This control is found only on more elaborate oscilloscopes; it oers adjustable sensitivity for external horizontal inputs.
1.2.10 Vertical position control

Computer Model of the impact of increasing the timebase


between the extremes.


Holdo control

Found on some better analog oscilloscopes, this varies the

time (holdo) during which the sweep circuit ignores triggers. It provides a stable display of some repetitive events
in which some triggers would create confusing displays.
It is usually set to minimum, because a longer time decreases the number of sweeps per second, resulting in a
dimmer trace. See Holdo for a more detailed description.

Computer model of Vertical position Y oset varying in a sine


The vertical position control moves the whole displayed

trace up and down. It is used to set the no-input trace
exactly on the center line of the graticule, but also permits osetting vertically by a limited amount. With direct coupling, adjustment of this control can compensate
for a limited DC component of an input.
1.2.11 Horizontal position control


Vertical sensitivity, coupling, and polarity


To accommodate a wide range of input amplitudes, a

switch selects calibrated sensitivity of the vertical deection. Another control, often in front of the calibratedselector knob, oers a continuously-variable sensitivity over a limited range from calibrated to less-sensitive
Often the observed signal is oset by a steady component, and only the changes are of interest. A switch
(AC position) connects a capacitor in series with the input that passes only the changes (provided that they are
not too slow -- slow would mean visible). However,
when the signal has a xed oset of interest, or changes
quite slowly, the input is connected directly (DC switch
position). Most oscilloscopes oer the DC input option. For convenience, to see where zero volts input currently shows on the screen, many oscilloscopes have a
third switch position (GND) that disconnects the input
and grounds it. Often, in this case, the user centers the
trace with the Vertical Position control.

Computer model of Horizontal position control from X oset increasing

The horizontal position control moves the display sidewise. It usually sets the left end of the trace at the left
edge of the graticule, but it can displace the whole trace
when desired. This control also moves the X-Y mode
traces sidewise in some instruments, and can compensate
for a limited DC component as for vertical position.

1.2.12 Dual-trace controls

Better oscilloscopes have a polarity selector. Normally,
a positive input moves the trace upward, but this permits * (Please see Dual and Multiple-trace Oscilloscopes, below.)
invertingpositive deects the trace downward.


1.2.14 Sweep trigger controls

* (Please see Triggered Sweep, below.)
A switch selects the Trigger Source. It can be an external
input, one of the vertical channels of a dual or multipletrace oscilloscope, or the AC line (mains) frequency. Another switch enables or disables Auto trigger mode, or
selects single sweep, if provided in the oscilloscope. Either a spring-return switch position or a pushbutton arms
single sweeps.
Dual-trace controls green trace = Y = 30*sin(0.1*t)+0.5 teal
trace = Y = 30*sin(0.3*t)

A Level control varies the voltage on the waveform which

generates a trigger, and the Slope switch selects positivegoing or negative-going polarity at the selected trigger

Each input channel usually has its own set of sensitivity,

coupling, and position controls, although some four-trace
oscilloscopes have only minimal controls for their third 1.3 Basic types of sweep
and fourth channels.
1.3.1 Triggered sweep
Dual-trace oscilloscopes have a mode switch to select either channel alone, both channels, or (in some) an XY
display, which uses the second channel for X deection.
When both channels are displayed, the type of channel
switching can be selected on some oscilloscopes; on others, the type depends upon timebase setting. If manually
selectable, channel switching can be free-running (asynchronous), or between consecutive sweeps. Some Philips
dual-trace analog oscilloscopes had a fast analog multiplier, and provided a display of the product of the input
Multiple-trace oscilloscopes have a switch for each channel to enable or disable display of that traces signal.


Delayed-sweep controls

* (Please see Delayed Sweep, below.)

Type 465 Tektronix oscilloscope. This was a popular analog oscilloscope, portable, and is a representative example.

These include controls for the delayed-sweep timebase,

which is calibrated, and often also variable. The slowest
speed is several steps faster than the slowest main sweep
speed, although the fastest is generally the same. A calibrated multiturn delay time control oers wide range,
high resolution delay settings; it spans the full duration of
the main sweep, and its reading corresponds to graticule
divisions (but with much ner precision). Its accuracy is
also superior to that of the display.

To display events with unchanging or slowly (visibly)

changing waveforms, but occurring at times that may not
be evenly spaced, modern oscilloscopes have triggered
sweeps. Compared to simpler oscilloscopes with sweep
oscillators that are always running, triggered-sweep oscilloscopes are markedly more versatile.

Good CRT oscilloscopes include a delayed-sweep intensity control, to allow for the dimmer trace of a muchfaster delayed sweep that nevertheless occurs only once
per main sweep. Such oscilloscopes also are likely to have
a trace separation control for multiplexed display of both
the main and delayed sweeps together.

reaches the extreme right side of the screen. For a period of time, called holdo, (extendable by a front-panel
control on some better oscilloscopes), the sweep circuit
resets completely and ignores triggers. Once holdo expires, the next trigger starts a sweep. The trigger event is
usually the input waveform reaching some user-specied

A triggered sweep starts at a selected point on the signal, providing a stable display. In this way, triggering allows the display of periodic signals such as sine waves and
A switch selects display modes: Main sweep only, with a square waves, as well as nonperiodic signals such as single
brightened region showing when the delayed sweep is ad- pulses, or pulses that do not recur at a xed rate.
vancing, delayed sweep only, or (on some) a combination With triggered sweeps, the scope will blank the beam
and start to reset the sweep circuit each time the beam


Basic types of sweep

threshold voltage (trigger level) in the specied direction

(going positive or going negativetrigger polarity).
In some cases, variable holdo time can be really useful
to make the sweep ignore interfering triggers that occur
before the events one wants to observe. In the case of
repetitive, but quite-complex waveforms, variable holdo can create a stable display that cannot otherwise practically be obtained.
Except that on the scope, each trigger would be the same
channel, and so would be the same color.
It is desired to set the scope to only trigger on one edge
per cycle, so it is necessary to set the holdo to be slightly
1.3.2 Holdo
less than the period of the waveform. That will prevent it
from triggering more than once per cycle, but still allow
Trigger holdo denes a certain period following a trig- it to trigger on the rst edge of the next cycle.
ger during which the scope will not trigger again. This
makes it easier to establish a stable view of a waveform 1.3.3 Automatic sweep mode
with multiple edges which would otherwise cause another
Triggered sweeps can display a blank screen if there are

Example Imagine the following repeating waveform:

no triggers. To avoid this, these sweeps include a timing

circuit that generates free-running triggers so a trace is
always visible. Once triggers arrive, the timer stops providing pseudo-triggers. Automatic sweep mode can be
de-selected when observing low repetition rates.
1.3.4 Recurrent sweeps

The green line is the waveform, the red vertical partial

line represents the location of the trigger, and the yellow
line represents the trigger level. If the scope was simply
set to trigger on every rising edge, this waveform would
cause three triggers for each cycle:

If the input signal is periodic, the sweep repetition rate

can be adjusted to display a few cycles of the waveform.
Early (tube) oscilloscopes and lowest-cost oscilloscopes
have sweep oscillators that run continuously, and are uncalibrated. Such oscilloscopes are very simple, comparatively inexpensive, and were useful in radio servicing and
some TV servicing. Measuring voltage or time is possible, but only with extra equipment, and is quite inconvenient. They are primarily qualitative instruments.
They have a few (widely spaced) frequency ranges, and
relatively wide-range continuous frequency control within
a given range. In use, the sweep frequency is set to slightly
lower than some submultiple of the input frequency, to
display typically at least two cycles of the input signal (so
all details are visible). A very simple control feeds an adjustable amount of the vertical signal (or possibly, a related external signal) to the sweep oscillator. The signal
triggers beam blanking and a sweep retrace sooner than
it would occur free-running, and the display becomes stable.
1.3.5 Single sweeps

Some oscilloscopes oer thesethe sweep circuit is

manually armed (typically by a pushbutton or equivalent)
Armed means its ready to respond to a trigger. Once
Assuming the signal is fairly high frequency, the scope the sweep is complete, it resets, and will not sweep unwould probably look something like this:
til re-armed. This mode, combined with an oscilloscope

camera, captures single-shot events.

Types of trigger include:


DSOs allow waveforms to be displayed in this way, without oering a delayed timebase as such.

external trigger, a pulse from an external source connected to a dedicated input on the scope.
edge trigger, an edge-detector that generates a pulse
when the input signal crosses a specied threshold
voltage in a specied direction. These are the mostcommon types of triggers; the level control sets the
threshold voltage, and the slope control selects the
direction (negative or positive-going). (The rst sentence of the description also applies to the inputs to
some digital logic circuits; those inputs have xed
threshold and polarity response.)
video trigger, a circuit that extracts synchronizing
pulses from video formats such as PAL and NTSC
and triggers the timebase on every line, a specied
line, every eld, or every frame. This circuit is typically found in a waveform monitor device, although
some better oscilloscopes include this function.
delayed trigger, which waits a specied time after an
edge trigger before starting the sweep. As described
under delayed sweeps, a trigger delay circuit (typically the main sweep) extends this delay to a known
and adjustable interval. In this way, the operator can
examine a particular pulse in a long train of pulses.

1.4 Dual and multiple-trace oscilloscopes

Oscilloscopes with two vertical inputs, referred to as
dual-trace oscilloscopes, are extremely useful and commonplace. Using a single-beam CRT, they multiplex the
inputs, usually switching between them fast enough to display two traces apparently at once. Less common are
oscilloscopes with more traces; four inputs are common
among these, but a few (Kikusui, for one) oered a display of the sweep trigger signal if desired. Some multitrace oscilloscopes use the external trigger input as an optional vertical input, and some have third and fourth channels with only minimal controls. In all cases, the inputs,
when independently displayed, are time-multiplexed, but
dual-trace oscilloscopes often can add their inputs to display a real-time analog sum. (Inverting one channel provides a dierence, provided that neither channel is overloaded. This dierence mode can provide a moderateperformance dierential input.)

Switching channels can be asynchronous, that is, freeSome recent designs of oscilloscopes include more so- running, with trace blanking while switching, or afphisticated triggering schemes; these are described to- ter each horizontal sweep is complete. Asynchronous
ward the end of this article.
switching is usually designated Chopped, while sweepsynchronized is designated Alt[ernate]". A given channel is alternately connected and disconnected, leading
1.3.6 Delayed sweeps
to the term chopped. Multi-trace oscilloscopes also
More sophisticated analog oscilloscopes contain a second switch channels either in chopped or alternate modes.
timebase for a delayed sweep. A delayed sweep provides
a very detailed look at some small selected portion of the
main timebase. The main timebase serves as a controllable delay, after which the delayed timebase starts. This
can start when the delay expires, or can be triggered (only)
after the delay expires. Ordinarily, the delayed timebase
is set for a faster sweep, sometimes much faster, such as
1000:1. At extreme ratios, jitter in the delays on consecutive main sweeps degrades the display, but delayed-sweep
triggers can overcome that.
The display shows the vertical signal in one of several
modes: the main timebase, or the delayed timebase only,
or a combination thereof. When the delayed sweep is
active, the main sweep trace brightens while the delayed
sweep is advancing. In one combination mode, provided
only on some oscilloscopes, the trace changes from the
main sweep to the delayed sweep once the delayed sweep
starts, although less of the delayed fast sweep is visible for
longer delays. Another combination mode multiplexes
(alternates) the main and delayed sweeps so that both appear at once; a trace separation control displaces them.

In general, chopped mode is better for slower sweeps. It is

possible for the internal chopping rate to be a multiple of
the sweep repetition rate, creating blanks in the traces, but
in practice this is rarely a problem; the gaps in one trace
are overwritten by traces of the following sweep. A few
oscilloscopes had a modulated chopping rate to avoid this
occasional problem. Alternate mode, however, is better
for faster sweeps.
True dual-beam CRT oscilloscopes did exist, but were
not common. One type (Cossor, U.K.) had a beamsplitter plate in its CRT, and single-ended deection following the splitter. Others had two complete electron
guns, requiring tight control of axial (rotational) mechanical alignment in manufacturing the CRT. Beam-splitter
types had horizontal deection common to both vertical channels, but dual-gun oscilloscopes could have separate time bases, or use one time base for both channels.
Multiple-gun CRTs (up to ten guns) were made in past
decades. With ten guns, the envelope (bulb) was cylindrical throughout its length. (Also see CRT Invention
in Oscilloscope history.)




The vertical amplier

In an analog oscilloscope, the vertical amplier acquires

the signal[s] to be displayed. In better oscilloscopes, it
delays them by a fraction of a microsecond, and provides a signal large enough to deect the CRTs beam.
That deection is at least somewhat beyond the edges
of the graticule, and more typically some distance oscreen. The amplier has to have low distortion to display its input accurately (it must be linear), and it has to
recover quickly from overloads. As well, its time-domain
response has to represent transients accuratelyminimal
overshoot, rounding, and tilt of a at pulse top.
A vertical input goes to a frequency-compensated step attenuator to reduce large signals to prevent overload. The
attenuator feeds a low-level stage (or a few), which in turn
feed gain stages (and a delay-line driver if there is a delay). Following are more gain stages, up to the nal output
stage which develops a large signal swing (tens of volts,
sometimes over 100 volts) for CRT electrostatic deection.
In dual and multiple-trace oscilloscopes, an internal electronic switch selects the relatively low-level output of one
channels ampliers and sends it to the following stages
of the vertical amplier, which is only a single channel,
so to speak, from that point on.

A 24-hour clock displayed on a CRT oscilloscope congured in

X-Y mode as a vector monitor with dual R2R DACs to generate
the analog voltages.

curves (current versus voltage characteristics) for components such as diodes, as well Lissajous patterns. Lissajous
gures are an example of how an oscilloscope can be used
to track phase dierences between multiple input signals.
This is very frequently used in broadcast engineering to
plot the left and right stereophonic channels, to ensure
that the stereo generator is calibrated properly. Historically, stable Lissajous gures were used to show that two
sine waves had a relatively simple frequency relationship,
a numerically-small ratio. They also indicated phase difference between two sine waves of the same frequency.

In free-running (chopped) mode, the oscillator (which

may be simply a dierent operating mode of the switch The X-Y mode also allows the oscilloscope to be used as a
driver) blanks the beam before switching, and unblanks it vector monitor to display images or user interfaces. Many
only after the switching transients have settled.
early games, such as Tennis for Two, used an oscilloscope
Part way through the amplier is a feed to the sweep trig- as an output device.[11]
ger circuits, for internal triggering from the signal. This Complete loss of signal in an X-Y CRT display means
feed would be from an individual channels amplier in that the beam strikes a small spot, which risks burning the
a dual or multi-trace oscilloscope, the channel depending phosphor. Older phosphors burned more easily. Some
upon the setting of the trigger source selector.
dedicated X-Y displays reduce beam current greatly, or
This feed precedes the delay (if there is one), which al- blank the display entirely, if there are no inputs present.
lows the sweep circuit to unblank the CRT and start the
forward sweep, so the CRT can show the triggering event.
High-quality analog delays add a modest cost to an oscil- 1.6 Bandwidth
loscope, and are omitted in oscilloscopes that are costAs with all practical instruments, oscilloscopes do not resensitive.
spond equally to all possible input frequencies. The range
The delay, itself, comes from a special cable with a pair
of frequencies an oscilloscope can usefully display is reof conductors wound around a exible, magnetically soft
ferred to as its bandwidth. Bandwidth applies primarily
core. The coiling provides distributed inductance, while
to the Y-axis, although the X-axis sweeps have to be fast
a conductive layer close to the wires provides distributed
enough to show the highest-frequency waveforms.
capacitance. The combination is a wideband transmission
line with considerable delay per unit length. Both ends The bandwidth is dened as the frequency at which the
of the delay cable require matched impedances to avoid sensitivity is 0.707 of that at DC or the lowest AC frequency (a drop of 3 dB).[12] The oscilloscopes response
will drop o rapidly as the input frequency is raised above
that point. Within the stated bandwidth the response will
1.5.1 X-Y mode
not necessarily be exactly uniform (or at), but should
always fall within a +0 to 3 dB range. One source[12]
Most modern oscilloscopes have several inputs for volt- states that there is a noticeable eect on the accuracy of
ages, and thus can be used to plot one varying voltage voltage measurements at only 20 percent of the stated
versus another. This is especially useful for graphing I-V bandwidth. Some oscilloscopes specications do include



a narrower tolerance range within the stated bandwidth.

Probes also have bandwidth limits and must be chosen
and used to properly handle the frequencies of interest.
To achieve the attest response, most probes must be
compensated (an adjustment performed using a test signal from the oscilloscope) to allow for the reactance of the
probes cable.
Another related specication is rise time. This is the
duration of the fastest pulse that can be resolved by the
scope. It is related to the bandwidth approximately by:
Bandwidth in Hz x rise time in seconds = 0.35 [13]

A computer model of the sweep of the oscilloscope

For example, an oscilloscope intended to resolve pulses

with a rise time of 1 nanosecond would have a bandwidth denite peak-to-peak voltage available at a test termiof 350 MHz.
nal on the front panel. Some better oscilloscopes also
In analog instruments, the bandwidth of the oscilloscope have a squared-o loop for checking and adjusting curis limited by the vertical ampliers and the CRT or other rent probes.
display subsystem. In digital instruments, the sampling Sometimes the event that the user wants to see may only
rate of the analog to digital converter (ADC) is a factor, happen occasionally. To catch these events, some oscilbut the stated analog bandwidth (and therefore the over- loscopes, known as storage scopes, preserve the most
all bandwidth of the instrument) is usually less than the recent sweep on the screen. This was originally achieved
ADCs Nyquist frequency. This is due to limitations in by using a special CRT, a "storage tube", which would rethe analog signal amplier, deliberate design of the Anti- tain the image of even a very brief event for a long time.
aliasing lter that precedes the ADC, or both.
Some digital oscilloscopes can sweep at speeds as slow
For a digital oscilloscope, a rule of thumb is that the con- as once per hour, emulating a strip chart recorder. That
tinuous sampling rate should be ten times the highest fre- is, the signal scrolls across the screen from right to left.
quency desired to resolve; for example a 20 megasam- Most oscilloscopes with this facility switch from a sweep
ple/second rate would be applicable for measuring signals to a strip-chart mode at about one sweep per ten seconds.
up to about 2 megahertz. This allows the anti-aliasing l- This is because otherwise, the scope looks broken: its
ter to be designed with a 3 dB down point of 2 MHz and collecting data, but the dot cannot be seen.
an eective cuto at 10 MHz (the Nyquist frequency),
avoiding the artifacts of a very steep (brick-wall) lter. In current oscilloscopes, digital signal sampling is more
often used for all but the simplest models. Samples feed
A sampling oscilloscope can display signals of consider- fast analog-to-digital converters, following which all sigably higher frequency than the sampling rate if the sig- nal processing (and storage) is digital.
nals are exactly, or nearly, repetitive. It does this by taking one sample from each successive repetition of the in- Many oscilloscopes have dierent plug-in modules for
put waveform, each sample being at an increased time dierent purposes, e.g., high-sensitivity ampliers of relinterval from the trigger event. The waveform is then dis- atively narrow bandwidth, dierential ampliers, ampliplayed from these collected samples. This mechanism is ers with four or more channels, sampling plugins for
referred to as equivalent-time sampling.[14] Some oscil- repetitive signals of very high frequency, and specialloscopes can operate in either this mode or in the more purpose plugins, including audio/ultrasonic spectrum analyzers, and stable-oset-voltage direct-coupled channels
traditional real-time mode at the operators choice.
with relatively high gain.

Other features

Some oscilloscopes have cursors, which are lines that can

be moved about the screen to measure the time interval
between two points, or the dierence between two voltages. A few older oscilloscopes simply brightened the
trace at movable locations. These cursors are more accurate than visual estimates referring to graticule lines.

2.1 Examples of use

One of the most frequent uses of scopes is

troubleshooting malfunctioning electronic equipment. One of the advantages of a scope is that it can
graphically show signals: where a voltmeter may show a
totally unexpected voltage, a scope may reveal that the
circuit is oscillating. In other cases the precise shape or
Better quality general purpose oscilloscopes include a cal- timing of a pulse is important.
ibration signal for setting up the compensation of test In a piece of electronic equipment, for example, the
probes; this is (often) a 1 kHz square-wave signal of a connections between stages (e.g. electronic mixers,



tant workshop tool for testing sensors and output signals
on electronic engine management systems, braking and
stability systems.

2.3 Selection

Lissajous gures on an oscilloscope, with 90 degrees phase difference between x and y inputs.

electronic oscillators, ampliers) may be 'probed' for the

expected signal, using the scope as a simple signal tracer.
If the expected signal is absent or incorrect, some preceding stage of the electronics is not operating correctly.
Since most failures occur because of a single faulty component, each measurement can prove that half of the
stages of a complex piece of equipment either work, or
probably did not cause the fault.
Once the faulty stage is found, further probing can usually tell a skilled technician exactly which component has
failed. Once the component is replaced, the unit can be
restored to service, or at least the next fault can be isolated. This sort of troubleshooting is typical of radio and
TV receivers, as well as audio ampliers, but can apply to
quite-dierent devices such as electronic motor drives.
Another use is to check newly designed circuitry. Very
often a newly designed circuit will misbehave because
of design errors, bad voltage levels, electrical noise etc.
Digital electronics usually operate from a clock, so a
dual-trace scope which shows both the clock signal and
a test signal dependent upon the clock is useful. Storage
scopes are helpful for capturing rare electronic events
that cause defective operation.

For work at high frequencies and with fast digital signals,

the bandwidth of the vertical ampliers and sampling rate
must be high enough. For general-purpose use, a bandwidth of at least 100 MHz is usually satisfactory. A much
lower bandwidth is sucient for audio-frequency applications only. A useful sweep range is from one second
to 100 nanoseconds, with appropriate triggering and (for
analog instruments) sweep delay. A well-designed, stable trigger circuit is required for a steady display. The
chief benet of a quality oscilloscope is the quality of the
trigger circuit.
Key selection criteria of a DSO (apart from input bandwidth) are the sample memory depth and sample rate.
Early DSOs in the mid- to late 1990s only had a few KB
of sample memory per channel. This is adequate for basic waveform display, but does not allow detailed examination of the waveform or inspection of long data packets for example. Even entry-level (<$500) modern DSOs
now have 1 MB or more of sample memory per channel, and this has become the expected minimum in any
modern DSO. Often this sample memory is shared between channels, and can sometimes only be fully available at lower sample rates. At the highest sample rates,
the memory may be limited to a few tens of KB.[15] Any
modern real-time sample rate DSO will have typically
510 times the input bandwidth in sample rate. So a 100
MHz bandwidth DSO would have 500 Ms/s 1 Gs/s sample rate. The theoretical minimum sample rate required,
using SinX/x interpolation, is 2.5 times the bandwidth.[16]

Analog oscilloscopes have been almost totally displaced

by digital storage scopes except for use exclusively at
lower frequencies. Greatly increased sample rates have
largely eliminated the display of incorrect signals, known
as aliasing, that was sometimes present in the rst generation of digital scopes. The problem can still occur
Pictures of use
when, for example, viewing a short section of a repetitive waveform that repeats at intervals thousands of times
longer than the section viewed (for example a short syn AC hum on sound.
chronization pulse at the beginning of a particular television line), with an oscilloscope that cannot store the ex Sum of a low-frequency and a high-frequency signal.
tremely large number of samples between one instance of
the short section and the next.
Bad lter on sine.
Dual trace, showing dierent time bases on each The used test equipment market, particularly on-line auction venues, typically has a wide selection of older analog
scopes available. However it is becoming more dicult
to obtain replacement parts for these instruments, and repair services are generally unavailable from the original
2.2 Automotive use
manufacturer. Used instruments are usually out of caliFirst appearing in the 1970s for ignition system anal- bration, and recalibration by companies with the equipysis, automotive oscilloscopes are becoming an impor- ment and expertise usually costs more than the second-



hand value of the instrument.

As of 2007, a 350 MHz bandwidth (BW), 2.5 gigasamples per second (GS/s), dual-channel digital storage scope
costs about US$7000 new.
On the lowest end, an inexpensive hobby-grade singlechannel DSO could be purchased for under $90 as of June
2011. These often have limited bandwidth and other facilities, but fulll the basic functions of an oscilloscope.


For analog television, an analog oscilloscope can be used as a

Many oscilloscopes today provide one or more external vectorscope to analyze complex signal properties, such as this disinterfaces to allow remote instrument control by exter- play of SMPTE color bars.
nal software. These interfaces (or buses) include GPIB,
Ethernet, serial port, and USB.
not display waves in the traditional sense of a line segment
sweeping from left to right. Instead, they could be used
for signal analysis by feeding a reference signal into one
3 Types and models
axis and the signal to measure into the other axis. For an
oscillating reference and measurement signal, this results
Main article: Oscilloscope types
in a complex looping pattern referred to as a Lissajous
curve. The shape of the curve can be interpreted to idenThe following section is a brief summary of various types tify properties of the measurement signal in relation to
and models available. For a detailed discussion, refer to the reference signal, and is useful across a wide range of
the other article.
oscillation frequencies.


Cathode-ray oscilloscope (CRO)

3.2 Dual-beam oscilloscope

For more details on this topic, see Oscilloscope types

The dual-beam analog oscilloscope can display two sigCathode-ray oscilloscope.
The earliest and simplest type of oscilloscope consisted nals simultaneously. A special dual-beam CRT generates
and deects two separate beams. Although multi-trace
analog oscilloscopes can simulate a dual-beam display
with chop and alternate sweeps, those features do not
provide simultaneous displays. (Real time digital oscilloscopes oer the same benets of a dual-beam oscilloscope, but they do not require a dual-beam display.) The
disadvantages of the dual trace oscilloscope are that it
cannot switch quickly between the traces and it cannot
capture two fast transient events. In order to avoid this
problems a dual beam oscilloscope is used.

3.3 Analog storage oscilloscope

Example of an analog oscilloscope Lissajous gure, showing a
harmonic relationship of 1 horizontal oscillation cycle to 3 vertical oscillation cycles.

of a cathode ray tube, a vertical amplier, a timebase, a

horizontal amplier and a power supply. These are now
called analog scopes to distinguish them from the digital scopes that became common in the 1990s and 2000s.

For more details on this topic, see Cathode ray tube

Oscilloscope CRTs.
For more details on this topic, see Oscilloscope types
Analog storage oscilloscope.

Trace storage is an extra feature available on some analog scopes; they used direct-view storage CRTs. Storage
allows the trace pattern that normally decays in a fraction
of a second to remain on the screen for several minutes
Analog scopes do not necessarily include a calibrated ref- or longer. An electrical circuit can then be deliberately
erence grid for size measurement of waves, and they may activated to store and erase the trace on the screen.


Mixed-domain oscilloscopes



Digital oscilloscopes

and logic analyser. Typically, digital channels may be

grouped and displayed as a bus with each bus value displayed at the bottom of the display in hex or binary. On
most MSOs, the trigger can be set across both analog and
digital channels.

Main article: Digital storage oscilloscope

While analog devices make use of continually varying

voltages, digital devices employ binary numbers which
correspond to samples of the voltage. In the case of digital oscilloscopes, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is 3.6 Mixed-domain oscilloscopes
used to change the measured voltages into digital inforIn a mixed-domain oscilloscope (MDO) you have an admation.
ditional RF input port that goes into a spectrum analyzer
part. It links those traditionally separate instruments, so
that you can e.g. time correlate events in the time domain
(like a specic serial data package) with events happening
in the frequency domain (like RF transmissions).

3.7 Handheld oscilloscopes

A Siglent SDS1000 Series Oscilloscope. A modern low cost DSO.

The digital storage oscilloscope, or DSO for short, is now

the preferred type for most industrial applications, although simple analog CROs are still used by hobbyists.
It replaces the electrostatic storage method used in analog storage scopes with digital memory, which can store
data as long as required without degradation and with uniform brightness. It also allows complex processing of the
signal by high-speed digital signal processing circuits.[3]
A standard DSO is limited to capturing signals with a
bandwidth of less than half the sampling rate of the ADC
(called the Nyquist limit). There is a variation of the DSO
called the digital sampling oscilloscope that can exceed
this limit for certain types of signal, such as high-speed
communications signals, where the waveform consists of
repeating pulses. This type of DSO deliberately samples
at a much lower frequency than the Nyquist limit and then
uses signal processing to reconstruct a composite view of Siglent Handheld Oscilloscope SHS800 Series
a typical pulse. A similar technique, with analog rather
than digital samples, was used before the digital era in For more details on this topic, see Oscilloscope types
Handheld oscilloscopes.
analog sampling oscilloscopes.[17][18]
A digital phosphor oscilloscope (DPO) uses color information to convey information about a signal. It may, for
example, display infrequent signal data in blue to make
it stand out. In a conventional analog scope, such a rare
trace may not be visible.


Mixed-signal oscilloscopes

A mixed-signal oscilloscope (or MSO) has two kinds

of inputs, a small number of analog channels (typically two or four), and a larger number of digital channels(typically sixteen). It provides the ability to accurately time-correlate analog and digital channels, thus offering a distinct advantage over a separate oscilloscope

Handheld oscilloscopes are useful for many test and eld

service applications. Today, a hand held oscilloscope
is usually a digital sampling oscilloscope, using a liquid
crystal display.
Many hand-held and bench oscilloscopes have the ground
reference voltage common to all input channels. If more
than one measurement channel is used at the same time,
all the input signals must have the same voltage reference, and the shared default reference is the earth. If
there is no dierential preamplier or external signal isolator, this traditional desktop oscilloscope is not suitable
for oating measurements. (Occasionally an oscilloscope
user will break the ground pin in the power supply cord of
a bench-top oscilloscope in an attempt to isolate the signal



common from the earth ground. This practice is unreliable since the entire stray capacitance of the instrument
cabinet will be connected into the circuit. Since it is also
a hazard to break a safety ground connection, instruction
manuals strongly advise against this practice.)

A new type of oscilloscope is emerging that consists of a

specialized signal acquisition board (which can be an external USB or parallel port device, or an internal add-on
PCI or ISA card). The user interface and signal processing software runs on the users computer, rather than on
an embedded computer as in the case of a conventional

3.9 Related instruments

Siglent Isolation Oscilloscope SHS1000 Series

Some models of oscilloscope have isolated inputs, where

the signal reference level terminals are not connected together. Each input channel can be used to make a oating measurement with an independent signal reference
level. Measurements can be made without tying one side
of the oscilloscope input to the circuit signal common or
ground reference.

A large number of instruments used in a variety of technical elds are really oscilloscopes with inputs, calibration, controls, display calibration, etc., specialized and
optimized for a particular application. Examples of
such oscilloscope-based instruments include waveform
monitors for analyzing video levels in television productions and medical devices such as vital function monitors
and electrocardiogram and electroencephalogram instruments. In automobile repair, an ignition analyzer is used
to show the spark waveforms for each cylinder. All of
these are essentially oscilloscopes, performing the basic
task of showing the changes in one or more input signals
over time in an XY display.
Other instruments convert the results of their measurements to a repetitive electrical signal, and incorporate an
oscilloscope as a display element. Such complex measurement systems include spectrum analyzers, transistor
analyzers, and time domain reectometers (TDRs). Unlike an oscilloscope, these instruments automatically generate stimulus or sweep a measurement parameter.

The isolation available is categorized as shown below:


PC-based oscilloscopes

4 History
Main article: Oscilloscope history
The Braun tube was known in 1897, and in 1899 Jonathan
Zenneck equipped it with beam-forming plates and a
magnetic eld for sweeping the trace. Early cathode ray
tubes had been applied experimentally to laboratory measurements as early as the 1920s, but suered from poor
stability of the vacuum and the cathode emitters. V. K.
Zworykin described a permanently sealed, high-vacuum
cathode ray tube with a thermionic emitter in 1931. This
stable and reproducible component allowed General Radio to manufacture an oscilloscope that was usable outside a laboratory setting.[3] After World War II surplus
electronic parts became the basis of revival of Heathkit
Corporation, and a $50 oscilloscope kit made from such
parts was a rst market success.

PicoScope 6000 digital PC-based oscilloscope using a laptop

computer for display & processing

For more details on this topic, see Oscilloscope types

PC-based oscilloscopes.

5 See also
Eye pattern

Tennis for Two, an oscilloscope game
Time-domain reectometry
Waveform monitor


[1] How the Cathode Ray Oscillograph Is Used in Radio Servicing, National Radio Institute (1943)
[2] Cathode-Ray Oscillograph 274A Equipment DuMont
Labs, Allen B (in German). Radiomuseum.org. Retrieved 2014-03-15.
[3] Kularatna, Nihal (2003), Fundamentals of Oscilloscopes, Digital and Analogue Instrumentation: Testing
and Measurement, Institution of Engineering and Technology, pp. 165208, ISBN 978-0-85296-999-1
[4] The 20 picofarad value is typical for scope bandwidths
around 100 MHz; for example, a 200 MHz Tektronix
7A26 input impedance is 1M and 22 pF. (Tektronix
(1983, p. 271); see also Tektronix (1998, p. 503), typical high Z 10X passive probe model.) Lower bandwidth scopes used higher capacitances; the 1 MHz Tektronix 7A22 input impedance is 1M and 47 pF. (Tektronix
1983, pp. 272273) Higher bandwidth scopes use smaller
capacitances. The 500 MHz Tektronix TDS510A input
impedance is 1M and 10 pF. (Tektronix 1998, p. 78)
[5] Probes are designed for a specic input impedance. They
have compensation adjustments with a limited range, so
they often cannot be used on dierent input impedances.
[6] Wedlock & Roberge (1969)
[7] Kobbe & Polits (1959)

[15] Jones, David. DSO Tutorial. EEVblog. Retrieved 30

December 2012.
[16] Minimum Required Sample Rate (PDF). Agilent. Retrieved 30 December 2012.
[17] Sampling Oscilloscope Techniques (PDF), Tektronix,
1989, Technique Primer 47W-7209, retrieved 11 October 2012, In 1960 Tektronix made it possible to measure
signals over 100 MHz with the introduction of the rst
analog sampling oscilloscope.
[18] Green, Leslie (June 21, 2001), The alias theorems: practical undersampling for expert engineers, EDN, retrieved
11 October 2012

US 2883619, Kobbe, John R. & William J. Polits,

Electrical Probe, issued April 21, 1959
Tektronix (1983), Tek Products, Tektronix
Tektronix (1998), Measurement Products Catalog
1998/1999, Tektronix
Wedlock, Bruce D.; Roberge, James K. (1969),
Electronic Components and Measurements, PrenticeHall, pp. 150152, ISBN 0-13-250464-2
US 3532982, Zeidlhack, Donald F. & Richard K.
White, Transmission Line Termination Circuit,
issued October 6, 1970

7 External links
XYZ of Oscilloscopes, Tektronix, 64 page Tutorial
Open Source Physics Oscilloscope Model
Oscilloscope Fundamentals Primer, Rohde &
Using an Oscilloscope

[8] Tektronix (1983, p. 426); Tek claims 300 MHz resistive

coax at 30 pF per meter; schematic has 5 adjustments.

Oscilloscope basic guide

[9] Zeidlhack & White (1970)

Oscilloscope tutorial videos

[10] Jones, David. Oscilloscope Trigger Holdo Tutorial.

EEVblog. Retrieved 30 December 2012.
[11] Nosowitz, Dan (2008-11-08).
"'Tennis for Two',
the Worlds First Graphical Videogame. Retromodo.
Gizmodo. Retrieved 2008-11-09.
[12] Webster, John G. (1999). The Measurement, Instrumentation and Sensors Handbook (illustrated ed.). Springer. p.
37-24. ISBN 978-3540648307.
[13] Spitzer, Frank; Howarth, Barry (1972), Principles of modern Instrumentation, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, p. 119, ISBN 0-03-080208-3
[14] http://literature.cdn.keysight.com/litweb/pdf/

Digital Storage Oscilloscope measurement basics

Low Cost Oscilloscope, Utilizing TRS Connector
(3.5 mm Jack)
Oscilloscope Development, 1943-1957
The Cathode Ray Tube site
Oscilloscope History and Development Milestones,



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File:CROdual.gif Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/08/CROdual.gif License: CC BY-SA 4.0 Contributors:

Own workhttp://weelookang.blogspot.sg/2015/06/ejss-cathode-ray-oscilloscope-cro.html Original artist: Lookang many thanks to author
of original simulation = Fu-Kwun Hwang author of Easy Java Simulation = Francisco Esquembre
File:CROsweep.gif Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a2/CROsweep.gif License: CC BY-SA 4.0 Contributors:
Own workhttp://weelookang.blogspot.sg/2015/06/ejss-cathode-ray-oscilloscope-cro.html Original artist: Lookang many thanks to author
of original simulation = Fu-Kwun Hwang author of Easy Java Simulation = Francisco Esquembre
File:CROtperdivisionincrease.gif Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0d/CROtperdivisionincrease.gif License: CC BY-SA 4.0 Contributors: Own workhttp://weelookang.blogspot.sg/2015/06/ejss-cathode-ray-oscilloscope-cro.html Original
artist: Lookang many thanks to author of original simulation = Fu-Kwun Hwang author of Easy Java Simulation = Francisco Esquembre
File:CROxoffset.gif Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/67/CROxoffset.gif License: CC BY-SA 4.0 Contributors: Own workhttp://weelookang.blogspot.sg/2015/06/ejss-cathode-ray-oscilloscope-cro.html Original artist: Lookang many thanks to
author of original simulation = Fu-Kwun Hwang author of Easy Java Simulation = Francisco Esquembre
File:CROyoffset.gif Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/96/CROyoffset.gif License: CC BY-SA 4.0 Contributors: Own workhttp://weelookang.blogspot.sg/2015/06/ejss-cathode-ray-oscilloscope-cro.html Original artist: Lookang many thanks to
author of original simulation = Fu-Kwun Hwang author of Easy Java Simulation = Francisco Esquembre
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artist: ?
File:Handheld_Oscilloscope_SHS800.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/24/Handheld_Oscilloscope_
SHS800.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: http://www.siglent.com/en/product/detail4.aspx?id=100000002253541&nodecode=
119008004 Original artist: SIGLENT TECHNOLOGIES CO.,LTD


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File:Isolation_Oscilloscope_SHS1000.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/57/Isolation_Oscilloscope_

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119008004 Original artist: SIGLENT TECHNOLOGIES CO.,LTD
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File:Tektronix_465_Oscilloscope.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Tektronix_465_Oscilloscope.
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svg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: User:Bastique, User:Ramac et al.


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