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Assignment for Persons 1B/1D

Articles 1-18, Civil Code, and Related Cases


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PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS
Vice Dean Marciano G. Delson
Atty. Francesca Lourdes M. SegaI.

Effect and Application of Laws (Arts. 1-18)

Effectivity of Laws (Art. 2)


1. Publication Requirement; What to Publish Importance of Publication
- Tanada v. Tuvera, 146 SCRA 446
- De Roy vs. CA 146 SCRA 757
- People vs., Que Po Lay 94 Phil 640
- NPC v. Pinatubo Commercial, G.R. No. 176006, 26 March 2010.
- Neri vs. Senate Committee on Accountability of Public Officers G.R. No. 180643 March 25, 2008
- Pimentel vs. Senate Committee of the Whole, G.R. No. 187714, March 8, 2011

Ignorance of Law excuses no one (Art. 3)


1. Mistake of law v. Mistake of Fact:

a. Art. 526 mistake on doubtful or difficult provision of law is basis for good faith - mitigates but does
not extinguish liability;
b. Art. 1334 mutual error on legal effect of agreement- may vitiate consent;
c. Art. 2155 mistake in payment gives rise to right to return of erroneous payment
Garcia vs. Recio G.R. No. 138322, Oct. 2, 2002

Prospective Application of Laws (Art. 4)


1. Exception
a. If provided in the law itself
b. Procedural law
c. Penal law if favorable to the accused
d. Curative and Repealing statutes;
e. Creating new rights
f. Tax statutes
g. Interpretative Statutes

2. Exception to the Exception


a. Ex post facto laws;
b. Penal laws not favorable to the accused;
c. Substantive laws impairing vested rights.
- Valeroso v. People, G.R. No. 164815, 22 February 2008
- PNB v. Office of the President, G.R. No. 104528, 18 January 1996

- ABS-CBN v. CTA, G.R. No. L-52306, 12 October 1981

Acts Contrary to Mandatory or Prohibitory Provisions are Void (Art. 5)


1. Exceptions
a. The law makes the act valid BUT punishes THE VIOLATOR
b. The law itself authorizes its validity
c. The law makes the act only voidable
d. The law declares the nullity of an act but recognizes its effects as legally existing

Waiver of Rights (Art. 6)


1. Requisites
2. Exceptions
a. Waiver is contrary to law, public order, public policy, morals or good customs;
b. If the waiver is prejudicial to a third party with a right recognized by law.
c. Alleged rights which really do not yet exist, as in the case of future inheritance
d. If the right is a natural right, such as right to be supported.
- D.M. Consunji vs. CA, G.R. No. 137873, April 20, 2001
- Cui vs. Arellano University 2 SCRA 205
- PNB v. Nepomuceno Productions, G.R. No. 139479, 27 December 2002
- People v. Serzo, G.R. No. 118435, 20 June 1997
- Gongon v. Court of Appeals, 32 SCRA 412

Repeal of Laws (Art. 7)


1. Kinds of Repeal
a. Express
b. Implied (not favored)
2. Effects 3. Sec. 444, Local Government Code
- Navarro vs. Judge Domagtoy, 259 SCRA 129
- Beso vs. Dagunan, 323 SCRA 566
- Mecano v. COA, G.R. No. 103928, 11 December 1992

Judicial Decisions form part of the law of the land (Art. 8)


Doctrine of stare decisis
- People v. Licera G.R. No. L-39990, July 2, 1975
- People v. Jabinal G.R. No. L-30061, February 27, 1974

Duty of Judges (Art. 9)


- Chuayan vs. Bernas, 34 Phil 631
- People vs. Veneracion, 249 SCRA 251
- Caltez, Inc. v. Palomar, 18 SCRA 247
- People v. Licera, 65 SCRA 270

Doubtful Statues (Art. 10)


- People vs. Purisima, 86 SCRA 542
- In Re: Padilla, 74 Phil. 377

Customs (Art. 11-12)


1. Requisites to make a custom an obligatory rule
a. Plurality or repetition of acts;
b. Practiced by the great mass of the social group;
c. Continued practice for a long period of time;
d. The community accepts it as a proper way of acting, such that it is considered as obligatory upon
all
- Martinez vs. Van Buskirk, 18 Phil 79
- Yao Kee vs. Sy-Gonzales, 167 SCRA 736
- In the Matter of the Petition for Authority to Continue the Use of the Firm Name Ozaeta, Romulo,
etc., 92 SCRA 1

Computation of Period and Time (Art. 13)


1. Rule on Computation of Period: First day excluded, last day included
a. Years- 365 days, unless year identified
b. Months-30 days, unless month identified
c. Days 24 hours
d. Nights - sunset to sundown

2. Exception: Computation of age - each year based on birth anniversary


3. Policy if last day is a Sunday or Legal Holiday
- Garcia vs. Recio, 366 SCRA 437
- CIR vs. Primetown, G.R. 162155, August 28, 2007

Penal Laws (Art. 14)


a) Applicability in the Philippines if committed here
b) Territoriality
c) Exceptions
1. Public International Law (Diplomatic Immunity, etc)
2. Treaty Stipulations

Civil Laws (Art. 15-17)


1. General Rule: Nationality Principle
a. Family Rights and Duties
d) Status
e) Condition
f) Legal Capacity
2. Exceptions
3. Property transactions (real or personal) lex situs,
4. Exception to Exception: National Law of Decedent

5. Order of successional rights


6. Amount of successional rights
7. Intrinsic validity of testamentary provisions
8. Capacity to succeed
9. Art. 26, par. 2 FC
10. Lex Loci Celebrationis
i. Exception: Intrinsic validity and Art. 26, par. 1 FC
3. Renvoi Doctrine
- Miciano vs. Brimo 50 Phil 867
- Van Dorn vs. Ronillo, Jr. et al., 139 SCRA 139
- Pilapil vs. Ibay-Somera 174 SCRA 653
- Barreto vs. Gonzales 58 ,Phil 67
- Govt. vs. Frank. 13 Phil 238
- Barnuevo vs. Fuster, 29 Phil 606
- Testate Estate of Bohanan vs. Bohanan, et al., 106 Phil 997
- Bellis vs. Bellis, 20 SCRA 358
- Aznar vs. Garcia 7 SCRA 95
- Roehr vs. Rodriguez, G.R. No. 142820, June 20, 2003
- Garcia vs. Recio G.R. No. 138322, Oct. 2, 2002
- People v. Lol-lo and Saraw, G.R. No. 17958, 27 February 1922
- Eugenio v. Velez, G.R. No. 85140, 17 May 1900

- Pilapil v. Ibay-Somera, G.R. No. 80116, 30 June 1989


- Van Dorn v. Romillo, G.R. No. L-68470, 8 October 1985
- Republic v. Iyoy, G.R. No. 152577, 21 September 2005
- Republic v. Obrecido, G.R. No. 154380, 5 October 2005
- Roehr v. Rodriguez, G.R. No. 142820, 20 June 2003

Art. 18 Suppletory application of Civil Code in matters governed by special law