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Schleiden, Schwann and Virchow -1800s
The cell is the basic and smallest unit of life
All cells arise from pre-existing cells
The cell is the working unit of organisms
Lipids: membranes, energy
Carbohydrates: walls, energy
Nucleic Acids: genetic information, protein synthesis
Proteins: many things -enzymes, antibodies
Cell Types
Procaryotic Cells
Simpler, smaller, and the most primitive
Lack a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles
Include Eubacteriaand Archaea
Eukaryotic Cells
More complex, larger, and more modern
Have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles
Include Fungi, Algae, Protozoa, Animals, Plants
Illustration of Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells

Prokaryotic Cells in Detail

Cell Membrane
Same as eukaryotic BUT
ALSO contain metabolic enzymes
Prokaryotes resemble naked organelles


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External Structure of Prokaryotic Cells

Glycocalyces = slimy, gelatinous material produced by the cell membrane and
secreted outside of the cell wall
2 types of Glycocalyx
a. Slime layer = not highly organized and is not firmly attached to the cell wall.
= enables certain bacteria to glide or slide along solid surfaces.
b. Capsule = highly organized and firmly attached to the cell wall.
= serve an antiphagocytic fnction wherein they protect encapsulated
bacteria from being phagocytized by white blood cells.
S-colonies = encapsulated bacteria that usually produce colonies on
nutrient agar that are smooth, mucoid and glistening
R-colonies = nonencasulated bacteria that grow as dry, rough colonies in
nutrient agar

Flagella = long, thread-like appendages which provide some live single cells with the
ability to move, motility.

4 Types of Flagellar Arrangement

1. A single flagellum can extend from one end of the cell - if so, the bacterium is said to
be monotrichous.
2. A single flagellum (or multiple flagella; see below) can extend from both ends of the
cell - amphitrichous.
3. Several flagella (tuft) can extend from one end or both ends of the cell
- lophotrichous; or,
4. Multiple flagella may be randomly distributed over the entire bacterial cell
- peritrichous.

Fimbriae=sticky, proteinaceousbristle like projections for adherance

Pili= slender, hairlike, proteinaceous appendages on the surface of many (particularly
Gram-negative) bacteria. They are important in adhesion to host surfaces and
Sex Pili = enables transfer of genetic material from one bacterial cell to another
following attachment of the cells to each other.
Cell walls
Peptidogylcan: polysaccharide of alternating sugars
Two types:
Gram + = thick layer of peptidoglycan combined with teichoic acid and
lipoteichoic acid

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= thin layer of peptidoglycan, but covered with a complex layer of lipid

Gram Staining
Discovered by Hans Christian Gram
Differentiates between Gram + and Gram Bacteria
Reagents used in Gram staining
o Crystal Violet (primary stain)
o Iodine Solution (mordant)
o Acetone (decolorizer)
o Safranin (counterstain)
Gram + bacteria will be colored blue to purple while Gram Bacteria will be
colored pink to red at the end of staining procedure
Non-Gram Staining Bacteria
Mycobacteria-wax coat, e.g. TB and leprosy
Mycoplasma-no walls, e.g. walking pneumonia
Cell Membrane

Selectively permeable barrier

Built of phospholipidbilayer and proteins

Semifluid, gelatinous, nutrient matrix where the organelles like Ribosomes,
Inclusions, Gas vesicles are embedded.
It is where most metabolic reactions occur.
Contain genetic material
Site of replication, transcription, and translation
Formation of thick-walled spores as a means of survival when their moisture or
nutrient supply is low.
Sporulation is the process of forming an endospore.
Prokaryotic Chromosomes
Located in the nucleiod region
Circular DNA
Sites of protein synthesis
Circular molecules of double-stranded DNA that are not part of the chromosome
Also referred to as extra-chromosomal DNA
Parts of a Eukaryotic Cell
1. Cell Membrane The cell membrane is also known as the plasma membrane. It is the
outermost covering of the animal cell. It protects the cell and regulates the entry and exit
of substances, namely ions and solutes.
2. Cell Wall The cell wall is the outermost covering of the plant cell made up of
cellulose, and surrounds the cell membrane. It protects the cell, provides mechanical
support and is responsible for maintaining pressure inside the cell.

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3. Chloroplast The chloroplast of the plant cell is a green-colored plastid. Chlorophyll

contained in the chloroplast captures energy from sunlight and helps in the manufacture
of food by the process of photosynthesis.
4. Cytoplasm The cytoplasm is composed of a mixture of water and soluble organic &
inorganic compounds, and contains most of the cell organelles. It is the house of all
metabolic functions and activities of the animal cell.
5. Endoplasmic Reticulum The endoplasmic reticulum consists of tubular structures
(convoluted tubules) lying near the nucleus. It provides support to the plant cell and the
animal cell. It is of two types, namely the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (does not have
ribosomes attached to it) and the rough endoplasmic reticulum (has ribosomes attached
to it).
6. Golgi Apparatus The golgi apparatus of the animal cell consists of flat vesicular
structures placed one on top of the other. It synthesizes and secretes certain
substances, namely hormones and enzymes.
7. Lysosome The lysosome of the animal cell is a membranous sac budded off from
the golgi apparatus, and contains several types of enzymes. It performs intracellular
digestion and destroys foreign substances.
8. Mitochondrion The mitochondrion of the cell has two layers of membrane, of which
the inner one is folded to form cristae. It is the site of ATP (Adenosine triphosphate)
9. Nuclear Membrane The nuclear membrane is the covering of the nucleus of the cell,
and has numerous pores. It allows substances to enter and leave.
10. Nucleolus The nucleolus is contained in the nucleus of the cell, and is round in
shape. It synthesizes proteins by producing and storing RNA (Ribonucleic acid).
11. Nucleoplasm The nucleoplasm is a dense fluid containing chromatin fibres, which
are made up of linear DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid). After cell division takes place, these
chromatin fibres undergo certain structural changes, and are called chromosomes.
These chromosomes carry the hereditary information of the genes.
12. Nucleus The nucleus is the most important part of the cell, and contains large
amounts of DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid). It controls and coordinates all the activities
and functions of the cell.
13. Ribosome The ribosome is chiefly composed of RNA (Ribonucleic acid). It
synthesizes proteins.
14. Vacuole The vacuole of the plant cell is a very large and abundant vesicle. It is filled
with fluids, and helps in the storage of water and other substances.

Prepared by:


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Dyan Kristy M. Ramirez, RN

Subject Instructor


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