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Contents

OBJECTIVE:.................................................................................................. 2
APPARATUS:................................................................................................. 2
Individual Background Information:.............................................................3
Wong lip Ping............................................................................................ 3
Withaya Savessri...................................................................................... 5
Yap Tee Wei.............................................................................................. 6
Yong Kwong Cheng...................................................................................7
TAN YEE SHIEN......................................................................................... 8
Teh Kae Liang........................................................................................... 9
PROCEDURE.............................................................................................. 10
PART 1: FIRE DETECTORS.......................................................................10
PROCEDURE (FOR SMOKE DETECTORS):................................................12
PROCEDURE (FOR HEAT DETECTORS):...................................................12
PART 2: EXAMINATION OF CONTROL ZONING IN TAR COLLEGE..............12
RESULT:...................................................................................................... 12
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:..........................................................................13
Conclusion................................................................................................. 17

OBJECTIVE:
1. To demonstrate how the fire detectors and communication device operate.
2. To identify and examine the fire appliances in the specified zone within

the

college.

APPARATUS:
A fire demonstration set which includes control panel, manual electric alarm, audible
and visual alarm, ionisation smoke detector, optional smoke detector, heat detector,
burning materials, stop watch.

Individual Background Information:


Wong lip Ping 14WTR13005
2

FIRE ALARM SYSTEM:


An automatic fire alarm system is designed to detect the unwanted presence
of fire by monitoring environmental changes associated with combustion. In
general, a fire alarm system is classified as either automatically actuated,
manually actuated, or both. Automatic fire alarm systems are intended to
notify the building occupants to evacuate in the event of a fire or other
emergency, report the event to an off-premises location in order to summon
emergency services, and to prepare the structure and associated systems to
control the spread of fire and smoke.

Fundamental configuration

Figure 1 A Honeywell DeltaNet FS90 fire alarm control panel.

Fire alarm control panel: This component, the hub of the system, monitors
inputs and system integrity, controls outputs and relays information.

Primary Power supply: Commonly the non-switched 120 or 240 Volt


Alternating Current source supplied from a commercial power utility. In nonresidential applications, a branch circuit is dedicated to the fire alarm system and
its constituents. "Dedicated branch circuits" should not be confused with
"Individual branch circuits" which supply energy to a single appliance.

Secondary (backup) Power supplies: This component, commonly consisting of


sealed lead-acid storage batteries or other emergency sources including
generators, is used to supply energy in the event of a primary power failure.

Initiating Devices: This component acts as an input to the fire alarm control
unit and are either manually or automatically actuated. Examples would be
devices like pull stations or smoke detectors.
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Figure 2 Fire Alarm on a street in San Francisco

Notification appliances: This component uses energy supplied from the fire
alarm system or other stored energy source, to inform the proximate persons of
the need to take action, usually to evacuate. This is done by means of a flashing
light, strobe light, electromechanical horn, speaker, or a combination of these
devices.

Building Safety Interfaces: This interface allows the fire alarm system to
control aspects of the built environment and to prepare the building for fire and to
control the spread of smoke fumes and fire by influencing air movement, lighting,
process control, human transport and exit.
background

The development of these life-saving appliances began in 1939 when Ermst


Meili, a Swiss physicist, devised an ionization chamber device capable of
detecting combustible gases in mines. The real breakthrough was Meili's
invention of a cold-cathode tube that could amplify the small electronic signal
generated by the detection mechanism to a strength sufficient to activate an
alarm.
Heat Detectors generally fall in to two categories and that are Fixed
Temperature Heat Detectors and more commonly, Rate of Rise Heat
Detectors.
A Fixed Temperature Heat Detector utilizes a temperature sensing element
which will generate an alarm condition if the temperature within the protected
area reaches a pre-determined level e.g. 60C or 90C.These detectors are used
where high ambient temperatures exist or where sudden changes in
temperature can occur e.g. kitchens, boiler rooms & foundries etc. A fixed
temperature trigger point should be selected which is most suitable for the
situation in question. A Rate of Rise Heat Detector will include a fixed
temperature element as above but will in addition include a temperature
sensing element which can detect a sudden change in temperature. This type of
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detector is more sensitive than a simple fixed temperature heat detector and as
such is the choice for applications in which reliable performance and early
warning are critical but where the environment makes smoke detection
unsuitable.
A smoke detector is a device that senses the presence of smoke in a building
and warns the occupants, enabling them to escape a fire before succumbing to
smoke inhalation or burns. Equipping a home with at least one smoke detector
cuts in half the chances that the residents will die in a fire. In 1992 the readers
of R&D Magazine selected home smoke alarms as one of the "30 Products that
Changed Our Lives." Smoke detectors became widely available and affordable
in the early 1970s. Prior to that date, fatalities from fires in the home averaged
10,000 per year, but by the early 1990s the figure dropped to fewer than 6,000
per year.
Two basic types of smoke detectors are currently manufactured for residential
use. The photoelectric smoke detector uses an optical beam to search for
smoke. When smoke particles cloud the beam, a photoelectric cell senses the
decrease in light intensity and triggers an alarm. This type of detector reacts
most quickly to smoldering fires that release relatively large amounts of
smoke.The second type of smoke detector, known as an ionization chamber
smoke detector (ICSD), is quicker at sensing flaming fires that produce little
smoke. It employs a radioactive material to ionize the air in a sensing
chamber; the presence of smoke affects the flow of the ions between a pair of
electrodes, which triggers the alarm. Between 80 and 90% of the smoke
detectors in American homes are of this type. Although most residential
models are self-contained units that operate on a 9-volt battery, construction
codes in some parts of the country now require installations in new homes to
be connected to the house wiring, with a battery backup in case of a power
failure.
Reference

Belanger, R., D.W. Buckley, and J.B. Swenson , made how, available from
<http://www.pdhonline.org/courses/m110/Module5.pdf>, retrieved
on22/5/2015

Withaya Savessri 14WTR13150 - Background information


Building may come in variety of design. Thus with all the good looking design out
there in the construction industry, it is a must for the design to be able to alert the
occupant effectively in during emergency situation. Among all the safety alarm, the
most important one is the fire alarm/detector. It will cause death to the occupant of the
building if the alarm is not working as how it supposed to be. Thus, fire alarm is
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crucial in overcoming the fire outbreak. Most of the buildings now are made of a fire
resistant material such as fire-resistance rated walls, fire-resistance rated floor, fireresistance glass and many more. These are also scientifically known as passive fire
protection. While on the other hand, active fire protection is something like smoke
and fire detector, fire alarm, fire sprinkler, fire extinguisher and so much more. Fire
can be fought either automatically or manually. Manual includes, fire extinguisher,
fire bucket or sand, depending on what causes the fire. Meanwhile, automatic fire
fighting is more like fire sprinkler. Automatic fire fighting system usually found in
kitchen

or

other

some

other

high-risk

area.

Yap Tee Wei 14WTR12983


A fire alarm system function when a number of devices are working together
to detect and alert people when there is a fire. There are many types of alarms such as
smoke detectors, and heat detectors. The placement of the fire alarm is also very
important as it can make a huge different when under an emergency situation.
A fire protection system is essential to effective management of a fire scene.
Fire Protection Systems focuses on the operational characteristics and abilities of
different types of systems and equipment that are used during fire department
operations to access a water source, apply a suppression agent to control a particular
type of fire, provide information concerning the location of a fire, and more.
Systematic, easy-to-understand coverage thoroughly explores various types of active
fire protection systems and components, how they operate, and the requirements for
installation.
Break glass station are devices for manual fire alarm activation and it is
normally installed at a location that is easily located and identified. As for automatic
activating devices, it varies from convected thermal energy, heat detector, smoke
detector, flame detector, fire gas detector and cameras and computer detect fires with
human supervision.
Notification Appliances alert the occupants of the need to evacuate or take
action in the event of fire or other emergency. Evacuation signals may consist of
simple appliances that transmit information or appliances that transmit audible and
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visible textual information such as live or pre-recorded instructions, and illuminated


message displays.
Yong Kwong Cheng - Background information
Safety protection against all the unexpected happening in the residential is a most
important thing that to be care among the public. So that, in order to provide a better
service inside the residential or the commercial building the safety protection against
the resident to be a main purpose.
Fire fighting system plays an important service inside the residential. Normally for the
residential building especially for the big project such as condominium project, it
normally will install full set of the fire fighting system to protect the resident when
there is a fire happens. Fire fighting system it normally consists of two protection
system, which are passive fire protection system and active fire protection system.
Passive fire protection system is a system that builds up together with the residential
building; it also means that in the early stage of the design for the residential building
it already be design to suit the building for fire protection system. Passive fire
protection normally will be design under certain act and regulation base on the needs
of the building. The purpose of designing the passive fire protection inside the
residential or commercial building is to protect the resident to escape safely from the
building when there is a fire happening. Fire escape staircase, fire escape corridor and
fire escape lobby are some of the design of the passive fire protection system inside
the residential or commercial building.
Active fire protection system is a system that to be installing equipment inside the
building after finish construct the building. There are several types of the active fire
protection system, some of them are installed connected to the electricity, some of
them are installed connected to the water and some of them are individually or call as
portable, means that it doesnt connected to any other resources. The function of the
active fire protection system is not only to protect the resident when there is fire, it
also function as to alarm or warning the resident to escape from the building. Smoke
detector, heat detector, fire alarm, hose reel, sprinklers are some of the production of
the active fire protection system.
Finally, all of this fire fighting system to be design and install inside the building not
only to prevent the fire happening and safely escape of resident from building when
fire happing it also helps to control the fire before it become more worst.
Reference

Bakar H.A.,2006. Guide To Fire Protection In Malaysia. 2nd Edition. UUM.

TAN YEE SHIEN 14WTR12782 - Background Information


A fire alarm system will indicate a fire emergency requiring immediate action. The
system shall alert all occupants of building where it is installed when a fire emergency
is present.
The primary function of a fire alarm is to alert the occupants of a building to the
presence of a fire. It may also perform other functions. For instance, the system can be
designed to simultaneously alert the fire department is essential. The US Fire
Administration say Dont Forget the Smoke Alarms. Even though fire sprinklers are
effective life safety devices you still need smoke alarms. Some fires can begin as
smoldering fires that produce smoke and gases but dont generate enough heat to
activate the sprinkles. Smoke alarm are needed to provide warning for these
situation.
After than , a fire alarm must have fundamental configuration is:
Fire alarm control panel: This component, the hub of the system , monitors inputs
and system integrity, control outputs and relays information.
Primary Power supply: Commonly the non-switched 120 or 240 Volt Alternating
Current source supplied from a commercial power utility. In non-residential
applications, a branch circuit is dedicated to the fire alarm system and its
constituents. Dedicated branch circuits should not be confused with individual
branch circuits which supply energy to a single appliance.
Secondary (backup) Power supplies: This component, commonly consisting of
sealed lead-acid storage batteries or other emergency sources including
generators, is used to supply energy in the event of a primary power failure.
Initiating Devices: This component acts as an input to the fire alarm control unit
and are either manually or automatically actuated. Examples would be devices
like pull stations or smoke detectors.
Notification appliances: This component uses energy supplied from the fire alarm
system or other stored energy source, to inform the proximate persons of the need
to take action, usually to evacuate. This is done by means of a flashing light,
strobe light, electromechanical horn, speaker, or a combination of these devices.
Building Safety Interfaces: This interface allows the fire alarm system to control
aspects of the built environment and to prepare the building for fire and to control
the spread of smoke fumes and fire by influencing air movement, lighting,
process control, human transport and exit.
References :
A. Maurice Jones, 2009 , Fire Protection System

Teh Kae Liang Background Information


The development of these life-saving appliances began in 1939 when Ermst Meili, a
Swiss physicist, devised an ionization chamber device capable of detecting
combustible gases in mines. The real breakthrough was Meili's invention of a coldcathode tube that could amplify the small electronic signal generated by the detection
mechanism to a strength sufficient to activate an alarm.
Heat Detectors generally fall in to two categories and that are Fixed
Temperature Heat Detectors and more commonly, Rate of Rise Heat Detectors.
A Fixed Temperature Heat Detector utilizes a temperature sensing element which will
generate an alarm condition if the temperature within the protected area reaches a predetermined level e.g. 60C or 90C.These detectors are used where high ambient
temperatures exist or where sudden changes in temperature can occur e.g. kitchens,
boiler rooms & foundries etc. A fixed temperature trigger point should be selected
which is most suitable for the situation in question. A Rate of Rise Heat Detector will
include a fixed temperature element as above but will in addition include a
temperature sensing element which can detect a sudden change in temperature. This
type of detector is more sensitive than a simple fixed temperature heat detector and as
such is the choice for applications in which reliable performance and early warning
are critical but where the environment makes smoke detection unsuitable.
A smoke detector is a device that senses the presence of smoke in a building and
warns the occupants, enabling them to escape a fire before succumbing to smoke
inhalation or burns. Equipping a home with at least one smoke detector cuts in half
the chances that the residents will die in a fire. In 1992 the readers of R&D
Magazine selected home smoke alarms as one of the "30 Products that Changed Our
Lives." Smoke detectors became widely available and affordable in the early 1970s.
Prior to that date, fatalities from fires in the home averaged 10,000 per year, but by
the early 1990s the figure dropped to fewer than 6,000 per year.
Two basic types of smoke detectors are currently manufactured for residential use.
The photoelectric smoke detector uses an optical beam to search for smoke. When
smoke particles cloud the beam, a photoelectric cell senses the decrease in light
intensity and triggers an alarm. This type of detector reacts most quickly to
smoldering fires that release relatively large amounts of smoke.The second type of
smoke detector, known as an ionization chamber smoke detector (ICSD), is quicker at
sensing flaming fires that produce little smoke.

reference
Belanger, R., D.W. Buckley, and J.B. Swenson , made how, available from
<http://www.pdhonline.org/courses/m110/Module5.pdf>, retrieved on22/5/2015

PROCEDURE :
PART 1: FIRE DETECTORS

Figure 3 fire alarm control

Figure 4 heat detector

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Figure 5 fire alarm push button

Figure 6 fire alarm with siren

Figure 7 optimal smoke detector

1)
2)
3)
4)

Operated the fire alarm demonstration set.


Identify the functions of each detector.
Investigate the performance of both ionization and visible smoke detectors.
Investigate the performance of both fixed temperature and rate of
temperature rise fire detectors.
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PROCEDURE (FOR SMOKE DETECTORS):


1. Burn the paper & insert it into the smoke pump to get smoke.
2. Identify each functions of each detector.
3. Investigate the performance of both ionization and visible smoke

detectors.

4. Investigate the performance of both fixed temperature and rate of temperature


rise fire detectors.
PROCEDURE (FOR HEAT DETECTORS):
1. Press the button.
2. The bulb is lightened up & stopwatch was started.
3. Thermometer was used to showed the temperature .When the predetermined
temperature is reached, the fire alarm was sounded.
4. Key in the password to deactivated the alarm.
5. Record the initial and final temperature, changed in temperature & time taken
for alarm to sound.

PART 2: EXAMINATION OF CONTROL ZONING IN TAR COLLEGE

TASK:
1. Find out the control panel within college.
2. Plot the control zoning.
3. Identify and examined the types of fire extinguishers and detectors in
the specified zone whined the college.

RESULT:
Rate of temperature rise detector:
Time taken (minutes)

Initial temperature (C)

final temperature (C)

7.30

23

72

Optimal smoke detector:

12

Time taken (minutes)

7.25
Ionisation smoke detector:

Time taken(minutes)

5.00
Heat detector (60C):

Time taken (minutes)

Initial temperature (C)

final temperature (C)

5.57

23

70

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:
1. Trace the history in the development of a fire alarm system in a building.
The first practical fire alarm system utilizing the telegraph system was developed
by Dr. William Channing and Moses G. Farmer in 1852.Two years later, they
applied for apartment for their "Electromagnetic Fire Alarm Telegraph for Cities".
In 1855, John Gamewell of South Carolina purchased regional rights to market
the fire alarm telegraph, later obtaining the patents and full rights to the system in
1859. John F. Kennard bought the patents from the government after they were
seized after the Civil War, returned them to Gamewell, and formed a partnership,
Kennard and Co., in 1867 to manufacture the alarm systems. The Gamewell Fire
Alarm Telegraph Co. was later formed in 1879. Gamewell systems were installed
in 250 cities by 1886 and 500 cities in 1890. By 1910, Gamewell had gained a
95% market share.
(Mc. Graw-Hill, Encyclopaedia of science and technology, 10th edition, volume
7.ZEESHAN AMIN)

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2. What are the types of fire detectors available? Describe briefly on each.

Types of
detectors
HEAT
DETECT
OR

PIC

DESCRIPTION

Fixed temperature heat


detector

Rate of temperature rise heat


detector

Linear detector

Ionization smoke detector


Optical smoke detector
Aspirating smoke detector
Beam detector

Ultra Violet flame detector


Infra-Red flame detector

SMOKE
DETECT
OR

FLAME
DETECT
OR

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3. What are the differences between the smoke and heat detector?

Smoke detector
smoke detectors use ionization and
photoelectric technologies

Smoke detector warns of fire when it


comes across combustion or soot
products in the atmosphere.

Differences

Heat detector

Technology used Heat detector uses thermocouple and


electro-pneumatic technologies.

How it works

Heat detector is an instrument that


warns of fire when the temperature
around the smoke detector reaches some
level

Smoke detectors will give off the Detection sensor Heat detectors will not detect even the
alarm even when a small amount of
smallest amount of temperature change.
smoke
is
detected

Smoke detectors are very sensitive


and may give off false alarms

Sensitivity and
Reliable

Heat detectors are more reliable fire


detectors, even in dusty environments
and only sets off the alarm when the
temperature is really high.

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4. From the Malaysian Uniform Building by Laws 1984 Part B (as at Feb
2011), list some of means of fire detection, extinguishment and alarm
system.
Fire Detection & Extinguishment

According to PART VIII SECTION 225 IN UBBL


1. Every building shall be provided with means of detecting and
extinguishing fire with fire alarms together with illuminated exit signs in
accordance with the requirement as specified in the Tenth Schedule to
these By-laws
2. Every building shall be served by at least one fire hydrant located not more
than 91.5metres from the nearest point of fire brigade access.
3. Depending on size and location of the building and the provision of access
for fire appliances, additional fire hydrant shall be provided as may be
required by the Fire Authority.
Fire Alarm
According to Section 237 UBBL, Fire Alarm.
1. Fire alarms shall be provided in accordance with the Tenth Schedule of these
By-laws.
2. All premises and buildings with gross floor area excluding car park and
storage areas exceeding 9290 square meters or exceeding 30.5 meters in height
shall be provided with a two-stage alarm system with evacuation(continuous

16

signal) to be given immediately in the affected section of the premises while


an alert ( intermittent signal) be given in adjoining section.
3. Provision shall be made for the general evacuation of the premises by action
of a master control.

Conclusion
Base on the result above shows that different types of fire detector have the
different sensitivity against the fire. From the experiment both types of the
apparatus are active fire protection system. For the heat detector, there is two
different kind of heat detector are use to make comparison. Result show that
the Heat Detector (60 C) Set Point are more sensitive against the heat, it was
took 5:57 min to sense the heat, however, Rate of Temperature rise detector
took 7:30 min to sense the heat.
Besides, there is also two different kind of smoke detector are use in the
experiment. Result show that the Optical Smoke Detector is more sensitive against
the smoke compared to the Ionisation Smoke Detector and it was took 5 min to sense
the surrounding smoke. However, the Ionisation Smoke Detector was took 7:25 min
to sense the surrounding smoke. Actually, the detector can be set by manually, when
that is enough smoke, heat and timing detected the alarm will burst.
From the result show that, it is better to install Heat Detector (60 C) Set Point and
Optical Smoke Detector as an active fire protection system inside the building.

This because it is more sensitive against the fire happening. The reason to
install the most sensitive active fire protect system is because the fire flashover
can just occur within 3 minutes, when there is reach to the flashover stage it is
difficult to control. So the sensitive active fire protect system can help to slow
down the fire reach to flashover stage.

REFERENCES:
1. NFPA 805 Performance-Based Standard for Fire Protection for Light Water
Reactor Electric Generating Plants. Chapter 3 Fundamental Fire Protection
Program and Design Elements: National Fire Protection Association.
February 2001.
2. NFPA 12 Standard on Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems. Chapter 4
Annex A: National Fire Protection Association. 2011.
3. Cote, Arthur E. (March 2000). Fire Protection Handbook eighteenth
edition. National Fire Protection Association. pp. 58. ISBN 0-87765-377-1.
17

4. NFPA 72 - National Fire Alarm and Signaling Code - 2010 Edition. National
Fire Alarm Association, 2009, Page 118, Subsection 24.4.1
5. "Mass Notification Systems - Emergency Notification Systems". The Mircom
Group of Companies.
6. "Fire Alarm System Categories". Sdfirealarms.co.uk. Retrieved 2009-07-15.
7. "Fire Alarm Zone Design". Metrolinesecurity.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-06-21.

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