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NURJANNAH

108014000082

5C

TEXTBOOK RESPONSE FORM


Book title

: Leading and Managing a Differentiated Classroom

Author

: Carol Ann Tomlison & Marcia B. Imbeau

Publisher

: ASCD MEMBER BOOK

Date Published

: 2010

Type of the book : Reference

No. of pages: 187 pages


Book Code: 133

Purposes of the chapters are:


Part I: Leading a Differentiated Classroom
In my opinion, this part is going to explain about how teacher to lead a
differentiated classroom well and what the three chapters in it will talk about.
Chapter 1
Understanding Differentiation in Order to Lead: Aiming for
Fidelity to a Model
I guess this chapter will discuss on what the differentiation and how
the teachers deal with that.
Chapter 2
Teaching What You Believe: A Philosophy to Guide Teachers Who
Lead Differentiation
According to the title above, in this chapter we will learn about the
philosophy that can make the teacher have the good belief about the differentiation.
Chapter 3
The Invitation to Be Part of a Vision: Talking with Students,
Parents, and Other Educators About Differentiation
In my opinion, this chapter will probably talk about how teachers talk
to students, parents, and other educators about the differentiation.
Part II: Managing a Differentiated Classroom
In this part will include four chapters that explain about how to
manage a differentiated classroom well. As we have learned about the theories in the
three previous chapters, now we start to be more practical
Chapter 4

Learning Environment: Setting the Stage for Academic Success

I guess this chapter will discuss on how a teacher starts to teach a


differentiated classroom.
Chapter 5

Classroom Routines: Preparing for the Work Ahead

In my opinion this chapter is probably going to explain how the


teachers provide the routines that make the students consider that their class is a
differentiated classroom.
Chapter 6

Routines in a Differentiated Classroom: Once the Work Begins

I guess that in this chapter we will probably learn how the teacher
prepares the routines in a differentiated classroom.
Chapter 7

Yes, ButCommon Sticking Points about Differentiation

According to my opinion, this chapter will probably talk about the


reasons of the teachers who do not want to consider that there is the differentiation in
their classroom and they do not want to use the different instructions in their teaching
and in this chapter also includes the contrary statements to those teachers reasons.
Teachers Toolkit
According to the title, this chapter will probably explain about the
teachers toolkits in their teaching in a differentiated classroom.
Table of Content

Preface. ix
Part I: Leading a Differentiated Classroom...1
1. Understanding Differentiation in Order to Lead:
Aiming for Fidelity to a Model..12
1.1. Key elements of differentiated instructions..14
1.2. Learning profile17
1.3. Differentiation and the classroom system19
1.4. Learning environment..19
1.5. Curriculum....20
1.6. Assessment...21
1.7. Instruction.22
1.8. Interdependent of classroom elements..22
2. Teaching What You Believe:
A Philosophy to Guide Teachers Who Lead Differentiation.25
2.1. Belief 1: Every students is worthy of dignity and respect27
2.2. Belief 2: Diversity in both inevitable and positive...28
2.3. Belief 3: The classroom should mirror the kind of society in which we want our
students to live and lead...29
2.4. Belief 4: Most students can learn most things that are essential to a given area
of a study...31
2.5. Belief 5: Each student should have equity of access to excellent learning
opportunities.34
2.6. Belief 6: A central goal of teaching is to maximize the capacity of each
learner...35

2.7. A philosophical compass for the journey ahead...37


2.8. Enter the students..38
2.9. The teacher responds39
3. The Invitation to Be Part of a Vision:
Talking with Students, Parents, and Other Educators about Differentiation.43
3.1. Who are you as learners?..................................................................................46
3.2. Given the differences we see, how should I teach you?...................................54
3.3. If our classroom is going to work for all of us, what will it be like?................56
3.4. How can I learn more about your starting points, interests, and best ways of
learning?...........................................................................................................58
3.5. If we have a differentiated classroom, can it be fair?.......................................61
3.6. What will success in this class mean?..............................................................62
3.7. Teacher as a leader of parents in understanding differentiation...63
3.8. Teacher as leaders of colleagues in understanding differentiation...65
Part II: Managing a Differentiated Classroom.69
4. Learning Environment:
Setting the Stage for Academic Success74
4.1. Staging a successful drama...77
4.2. Getting to know students..78
4.3. Building a community in the classroom...84
4.4. Developing community85
4.5. Using students groups and classroom community....88
4.6. Designing a physical environment to support learning92
4.7. Wall space and bulletin boards.94
4.8. Materials, supplies, and organizers...96
5. Classroom Routines:
Preparing for the Work Ahead...99
5.1. Classroom procedures and routines..99
5.2. Classroom rules to live by..102
5.3. Starting the day, starting class....104
5.4. Ending the day, ending class..106
5.5. Assigning students to groups..107
5.6. Giving directions for multiple tasks...110
6. Routines in a Differentiated Classroom:

Once the Work Begins.115


6.1. Calling on students.116
6.2. Working in groups......118
6.3. Managing noise...121
6.4. Getting help123
6.5. Helping students transition.124
6.6. Managing time126
6.7. Keeping track..132
6.8. An important reminder...132
7. Yes, ButCommon Sticking Points about Differentiation.136
7.1. But my students are different..139
7.2. But grading requirements dont work with differentiation.144
7.3. Concluding thoughts...149
Teachers Toolkit...151
References..176
Index..180
About the Author...185
Questions and answers:
Part I: Leading a Differentiated Classroom
Question: What is the issue in leading a differentiated classroom?
Answer: The issue or message is and consistent. And the message is taken from the
excerpts from five current key educational documents in United States. And the
message is Student differences matter and effective teachers attend to those differences
thoughtfully and proactively.
1. Understanding Differentiation in Order to Lead: Aiming for Fidelity to a Model
1.1. Key elements of differentiated instructions
Question: What are the key elements of differentiated instruction?
Answer: There are 7 key elements:
I.

Students differ as learners in terms of background experience, culture, language,


gender, interest, readiness to learn, modes of learning, speed of learning, support
systems for learning, self-awareness as a learner, confidence as a learner,
independence as a learner, and a host of other ways.

II.

Differences profoundly impact how students learn and the nature of scaffolding
they will need at various points in the learning process.

III.

Teachers have a responsibility to ensure that all of their students master


important content.

IV.

Teachers have to make specific and continually evolving plans to connect each
learner with key content.

V.

Teachers are required to understand the nature of each of their students, in


addition to the nature of the content they teach.

VI.
VII.

A flexible approach to teaching makes room for student variance.


Teachers should continually ask what does this student need at this moment in
order to be able to progress with this key content and what do I need to do to
make that happen?

1.2. Learning profile


Question: What does Learning Profile means?
Answer: A preference for taking in, exploring, or expressing content
1.3. Differentiation and the classroom system
Question: What is the relationship between the differentiation and the classroom
system?
Answer: Differentiated instruction is a principle-guided method to approach teaching
and learning, and it is implemented in the context of a classroom system.
1.4. Learning environment
Question: How does the learning environment affect in leading a differentiated
classroom?
Answer: Students learn best when they feel safe, respected, involved, challenged, and
supported. Thus, a learning environment that invites each student to be a full participant
in the classroom with full support for the journey is a necessity for robust differentiated
instruction.
1.5. Curriculum
Question: How does the curriculum mean?
Answer: An organized plan to engaged learners with important knowledge,
understanding and skills.
1.6. Assessment
Question: How does the assessment affect in leading a differentiated classroom?
Answer: High-quality assessments should give students in understanding essential
learning outcomes, their status relative to those outcomes, and ways in which they can
work effectively to maximize their growth toward and beyond those outcomes.
1.7. Instruction
Question: How does the instruction mean?
Answer: The process of teaching, educating, and engaging students with the content.
1.8. Interdependent of classroom elements
Question: What does the interdependent of classroom elements means?

Answer: It is the interdependence among curriculum, assessment, and instruction which


is surrounded by four aspect of the learning environment: owning students success,
studying students, creating a positive environment, and connecting with the students.
2. Teaching What You Believe: A Philosophy to Guide Teachers Who Lead
Differentiation
2.1. Belief 1: Every students is worthy of dignity and respect
Question: What does Every students is worthy of dignity and respect mean?
Answer: Teachers aspire to act and interact in ways that consistently respect and dignify
the worth of each student. Such teachers accept the premise that teaching is essentially
about building lives.
2.2. Belief 2: Diversity in both inevitable and positive
Question: What does Diversity in both inevitable and positive mean?
Answer: Teachers teach students a critical reality that we are a great deal alike as human
beings and, in those ways, we share a common bond, yet human beings differ as well.
2.3. Belief 3: The classroom should mirror the kind of society in which we want our
students to live and lead
Question: Why should the classroom mirror the kind of society in which we want our
students to live and lead?
Answer: Certainly, we want young people to live in, value, and defend a society that
accords respect and dignity to each of its member. We also live in a time when
the world is rapidly becoming everyones backyard.
2.4. Belief 4: Most students can learn most things that are essential to a given area of a
study
Question: Why can most students learn most things that are essential to a given area of a
study?
Answer: Teacher beliefs about students capacity to succeed are often buried beneath
consciousness. Those belief s are nonetheless powerful determination in
shaping both teaching and student attitudes about learning.
2.5. Belief 5: Each student should have equity of access to excellent learning
opportunities
Question: Why should each student have equity of access to excellent learning
opportunities?
Answer: Indication are increasingly that establishing expectations for a majority of
students to become creator (rather than simply consumer) of knowledge is
imperative if we expect all of our young people to thrive in and contribute to
the world they will enter as they leave school.
2.6. Belief 6: A central goal of teaching is to maximize the capacity of each learner
Question: Why is a central goal of teaching to maximize the capacity of each learner?

Answer: It is such a triumvirate of beliefs also results in many more students exceeding
the unitary standards we now establish.
2.7. A philosophical compass for the journey ahead
Question: What is the philosophical compass for the journey ahead?
Answer: It is an affirmation that human differences are normal and desirable, and that
excellent teachers plan, teach, and reflect with those differences in mind.
2.8. Enter the students
Question: What is the enter students?
Answer: It is the case of teaching that a defensible philosophy supports the capacity of
teachers to address the needs of the young people they teach
2.9. The teacher responds
Question: What is the teacher responds?
Answer: At least two elements determine a teachers response to students needs and its
quality in terms of student benefits. There are will and skill
3. The Invitation to Be Part of a Vision: Talking with Students, Parents, and Other
Educators about Differentiation
3.1. Who are you as learners?
Question: What is the purpose of the question above?
Answer: This is the question which has purpose to know the student individually in
order to shape the way to tech the students well.
3.2. Given the differences we see, how should I teach you?
Question: What is the purpose of the question above?
Answer: This question to make students consider that human differences are not normal
but they are also valuable
3.3. If our classroom is going to work for all of us, what will it be like?
Question: What is the purpose of the question above?
Answer: The purpose is to talk to the students about two things. First, what the
classroom might look alike. And second, what role each person will need to
play (as well as what they should not do) in order to contribute to the success
of the classroom.
3.4. How can I learn more about your starting points, interests, and best ways of
learning?
Question: What is the purpose of the question above?
Answer: The purpose of this question is that a teacher should aspire to know some
general things, such as how well the students read, what they like to do with
their spare time, what their dreams are, how they relate their peers, how they

see themselves as learners, how they learn best, and how their culture shape
their learning.
3.5. If we have a differentiated classroom, can it be fair?
Question: What is the purpose of the question above?
Answer: The purpose of this question is to know what students thinking about fair in
their classroom
3.6. What will success in this class mean?
Question: What is the purpose of the question above?
Answer: The purpose of this question is to know students progress.
3.7. Teacher as a leader of parents in understanding differentiation
Question: How is teacher as a leader of parents in understanding differentiation?
Answer: There are at least three important points to make about teachers who work
effectively with parents to help them understand and contribute to a class that
is focused on the success of each individual learner. First, it is important for
teachers to realize the important role parents can play helping a teacher know
students better. Second, it is critical for teachers to understand the role that
culture plays in shaping parental response to school. Third, few parents argue
with the baseline intent of differentiation if it is articulated clearly and in a
way that is relevant to their desires and concerns.
3.8. Teacher as leaders of colleagues in understanding differentiation
Question: How the teachers become leaders of colleagues in understanding
differentiation?
Answer: A teacher who leads for differentiation lives daily with that challenge, and he
or she engages students, colleagues, and superordinates in confronting that
challenge, asking the uncomfortable questions that necessary surround it, and
joining perspectives to find better solutions. Everyone benefits.
Part II: Managing a Differentiated Classroom
4. Learning Environment: Setting the Stage for Academic Success
4.1. Staging a successful drama
Question: How to stage a successful drama?
Answer: To make the drama work, the teacher must work quickly to get to know the
actors and persistently understand them. He or she must begin early to build a
team from a group of disparate individuals and continue the team-building
process as long as the drama runs. In a small piece of real estate called a
classroom, the teacher must offer a set in which the actor can work to make the
play compelling.
4.2. Getting to know students
Question: How to get the students know?

Answer: The excellent teachers believe that teaching is not complete until learning
occurs and that learning is predicated on teachers thorough understanding of
both content and their students.
4.3. Building a community in the classroom
Question: How to build a community in the classroom?
Answer: In differentiated classrooms, a teacher leads students to craft a common vision
of a class in which there is room for everyone and individuals make a
commitment to support one another in learning
4.4. Developing community
Question: How to develop the community?
Answer: Teachers develop their own strategies to identify and clarify the specific goals
to which they aspire as a class. In doing so, they not only clarify what matters
most in the classroom, but they help students come together around those
significant ideas. They do not emphasize community in lieu of content, but
rather as a means of opening students to the learning process.
4.5. Using students groups and classroom community
Question: How to use students groups and classroom community?
Answer: There are six principles of effective grouping that support the beliefs and
practices of differentiation. They are use flexible grouping, teach
up; use multiple tasks; assign individual roles within groups;
make content accessible to everyone; assign competence.
4.6. Designing a physical environment to support learning
Question: How to design a physical environment to support learning?
Answer: The physical environment in a differentiated classroom should provide the
structure and predictability young people need in order to feel secure. In
addition, it should allow flexibility to attend to both group and individual
needs in the context of a rich, meaning-focused curriculum
4.7. Wall space and bulletin boards
Question: What are wall space and bulletin boards?
Answer: The stereotypical classroom image tends to be of blank walls and bulletin
boards filled with cut-out image from teachers store which, of course, do little
facilitate student success or make the class seem more learner oriented.
4.8. Materials, supplies, and organizers
Question: What are materials, supplies, and organizers?
Answer: They are the critical to facilitate learner success and support flexibility in the
classroom. The idea is giving students access to what they will need as they
work in.
5. Classroom Routines: Preparing for the Work Ahead

5.1. Classroom procedures and routines


Question: What are classroom procedures and routines?
Answer: Classroom procedures and routines are prescribed ways of doing things that
allow teaching and learning to proceed in a structured, predictable, an efficient
manner. The procedure or routine has 7 steps that teachers must follow:
I.
II.

Determine them
Clarify the rationale for them

III.

Develop them

IV.

Teach them

V.

Apply them

VI.
VII.

Automatize them
Reflect on, revise, and review them.

5.2. Classroom rules to live by


Question: Why must we do the classroom rules to live by?
Answer: There are three reasons for this. First, developing the rules can either lead to or
reinforce the fundamental tenets of differentiation. Second, when a teacher
asks his or her class to reach a consensus about the rules by which the group
will live, it sends a distinct message that the teacher trusts the students to have
good judgment. Third, as students discuss and listen to one anothers ideas, a
general tone and specific procedures begin to emerge for what it means to
think and solve problems as a group. The evolution of community begins.
5.3. Starting the day, starting class
Question: What does Starting the day, starting class mean?
Answer: It is to help students begin the day or class in a way that supports learning
5.4. Ending the day, ending class
Question: What does Ending the day, ending class mean?
Answer: It is the activity that predictable routines for closure continue to provide
parameters for an orderly, flexible classroom. They are also a key component
in developing a sense of community in a differentiated classroom.
5.5. Assigning students to groups
Question: How to assign students to groups?
Answer: Teachers need to answer 2 questions when they assign students to flexible
grouping in a differentiated classroom. First, how will students know
who they are working with on a particular day and at a particular
time? Second, how will groups and individuals know where to work in
the classroom?
5.6. Giving directions for multiple tasks

Question: How to give directions for multiple tasks?


Answer: There are six suggestions for giving direction when students will work on
varied tasks, versions of the same task, or in varied grouping arrangements:
I.

Give directions to only those students who need to hear them

II.

Use task cards

III.

Provide directions in alternative formats

IV.

Use students to give directions

V.

Meet with students who have difficulty in understanding directions

VI.

Differentiated the assignment

6. Routines in a Differentiated Classroom: Once the Work Begins


6.1. Calling on students
Question: How to call on students?
Answer: There are 2 key goals to developing routines for calling on students:
I.

Make sure everyone in the class has both the opportunity and
responsibility to speak.

II.

Develop a system that helps students make meaningful contributions to


class discussion, conversation, or deliberations.

6.2. Working in groups


Question: Why must we do the Working in groups?
Answer: Most experts tell us that collaboration and the use of collective intelligence to
solve problem are skills our students must develop if they are to be prepared
for life in the world beyond school.
6.3. Managing noise
Question: How to manage noise?
Answer: There are four ideas for handling noise in the classroom:
I.

Clarify student expectations

II.

Place a value on silent work

III.

Define acceptable noise limits

IV.

Allow students to block out distracting noise

6.4. Getting help


Question: How to do the Getting help?
Answer: There are six things to be considered as a teacher develop routines to guide
students in getting help:
I.
II.

Develop clear directions


Teach students to be active listeners

III.

Make sure students know when to ask for help

IV.

Make sure students know when to ask their peers for help

V.

Use question chips

VI.

Administer first aid

6.5. Helping students transition


Question: How to help students transition?
Answer: There 5 suggestions as a teacher plan routines for classroom transitions:
I.
II.

Clarify expectation
Create a time challenge

III.

Organize material logically

IV.

Designate a Supply Student

V.

Post alternative floor plans

6.6. Managing time


Question: How to manage time?
Answer: There are six strategies as the teachers develop the routines for managing time:
I.

Use anchor activities from very early in the year

II.

Add to the list of options gradually

III.

Do not grade anchor activities

IV.

Explain the ground rules for extra time

V.
VI.

Develop procedures for providing meaningful challenge


Develop procedures for buying time

6.7. Keeping track


Question: How to keep the track?
Answer: It is not difficult to know who has mastered what in a differentiated classroom
as long as the teacher is clear about the essential learning goals and has a
system for monitoring student growth toward those goals.
6.8. An important reminder
Question: What is an important reminder?
Answer: In using this book, your goal should be to begin with the most fundamental
routines and introduce new ones as they are needed and as students are ready
for them. Polishing and revising as you go.
7. Yes, ButCommon Sticking Points about Differentiation
7.1. But my students are different
Question: What is the contrary statement for the reason But my students are different?

Answer: There are nine guidelines to deal with that reason:


I.
II.

Do not lower your expectations for students


Move slowly but persistently toward helping all students satisfy the same
expectations

III.

Learn from the warm demanders

IV.

Remember that young people will nearly always succeed if they can

V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
IX.

Invest heavily in trying to understand the cause of a students misbehaviour


Be proactive
Pick your battles
Do not afraid to delay handling a tense situation
Demonstrate empathy and respect to identify solutions to a problem

7.2. But grading requirements dont work with differentiation


Question: What is the contrary statement for the reason But grading requirements dont
work with differentiation?
Answer: There are 10 principles and practices of grading are widely recommended by
experts in the field of measurements and grading:
I.
II.

Grading is one moment in a long progression of assessment decisions


The nature of a teachers decisions about assessment will affect grading

III.

Instruction should be differentiated

IV.

Assessments should be differentiated

V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
IX.
X.

Grading should stem from, not dictate, effective assessment practices


Grades should be based on clear and specific learning goals
Evidence that contributes to grading should be valid
Students should be graded on clear criteria, not norms
Grade later in a cycle rather than earlier
Report key elements of learner development, but report them separately

7.3. Concluding thoughts


Question: What is the Concluding thoughts?
Answer: We know that every student that enters every classroom will be enhanced or
diminished by the collective attitudes, decisions, and practices of the teachers.
We know that every young life that is redeemed by learning is an individual
and a collective victory. Likewise, we know that every young life that is scared
by school is an individual and a collective tragedy. We know that
contemporary schools and teachers need to develop beyond passive acceptance
of what was good enough in the past. We know that this can only happen
when teachers aspire to do their very best and, in the process, create better

ways to ignite the spark of genius found in every human being with the flint of
real learning.
Teachers Toolkit
Question: What are the teachers toolkits that are explained in this book?
Answer: There are fifteen teachers toolkits:
I.
II.

Getting to know your students through glyphs


Bio-Poem

III.

Student profile cards

IV.

Design your own postcards

V.

Ideas for building community

VI.

Line Em Up

VII.

Puzzle pieces

VIII.
IX.

Highlighting students
Learning centres

X.

Task cards

XI.

Hint cards

XII.

Clinics

XIII.

Anchor activities

XIV.

Orbitals

XV.

Request for additional time on a project