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# 3.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1

INTRODUCTION

Research methodology discuss the methodology used in this study. In this chapter,
it will briefly describe the steps involve in analyzing the findings in term of
research design, sampling technique, data collection method, data collection
procedure and also research analysis. Research methodology plus an important
part in implementing this research study accordingly.

3.2

RESEARCH DESIGN

This research design involves in determine the type of investigation in this study,
where basic research is conducted in order to determine how independent
variables give the impact to the dependent variable in a way to intepreting the
research results. In this research, there are two choosen independent variables and
the impact is identified as the dependent variable. The quantitative research
involve in this study in order to analyze the numerical data using statistical
techniques.
The purpose of this research using descriptive analysis which is used to provide a
description of a situation. It is describing the relationship between the independent
variables and depedent variable that conducted at Petronas KLCC, Kuala Lumpur.

The cross tab analysis is use in this research to investigate the relationship
between the factors that might give the impact on the dependent variable which
are on the employee motivation. Survey will be conducted in order to collect the
data from the specific respondents.
The questionnaire distributed in 500 sets for 500 respondents among the
employee of Petronas Carigali Sdn Bhd which only will take around five to ten
minutes for respondents to answer the survey and the survey will be collected
after the completion. Two days will be allocate to distribute the 500
questionnaires. The employee of Petronas Carigali Sdn Bhd will represent the
respondents among Petronass employee which likely represent the whole
population of the 5000 Petronass employee in Kuala Lumpur.

3.3

SAMPLING

## Sampling can be identified when selecting an individuals as sample either a

probability approach or a nonprobability approch. Sampling represent the number
of the population in order to understand the characteristic and the properties
which will produce the the statistical data that will represent the whole
population. Probability samples are those where each element of the population
has a known probability of being selected (Sekaran, 2013).

In probability sampling technique, the samples are gathered in a process that give
all the individuals in the population equal chances of being selected. Simple
random sampling can be utilizes in order to achived the equal oppurtunity of
selection the population. The random selection will then represent the entire
population by conducting the sampling list and then randomly select the desired
numer od subjects. They are various type in getting the information of the whole
population by the simple random sampling including using a software to picking
up the random selection while conducting the survey.
While in systematic random sampling, it can be defined as an arithmetic
progression wherein the differences between two consecutive numbers in same
are tend to be used. Besides, for stratified random sampling, the subjects are
meant to grouped into the specific class then it will randomly select the final list
of the subject from the different srata. This technique usually will be use to study
the particular subgroup within the population and it more precise in therm of
statistical outcomes compared to the random sampling. As the number of the
population are increasing, the probability sampling technique is almost impossible
to conduct. In a way to determine the whole population, the cluster random
sampling will be use for example to represent the whole world population or
region or country.
The other sampling technique is non probability sampling. Non probability
sampling technique is basically an assumption about the nature of the population.
The differences between this two technique is clearly seen where in probability
sampling technique, the chances of being selected is high where in the non

## probability sampling there is only an assumption of the characteristic that will

represent the whole population (Sekaran, 2013). The most comman types for non
probability sampling techniques are convenience sampling, volunteer sampling,
judgmental sampling and quota sampling. In this research, the convenience
sampling are conducted among the respondents.
Probability sampling technique are conducted in this study among the
respondents. The survey will be distirbute to all 500 employees of Petronas
Carigali Sdn Bhd. The total population of Petronas Carigali Sdn Bhd located in
Kuala Lumpur is 5000, where the respondents are selected in 10 different
departments where represent the level of positions in the organization. Five out of
10 of each respondents are represent the junior level executive which their years
of service from one to five years. Whereas, another five of respondents represent
the senior executive where the year of service is from six to 10 years. The
respondents are selected to represent the whole population of the study.

3.4

## DATA COLLECTION METHOD

In gathering the specific information for this study, primary and secondary data
are used.

3.4.1

PRIMARY DATA

The primary data refer to the information collected by the reseacher in order
to specific the purpose of the study (Sekaran, 2013). Primary data can be
collected through communication, interview, observation, focus group and
also existing questionnaires.
In this study, questionnaires are used because it is an efficient way of
collecting the data which provide all the necessary information for primary
data collection. There are several advantages of using the questionnaire as a
primary data collection such as inexpensive, less time consuming, able to
complete within short period of time and do not require as much skill
compared to conducting an interviews.
A set of questionnaire which consists of three sections was used. The
questionnaire consists of six pages is designed for respondents that have been
identified. The instruments was developed in English Language and made it
possible for participants to averagely understand the entire instrument. Since
the focus group of respondents among those who have high education, they
are tend to be more proficient in English Language.

## 500 sets of questionnaires will distribute to the respondents in hand by the

researchers to the head of department. The collected information of primary
data will be used to determine the objective of the study in order to analyze
the quantitative analysis.

3.4.2

SECONDARY DATA

## Sekaran (2013) explained secondary data refer to data collecting in descriptive

information in order to support the decision making. Secondary data is
accumulated before primary data is gathered. Few sources of secondary data
are journals, articles, newspaper, bulletins and many more. In this study,
journals, articles and books are the main sources to the researcher.
Research Method for Business by Uma Sekaran and Rouger Bougie is one of
the secondary data sources that gathered the information used for this study
and become the heart of this research as more information gathered from this
book are very usefull in term of conducting a survey towards writing a report
which broad examples by various researchers.
Other than that, the Petronass website itself give the researcher a secondary
data as an information in this study. The information gathered from the
website consist of the company profile, products,business interest and etcs
which are very useful to knows the organization in depth.

3.5

QUESTIONAIRE DESIGN

The survey used in this study addressed two purposes. The first purpose was to
examine the leadership styles of the organization including transformational and
transactional styles. The second purpose was to study the employee motivation
with regards to the leadership styles approches.
The survey instrument was divided into three sections. Section One:
Demographic, items 1-10, addressed the demographic details of respondents
including age, year of service, gender and also positions. The survey items in this
study were developed as a result of an analysis of previous studies, discussions
with practitioners in the field, and a review of the literature.
Section and section three are for independent variables and dependent variable
respectively. Items 11-30, were constructed using 5 Points Likert Scale which
measure respondents answer either strongly disgaree, disagree, neutral, agree and
strongly agree.
Reliability and validity are important aspects of questionnaire design. According
to Suskie (1996), a perfectly reliable questionnaire elicits consistent responses.
Although it is difficult to develop, it is reasonable to design a questionnaire that
approaches

3.6

consistent

level

of

response.

RESEARCH ANALYSIS

The analysis for this study was carried out by using Statistical Procedure of Social
System 14.0 (SPSS). Descriptive statistic employed to measure the relationship

between the dependent variable and independent variables. The data computed
and recorded through the range into same variables.

3.6.1

FREQUENCY ANALYSIS

## The frequency analysis is use to summarize the entire question asked. As

stated by Coakes and Steed (1999), a frequency distribution is a display of the
frequency of occurrence of each score value. The main objective is to obtain a
count of the number of responses associated with different values of the
variable. The relative occurrence or frequency of different values of the
variables is expresses in percentage. The mean, the range, the standard
deviation, and the variance in data will give a good idea of how the
respondents have reacted to the items in the questionnaire and how good the
items and measures are. It is prudent to obtain the frequency distributions for
the demographic variables, the mean, standard deviation, range, and variance
on the other dependent and independent variables.

3.6.2

RELIABILITY

## The reliability of a measure is established by testing for both consistency and

stability. Consistency indicates how well the items measuring a concept hang
together as a set. In this study, Cronbachs alpha was used to test the reliability
of questionnaire as a set for the one independent variables which

## physchographic in order to analyze the relationship between the dependent

variable which will indicate by the number of the Cronbachs alpha obtained.

3.6.3

CROSS TABULATION

The cross tabulation analysis used to analyze the categorical data between
nominal to nominal. The dimensional table will records the number of
frequency of respondents that have the specific charateristic in which has been
described in the cells of the table. The table will provide the information of the
relationship between variables. The cells of the table report the frequency
counts and percentages for the number of respondents in each cell.