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An Introduction to

Delason

Nizar Habash, Ph.D.


DELTA

EL

DELASON

An Introduction to Delason
The Complete Guide to the Artificial Language
Second Edition

Nizar Habash, Ph.D.

1990-2012 Nizar Habash. All Rights Reserved.

No part of this book may be reproduced, published,


distributed, displayed, performed, copied or
transmitted in any form by any
mechanical, photographic
or electronic process
without written
permission of
the author.

ii

For my siblings,
Ahmad, the leader of the rebel movement to overthrow me,
Princess Nowar of Salamon, and
Prince Kamal of Salamon.
Thank you for the wonderful memories
of our imaginary homeland.
te
tetone,

iii

dako.
na

to

oben.

Introduction

It has been over 20 years since I first imagined Delason and 14


years since I wrote the first edition of this book documenting it.
My love for languages has since led me to earn a doctorate in
computational linguistics in 2003 from the University of
Maryland College Park. I have been working as a researcher at
Columbia University since then, specializing in machine
translation and Arabic natural language processing. What started
as a fun summer project over two decades ago evolved into a
hobby that had a lasting effect on my life and career in interesting
ways. Working on Delasons grammar, dictionary and fonts
helped me develop skills and awareness of both linguistic and
computational issues that are relevant to my research in
computational linguistics. I am currently working on a new
project creating a second constructed language called Semiti, an
Arabic-Hebrew esperanto. Semiti is part of an imaginary Middle
Eastern country called Palisra that is my answer to the IsraeliPalestinian conflict.
As far as Delason news since the first edition, I am quite proud to
report that one of Delasons ideograms was added to the shield
of the Honors College at my Alma Mater, Old Dominion
University. Professor Lou Henry, who was Dean of the college,
had found out about Delason and asked if I could create a
Delason graduation diploma to give to my graduating class. I was
so excited of course and even created a special symbol for the
concept of Knowledge: () to use in the certificate.
The year after I left, Dean Henry added the symbol to
the colleges shield and every student graduating since
then have received a medal with the symbol inscribed
on it. See the shield on the right.
On a more personal note, my sister, Nowar, first told me about
the man she fell in love with and eventually married in an email in
Delason. As a wedding gift, I created a Delasoni marriage
certificate to honor the occasion. And after the Muslim cleric
iv

who married them left, we conducted a second ceremony in


which Nowar and her husband Salah said their I dos in Delason.
Since then, about a dozen people received Delasoni wedding
certificates. All are still married, except for one couple who did
not sign the certificate (tsk tsk tsk). I like to imagine that signing
the Delasoni certificate has something to do (or it simply
correlates) with successful marriages.
Finally, about two years ago, I opened a Zazzle online store to
sell products with Delasoni symbols on them, among other
artistic creations. Visit us at http://www.zazzle.com/nizware.
For this edition, I updated some of the grammar discussions and
dictionary, and added a few texts including some new translated
songs, the Delasoni wedding certificate and the Old Dominion
University Honors College graduation diploma. I hope you enjoy
the book and I thank you for your interest.
Nizar Habash, Ph.D.
nizar@nizarhabash.com
New York, New York
Summer 2012

Introduction to the First Edition

In the summer of 1990, I realized that the artificial country I have


been designing for two years lacked an essential element: its own
language. The Mediterranean country was an island named
Salamon after the Canaanite tribe that migrated to it. By that
summer, I had created several maps of Salamon, had written an
account of its history that was integrated in the history of the
Middle East and the Mediterranean, and had even printed stamps
and money notes. The official languages of the island nation were
Arabic and English until I designed Salamonese, the ancestor of
Delason.
Looking back at that summer, I am not surprised that I thought
of constructing an artificial language. By that time, I had lived in
or visited more than 12 countries in four continents and had
studied, formally or informally, about five different languages and
came in touch with several modern Arabic dialects (Palestinian,
Egyptian, Tunisian). But creating my "own" language seemed like
the most fascinating challenge I ever attempted. Seven years
later, I was still working on it. The language has metamorphisized
several times especially as I went to college and majored in
linguistics. So as I learned more about human languages and
realized how diverse they are, I modified my language.
During my college years, Delason lost its connections with its
fictitious origins and became a linguistic "test-tube." I toyed with
the possibility of combining dissimilar syntactic properties such
as having both pre- and post-positions, or optional case markers
that can increase the freedom of Delasons word order.
Phonologically and morphologically, however, Delason remained
quite simple since I was never interested in experimenting with
these aspects of language. Delasons phonology is simply a
regularized marriage of Spanish and Modern Hebrew. And all
morphological derivations are done using prefixes and suffixes
only.

vi

On the other hand, Delasoni vocabulary is quite remarkable in


that its roots come from a set of about 20 languages with the
main contributors being from the Indo-European and the Semitic
families. Some of the roots are borrowed with no modifications
such as telefon (Latin telephone) or on (Turkish ten). I created other
roots by scrambling elements from different languages. For
example, olan (hello / peace) is constructed from hola (Spanish
hello) and ahlan (Arabic hello) with the semantic component peace
from shalom (Hebrew hello / peace). In addition, I used names of
famous real and fictitious characters associated with particular
meanings, e.g., makbeta (guilt) from Macbeth and hickoka (fear),
pronounced hish-ko-ka, from Hitchcock.
In addition to its syntax and vocabulary, Delason is special among
other constructed languages in that it is one of the few with their
own script. I designed it by integrating elements from different
scripts, with the main contributors being Japanese Kana and
Kanji. I have created several fonts for this script and have
experimented with calligraphy.
The goal of this book is to document my work on Delason and
share it with other conlangers (language constructors or as I
prefer to call us linguartists - pronounced ling-gwar-tists). The book
contains an introduction to the Delasoni writing system, a
complete grammar reference, a phrase book, selected texts, and
an English-Delason dictionary. I hope you enjoy this humble
work of linguart and thank you very much for your interest.

Nizar Habash
Ramallah, Palestine
Summer 1997

vii

Table of Contents
Chapter One The Delasoni Writing System

1.1 DELASONI SCRIPTS

1.2 THE DELASONI ALPHABET

1.3 DELASONI PRONUNCIATION

1.4 DIGITS AND PUNCTUATION

1.5 DELASONI IDEOGRAMS

Chapter Two Essentials of Delasoni Grammar

10

2.1 NOUNS

10

2.2 VERBS

12

2.3 ADJECTIVES

14

2.4 ADVERBS

15

2.5 QUALIFIERS

16

2.6 PRONOUNS

20

2.7 NUMBERS

24

2.8 PREPOSITIONS

25

2.9 RELATIVE CLAUSES

27

2.10 QUESTIONS

29

2.11 CONJUNCTIONS

32

2.12 SENTENTIAL WORD ORDER

33

Chapter Three A Phrasebook of Delason

36

3.1 BASIC EXPRESSIONS

36

3.2 HELLO EVERYBODY!

37

3.3 ONE, TWO, THREE, GO!

39

3.4 WHAT DAY IS IT?

44

3.5 WHAT, WHO, WHERE?

48

3.6 THIS IS IT!

50

3.7 I AM LOST. CAN YOU HELP ME?

51

3.8 THE GOOD, THE BAD, AND THE UGLY

54

3.9 FOOD

57

3.10 BODY PARTS

60

3.11 CLOTHING

62

3.12 THE WEATHER

65

3.13 USEFUL WORDS

66

3.14 VERBS, VERBS, VERBS!

70

Chapter Four Selected Texts

74

4.1 THE OLD TESTAMENT: FIRST LIGHT

74

4.2 THE OLD TESTAMENT: THE TOWER OF BABEL

75

4.3 THE NEW TESTAMENT: JOHN 3:16

77

4.4 THE QURAN: ALFATIHA

78

4.5 TAO TEH CHING: BOOK 1

79

4.6 THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS

80

4.7 OMAR KHAYYAM: RUBAIYA 24

81

4.8 LE NOZZE DI FIGARO: NO. 11 CANZONE

82

4.9 A HUNDRED VERSES FROM OLD JAPAN: UKON

83

4.10 A FAIRUZ SONG: KIFAK INTA

84

4.11 A KATY PERRY SONG: FIREWORK

85

4.12 AN EMILY DICKINSON POEM: A WORD

86

4.13 DELASONI NURSERY RHYMES

87

4.14 DELASONI LOVE POEMS

88

4.15 FROM THE DELASONI EPIC OF KIRMIZ-KAZU

89

4.16 DELASONI WEDDING CERTIFICATE

91

4.18 DELASONI GRADUATION DIPLOMA

95

4.19 DELASONI GREETING CARD CAPTIONS

97

Chapter Five An English-Delason Dictionary

100

Chapter Six A Delason-English Dictionary

128

Chapter One

The Delasoni Writing System

1.1 Delasoni Scripts


Delason is written using two scripts: the Delasoni alphabet and
Delasoni ideograms. The former is a phonemic system in which a
direct correspondence exists between writing and speech. The
latter is a set of ideographic symbols that accessorize the written
alphabet. In terms of their history, ideograms were the only form
of Delasoni writing. The alphabetical letters were actually
simplified ideogram forms that came to dominate the writing
system over the millennia.

1.2 The Delasoni Alphabet


The Delasoni alphabet alefbeta delasoni alefbeta
delasoni has 20 consonants and five vowels. There are two
Delasoni styles of writing: the traditional engraved style
PONTA

MARCINI ponta marcini and the modern style

ponta navoni ponta navoni. The ponta marcini was used in


ancient times as the only form of the alphabet. It is the link
between the Delasoni ideograms and the cursive ponta navoni,
which is currently the default Delasoni script style. The Delasoni
alphabet does not have capital/small letter distinction. It is
written from left to right.

A. Consonants
Delason

Transliteration

Pronunciation

pen

big

ten

door

show

measure

foot

very

kiss

gas

so

zoo

hello

Scottish loch

more

no

low

root

will

yes

The circle diacritic (cirita cirita) appears after some letters to


indicate that the letter represents the voiced version of another
voiceless consonant letter, e.g., p-b p-b. In the case of w w and
2

y y, the cirita marks them as the glide forms of the related vowels
u u and i i, respectively.
B. Vowels
Delason

Transliteration

Pronunciation

father

feet

fate

root

road

Sequences of two vowels are allowed in Delason: havua


havua spirit. The second vowel forms a separate syllable, e.g.,
ha-vu-a, not ha-vua.
C. Alphabetical Order
The order used above to present the consonants and vowels is
intended to highlight the similarity between different letters. The
actual order of letters is as follows:
a
n

b
o

c
p

d
r

e
s

g
t

j
w

l
y

m
z

abcdefghijklmnoprstuvwxyz

1.3 Delasoni Pronunciation


1. It is important to remember the following when using
transliteration as a guide for pronunciation:
a. The symbol c (for c) stands for the sound sh as in shop
not s as in mercy or k as in cat.

b. The symbol x (for x) stands for ch as in the Scottish


pronunciation of loch not ch as in check or ks as in
exercise.
2. Word stress in Delason falls on the last syllable of the word if
it ends with a consonant or with the vowels e e or o o.
Otherwise, the stress falls on the next to last syllable.
Hyphenated postpositions are optionally considered part of
the word, which may lead to two possible valid stress
pronunciations. Stress in Delason is not distinctive. As such,
poetic license may violate the abovemenioned rules.
cta

cta

city

only syllable

sotin

sotin

song

last syllable

ceco

ceco

houses

last syllable vowel o

latfe

latfe

beautifully

last syllable vowel e

ceca

ceca

house

next to last syllable

latfi

latfi

beautiful

next to last syllable

havua

havua

spirit

next to last syllable

cta-bi

cta-bi

in the city

with postposition

sotin-bi

sotin-bi

in the song

with postposition

ceco-bi

ceco-bi

in the houses

with postposition

ceca-bi

ceca-bi
ceca-bi

In the house

with postposition
(two possibilities)

3. As for intonation, a falling pitch denotes the completeness of


the thought being uttered. Wh-questions have a falling pitch,
too. A rising pitch, on the other hand, denotes
4

incompleteness. A rising pitch is also used with exclamations


and yes/no questions.
aruma di te kuti en.
aruma di te kuti en (falling, complete utterance).
This is a good person.
ize boden, ta sa alen na-vi.
ize ta boden (rising, incomplete), ta sa alen na-vi (falling, complete).
If you want, you will go with me.
et ceca-si ta aven?
et ceca-si ta aven (falling, wh-question)?
Which house is yours?
hu miru en!
hu miru en (rising, exclamation)!
She is Miru!
es ta kucu en?
es ta kucu en (rising, yes/no question)?
Are you Kushu?

1.4 Digits and Punctuation


Numbers in Delason are represented using a decimal digit system
similar to Arabic numerals.
0
5

Examples:

365

365

98.7

40,000

40,000

1/2

98.7
.5

1/2 = .5
5

The following are some of the common punctuation marks used


in Delason. They look similar to those used in English.
?

Question mark ( ? )

Period ( . )

Exclamation mark ( ! )

Hyphen ( - )

Comma ( , )

()

Parentheses ( )

1.5 Delasoni Ideograms


Delasoni ideograms are a small set of symbols that are used in
addition to the alphabet. These symbols are used mainly for
ornamental purposes. For example, the symbol for knowledge is
displayed at the top of diplomas, and the symbol for health is
displayed on get-well cards. One practical usage of these symbols
is to mark public facilities on maps. For example, the ideogram
for money marks banks and that for knowledge marks schools.
Chapter Four of this book includes several examples utilizing
Delasoni ideograms.
Each ideogram is a unit that stands for a specific concept or
object. Some ideograms are constructed from the combination of
two or more ideograms. For example, the ideogram for
Happiness and that for Body are combined to create the
ideogram for Health.

+=
Happiness

Body

Health

The following is a list of some of the most common ideograms in


Delason.
6

Ideogram

Meaning

Symbol

Body, Physiology

"Face and Arm"

Heart, Emotion

"Big Heart"

Mind, Intellect

"The Eye"

Soul, Spirituality, Light

"Holy Fire"

Conscience

"Eye to Eye"

Money, Possessions

"Money Jar"

Beginning, Birth

"One"

End, Death

"Two"

Happiness, Satisfaction

"Three Lucky
Feathers"

Universal Unity

"Circle of Life"

Ambition

"Fly High"

Stability, Peace

"Tight Loop"

Beauty, Elegance,
Refinement

"Bird of Paradise"

Positive Change, Success

"Broken Loop"

Activity, Motion,
Exercise, Sports

"Body in Motion"

Physical Beauty

+ +

Health, Happy Body

Love, Happy Heart

Prosperity,
Happy Money Jar

Wisdom, Happy Mind

Knowledge, Light of Mind

Peace of Mind,
Good Conscience

Chapter Two

Essentials of Delasoni Grammar

This chapter presents essentials of Delasoni grammar. It discusses


various aspects of the morphology and syntax of different partsof-speech: nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, qualifiers, pronouns,
numbers, prepositions and conjunctions. Additional sections
discuss sentential and phrasal word order including relative
clauses and questions.

2.1 Nouns
In Delason, nouns are the only part-of-speech without a unique
marked ending. While verbs, adjectives and other parts-of-speech
have specific endings, nouns can end with any vowel or
consonant that is not reserved for other parts-of-speech. Most
Delasoni nouns end with the vowel -a -a such as ceca ceca
house or ora ora happiness. Names of countries and
individuals usually end with the vowel -u -u such as
fransu fransu France or janu janu John. Other
endings have some semantic significance. For example, the suffix
-on -on refers to the doer of an action as in soton soton
singer from sota sota singing or fordon fordon driver
from forda forda car. Another example, the suffix -in -in,
refers to the object of an action as in sotin sotin song or

fordin fordin vehicle from the same roots in the last


example.
In addition to simple nouns, Delason has compound nouns that
are created by hyphenating two or more words. At least one of
these words must be a noun. Other words can be particles or
adverbs. In some cases, nouns drop their final vowel or their last
syllable.
For example,
ceca
ceca
house

+ manja
+ manja
+ meal

kora + ce + racca
kora
+ ce
+ racca
bow
+ of + rain

cec-manja
cec-manja
restaurant
kor-ce-rac
kor-ce-rac
rainbow

Plurals are formed by dropping any final vowels and adding the
suffix -o -o. If the noun ends with two vowels, only the second
vowel is dropped.
For example,
cta

cta

city

cto

cto

cities

fordon

fordon

driver

fordono

fordono

drivers

havua

havua

spirit

havuo

havuo

spirits

amerikia

amerikia

an American

amerikio

amerikio

Americans
11

Nouns ending with the vowel -a -a, have an alternate form that
is equivalent in meaning but drops the vocalic ending. For
example, torita torita bird and torit torit have the same
meaning.

2.2 Verbs
There are three forms of verbs in Delason: indicative verbs,
infinitive verbs, and imperative verbs. Indicative verbs end with
-en -en and by default refer to the present tense. The past tense
is obtained using the tense particle ha ha which precedes the
verb. Similarly, the future tense is obtained by using the tense
particle sa sa . Delasoni verbs do not change with number or
person.
For example,
na
et
kocu
telefonen.
na
et
kocu
telefonen.
I call Koshu by phone (often, everyday, ...)
na
et
kocu
na
et
kocu
I called Koshu by phone.

ha
ha

telefonen.
telefonen.

na
et
kocu sa
na
et
kocu
sa
I will call Koshu by phone.

telefonen.
telefonen.

The second Delasoni verb form is the infinitive form. It is similar


to English infinitives and gerunds in that it refers to the action
with no reference to time (past, present, or future). All infinitive
verbs end with -ir -ir.

12

For example,
na
oben
cofir
na
oben
cofir
I like to see (seeing) Koshu.

et
et

cofir et kocu gien


cofir
et
kocu
gien
Seeing Koshu makes me happy.

kocu.
kocu.
na ori.
na
ori.

The last Delasoni verb form is the imperative form. Commands


are created by replacing the -en -en suffix with -ay -ay.
For example,
darcay
et
darcay
et
Tell me your name!
asine,
asine,
First, go right!

alay
alay

nama
nama

taci!
taci!

mine!
mine!

To negate a verb, the negative qualifier le le is placed before that


verb. Note that le le also precedes the tense particles sa sa and
ha ha.
For example,
na
le
sa
na
le
sa
I will not go with you.

alen ev
alen
ev

le cpilay ev
manjina
le
cpilay
ev
manjina
Do not play with your food!

ta.
ta.
taci!
taci!

13

Delasoni verbs do not have a passive voice inflection. However,


the derivational prefix bi bi evokes a passive or unaccusative
reading of the base verb. Similarly, the derivational prefix gi gi
evokes an accusative reading of the base verb.
For example,
Unaccusative

Base

Accusative

bicofen
bicofen
appear, look

cofen
cofen
see, look

gicofen
gicofen
show, guide

bicimen
bicimen
smell
[intransitive]

cimen
cimen
smell
[transitive]

gicimen
gicimen
make smell

bicomen
bicomen
be heard

comen
comen
hear

gicomen
gicomen
listen

2.3 Adjectives
Delasoni adjectives end with the suffix -i -i. Adjectives follow
the nouns they modify. They have one form only that does not
change whether the nouns are plural or singular.
For example,
oma
latfi
oma
latfi
a handsome man

14

ima
intelgi
ima
intelgi
an intelligent woman
fordo
fordo
new cars

navoni
navoni

Two commonly used Delasoni adjectives correspond to the


English demonstrative articles this, these, that and those. The two
adjectives are di di this or these and zi zi that or those.
These demonstrative adjectives immediately follow the nouns and
precede other adjectives.
For example,
ceca di
gdoli
ceca
di
gdoli
This house is big.

en.
en.

cecot zi
cmoli
ceco
zi
cmoli
Those houses are small.

en.
en.

na boden ceca
na
boden
ceca
I want this big house.

di
di

gdoli.
gdoli.

2.4 Adverbs
Delasoni adverbs end with the suffix -e -e. They come after the
verbs they modify. Note that not all Delasoni adverbs correspond
to adverbs in English.
For example,
hu honen latfe.
hu
honen
latfe.
He writes beautifully.
15

alay ope
el itaha
alay
ope
el
itaha
Go up to the third floor.

torini.
torini.

2.5 Qualifiers
Qualifiers are words that precede nouns, adjectives, adverbs and
verbs. Qualifiers can be grouped into four types based on their
relative position to each other and to the word they modify. The
following is a list of the qualifiers and their relative positions.
Pos. 1

Pos. 2

Pos. 3

Pos. 4

te te all

de de the

Number

me me most

ke ke such

Qualifiers lece lece less

se se some ine ine any


pe pe few

Word

mere mere more Nouns


Adjectives

otre otre other Adverbs

ixe ixe each

Verbs

le le no

The first five qualifiers, te te, me me, se se, pe pe and le le, are
degree qualifiers. The specific meaning of these qualifiers
depends on the part-of-speech of the word they qualify:
(Degree)

16

Nouns

Adjectives & Adverbs

te te

100%

all

extremely

me me

75%

most

very

se se

50%

some

kind of

pe pe

25%

few

not very

le le

0%

none

not at all

For example,
me
ceca
latfi
me
ceca
latfi
Most of the house is good.

en.
en.

se arumo le
intelgi
se
arumo
le
intelgi
Some people are not intelligent at all.

en.
en.

me
ceco
te latfi
en.
me
ceco
te
latfi
en.
Most of the houses are extremely beautiful.
hu darken et fransi me
hu
darcen
et
fransi
me
He speaks French very well.

kute.
kute.

Verbs are qualified in terms of frequency or degree.


For example,
na
te
oben ta.
na
te
oben
ta.
I love you so much.
hu
se
alen sinema-li.
hu
se
alen
sinema-li.
They go to the movies from time to time.
no
le
boden
no
le
boden
We do not want to go.

alir.
alir.

The qualifier de de corresponds to the definite article the in


English. It is not used with adverbs or verbs. There are no
indefinite articles that correspond to the English a, an or some.

17

For example,
na boden et
na
boden
et
I want a big house.

ceca
ceca

gdoli.
gdoli.

na boden et
na
boden
et
I want the big house.

de
de

ceca gdoli.
ceca
gdoli.

na boden et
na
boden
et
I want the big one.

de
de

gdoli.
gdoli.

The qualifier ke ke corresponds to the English word such. It is


used with nouns, adjectives and adverbs.
For example,
hu
arumo
ke
hu
arumo
ke
They are such good people.

latfi
latfi

en.
en.

The qualifiers ine ine and ixe ixe correspond to the English
indefinite articles any and each or every respectively. They are only
used with nouns.
For example,
ine
forda
doradori
ine
forda
doradori
Any car is O.K. (with me).
na ta ken ixe
na
ta
ken
ixe
I think of you every day.

en.
en.

moma.
moma.

The comparative qualifiers lece lece and mere mere correspond


to the English less and more, respectively. When used in
conjunction with these qualifiers, the particle ki ki refers to the
18

English than. If the definite qualifier de de is used with lece lece


or mere mere, they would correspond to the least and the most.
For example,
na
boden
na
boden
I want more money.

mere
mere

dinga.
dinga.

kucu lece
latfi ki
kocu
lece
latfi
ki
Koshu is less beautiful than Miru.

miru
miru

ceca di de mere gdoli


ceca
di
de
mere
gdoli
This is the biggest house in the city.

en.
en.

cta-bi
cta-bi

en.
en.

The qualifier otre otre refers to the English other or another.


For example,
lezen na
otre
lezen
na
otre
I need another car.

forda.
forda.

Number qualifiers are explained in Section 2.7. The following are


some examples where different qualifiers are used together:
For example,
pe
de
dadino en
pe
de
dadino
en
Only few of the guests are here.

dayna.
dayna.

le
pase
telgito
le
pase
telgito
No two snowflakes are similar.

mteli
mteli

en.
en.

19

2.6 Pronouns
The following is a list of most of pronouns in Delason.
a. Personal Pronouns
na

na

no

no

we

ta

ta

you (singular)

to

to

you (plural)

hu

hu

he, she, it, they

b. Possessive Pronominal Adjectives


There are no possessive pronouns in Delason. However, there
are possessive pronominal adjectives.

20

naci

naci

my

noci

noci

our

taci

taci

your (singular)

toci

toci

your (plural)

huci

huci

his, her, its, their

de

naci

de naci

mine

de

noci

de noci

ours

de

taci

de taci

yours (singular)

de

toci

de toci

yours (plural)

de

huci

de huci

his, hers, its, theirs

For example,
na oden ceca huci ve hu oben
de naci.
na oben
ceca
huci
ve
de naci.
I like his house and he likes mine.

hu

oben

c. Impersonal Pronoun
o

impersonal it or unknown subject

This pronoun can also be used to create a passive sentence when


used as the subject.
For example,
o raccen.
o
raccen.
Its raining.
o miru ha cofen.
o
miru
ha
cofen.
Miru was seen [some subject saw Miru].
This last example can also be expressed using the bi bi prefix
discussed above.
miru
ha
miru
ha
Miru was seen.

bicofen.
bicofen.

d. Relative Pronouns
o

redundant subject in relative clauses

eto

eto

redundant object in relative clauses

For more information on relative pronouns usage, see Section


2.9.
21

For example,
de
aruma ki
na eto
ha cofen
de
aruma
ki
na
eto
ha
cofen
The man whom I saw [lit. the man who I him saw]
e. Reflexive Pronoun
so

so

myself, yourself, herself, himself, itself,


ourselves, themselves, ones self

For example,
hu so
tasten.
hu
so
tasten.
He hates himself.
f. Indefinite Pronouns
tu

tu

all (things or people), everything, everybody

mu

mu

most (things or people)

su

su

some (things or people)

pu

pu

few (things or people)

lu

lu

none (things or people), nothing, nobody

inu

inu

anything, anybody

ixu

ixu

each

otru

otru

other (things or people) others

For example,
inu
doradori
inu
doradori
Anything is O.K.

22

en.
en.

g. Temporal Pronouns
ton-di

ton-di

now

ton-zi

ton-zi

then (past or future)

For example,
ton-di, no
ton-di,
no
Now we can go.

pen
pen

alir.
alir.

h. Spatial Pronouns
dayna

dayna

here

zayna

zayna

there

For example,
bakakay
bakakay
Stay here!

dayna!
dayna!

i. Demonstrative Pronouns
da

da

this (thing or person)

do

do

these (things or people)

za

za

that (thing or person)

zo

zo

those (things or people)

For example,
na
oben
na
oben
I like that.

za.
za.

23

2.7 Numbers
There are three types of numbers in Delason: counting numbers,
cardinal numbers and ordinal numbers. Counting numbers are
used for counting only (one, two, three ...). They have no vocalic
endings and are the roots used to form the other two types of
numbers.
For example,
as,
pas, tor, alay!
as,
pas,
tor,
alay!
one, two, three, GO!
Cardinal numbers are similar in meaning to counting numbers
except that they are not used in counting. There are three forms
of cardinal numbers all of which are constructed by adding some
vocalic ending to the counting numbers. First, cardinal numbers
can be qualifiers (ending with -e -e) that come before the noun.
Second, cardinal numbers can be adjectives (ending with -i -i)
that come after the noun. With adjectives and qualifiers, the
nouns agree with the number: they are plural except with number
one. Finally, cardinal numbers can be nouns (ending with -u
-u).
For example,
one house

ase

ceca

or ceca
two houses

pase
or ceco

ase ceca

asi

ceca asi

ceco

pase ceco

pasi

fourteen houses kat-v-one

ceco

or cecotkat-v-oni
24

ceco pasi
kat-v-one ceco
ceco kat-v-oni

ta
komse
ceca
aven?
ta
komse
ceca
aven?
How many houses do you have?
na
aven
na
aven
I have two.

pasu.
pasu.

As for ordinal numbers (first, second, third ... ), they are formed
by adding the suffix -ini -ini to the counting number. They can
only be used as adjectives.
For example,
first house

ceca

asini

ceca asini

second house

ceca

pasini

ceca pasini

fourteenth house ceca

kat-v-onini ceca kat-v-onini

For more information on numbers, see the list of counting


numbers in Section 3.3.

2.8 Prepositions
There are three types of prepositions in Delason: simple
prepositions, postpositions, and compound prepositions.
Preposition phrases can modify nouns or complement verbs just
as in English. There are only five simple prepositions, which have
pre-position and a post-position forms.
Preposition

Postposition

em em

-mi -mi

from

el el

-li -li

to

eb eb

-bi -bi

in, at

ev ev

-vi -vi

with

ce ce

-ci -ci

of
25

The following are examples of prepositions:


de ceco eb cta di
latfi en.
de
ceco
eb cta
di
latfi
en.
The houses in this city are beautiful.
na boden alir el cta
na
boden
alir
el cta
I want to go to New York city.

ce
ce

nyuyork.
nyuyork.

Postpositions in Delason are hyphenated particles that follow


their nominal objects. The hyphen is optional only if the
postpositions are used with pronouns.
For example,
hu
ceca-bi
hu
ceca-bi
They are in the house.

en.
en.

de aruma kocu-vi zmelin naci


de
aruma
kocu-vi
zmelin
naci
The man with Koshu is my friend.

en.
en.

Compound prepositions are made of adverbs hyphenated with


the particle et et. All of these prepositions can also be used
without the hyphenated particle.

26

ope-et

ope-et

over, up, on top of

ote-et

ote-et

under

sare-et

sare-et

to the left of

mine-et

mine-et

to the right of

adame-et

adame-et

in front of

ware-et

ware-et

behind

sake-et

sake-et

for

evle-et

evle-et

without

For example,
yen fruga ope-et de tabyula.
yen
fruga
ope-et
de tabyula.
There is a frog on the table.
fruga ha gren ware
fruga
ha
gren
ware
A frog ran behind the TV.

de
de

televiza.
televiza.

2.9 Relative Clauses


Delason has one relative particle and several relative pronouns.
The Delasoni relative particle ki ki is used in combination with
other prepositions and pronouns to give a specific meaning such
as who, which, that, whom, when, where, etc.
If the noun modified by the relative clause is the subject of that
clause, ki ki is followed by the pronoun o o, which is used as
the subject of the relative clause. This corresponds to the English
relative pronouns who, which and that. It does not make any
difference whether the subject is a person or a thing.
For example,
de
ima ki o no iden te
de
ima
ki o no
iden
te
The woman who helped us is very kind.

mnixi
mnixi

en.
en.

If the noun modified by the relative clause is the object of that


clause, ki ki is followed by the pronoun eto eto, which is used
as the object of the relative clause. This corresponds to the
English relative pronouns whom, which and that.
For example,
de aruma ki eto miru oben
de
aruma
ki eto
miru oben
The person whom Miru loves
27

If the noun modified by the relative clause is the possessor of


another noun in that clause, then the possessed noun is followed
by ce o ce o or oci oci. This corresponds to the English
relative pronoun whose.
For example,
de aruma ki na forda oci oben
de
aruma
ki
na
forda
oci
oben
The person whose car I like
Similar to the last example where the noun modified by the
relative clause is referred to in the clause as the object of the
preposition ce ce, other prepositions can be used in relative
clause. This can correspond to where, when, with whom, from where, to
where, etc.
For example
de ceca ki na eb o abiten gdoli en.
de
ceca
ki na eb o abiten
gdoli
en.
The house where I live is big.
Lit. the house which I in it live big is.
de va
ki na em o aten latfi en.
de
va
ki
na
em
o aten
latfi
en.
It is beautiful where I come from.
Lit. the place which I from it come beautiful is.
Relative pronouns in Delason provide an alternative to using the
relative particle ki ki. They are much closer in usage to their
English counterparts. The following is a list of these pronouns:

28

ki

ki

who, which, that

etki

etki

whom, which, that

evki

evki

with whom

elki

elki

to whom

emki

emki

from whom

vaki

vaki

where

tonki

tonki

when

Note the similarity between the relative pronoun ki ki and the


relative particle ki ki. The only difference is that the pronoun
o o is not used with the relative pronoun ki ki since it is itself a
pronoun.
For example,
de
ima
ki
no iden me
de
ima
ki
no
iden
me
The woman who helped us is very kind.
de
asu etki na oben
de
asu
etki
na
oben
The one whom I love does not love me.
de
ceca vaki na abiten
de
ceca
vaki
na
abiten
The house where I live is big.

mnixi
mnixi
oben
oben
gdoli
gdoli

en.
en.
na.
na.
en.
en.

2.10 Questions
Most interrogative words in Delason are interrogative pronouns.
However, there are one interrogative particle, one interrogative
qualifier, one interrogative adjective, and one interrogative
postposition. Interrogative pronouns are usually placed at the
beginning of the sentence without changing its word order. For
more information on word order see Section 2.12. The following
is a list of Delasoni interrogative pronouns:
osi

osi

(subject) who, what

etsi

etsi

(object) whom, what

evsi

evsi

with whom

elsi

elsi

to whom
29

emsi

emsi

from whom

komsi

komsi

how

ersi

ersi

why

vasi

vasi

where

em

vasi

em vasi

from where

el

vasi

el vasi

to where

tonsi

tonsi

when

el

tonsi

el tonsi

until when

em

tonsi

em tonsi

since when

For example,
vasi
kocu
vasi
kocu
Where is Koshu?

en?
en?

tonsi
ta
sa
tonsi
ta
sa
When will you come back?

raten?
raten?

ersi
ta
ersi
ta
Why did you go?

ha
ha

alen?
alen?

komsi
ta
komsi
ta
How are you?

en?
en?

The only interrogative particle in Delason is es es which changes


any sentence to a question when placed at the beginning or end
of that sentence. The type of question resulting from using es es
is a yes/no question.

30

For example,
es de
forda
es
de
forda
Is this your car?

di
di

taci en?
taci
en?

no sa
alen moma di,
no
sa
alen
moma
di,
We are going today, arent we?

es?
es?

The interrogative qualifier komse komse corresponds with the


English interrogative articles how many and how much. It precedes
the noun it qualifies.
For example,
ta aven komse
ta
aven
komse
How many cars do you have?

forda?
forda?

The interrogative adjective cesi cesi whose follows the noun


whose possessor is demanded.
For example,
ceca di
cesi
ceca
di
cesi
Whose house is this?

en?
en?

The last interrogative word is the interrogative postposition -si


-si, which corresponds to the English interrogative articles what or
which. This postposition is hyphenated to the noun in question.
For example,
ta boden
et
ta
boden
et
Which car do you want?

forda-si?
forda-si?

31

2.11 Conjunctions
Delasoni conjunctions are used to combine different phrases or
clauses together. The following are some of these conjunctions:
ve

ve

and

or

pas

pas

but

pas

le

pas le

but not

u ... u

either ... or

le

le

le ... le

neither ... nor

gamgam

gamgam

also, in addition

olte

olte

done

done

ere

ere

although, despite
so as to, in order to,
so that
because

dore

erge

therefore

ize

ize

if

dize

dize

then

eltone

eltone

until

emtone

emtone

since

evtone

evtone

while, as long as

ware

ware

before

adame

adame

after, then

For example,
na
ken.
erge,
na
ken.
erge,
I think. Therefore, I am.
32

na
na

en.
en.

na
na

sa
sa

aten
aten

ere
ere

na
na

boden
boden

cofir
et
ta.
cofir
et
ta.
I am coming because I want to see you.
ware
ware

na
na

ranvizitir
ranvizitir

alen,
alen,
et
et

na lezen
na
lezen

banka.
banka.

Before I go, I have to stop by the bank.


mari,
mari,

janu,
janu,

ve
ve

kocu
kocu

sa
sa

aten
aten

moma
moma

di.
di.

Mary, John and Koshu are coming today.

2.12 Sentential Word Order


The Delasoni sentence word order is quite free except for the
following constraints. The word order in every phrase (noun
phrase, verb phrase, etc.) is not free. For example, adjectives
always follow nouns and qualifiers precede them. The rules for
word order of nouns, adjectives, etc. are described above in their
different sections. On the clause level, although the verb can
occur anywhere, the subject must always precede the object. If
the object is to precede the subject, it must be marked with the
accusative case marker et et. This marker is optional otherwise.
For example, all of the following sentences have the same
meaning: I love Koshu.

33

na
na

kocu
kocu

oben.
oben.

na
na

oben
oben

kocu.
kocu.

oben
oben

na
na

kocu.
kocu.

et
et

kocu
kocu

na
na

oben.
oben.

et
et

kocu
kocu

oben
oben

na.
na.

oben
oben

et
et

kocu
kocu

na.
na.

Questions and declarative statements share the same word order.


This freedom in word order provides great flexibility for poemwriting. See Chapter 4 for some examples of poetic usage.
However, the general tendencies for word order in Delason are as
follows:
1. The basic word order is SVO (subject-verb-object) with
the accusative case marker being optional. For example,
na boden

(et)

forda

di.

na

(et)

forda

di.

boden

I want this car.


2. If the object is a pronoun, then the word order is SOV
(subject-object-verb). For example,
na

hu

oben.

na

hu

oben.

I love him.
3. If the verb is a linking verb such as the verb en en to
be, then the word order is SCV (subject-complementverb). For example,
34

miru

ori

en.

Miru

ori

en.

Miru is happy.
hu

me intelgi en.

hu

me intelgi

en.

She is very intelligent.

35

Chapter Three

A Phrasebook of Delason

3.1 Basic Expressions


Hello

olan

olan

Goodbye

ev

ev olan

Please

ize

Thank you

daka

daka

Thanks a lot

te

dako

te dako

Youre welcome

ev

ora

ev ora

How are you?

komsi

Fine, thank you.

kuti

O.K.

doradori

doradori

Who are you?

ta-si

ta-si en?

I am Koshu.

na

What is your name?


My name is Miru.

olan
oren

ta

en,

en? komsi ta en?


daka. kuti en, daka.

en?

kocu

komsi

ize oren

en.

ta

binamen?
miru

binamen.

na kocu en.
komsi ta binamen?
miru binamen.

Are you Koshu?

es

ta

kocu

en?

Yes, I am.

vi,

en.

Yes, I am Koshu.

vi,

kocu

No, I am not.

le,

le

le,

kocu

No, I am not Koshu.

es ta kocu en?
vi, en.

en.

en.

vi, kocu en.


le, le en.

le

en.

le, kocu le en.

3.2 Hello Everybody!


Good morning
Good evening
Good afternoon

moma

latfi

moma latfi

Good night

cena

latfi

cena latfi

Hello

olan

Hello everybody!

olan

Congratulations

te

Happy season
(Christmas, Eid,
Pesach)

ora

Happy birthday

mom-nu

Happy new year

cebcona

Goodbye

ev

olan

ev olan

See you later

el

cofir

el cofir

This is Mr./Ms. ...

da

olan
el

tu!

barko
ev

am

te barko

olan
ori
ori

...

olan el tu!

en.

ora ev olan
mom-nu ori
cebcona ori

da am ... en.
37

How do you do?

komsi

ta

en? komsi ta en?

Very well, thank you. me kuti, daka,


me kuti, daka, ve ta?
and you?
ve ta?
Fine, thank you.

kuti

Excuse me

ize

Sorry

tsutsu

tsutsu

No problem

le

le tapca

I beg your pardon.

pardonay

I would like you to


meet Miru

en,

daka. kuti en, daka.

oren

ize oren

tapca

na

ta

na. pardonay na.

boden

goblir

et

miru.
gicani

na ta boden goblir et
miru.

Mr. / Ms. Gishani

am

my parents

vavo

naci

vavo naci

my father/mother

vavu

naci

vavu naci

brother/sister

ahu

ahu

son/daughter

sunu

sunu

aunt/uncle

antu

antu

grandfather/grandmot
saftu
her
spouse

pasan

am gicani

saftu
pasan

brother-in-law/sisterpasan-ahu
in-law

pasan-ahu

son-in-law/daughterpasan-sunu
in-law

pasan-sunu

38

family

msiva

msiva

woman

ima

ima

feminine

imi

imi

man

oma

oma

masculine

omi

omi

This is my mother

and that is my father

da

vavu

imi

en,
ve
omi

za

vavu

en.

da vavu imi en,

ve za vavu omi en.

3.3 One, Two, Three, GO!


number
numbers

dzua,

dzua,

dzu

dzu

dzuo

dzuo

fec

fec

as

as

pas

pas

tor

tor

kat

kat

faf

faf

ses

ses

sat

sat
39

mon

mon

nov

nov

10

10

on

on

11

11

as-v-on

as-v-on

12

12

pas-v-on

pas-v-on

13

13

tor-v-on

tor-v-on

19

19

nov-v-on

nov-v-on

20

20

pason

pason

21

21

pason

as pason as

22

22

pason

pas

30

30

toron

31

31

toron

40

40

katon

katon

50

50

fafon

fafon

90

90

novon

novon

100

100

om

om

101

101

om

200

200

pasom

pasom

300

300

torom

torom

1,000

1000

doza

doza

40

pason pas

as

toron
as toron as

om as

2,000

2000

20,000

20000

200,000

200000

1 million

1000000

2 million

2000000

365

365

pase

doza

pase doza
pasone

pasone doza
pasome

3276

doza

pasome doza
milyon
pase

milyon

milyon

pase milyon
torom

seson

faf

torom seson faf


tore

3276

doza

doza

saton

pasom

ses

tore doza pasom saton ses

33,477,261

toron

tore

milyon

katom

saton

sat

33477261 pasom

seson

as

toron tore milyon katom saton sat


pasom seson as
one half

1/2

pasod

pasod

one third

1/3

torod

torod

one fourth

1/4

katod

katod

.33

.33

pez

toron

tor

pez toron tor


41

.61

.61

1%

5%

5%

90%

90 %

99.99%

99.99 %

pez

seson

as

pez seson as
as

emom

faf

emom

novon

as emom
faf emom

emom

novon emom
novon

nov

pez

novon

nov

emom

novon nov pez novon nov emom


plus

ve

ve

minus

vile

vile

times

tote

tote

divided by

pope

pope

equal

galen

galen

20 + 4 = 24

pason

ve

kat

pason

kat

galen.

pason ve kat pason kat galen.


pason

20 - 4 = 16

vile

ses-v-on

kat

galen.

pason vile-et kat ses-v-on galen.


first

asini

asini

second

pasini

pasini

third

torini

torini

42

last

pahini

pahini

beginning

asina

asina

end

paha

paha

one house

ase

ceca

ase ceca

one house

ceca

asi

ceca asi

twelve houses

twelve houses

the first house

the tenth house

the last house


How much does this cost?

as-v-one

ceco

as-v-one ceco
ceco

as-v-oni

ceco as-v-oni
de

ceca

asini

de ceca asini
de

ceca

onini

de ceca onini
de

ceca

pahini

de ceca pahini
komse

da

koten?

komse da koten?
It costs 35 dimas.

da

toron

dima

fafe

koten.

da toron fafe dima koten.


72 dollars
She is number one.

saton

pase

dolar

saton pase dolar


hu

dzu

as

en.

hu dzu as en.
43

hu

He is number ten.

dzu

on

en.

hu dzu on en.
na

I want number 65.

boden

seson

dzu

faf.

na boden dzu seson faf.

3.4 What Day is it?


day

moma

moma

night

cena

cena

today

moma

di

moma di

yesterday

mama

ali

moma ali

tomorrow

moma

ati

moma ati

tonight

cena

di

cena di

last night

cena

ali

cena ali

tomorrow night

cena

ati

cena ati

every day

te

momo

te momo

all day

te

moma

te moma

every night

te

ceno

te ceno

week

satun

What day is it?

moma-si

It is Sunday.

mom-asin

Monday

mom-pasin

44

satun
en?
en.

moma-si en?
mom-asin en.
mom-pasin

Tuesday

mom-torin

mom-torin

Wednesday

mom-katin

mom-katin

Thursday

mom-fafin

mom-fafin

Friday

mom-sesin

mom-sesin

Saturday

mom-satin

mom-satin

Moon

lela

lela

Sun

cebca

cebca

month

lelon

lelon

every month

te

te lelono

this month

lelon

di

lelon di

last month

lelon

ali

lelon ali

next month

lelon

ati

lelon ati

January

lelon-asin

lelon-asin

February

lelon-pasin

lelon-pasin

March

lelon-torin

lelon-torin

April

lelon-katin

lelon-katin

May

lelon-fafin

lelon-fafin

June

lelon-sesin

lelon-sesin

July

lelon-satin

lelon-satin

August

lelon-monin

lelon-monin

September

lelon-novin

lelon-novin

lelono

45

October
November

December
year
What year is it?

It is 2004.

lelon-onin

lelon-onin

lelon-as-v-onin

lelon-as-v-onin
lelon-pas-v-onin

lelon-pas-v-onin
cebcona

cebcona

cebcona-si

en?

cebcona-si en?
pase

doza

kat

en.

pase doza kat en.

season

ton-cebon

ton-cebcon

Summer

ton-heron

ton-herron

Winter

ton-beron

ton-berron

Spring

ton-icbon

ton-icbon

Autumn

ton-ladon

ton-ladon

How old are you?

I am 18 years old.

oga-si

ta

aven?

oga-si ta aven?
na

aven

kat-v-one

na aven kat-v-one cebcono.

time

ton

this time

ton

di

ton di

next time

ton

ati

ton ati

last time

ton

ali

ton ali

46

ton

cebcono.

never

letone,

leton

letone, leton

rarely

petone,

peton

petone, peton

sometimes

setone,

often

metone,

meton

metone, meton

always

tetone,

teton

tetone, teton

What time is it?

tonsi

seton

ton

di

setone, seton

en?

tonsi ton di en?

hour

saya

saya

minute

mima

mima

seconds

kika

kika

watch

sayona

sayona

It is one oclock.

ase

two oclock

pase

saya

tore

saya

half past three

quarter past four.

twenty to five.
10:45

asya

en.

ase saya en.


pase saya

ve

pasod

ve

katod

tore saya ve pasod


kate

saya

kate saya ve katod


fafe

saya

vile-et

torod

fafe saya vile-et torod


on

katon

faf

on katon faf

47

3.5 What, who, where?


Where?

vasi?

vasi?

When?

tonsi?

tonsi?

Who / what?

osi?

osi?

Whom / what?

etsi?

etsi?

How?

komsi?

komsi?

Why?

ersi?

ersi?

How much /How


many?

komse?

komse?

Where am I?

vasi

na

Where is/are ...?

vasi

...

Are you from here?


Yes, I am.
No, I am a foreigner.

Where are you from?


I am from ...
The United States of
America

es

ta

em

en? vasi na en?


en?

vasi ... en?

dayna?

es ta em dayna?
vi,

en.

le,

na

vi, en.
oslanti

en.

le, na oslanti en.


em

vasi

ta

aten?

em vasi ta aten?
na

em

dolo

...

en.

asuni

na em ... en.
ameriku-ci

dolo asuni ameriku-ci

France

fransu

fransu

England

inglu

inglu

48

Japan

niponu

niponu

Germany

doytclant

doytclant

China

cinu

cinu

Russia

rucu

rucu

Palestine

falestinu

falestinu

Where are you going?

Where can I find ...?

When can I see you?

Where is the meeting?

When is the meeting?

el

vasi

ta

alen?

el vasi ta alen?
vasi

na

pen

fontir

et ... ?

vasi na pen fontir et ... ?


tonsi

na

pen

cofir

et

ta?

tonsi na pen cofir et ta?


vasi

de

gobla

en?

vasi de gobla en?


tonsi

de

gobla

en?

tonsi de gobla en?

How much does this komse da koten?


cost?
komse da koten?
Can you speak
Delason?

es

ta

pen

darcir

et

delason?

es ta pen darcir et delason?


osi

da

binamen

What is this called in


delason?
Delason?
osi da binamen eb delason?

eb

49

komsi

...

bidarcen

eb

How do you say ... in


delason?
Delason?
komsi ... bidarcen eb delason?
What does this mean?

What do you mean?


Who am I???

etsi

da

vodiren?

etsi da vodiren?
etsi

ta

vodiren?

etsi ta vodiren?
na-si

en???

na-si en???

3.6 This is it!


What is this?

da-si

en?

da-si en?

This is ...

da

...

en.

da ... en.

This is a car.

da

forda

This is a house.

da

ceca

This is a bird.

da

torita

Is it ... ?

es

hu

...

Yes, it is.

vi,

hu

en.

No, it isnt.

le,

hu

le

So, what is it?

dize,

Its a bird. Its a


plane. No, its
Superman.
Where is/are ...?
50

en. da forda en.

en.

osi

da ceca en.
en.

da torita en.

en?

es hu ... en?
vi, hu en.

en.

le, hu le en.

en? dize, osi en?

hu

torita

en.

en.

le,

superman

hu

hu

plena
en.

hu torita en. hu plena en. le, hu superman en.


vasi

...

en?

vasi ... en?

Where is it?

vasi

hu

en?

vasi hu en?

Where are they?

vasi

hu

en?

vasi hu en?

Here it is.

hu

dayna

en.

There they are.

hu

zayna

en. hu zayna en.

Where are the


Pyramids?
Are they in Egypt?
Yes, they are in
Egypt.
What does he/she
do?

vasi

de

hu dayna en.

mazigo

en?

vasi de mazigo en?


es

hu

igeptu-bi

en?

es hu igeptu-bi en?
vi,

hu

igeptu-bi

en.

vi, hu igeptu-bi en.


osi

hu

fen?

osi hu fen?

He/She is a doctor. hu doktor en. hu doktor en.


professor

profesor

profesor

politician

politikon

politikon

musician

muzikon

muzikon

painter

banton

banton

engineer

jenyon

jenyon

3.7 I am lost. Can you help me?


Hello. Can you help olan. es ta pen na idir?
me?
olan. es ta pen na idir?
I think I am lost?

na

ken

et

ki

na

lecti

en.

na ken et ki na lecti en.


51

I am looking for ...

Where can I find ... ?

Where can I find a


good hotel?

na

cercen

et

...

na cercen et ...
vasi

na

pen

fontir

...

fontir

otel

vasi na pen fontir ... ?


vasi

na

pen

kuti?

vasi na pen fontir otel kuti?


Where can I rent a
car?

vasi

na

pen

gerdir

forda?

vasi na pen gerdir forda?


vasi

Where is the
restroom (men)?

cecita

omo-ci

en?

vasi cecita omo-ci en?


Note: restrooms for men are marked with O
vasi

cecita

imo-ci

en?

Where is the
vasi cecita imo-ci en?
restroom (women)?

Note: restrooms for women are marked with I

Where can I find a


good restaurant?

vasi
manja

na

pen

fontir

cec-

kuti?

vasi na pen fontir cec-manja kuti?


How can I get to ... ?

komsi

na

pen

veslir

el ... ?

veslir

el

komsi na pen veslir el ... ?


komsi

na

pen

How can I get to the


otel maryot?
Mariott hotel?
komsi na pen veslir el otel maryot?
52

How can I get to


New York city?

komsi
cta

na

pen

veslir

el

nyuyork?

komsi na pen veslir el cta nyuyork?


komsi

na

pen

veslir

How can I get there? zayna?


komsi na pen veslir zayna?
komsi

na

pen

veslir

How can I get there


zayna?
quickly?
komsi na pen veslir vite zayna?
Where is ...?

vasi

It is right here.

dayna

en.

dayna en.

It is over there.

zayna

en.

zayna en.

It is far from here.

hu

Go to the left.

alay

sare.

alay sare.

Go to the right.

alay

mine.

alay mine.

Go up to ...

alay

ope

el

...

alay ope el ...

Go down to ...

alay

ote

el

...

alay ote el ...

alay

adame

Go forward to ...

Go backward to ...
Go in the same
direction.

...

en?

badi

vite

vasi ... en?

en.

hu badi en.

el

...

alay adame el ...


alay

ware

el

...

alay ware el ...


alay

eb

otte

derison.

alay eb otte derison.


53

ta

lezen

alir

You need to go in a
different direction. derison.
ta lezen alir eb otre derison.
First, go forward
until you get to the
traffic lights.

asine,
ta

alay

veslen

eb

otre

adame

et

dwo

eltone
ce

trafika.

asine, alay adame eltone ta veslen et dwo ce trafika.


Then, turn to the
right.
Then, turn to the left.

The Mariott Hotel


will be to your left.

adame,

alay

mine.

adame, alay mine.


adame,

alay

sare.

adame, alay sare.


de

otel

taci

mariot

sa

eb

sara

en.

de otel maryot eb sara taci sa en.


Hopefully, you will
get there.

ize

ir,

ta

sa

veslen.

ize ir, ta sa veslen.

3.8 The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly


I am strong.

na

xaski

I was weak.

na

viki

ha

na

mere

xazki

I will be stronger.

na xaski en.

en. na viki ha en.


sa

en.

na mere xazki sa en.

You (sing.) are


intelligent.

ta

intelgi

He/She is stupid.

hu

tefci

54

en.

en.
en.

ta intelgi en.
hu tefci en.

This is good.

da

kuti

en.

This is not good.

da

kuti

le

en.

da kuti le en.

da

le

kuti

en.

da le kuti en.

do

le

gdoli

These are not big,


This man was young.

oma

di

da kuti en.

en. do le gdoli en.

yani

ha

en.

oma di yani ha en.


ceca

di

latfi

This beautiful house


gdoli en.
is not big enough.
ceca di latfi le kife gdoli en.

le

kife

He is happy.

hu

ori

en.

hu ori en.

He feels happy.

hu

ori

pilen.

hu ori pilen.

He seems happy.

hu

ori

zimen.

hu ori zimen.

hu

ori

ha

He became happy.

vonen.

hu ori ha vonen.

wide

aridi

aridi

narrow

dakki

dakki

quick

viti

viti

slow

clobi

clobi

bright

cebci

cebci

dark

leli

leli

big

gdoli

gdoli

small

cmoli

cmoli
55

beautiful

latfi

latfi

ugly

galfi

galfi

new

navoni

navoni

young

yani

yani

old

olti

olti

strong

xazki

xazki

weak

viki

viki

tall

toli

toli

short

kasi

kasi

happy

ori

ori

sad

zoli

zoli

intelligent

intelgi

intelgi

stupid

tefci

tefci

heavy / fat

vesxi

vesxi

light / thin

xissi

xissi

easy

isi

isi

hard

sobi

sobi

complete

kompi

kompi

incomplete

nakci

nakci

good

kuti

kuti

bad

rayi

rayi

56

expensive

ceri

ceri

cheap

bomrci

bomarci

clean

nakvi

nakvi

dirty

mezi

mezi

3.9 Food
bread

zobxa

zobxa

meat

bacra

bacra

water

yam

yam

fish

daga

daga

cheese

gota

gota

cake

gata

gata

eggs

lego

lego

oil

wil

wil

food

manjina

manjina

drinks

catino

catino

wine

van

van

tea

tay

tay

coffee

kafa

kafa

milk

lixta

lixta

sugar

sokar

sokar
57

salt

clet

clet

pepper

pret

pret

vegetables

icbo

icbo

fruit

otricbo

otricbo

plate

pla

pla

spoon

yarita

yarita

fork

towita

towita

knife

danita

danita

cup / glass

susa

susa

table

tabyula

tabyula

table cloth

kercifa

tabyula-ci

kercifa tabyula-ci

napkin

kercifa

kercifa

restaurant

cec-manja

cec-manja

apple

tapwa

tapwa

lemon

limon

limon

banana

banana

banana

orange

orenca

orenca

potato

potata

potata

tomato

tomata

tomata

carrots

karota

karota

58

orange juice

tomato juice

catina

orenca-ci

catina orenca-ci
catina

tomata-ci

catina tomata-ci

a cup of tea

susa

ce

tay susa ce tay

a glass of wine

susa

ce

van susa ce van

a piece of cake

pya

meal

manja

manja

breakfast

arca

arca

lunch

logma

logma

dinner

mila

mila

Can we see the


menu?

es

ce

no

gata

pen

pya ce gata

cofir

et

manyu?

es no pen cofir et manyu?


I like to drink wine.

I like to eat carrots.

I want some wine.

I want a carrot.

na

oben

catir

van.

na oben catir van.


na

oben

manjir

karoto.

na oben manjir karoto.


na

boden

se

van.

na boden se van.
na

boden

ase

karota.

na boden ase karota.

59

I would like some


more tea.

na

boden

tay.

na boden mere tay.

I am hungry.

na

gohi

I am full.

na

fuli

es

ta

Have you had


breakfast?

mere
en.

en.

ha

na gohi en.
na fuli en.

manjen

arca?

es ta ha manjen arca?
etsi

ta

ken

regade

Would you like to


have dinner with me? manjir mila ev na?
etsi ta ken rigade manjir mila ev na?

3.10 Body Parts


head

bricta

bricta

hair

cro

cro

eye

cofa

cofa

ear

coma

coma

nose

cima

cima

mouth

motta

motta

lip

bla

bla

moustache

cra-motta

cra-motta

tongue

lason

lason

tooth

dan

dan

face

fissa

fissa

60

beard

cra-fissa

cra-fissa

back

dara

dara

chest

sboba

sboba

hand

yara

yara

finger

towa

towa

foot

jyara

jyara

toe

towa

towa

belly

billa

billa

behind

anusa

anusa

knee

nila

nila

blood

ada

ada

voice

soat

sota

smell

cmila

cmila

body

zika

zika

heart

gora

gora

mind

kala

kala

soul

hava

hava

What happened?

osi

osi vehen?

vehen?

I hurt my self while na bixatsen evtone grir.


running.
na bixatsen evtone grir.
while walking

evtone

mcir

evtone mcir

61

while playing

evtone

playing tennis

tenisir

tenisir

playing football

fotbolir

fotbolir

injury

xatsa

xatsa

jyara

bixatsen.

I hurt my foot.

My eyes hurt.

I hurt all over.

cpilir evtone cpilir

jyara bixatsen.
cofo

bixatsen.

cofo bixatsen.
te

zika

bixatsen.

te zika bixatsen.

He has such beautiful hu aven ke cofo latfi!


eyes!
hu aven ke cofo latfi!
She has such an ugly hu aven ke cima galfi!
nose!
hu aven ke cima galfi!
This smells good.

This looks beautiful.

This tastes delicious.

da

kuti

bicimen.

da kuti bicimen.
da

latfi

bicofen.

da latfi bicofen.
da

lezzi

biguten.

da lezzi biguten.

3.11 Clothing
clothing

klota

klota

suit

rsima

rsima

62

jacket

jaketa

jaketa

pants

pantalona

pantalona

hat

kopa

kopa

shirt

kamisata

kamisata

tie

karavatta

karavatta

handkerchief

kercifa

kercifa

dress

druga

druga

shoes

bato

bato

socks

klot-jyaro

klot-jyaro

pocket

cec-yara

cec-yara

glasses

cofita

cofita

buttons

zaro

zaro

underwear

ote-klota

ote-klota

How can I help you?

komsi

na

pen

ta

idir?

komsi na pen ta idir?

I would like to buy a na boden cirir pantalona.


pair of pants.
na boden cirir pantalona.
Do you sell wedding es silen drugo pasodo-ci?
dresses?
es silen drugo pasodo-ci?
What size?

psa-si?

psa-si?

Which color do you ta oben sba-si?


like?
ta oben sba-si?
63

I like the color white.

I want the black suit.

Can I try the red one.

na

oben

et

lavon.

na oben et lavon.
na

boden

de

rsima

cadoni.

na boden de rsima cadoni.


es

na

pen

trir

de

adoni.

es na pen trir de adoni.

red

adoni

adoni

blue

yamoni

yamoni

yellow

limoni

limoni

orange

orenconi

orenconi

green

icboni

icboni

black

cadoni

cadoni

white

lavoni

lavoni

gray

ladoni

ladoni

brown

arboni

arboni

purple

idoni

idoni

pink

rosoni

rosoni

dark red

adon

adoni leli

light blue

yamon

transparent

havoni

multicolored

kor-ce-raconi kor-ce-raconi

64

leli
cebci

yamoni cebci
havoni

3.12 The Weather


weather

vetra

vetra

sun

cebca

cebca

rain

racca

racca

clouds

inno

inno

sky

ola

ola

wind

havo

havo

snow

cna

cna

rainbow

kor-ce-rac

kor-ce-rac

air

hava

hava

soil

erta

erta

water

yam

yam

fire

cuca

cuca

Planet Earth

kokav

ert

kokav ert

komsi

vetra

en?

How is the weather?

komsi vetra en?

It is good.

kuti

It is ...

...

sunny

cebci

cebci

rainy

racci

racci

cloudy

inni

inni

en.

en.

kuti en.
... en.

65

snowy

cni

cni

windy

havoi

havoi

hot

herri

herri

cold

berri

berri

warm

verri

verri

dry

havani

havani

humid

yamani

yamani

The rain is falling.

I feel cold.

I feel hot.

I hate the wind.

I like warm weather.

de

racca

flegen.

de racca flegen.
na

berri

pilen.

na berri pilen.
na

herri

pilen.

na herri pilen.
na

tasten

et

havo.

na tasten et havo.
na

oben

vetra

verri.

na oben vetra verri.

3.13 Useful Words


here

dayna

dayna

there

zayna

zayna

now

ton-di

ton-di

then

ton-zi

ton-zi

66

also

gamgam

gamgam

may be

pen

pen ir

certainly

ev

good

kuti

kuti

very good

me

kuti

me kuti

excellent

te

kuti

te kuti

bad

rayi

rayi

very bad

me

rayi

me rayi

terrible

te

rayi

te rayi

ir
serta

ev serta

It is necessary that ... lezen et ki ... lezen et ki ...


It is important that ... heten et ki ... heten et ki ...
It is necessary that
you stay.

lezen

et

ki

ta

bakaken.

lezen et ki ta bakaken.

too

gamgam

gamgam

except ...

pasle

pasle ...

including ...

game

regarding ...

rigade

In order to ...

done

In addition

gamgam

In addition to ...

gamgame

a lot

memu

...
...

game ...
...

...

rigade ...
done ...
gamgam

...

gamgame...
memu

67

a little

pepu

pepu

enough

kefe

kefe

more

mere

mere

less

lece

lece

I am inside.

na

eb

gowa

en.

na eb gowa en.

outside

eb

barra

eb barra

on top

eb

opa

eb opa

down under

eb

ota

eb ota

to the left

eb

sara

eb sara

to the right

eb

mina

eb mina

in front

eb

adama

eb adama

behind

eb

wara

eb wara

around

eb

cira

eb cira

na

gowe

I am inside the house

de

ceca

en.

na gowe de ceca en.

outside ...

bare

on top of ...

ope

...

ope ...

under ...

ote

...

ote ...

to the left of ...

sare

to the right of ...

mine

in front of ...

adame

68

...

...
...

bare ...

sare ...
mine ...

...

adame ...

behind ...

ware

...

around ...

cirri

quickly

vite

vite

slowly

clobe

clobe

passionately

ev

oba

ev oba

hopefully

ize

ir

ize ir

Be careful!

siama!

I have ...

na

aven

I need ...

na

lezen

I want ...

na

boden

I would like ...

na

oben

Here I am!

yen

na!

yen na!

Here you are!

yen

ta!

yen ta!

Show me!

gicofay

Give me!

donay

na!

donay na!

Take this!

latcay

da!

latcay da!

Listen!

gicomay!

gicomay!

Silence!

zgita!

zgita!

Attention!

gicomay!

gicomay!

first

asine

asine

then

adame

adame

ware ...

...

cirri ...

simay!
...
...
...
...

na!

na aven ...
na lezen ...
na boden ...
na oben ...

gicofay na!

69

before

ware

ware

after

adame

adame

while

evtone

evtone

If

ize

ize

then

dize

dize

therefore

erge

erge

even

ivne

ivne

even if

ivnize

ivnize

although

olte

olte

in order to

done

done

O.K.

doradori

doradori

3.14 Verbs, Verbs, Verbs!


I speak Delason.

I spoke Delason.
I will speak
Delason.
I can speak
Delason.
I like to speak
Delason.
70

na

darcen

delason.

na darcen delason.
na

ha

darcen

delason.

na ha darcen delason.
na

sa

darcen

delason.

na sa darcen delason.
na

pen

darcir

delason.

na pen darcir delason.


na

oben

darcir

na oben darcir delason.

delason.

I want to speak
Delason.
I dont want to
speak English.
I used to speak
Delason.
Speak Delason!

I tried to speak
French.

na

boden

darcir

delason.

na boden darcir delason.


na

le

boden

darcir

inglia.

na le boden darcir inglia.


na

oden

darcir

delason.

na oden darcir delason.


darcay

delason!

darcay delason!
na

ha

tren

darcir

fransia.

na ha tren darcir fransia.


Do you speak
Arabic?

es

ta

darcen

arabia?

es ta darcen arabia?
na

ha

decen

darcir

I see.

na

cofen.

to see / seeing

cofir

cofir

See!

cofay!

cofay

drink

caten

caten

hear

comen

comen

listen

gicomen

gicomen

eat

manjen

manjen

I decided to speak
delason.
Delason.
na ha decen darcir delason.

na cofen.

71

try

tren

tren

come

aten

aten

become

enaten

enaten

go

alen

alen

show

gicofen

gicofen

say

kolen

kolen

tell

gikolen

gikolen

smell

cmilen

cmilen

give

donen

donen

want

boden

boden

be

en

en

be used to

oden

oden

shut up

zgiten

zgiten

sing

soten

soten

jump

noten

noten

walk

mcen

mcen

run

gren

gren

dance

desen

desen

help

iden

iden

invite

daden

daden

love/like

oben

oben

72

hate

tasten

tasten

start

asinen

asinen

end

pahen

pahen

repeat

reren

reren

do

fen

fen

respect

reten

reten

play

cpilen

cpilen

be happy

oren

oren

beautify

latfen

latfen

73

Chapter Four

Selected Texts
4.1 The Old Testament: First Light1
In the begining God created the heavens and the earth. Now the
earth was formless and empty, darkness was over the surface of
the deep, and the spirit of God was hovering over the waters.
And God said, "Let there be light," and there was light. God saw
that the light was good, and he separated the light from the
darkness. God called the light "day," and the darkness he called
"night." And there was evening, and there was morning - the first
day. (The Holy Bible, Genesis 1:1 - 1:5)
asina-bi,

elua

ert

tohivohi

ha

en.

ve

adame

dua

yen.

ha

en.

ha

namen

ha

yen

asini.

hu

baren

et

ha

en

lelina

havua

yatoren.
ha

ha

elua

ha
et

elua

elua-ci
ha

ha

dua

et

"moma"
ve

gadsi

ha
-

et

yen

asina

et

et

ope

ki

wamaka
ha

yay!"

ve

dua

kuti

lelina-mi.

elua

lelina

ton-cebca
1.1

ert.

yamo

"dua

dua
ve

ve

ope

kolen

cofen

fsilen

ton-lela,

(biblu

ve

olo

"cena".
-

mom

1.5)

asina-bi, elua ha baren et olo ve et ert. ert tohivohi ha en ve lelina ope


wamaka ha en. ve havua elua-ci ope yamo ha yatoren. adame elua ha kolen
"dua yay!" ve dua ha yen. elua ha cofen et ki dua kuti ha en. hu ha fsilen et
dua lelina-mi. elua ha namen et dua "moma" ve et lelina "cena". ha yen tonlela, ve ha yen ton-cebca - mom asini. (biblu gadsi - asina 1.1 - 1.5)
Holy Bible, New International Version. Copyright 1973, 1978, 1984 by
International Bible Society.
1

4.2 The Old Testament: The Tower of Babel


Now the whole world had one language and a common speech.
As people moved eastward, they found a plain in Shinar and
settled there. They said to each other, Come, lets make bricks
and bake them thoroughly. They used brick instead of stone,
and tar for mortar. Then they said, Come, let us build ourselves
a city, with a tower that reaches to the heavens, so that we may
make a name for ourselves; otherwise we will be scattered over
the face of the whole earth. But the Lord came down to see the
city and the tower the people were building. The Lord said, If
as one people speaking the same language they have begun to do
this, then nothing they plan to do will be impossible for them.
Come, let us go down and confuse their language so they will not
understand each other. So the Lord scattered them from there
over all the earth, and they stopped building the city. That is why
it was called Babel because there the Lord confused the
language of the whole world. From there the Lord scattered
them over the face of the whole earth. (The Holy Bible, Genesis
11:1 - 11:9, The Tower of Babel)
ton-di,

te

asi

darca

ve

fonten
hu
ev

hu

otru,

marbora
atay
ve

no
le

folen
etki

no

sake-et

arumo

ki

asinen

fir

da,

fir

gamgame

ki

eb

done

hu

elua

le

yen

et

otru
hu

saxor,

ve

hu
ev

no
cta

kolen,
lason

ve

cucin.

erta.

darcen
en

cta

baren

uda-li,

darcen

ce

no,

lason

cinar,

ve

cofir

done

alen

batin-vi
va

ope

baten.

asi

hu

et

binamen
ve

sake-et

done

arumo

aven

lazun.

bimetnacren
olo-mi

ki

baten

cucin

olo-li

ha

tonki

blad

baten,

veslen

erta

zayna-bi.

atay

batin

ce

asi.

de

bakaken

usen

ki

arumo

kolen,

tur

toli

nama

no-li

pas,

elua

ve

tur

et

ize

mtile

asi,

hu

lu

ki

hu

boden

posibili

ev

hu.

atay

75

na

folen

done

le

fehmen

metnacren
hu
cta

sizen

et

ce

hu

te

asina,

babelen
ev

et

done,

elua

te

erta,

ve

cta.

da

en

erki

de

ere

elua

babelen

de

hu

11.1-11.9,

hu-ci

ope

arumo
et

lason

otru.

zayna-mi

babelu,

metnacren

gadsi,

ve

otru

batir

binamen

lason
elua

olo-mi

erta-ci.
ope
tur

te

ve

zayna-mi,

erta.

(biblu

babelu-ci)

ton-di, te arumo ce erta ha aven et lason asi ve darca asi. tonki hu alen udali, fonten hu de blad ki binamen cinar, ve hu bakaken zayna-bi. ve hu
darcen otru ev otru, atay no baten batin-vi cucin. hu usen batin cucin eb va ce
saxor, ve marbora sake-et lazun. ve hu kolen, atay no baten, sake-et no, cta
ev tur toli ki veslen olo-li done baren no nama no-li ve le bimetnacren ope
erta. pas, elua folen olo-mi done cofir et cta ve et tur etki arumo baten. elua
kolen, ize mtile arumo asi ki darcen lason asi, hu asinen fir da, done yen lu
ki hu boden fir ki gamgame en le posibili ev hu. atay na folen olo-mi ve
babelen lason hu-ci done le fehmen otru ev otru. done, elua metnacren et hu
zayna-mi ope te erta, ve hu sizen batir et cta. da en erki de cta binamen
babelu, ere elua babelen de lason ce te arumo erta-ci. ve zayna-mi, elua
metnacren et hu ope te erta. (biblu gadsi, asina, 11.1-11.9, tur babelu-ci)

76

4.3 The New Testament: John 3:16


For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son,
that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life.
(NIV John 3:16)
ere

elua

et

sonu

le

sa

atuli.

te

oben

huci

saciken,
(bibla

et

asi,

olanta,
done

eppase,

gadsi

hu

hu

oki
sa

janu

ha

yamnen
aven

et

donen
et

hu

abita

3.16)

ere elua te oben et olanta, hu ha donen et sonu huci asi, done oki yamnen et
hu le sa saciken, eppase, hu sa aven et abita atuli. (bibla gadsi - janu 3.16)

77

4.4 The Quran: Alfatiha2


In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Ever Merciful.
All types of perfect praise belong to Allah alone, the Lord of all
the worlds * Most Gracious, Ever Merciful * Master of the Day
of Judgement * Thee alone do we worship and thee alone do we
implore for help * Guide us along the straight path * The path
of those on whom Thou hast bestowed Thy favors, those who
have not incurred Thy displeasure, and those who have not gone
astray. (Holy Quran, Alfatiha)
nama-bi

elua-ci

te

kamli

pru

meryami

et

ta

donay
eto
en.

te

ha

en

meryami
elua-li,

atufi

no

etno

te

via

blisen,

(koranu

ve

ki

et

komini
le

gadsi,

atufi.

amu

ovon

aboden
et

te

olanto-ci

ce
ta

maxini,
de

moma
no

te

dinya-ci

soliden

via
ve

ce
le

ki

ta

daloni

fatiha)

nama-bi elua-ci te meryami te atufi.


te pru kamli en elua-li, amu olanto-ci * te meryami te atufi * ovon ce moma
dinya-ci * et ta no aboden ve et ta no soliden * donay etno et via komini *
via ce ki ta eto ha blisen, ki le maxini, ve le daloni en. (koranu gadsi, de
fatiha)

The Quran. Trans. Muhammad Zafrulla Khan. Curzon Press: Sussex, 1981.

78

4.5 Tao Teh Ching: Book 13


Tao can be talked about, but not the Eternal Tao.
Names can be named, but not the Eternal Name.
As the origin of heaven-and-earth, it is nameless:
As "the Mother" of all things, it is nameable.
So, as ever hidden, we should look at its inner essence.
As always manifest, we should look at its outer aspects.
These two flow from the same source, though differently named;
And both are called mysteries.
The mystery of mysteries is the Door of all essence.
kolir

ce

taw

namir

et

namo

mtile

orga

mtile

"vavu"

erge,

mtile

kohola
no

kullo
pase

ce
te

so

huci
do

pas

pen,
olo

le

pas
ve

tu-ci,

huci

lezen

pen,

no

gowi.

le

taw

atuli

hu

le

binamen.

et

hu

pen.

lezen

so

gicofir

erto,

mtile

te

de

atuli

nama

namir

edi,

ce

cofini,

gicofir

bari.

orga-mi

mteli

aten,

olte

hu

otri

binamen
ve

do

bazla

pasi

bazlo

bazlo-ci

en.

delta

ce

te

kohola

en.

kolir ce taw pen, pas le ce taw atuli


namir et namo pen, pas le de nama atuli
mtile orga ce olo ve erto, hu le binamen.
mtile "vavu" tu-ci, namir et hu pen
erge, mtile te edi, no lezen so gicofir kohola huci gowi.
mtile te cofini, no lezen so gicofir kullo huci barri.
pase do orga-mi mteli aten, olte hu otri binamen
ve do pasi bazlo en.
bazla bazlo-ci delta ce te kohola en.

Tzu, Lao. Tao Teh Ching. Trans. John C.H. Wu. Shambhala: Boston, 1990.

79

4.6 The Universal Declaration of Human Rights


All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.
They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act
towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. (Article 1)
te

arumo

krato.
kala,

hu
ve

ahuha-ci.

nuen

grati

en

blisini

hu

lezen

(yahona

ve
ev

so-li

gali

eb

use-kala
fenfir

karama
ve
ev

ve

latfehavua

1)

te arumo nuen grati ve gali eb karama ve krato. hu en blisini ev use-kala ve


latfe-kala, ve hu lezen so-li fenfir ev havua ahuha-ci. (yahona 1)

80

4.7 Omar Khayyam: Rubaiya 24


Ah, make the most of what we yet may spend,
Before we too into the Dust descend;
Dust into Dust, and under Dust, to lie,
Sans Wine, sans Song, sans Singer, and - sans End!
Omar Khayyam, Rubaiya 24
Translation by Edward Fitzgerald4
fay

et

ware

no

erta-mi
evle

tu

ki

no

gamgam

erta-li

van,

evle

pen

juir

erta-li

ve

ote

sotin,

alen

erta
evle

modir
soton,

evle

pahir.
omaru

xayamu,

rubaiya

24

fay et tu ki no pen juir


ware no gamgam erta-li alen
erta-mi erta-li ve ote erta modir
evle van, evle sotin, evle soton, evle pahir.
omaru xayamu, rubaiya 24

4 Khayyam, Omar. The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam. Trans. Edward Fitzgerald.


The Peter Pauper Press: Mount Vernon, 1940.

81

4.8 Le Nozze di Figaro: No. 11 Canzone5


CHERUBINO
Sento un affetto
Pien di desir
Chora diletto,
Chora martir.
Gelo, e poi sento
Lalma avvampar,
E in un momento
Torno a gelar.
Lorenzo da Ponte

CHERUBINO
I feel a longing
I cant explain.
Sometimes a pleasure,
Sometimes a pain.
One moment frozen,
Then all aflame,
Then sudden shivering
All through my frame.
Translation by Edward Dent

cerubino

cerubino

na

pilen

fuli

et

pila

yaleza-vi

seton

et

na

ve

eb

kika

et

cna

na

na pilen et pila
fuli yaleza-vi

yoren

seton et na yoren
seton hu en pyani. seton hu en pyani.
bicnen ve ware
bicnen ve ware
hava naci cucen
hava naci cucen
ati
enaten.

ve eb kika ati
et cna na enaten

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. The Marriage of Figaro: Le Nozze di Figaro.


John Nicholas, ed. Riverrun Press: New York, 1983.
5

82

4.9 A Hundred Verses From Old Japan: UKON


My broken heart I dont lament,
To destiny I bow;
But thou hast broken solemn oaths,
I pray the Gods may now
Absolve thee from thy vow.
(Translation by William Porter)6
et

gora

naci

kadera-li
pas,

et

elo-li
ki

hu

na

vedo

na
ta

bixatsi
ha

veda-mi

le

mernen

boven

taci,

salen,

na

ta

ve

le

eto

taci

giyen
solen,

gigraten.

et gora naci bixatsi na le mernen


kadera-li na ha boven
pas, et vedo taci, ta le giyen
elo-li na salen, ve eto solen,
ki hu ta veda-mi taci gigraten.

6 Porter, N. William. A Hundred Verses from Old Japan. Charles E. Tuttle


Company: Vermont, 1984.

83

4.10 A Fairuz Song: Kifak Inta


Do you remember the last time I
saw you? Do you remember the
last thing you said? I havent seen
you since. And now here you are.
How are you? You Do you
remember the last time you visited
with us? Do you remember a
women who bothred you? That
was my mother. She worried
about me because of you. You
Kifak Inta (Excerpt), Fairuz, Kifak Inta, 1991.
es

kala-cofen

ta

de

ton

na

cofen
es

kolen

ton-zi,

na

le

na

cofen

komsi
es

ta

vetona

pahini

ha

yen

etki

le

hu,

vavu
ta

ta.

ta

es kala-cofen ta

no-vi
ima

ta

naci,

hickoken
ta.

em ton-zi, na le ha cofen ta.

ta

zayna
oben

etki na-li ha kolen ta?

ev ton-di, na cofen ta.


komsi ta en? ta...

ta

ha

84

en?

kala-cofen

en

ta?

ta.

ton-di,

de ton pahini na ha cofen ta?


es kala-cofen ta

ha

ev

em

ta

na-li

cofen

ha

ha

ta?

kala-cofen

etki
em

pahini

es kala-cofen ta

na-li

ha

vetona pahini no-vi ha en ta


ha yen zayna ima
etki le oben ta
hu, vavu naci,
ha hickoken na-li
em ta. ta

4.11 A Katy Perry Song: Firework


You dont have to feel like a waste of space
Youre original, cannot be replaced
If you only knew what the future holds
After a hurricane comes a rainbow
Baby, youre a firework
Come on, let your colors burst
Make em go "Oh, Oh, Oh"
Youre gonna leave em all in awe, awe, awe
Firework (Excerpt) Katy Perry, Teenage Dream, 2010.
mtile
ta

lu

lu

orgi

ize

ta

adame

en

kalen

le

le

ta!

giay

et

sa

pir

sbo
hu

yalen

pilir!

gegrayir.

yatona

aven,

kor-ce-rac

cpil-cuca

atay

lezay

etki

katrina,

bubulu,

ta

lu,

ta

ta-ci

kolir
et

tu

aten.

en.
yacucen!

ah,

ah,

eb

wala,

ah!
-la

la.

mtile lu lu lu, le lezay pilir!


ta orgi en , le pir gegrayir.
ize ta kalen etki yatona aven,
adame katrina, kor-ce-rac aten.
bubulu, cpil-cuca ta en.
atay ta! sbo ta-ci yacucen!
giay et hu kolir ah, ah, ah!
ta sa yalen et tu eb wala, -la -la.

85

4.12 An Emily Dickinson Poem: A Word


A word is dead
When it is said,
Some say.
I say it just
Begins to live
That day.
Emily Dickinson
darcita
tonki

mafti

eto

en

kolen

darcita mafti en
tonki eto kolen

su

fen

kolir.

su fen kolir.

ken

na

ki

ken na ki

eb

moma

hu
imili

86

zi

asinen

eb moma zi
abitir.

dikinsonu

hu asinen abitir.
imili dikinsonu

4.13 Delasoni Nursery Rhymes


A. fruga kocu
ha

yen

tonki

de

fruga

ki

kocu

te

moma

em

ponda

te

moma

te

fruga kocu

ha

ha yen tonki ha yen

yen

kurusi

de fruga te kurusi

binamen.
hu
hu

ki kucu binamen.

cpilen

di

el

Koshu the Frog

te moma hu cpilen

ponda

naten.

zi

em ponda di el ponda zi
te moma hu naten.

Once upon a time,


There was a curious frog
Whose name was Koshu.
All day he played
From one pond to another
All day he jumped around.
B. as, pas, tor, kat!
One, two, three, four!
as

pas

latcen
faf
eto

tor

kocu

as pas tor kat

kat
et

ses

sat

vonen

eb

de

as, pas, tor, kat!

cpat

mon
ballon!

latcen kocu et de cpat


faf ses sat mon
eto vonen eb ballon!

One, two, three, four,


Koshu caught a lizard.
Five, six, seven, eight,
He put it in a balloon.

87

4.14 Delasoni Love Poems


A. aruma ki
aruma

ki

kala-li
hu-li
na

aruma ki

gora

naci

abita

hu

naci

gamgam
naci

donen

otre

hu
hu

ev

The One I Love


ha

latcen,

mtele

oba
abita

na

fen.
donen.

ize

na

pen.

aruma ki gora naci hu ha latcen,


kala-li naci gamgam hu mtele fen.
hu-li abita naci ev oba na donen.
na hu donen otre abita ize na pen.
The one who stole my heart,
Took over my mind too.
I gave him my life lovingly.
And if I could, I would do it again.
B. torit oba-ci
torit
ta

oba-ci

ceca

atay,
basay

aven

atay
eb

bakakay,
et

hu

torit oba-ci
da-li.

gora
adame

oba

alay,

naci.

torit oba-ci atay da-li.


ta ceca aven eb gora di.
atay, bakakay, adame alay,
basay et hu oba naci.
Love bird come here to me.
In my heart, you have a home.
Come, stay, and then go,
Deliver my kisses to my love.

88

di.

Love Bird

4.15 From the Delasoni Epic of Kirmiz-Kazu


The epic of Kirmiz-Kazu tells the story of prince Kirmiz-Amu
(Lord Kirmiz), who falls in love with his mothers slave, Kazu.
When the Queen finds out, she decides to put an end to the
scandalous affair. She orders Kazu to be murdered. When Kirmiz
discovers what his mother has done, not believing that it
happened, he decides to abandon his future kingdom in search of
his love or whatever remains of her. He drops the royal affix in
his name and calls himself Kirmiz-Kazu (Kazus Kirmiz). And he
starts his unending journey looking for his loves ghost. The
following are three pieces from the libretto of this epic.
A. Kazu Describing Kirmiz
cra-cofo
veba
ki

huci

treda-ci

et

na

latcen.

hu-mi

na

gien

cofin-nemso
ki

na

eb

lelona

oba-ci

herri

fen

berri

cra-cofo huci
veba treda-ci
ki et na latcen.
hu-mi na gien
cofin-nemso oba-ci
ki herri fen
eb lelona berri ria-ci

ria-ci

His eyelashes
Are a web of threads
That captures me.
From them I make
Dreams of love
That keeps me warm
In the cold darkness of reality.

89

B. Kirmiz Waiting for Kazu


(not knowing that she is dead)
lela

ev

ase

lela

pas

adame,

ve

na,

na

no

et

asi

merno
lela

asi

sohi,

naci

eb

pen

comir.

enaten

bori.

fen

bakakir.

sohi

lela ev na, no asi sohi, eb lelona di.


ase lela et merno naci pen comir.
pas adame, lela enaten bori.
ve na asi sohi fen bakakir.
Only the moon and I are up this late.
Only the moon can hear my crying as I wait.
Soon, the moon will be bored and leaves.
And I, alone, will stay.
C. Kirmiz Searching for Kazu
kazu,

vasi

kirmiz,
na

oba

lelono

eltone

na

ta

en?

taci

cercen.

sa

namsen,

le
ta

fonten.

kazu, vasi ta en?


kirmiz, oba taci cercen.
na lelono le sa namsen,
eltone na ta fonten.
Kazu, where are you?
Its Kirmiz, your love, looking for you.
Nights I will never sleep,
Until I find you.

90

lelona

di.

4.16 Delasoni Wedding Certificate

PASODA

GADSI

CE

<First Name 1> VE <First Name 2>


<Full Name 1> ve <Full Name 2>
moma

1
blisen
ki
ki

et

elua

baren

et

baren

amu

di

et

tu
tu

<day> ce <month> ce <year>


ev
em

ke

te

pru

lu

otri

olanta-ci

2
cebca
moma

ve
ve

lela
cena

yam

ve

ixe

aruma

cuca

91

oba

gien

kife

tu

no

et

tu

ha

asa

en

ware

doradoren

abita

ce

oba,

so

bara

pasir

zmeloda

done

ve

ir

msiva

asi

el

diama.

4
no

veden

sua, eb
raya.

bakakir
mitaktika

ev

oba

msiva
ve

eb

na

veden,

na

ta

gien

azira

no

ve

na

gien

cec-azira

asi

eb

murmura,

sua
eb

ve

eb

kuta

le

ve

abiten.

naci
taci.

<Full Name 1>

<Full Name 2>

Signature

Signature

6
elua

et

elua

sizen

et

raya

gowi

elua

sizen

et

raya

barri

elua

blisen

et

elua

bodir,

ize

havua

hu

proten

elua-ci

ope

hu

te

momo

yatoren
huci

ir.

aziron

nizar

xabac

Signature
hona

92

di

doradorin

lui

protini

ce

pasoda

en.

eb

[Health] [Love] [Prosperity] [Wisdom]

[Eternity]
PASODA GADSI CE
Holy Union of

<First Name 1> VE <First Name 2>


<Full Name 1> ve <Full Name 2>
<Full Name 1> and <Full Name 2>
moma di <day> ce <month> ce <year>
this day <day> of <month> of <year>

1
blisen et elua ev te pru
ki baren et tu em lu
ki baren et tu ke otri
amu olanta-ci

Praised is God with all praise


Who created all from none
Who created all so different
Lord of the world

2
cebca ve lela
moma ve cena
yam ve cuca
ixe aruma
oba gien et tu asa
kife tu ha en ware bara

Sun and moon


Day and night
Water and fire
Each human being
Love makes all one
As all was before creation
93

3
no doradoren so pasir done
ir msiva asi el abita ce oba,
zmeloda ve diama.

We agree to join in marriage


to become one family for a life
of love, friendship and trust.

4
no veden bakakir msiva asi
We vow to remain one family
eb sua ve eb le sua, eb mitaktika in health and in illness, in
ve eb murmura, eb kuta ve eb raya. sweetness and in bitterness,
in good and in bad.

5
na veden, ev oba no abiten.
na ta gien azira naci
ve na gien cec-azira taci.

I promise, in love we live.


I make you my king/queen
and I become your kingdom.

<Full Name 1>

<Full Name 2>

Signature

Signature

6
elua et hu proten
elua sizen et raya gowi
elua sizen et raya barri
havua elua-ci ope hu yatoren
elua blisen et te momo huci
elua bodir, ize ir.

May God protect them


May God stop all inside evil
May God stop all outside evil
May Gods spirit hover over them
May God bless all their days
If God wishes it, so it will be.

aziron nizar xabac

Judge Nizar Habash

Signature
hona di doradorin lui protini ce pasoda en.
This is a legal protected contract of marriage.
94

4.18 Delasoni Graduation Diploma


The following is the text used in the Delasoni graduation
deploma that was given to the full graduating class of the Honors
College at Old Dominion University in April 1997.

DE
CE

KULYA

CURA-CI

UNIVERSITA

AZIRA

gicuren

OLTI

et

<Full Name>
ere

hu

ha

kompen

bakalor-ci
ve

et

ce

hu

kulya
donen

aruma
EB

MOMA

DI

27

karnega-vi

grate

CE

ve
et

et

lezo

universita,
dola

ce

lehini

LELON-KATIN

CE

1997

S i g n a t u r e
________________________________
aziron

ce

kulya

cura-ci

95


[Knoweledge]
DE KULYA CURA-CI
THE HONORS COLLEGE
CE UNIVERSITA AZIRA OLTI
OF OLD DOMINION UNIVERSITY
gicuren et
praises
<Full Name>
ere hu ha kompen karnega-vi et lezo bakalor-ci ce kulya ve universita,
ve et hu donen et dola ce
for having completed with excellence the requirements of the
bachelor degree of the college and the university,
and awards him/her the title of
aruma grate lehini
liberally educated person
EB MOMA DI 27 CE LELON-KATIN CE 1997
IN THIS DAY 27 OF APRIL 1997
S i g n a t u r e
________________________________
aziron ce kulya cura-ci
Dean of the Honors College

96

4.19 Delasoni Greeting Card Captions


A. Happy Birthday

mom-nu

ori!

(Happiness)
mom-nu ori!
Happy Birthday!
B. Happy New Year

ora

ev

olan

cebcona

ori!

(Point One)
ora ev olan
cebcona ori!
Happiness and Peace
97

Happy New Year!


C. I Love You!

oben

ta,

oben

ta,

oben

(Love) (Love) (Love)


oben ta, oben ta, oben ta!
I love you, I love you, I love you!
D. Congratulations!

te

barko!

(Success)
te barko!
Congratulations!

98

ta!

99

Chapter Five

An English-Delason Dictionary

acting [theater] n attora


attora

ability n pa pa

add v evven evven

able adj pi pi
absolve v gigraten gigraten
Abyssinia n habacu habacu
Abyssinian adj habaci
habaci

actualize v giyen giyen


addiction n ctoka ctoka
addictive adj ctoki ctoki
addition n evva evva
additionally adv gamgame
gamgame

accident n xatsa xatsa

adhesion n ctoka ctoka

account n galgolina
galgolina

adjust v fiten fiten

accountant n galgolon
galgolon

adjustment n fita fita


adult n leyani leyani

Achilles n axilisu axilisu


acid n limon limon
acidic adj limoni limoni
acidity n limonia limonia
acknowledge v giken giken
act [do] v fenfen fenfen
act [theater] n attorina
attorina
act [theater] v attoren
attoren

adulthood n leyana leyana


advertise v ilanen ilanen
advertisement n ilan ilan
aflame adj cuci cuci
afraid adj hickoki hickoki
after conj adame adame
age n oga oga
agree v doradoren
doradoren
agreement n doradora
doradora

air n hava hava

any adj ine ine

airplane n plena plena

appetite n ceha ceha

alcohol n kahola kahola

apple n tapwa tapwa

all adj te te

approval n kocra kocra

all n tu tu

approve v kocren kocren

Allah n allahu allahu

approved adj kocri kocri

alligator n timsax timsax

apricot n uruk uruk

almonds n badam badam

April n lelon-katin lelonkatin

alphabet n alefbeta alefbeta


also adv gamgam gamgam
although conj olte olte
always adv teton teton,
tetone tetone
America n ameriku ameriku
American adj ameriki
ameriki
American n amerikia
amerikia

Arab n arabia arabia


Arabia n arabu arabu
Arabian adj arabi arabi
Arabic adj arabi arabi
Arabic n arabia arabia
arch n yacira yacira
arm n anda anda
Armageddon n
harmageddu harmageddu

among prep binune binune

Armenia n armenu armenu

amount n komsa komsa

Armenian adj armeni armeni

amuse v klen klen

army n yeca yeca

amusement n kla kla

around prep cire cire

and conj ev ev, ve ve

arrival n visla visla

anger adj maxa maxa

arrive v veslen veslen

angry adj maxi maxi

art n arsa arsa

animal n kreta kreta

article n yahona yahona

answer n riponta riponta

artist n arson arson

answer v riponten riponten

artistic adj arsi arsi

ant n namla namla

as for prep rigade rigade

antelope n bokan bokan

as long as conj evtone evtone

antiques n antiko antiko

as prep mtile mtile

101

Asia n asyau asyau


Asian adj asyai asyai
Asiatic adj asyai asyai
ask v solen solen
asleep adj nomsi nomsi
ass n anusa anusa
at prep -mi -mi, em em

autumn n ton-ladon tonladon


awake adj sohi sohi
awakening n soha soha
award v donen donen
awe n wala wala

attack v yesren yesren

attempt n tra tra

Babel n babelu babelu

attack n yesra yesra

attempt v tren tren


attention n noba noba
attentive adj nobi nobi
attract v yazben yazben
attraction n yazba yazba
attractive adj yazbi yazbi
August n lelon-monin
lelon-monin
aunt n antu

imi antu imi

aurora n orora orora


Austin n ostenu ostenu
Australia n ostralu
ostralu
Australian adj ostrali
ostrali
authoritative adj solti solti
authority n solta solta
automate v otomaten
otomaten

baby n bubula bubula


bachelor n bakalor bakalor
back n dara dara
backward adv ware ware
bad adj rayi rayi
badness n raya raya
Baghdad n bagdadu
bagdadu
Baha'i adj bahai bahai
Baha'i n bahaia bahaia
ballerina n balerina
balerina
ballet n bale bale
banana n banana banana
bank n banka banka
bark v awen awen
base n asasa asasa
basic n asasi asasi

automatic adj otomati


otomati

be bored v biboren biboren

automation n otomata
otomata

be careful exp simay simay

102

be born v nuen nuen

be guilty v makbeten
makbeten
be pleased v oren oren
be truthful v troden troden
be used to v oden oden
be v en en
bear n orsa orsa
beard n cra-fissa crafissa
beautiful adj latfi latfi
beautifully adv latfe latfe

Bible n biblu biblu


big n gdoli gdoli
bird n torita torita
birth n nua nua
birthday n mom-nu mom-nu
bit n kika kika
black adj cadoni cadoni
blackness n cadona cadona
blame n gimakbeta
gimakbeta

beautify v latfen latfen

blame v gimakbeten
gimakbeten

beauty n latfa latfa

bless v blisen blisen

because conj ere ere

blessed adj blisini blisini

become v enaten enaten,

blessing n blisa blisa

vonen vonen

blue adj yamoni yamoni

bedouin adj badawi badawi

body n zika zika

bedouin n badawa badawa

bon appetit exp ev


ceha

beetle n tazik tazik


before conj ware ware
befriend v zmelen zmelen
begin v asinen asinen
begining n asina asina
behind n wara wara
behind prep ware-et ware-et
Beirut n bayrutu bayrutu
belief n yamna yamna
believe v yamnen yamnen
belt n mawac mawac
Bethlehem n betlahmu
betlahmu
between prep binune binune

ceha ev

book n hona hona


bore v boren boren
bored adj borini borini
boredom n bora bora
boring adj bori bori
bottom n ota ota
bout n masuba masuba
bow n bova bova
bow v boven boven
boxing ring n dohya dohya
Brazil n brazilu brazilu
Brazilian adj brazili
brazili

103

bread n zobxa zobxa

car n forda forda

breakfast n arca arca

careful adj simi simi

bright adj cebci cebci

carrots n karota karota

brightness n cebcina cebcina

cat n mia mia

Britain n britanu britanu

catch n lota lota

British adj britani britani

catch v loten loten

brother-in-law n pasan-

cause n era era

ahu

cause v eren eren

omi pasan-ahu omi

brother n ahu

omi ahu omi

brotherhood n ahuha ahuha


brown adj arboni arboni
Buddha n budau budau
Buddhism n budia budia
Buddhist n budi budi
build v baten baten
building n bata bata, batin
batin
burn v cucen cucen
burst v yacucen yacucen
busy adj bizbi bizbi
but conj eppase eppase, pas
pas
button n zara zara

C
Cairo n masru masru
cake n gata gata
camel n jamal jamal
can aux pen pen
canary n kanarka kanarka

104

celebrate v ton-oren tonoren


certainly adv ev
serta

serta ev

certainty n serta serta


chair n assa assa
change n graya graya
change v grayen grayen
Chanukah n hanukau
hanukau
cheap adj bomarci bomarci
cheapness n bomarca
bomarca
cheese n gota gota
cherry n kiraz kiraz
chest n sboba sboba
chick n peklik peklik
chicken n keklik keklik
chief n tata tata
China n cinu cinu
Chinese adj cini cini
Chinese n cinia cinia
Chirstian adj msihi msihi
chocolate n cokolada

cokolada
Christ n msihu msihu
Christendom n cec-msiha
cec-msiha
Christmas n noelu noelu
cinema n sinema sinema
circle diacritic n cirita cirita
circle n cira cira
circular adj ciri ciri
city n cta cta
clean adj nakvi nakvi
cleanness n nakva nakva
clothing n klot klot
clouds n inno inno
cloudy adj inni inni
clown n klon klon
cock n ular ular
cockroach n kapkup kapkup
coffee n kafa kafa
cold adj berri berri
college n kulya kulya
color n sba sba
come v atir atir
comedian n kirkiron
kirkiron
comedy n kirkirona
kirkirona
comparable adj pazi pazi
compare v pazen pazen
comparison n paza paza
complete adj kompi kompi
complete v kompen kompen

completeness n kompa kompa


compose v honen honen
computer n kompyuter
kompyuter
Confucian adj konfusi
konfusi
Confucius n konfusu
konfusu
confuse v babelen babelen
confused adj babelini
babelini
confusing adj babeli babeli
confusion n babela babela
congratulations exp te
barko te barko
conscience n latfe-kala
latfe-kala
control n solta solta
control v solten solten
correct adj tami tami
correct v gitamen gitamen
cost n kota kota
cost v koten koten
cough n tcua tcua
cough v tcuen tcuen
couple n pasa pasa
craziness n nuta nuta
crazy adj nuti nuti
create v baren baren
creation n bara bara
cross n krusa krusa
cross v yaviyen yaviyen

105

crow n kagwa kagwa

deep adj wamaki wamaki

cry v mernen mernen

define v yanamen yanamen

cuckoo n kakuk kakuk

definition n yanamita
yanamita

cumin n kamun kamun


cup n susa susa
curiosity n kurusa kurusa
curious adj kurusi kurusi
curse n momya momya

Delason n delason delason


delicious adj lezzi lezzi
delight n yora yora
delight v yoren yoren
delightful adj yori yori

deliver v giyen giyen

dance n desa desa

demotion n kaswaja
kaswaja

demote v kaswajen
kaswajen

dance v desen desen


dark adj leli leli
darkness n lelina lelina
Darwin n darwinu darwinu
dates n tamra tamra
daughter-in-law n pasansunu

imi pasan-sunu imi

daughter n sunu
imi

imi sunu

day n moma moma


dead adj mafti mafti
dean n aziron aziron
dear adj duda duda
death n mafta mafta
December n lelon-pas-vonin lelon-pas-v-onin
decide v decen decen
decimal point n pez pez
decision n deca deca

106

depth n wamaka wamaka


descend v folen folen
desire n yaleza yaleza
desire v yalezen yalezen
despite conj olte olte
destiny n kadera kadera
destroy v sociken sociken
destruction n socika socika
die v maften maften
different adj otre otre
dignity n karama karama
dinner n mila mila
direction n derison derison
dirtiness n meza meza
dirty adj mezi mezi
divide v popen popen
divided by prep pope-et popeet

do v fen fen

Easter n fusuhu fusuhu

doctor n doktor doktor

eastern adj udi udi

document n yahona yahona

easy adj isi isi

dog n awa awa

eat v manjen manjen

dollar n dolar dolar

eduacted adj lehini lehini

dominion n azira azira

egg n lega lega

donkey n balam balam

Egypt n igeptu igeptu

door n delta delta

eight num okt okt

down adv ote ote

Einstein n aynctaynu
aynctaynu

Dr. title dok dok


dress n druga druga
drink n catina catina
drink v caten caten
drive v forden forden
driver n fordon fordon
drunk adj satulini satulini
dry adj havani havani
duck n donalda donalda
dust n erton erton

electricity n elektra elektra


elephant n filfil filfil
eleven num as-v-on as-v-on
elixir n nizar nizar
Emacs n imaksu imaksu
email n imel imel
email v imelen imelen
end n paha paha
end v pahen pahen

engineer n jenyon jenyon


engineering n jenya jenya
ertu

earth n erta erta


earthworm n dundunerta
dundunerta
east n uda uda

u u .. u

enflame v gicucen gicucen

ear n coma coma

easiness n isa isa

..

endowed adj blisini blisini

each adj ixe ixe


Earth n kokav
kokav ertu

either .. or conj u

England n inglu inglu


English adj ingli ingli
English n inglia inglia
enjoy v bioren bioren,
juen juen
enjoyment n biora biora,
jua jua

107

enlighten v giduen giduen

false adj letami letami

enough adj kefe kefe

family n msiva msiva

equal adj gali gali

far adj badi badi

equal v galen galen

fat adj vesxi vesxi

even if conj ivnize ivnize

fat n tseta tseta

even adv ivne ivne

father n vavu

evening n ton-lela ton-lela

fatherhood n vavuha
vavuha omi

everlasting adj atuli atuli


every adj te te
evil n raya raya
excellence n karnega
karnega
excellent adj karnegi
kuti te kuti

except conj pasle-et pasle-et


excuse me exp ize
oren

fear n hickoka hickoka

oren ize

February n lelon-pasin
lelon-pasin
feel v pilen pilen
feeling n pila pila
female n ima ima
feminine adj imi imi
festivity n ton-ora ton-ora
few adj pe pe

exist v yen yen

few n pu pu

existence n a a, ya ya

fifty num fafon fafon

expensive adj ceri ceri

fight v yecinen yecinen

explode v yacucen yacucen

find v fonten fonten

extremely adv te te

fine adj kuti kuti

eye lashes n cra-cofo cracofo

finger n towa towa

eye n cofa cofa

F
face n fissa fissa
fall v folen folen

108

omi

fear v hickoken hickoken

evil adj rayi rayi

karnegi, te

omi vavu omi

fire n cuca cuca


firework n cpil-cuca cpilcuca
first adj asini asini
fish n daga daga
five num faf faf
flight n tora tora
floor n itaha itaha

fly n muc muc

friendship n zmela zmela

fly v toren toren

frog n fruga fruga

font n ponta ponta

from whom inter emsi emsi

food n manjina manjina

from whom rel emki emki

foot n jyara jyara

from prep -mi -mi, em em

for prep sake-et sake-et

from rel emki emki

foreigner n oslanti oslanti

front n adama adama

fork n towita towita

fruit n otricba otricba

formless adj tohivohi


tohivohi

full adj fuli fuli

fortune scrolls n heno


yerci heno yerci
forty num katon katon
forward adv adame adame
found adj fontini fontini
four num kat kat
fox n dilul dilul

future n yatona yatona

G
gadfly n kokmuc kokmuc
gallery n cec-arsa cecarsa, galeria galeria

France n fransu fransu

gazelle n gazal gazal

free [liberated] adj grati


grati

gift n donina donina

free [liberated] v graten


graten

giraffe n zirap zirap


give v donen donen

free [no price] adj evli evli


freedom n grata grata
freeze v bicnen bicnen
freeze v gicnen gicnen
French adj fransi fransi
French n fransia fransia
Freud n froydu froydu
Friday n mom-cecin momcecin
friend n zmelin zmelin

glass n susa susa


glasses n cofito cofito
glue n ctokon ctokon
go v alen alen
god n elua elua
God n eluau eluau
good adj kuti kuti
goodbye exp ev
olan

olan ev

goodness n kuta kuta


goose n guz guz

109

govern v goven goven

kercifa

government n gova gova


grace n meryama meryama
gracious adj meryami
meryami

happen v vehen vehen


happiness n ora ora

graduate v hargen hargen


graduation n harga harga
grandfather n saftu
saftu omi

Hanukkah n hanukau
hanukau

omi

grandmother n saftu
saftu imi

imi

grapes n uzum uzum


grasshopper n kikik kikik
gray adj ladoni ladoni
green adj icboni icboni
grief n merna merna
grieve v mernen mernen
grow v gdolen gdolen
guest n dadin dadin
guide v gicofen gicofen
guilt n makbeta makbeta
guilty adj makbeti makbeti
gull n kayka kayka

happy adj ori ori


hard adj sobi sobi
hardness n soba soba
hat n kopa kopa
hate v tasten tasten
hated adj tastini tastini
hateful adj tasti tasti
he pro hu

omi hu omi

head n bricta bricta


health n sua sua
healthy adj sui sui
hear v comen comen
heart n gora gora
Heavens n olo olo
heaviness n vesxa vesxa
heavy adj vesxi vesxi
hedgehog n kirpa kirpa
height n tola tola

hello exp olan olan

hair n cro cro

her pro et

half n pasod pasod


Halloween n halowinu
halowinu
hand n yara yara
handkerchief n kercifa

110

help n ida ida


help v iden iden
imi, huci

hu

imi et hu

imi huci imi

here adv dayna dayna


hers pro de
huci imi

huci

hidden adj edi edi

imi de

hide v eden eden


him pro et
omi

hu

his pro de
huci omi

huci

ice n cna cna


omi et hu
omi de

holiness n gadsa gadsa


holy adj gadsi gadsi
honor n cura cura
hopefully adv ize

ir ize ir

horse n baytul baytul

if conj ize ize


implore v soliden soliden
importance n heta heta
important adj heti heti
in addition to prep gamgameet gamgame-et
in addition conj gamgam
gamgam

hot adj herri herri

in front of prep adame-et


adame-et

hotel n otel otel

in order to conj done done

hour n saya saya

in prep -bi -bi, eb eb

house n ceca ceca

include v gamgamen
gamgamen

hover v yatoren yatoren


how many inter komse komse
how much inter komse komse
how inter komsi komsi
humid adj yamani yamani
hundred num om om
hungry adj gohi gohi
hurricane n katrina katrina
hurt adj bixatsi bixatsi
hurt v bixatsen bixatsen
hurt v xatsen xatsen
husband n pasan
pasan omi

I
I pro na na

omi

including prep game-et gameet


inclusion n gamgama
gamgama
incomplete adj nakci nakci
incompleteness n nakca
nakca
incorrect adj letami letami
injure v xatsen xatsen
injury n xatsa xatsa
inner adj gowi gowi
inside n gowa gowa
inside prep gowe-et gowe-et
intelligence n intelga intelga
intelligent adj intelgi intelgi
internet n internet internet
intoxicate v satulen satulen
introduction n delta delta

111

invitation n dada dada


invite v daden daden
Iraq n iraku iraku
island n ertyama ertyama
Israel n israelu israelu
Israeli adj israeli israeli
it pro et

hu et hu, eto eto,

hu hu, o o

July n lelon-satin lelonsatin


jump v naten naten
June n lelon-sesin lelonsesin

its pro huci huci, oci oci

kill v tiren tiren

king n azira azira

jacket n jaketa jaketa


January n lelon-asin
lelon-asin
Japan n niponu niponu
Japanese adj niponi niponi
Japanese n niponia niponia
Java n javau javau
jealous adj iyagi iyagi
jealousy n iyaga iyaga
Jehovah n yahwehu
yahwehu
Jesus n esusu esusu
joke n kirkirita kirkirita
joy n jua jua
joyful adj jui jui
judge n kodon kodon
judge v koden koden
judgement n koda koda
juice n catina catina

112

kind adj mnixi mnixi


kitten n mimic mimic
knee n nila nila
knife n danita danita
know v kalen kalen
knowledge n kala kala
known adj kalini kalini
Koran n koranu koranu
Krishna n kricnau kricnau

L
language n lason lason
large adj gdoli gdoli
largeness n gdola gdola
Las-Vegas n lasvegasu
lasvegasu
last adj ali ali, pahini
pahini
laugh n kirkira kirkira
laugh v kirkiren kirkiren

law n lua lua

lip n bla bla

lawyer n luon luon

Lisp n lispu lispu

learn v lehen lehen

listen v gicomen gicomen

learning n leha leha

little n pepu pepu

leave v yalen yalen

live v abiten abiten

leech n zuluk zuluk

lizard n abubres abubres

left of prep sare-et sare-et

look v bicofen bicofen

left adj sari sari

look v cofen cofen

left n sara sara

lord n ama ama

legal adj lui lui

Lord n amu amu

legalization n gilua gilua

lots n memu memu

legalize v giluen giluen

lottery n lotto lotto

lemon n limon limon

love n oba oba

leopard n yalpuz yalpuz

love v oben oben

less adj lece lece

luck n yerca yerca

letter n honin honin

lucky adj yerci yerci

liberally adv grate grate

lunch n logma logma

lie n lixa lixa

lust n yaleza yaleza

lie [deceive] v lixen lixen


lie [recline] v moden moden
life n abita abita
light [color] adj cebci cebci
light [weight] adj xessi
xessi
light n dua dua
lightness n xissa xissa
like prep mtile mtile

M
machine n makina makina
Macintosh n makentocu
makentocu
magnification n gigdola
gigdola

like v oben oben

magnify v gigdolen
gigdolen

linguistics n lason-leha
lason-leha

majority n katca katca

lion n arselan arselan

make v gien gien


man n oma oma

113

manage v galgolen
galgolen
management n galgola
galgola
manager n galgolon
galgolon
manifest adj cofini cofini
March n lelon-torin
lelon-torin
mark v alumen alumen
masculine adj omi omi
may be exp pen

ir pen ir

May n lelon-fafin lelonfafin


me pro et

na et na

meal n manja manja


mean v vodiren vodiren
meat n bacra bacra
meet v goblen goblen
meeting n gobla gobla
melon n camam camam
memory n kala-cofa kalacofa
menu n manyu manyu
meow v mien mien
merciful adj atufi atufi
mercy n atufa atufa
mess n tohivoha tohivoha
messy adj tohivohi
tohivohi
Middle East n uda
binuni uda binuni
middle adj binuni binuni

114

milk n lixta lixta


million num milyon milyon
mind n kala kala
mine pro de

naci de naci

mink n munuk munuk


minus prep vile-et vile-et
minute n mima mima
Miss title am am
Mohammed n mohamadu
mohamadu
Monday n mom-pasin mompasin
money n dinga dinga
monkey n mamun mamun
month n lelon lelon
moon n lela lela
more adv mere mere
morning n ton-cebca toncebca
Moroccan adj magrebi
magrebi
Morocco n magrebu
magrebu
most adj me me
most n mu mu
mother n vavu

imi vavu imi

motherhood n vavuha
imi vavuha imi
mouse n mikya mikya
moustache n cra-motta
cra-motta
mouth n motta motta
move v harken harken

movement n harka harka


Mr. title am am

.. le
never adv leton leton,
letone letone

Mrs. title am am
Ms. title am am
multicolored adj kor-ceraconi kor-ce-raconi
multiplied by prep tote-et
tote-et
mummy n mamia mamia

New York n nyuyorku


nyuyorku
new adj navoni navoni
Newton n nyutonu nyutonu
next adj ati ati
night n cena cena
nine num nov nov

murder n tira tira

no exp le le

murder v tiren tiren


museum n cec-antika cecantika

none n lu lu
north n nuda nuda

mushrooms n curum curum

northern adj nudi nudi

musician n muzikon
muzikon

nose n cima cima

must aux heten heten, lezen


lezen
my pro naci naci

not adv le le
notice n aluma aluma
notice v noben noben
November n lelon-as-v-

mystery n bazla bazla

onin lelon-as-v-onin

now adv ton-di ton-di


number n dzua dzua

name n nama nama


name v binamen binamen
napkin n kercifa kercifa
narrow adj dakki dakki
narrowness n dakka dakka

O
O.K. exp doradori
doradori

Nazi n natzi natzi

October n lelon-onin
lelon-onin

Nazism n natzia natzia

of prep ce ce

necessity n leza leza

often adv meton meton,

neither .. nor conj le

..

le le

metone metone

115

oil n wil wil

old adj olti olti


olive n zetun zetun
on prep ope-et ope-et
once upon a time exp ha
yen tonki ha
yen tonki ha yen

yen ha

one-fourth num katod katod


one-third num torod torod
one num as as
only adj ase ase, asi asi
open adj upi upi
open v upen upen
operate v maken maken
or conj u u
orange n orenca orenca
origin n orga orga
originial adj orgi orgi
ostrich n osrux osrux
otter n kemket kemket
our pro noci noci
ours pro de

noci de noci

outer adj barri barri


outside n bara bara
outside prep bare-et bare-et
over prep ope-et ope-et
owl n baykuc baykuc
own v oven oven
owner n ovon ovon
ownership n ova ova
ox n argun argun

116

pain n pyana pyana


painful adj pyani pyani
painter n banton banton
Palestine n falestinu
falestinu
Palestinian adj falestini
falestini
Palestinian n falestinia
falestinia
Palisra n palisrau palisrau
pants n pantalona
pantalona
pardon exp pardonay
na pardonay na
parent n vavu vavu
parenthood n vavuha
vavuha
party n ton-ora ton-ora
pass v vien vien
passionately adv ev
oba

oba ev

Passover n pesaxu pesaxu


past n yavona yavona
peace n olan olan
peach n xaptul xaptul
peacock n tavtuz tavtuz
pear n armut armut
pepper n pret pret
percent n emom emom

perfect adj kamli kamli

plum n kuruk kuruk

perfection n kamla kamla

plus prep ve ve

perish v sociken sociken

pocket n cec-yara cec-yara

person n aruma aruma

poem n yasotin yasotin

phoenix n finik finik

poet n yasoton yasoton

phone v telefonen telefonen

poetry n yasota yasota

piece n pya pya

politician n politikon
politikon

pig n haluf haluf


pigeon n kepter kepter
pineapple n ananas ananas
pink adj rosoni rosoni
place n va va

pond n ponda ponda


possible adj posibili posibili
potato n potata potata

place v ven ven


plan v warehonen
warehonen
planet n kokav kokav
plate n pla pla
Plato n eplatonu eplatonu
Platonic adj eplatoni
eplatoni
Platonism n eplatonia
eplatonia
Platonist n eplatoni eplatoni
play football v fotbolen
fotbolen
play tennis v tenisen tenisen
play n attorina attorina
play v cpilen cpilen
please exp ize
oren

pomegranate n rumman
rumman

oren ize

please v yoren yoren


pleasure n yora yora

practice n tadrib tadrib


praise [a person] n gicura
gicura
praise [a person] v gicuren
gicuren
praise [the Lord] n prua prua
praise [the Lord] v pruen
pruen
pray v salen salen
prayer n sala sala
problem n tapca tapca
professor n profesor
profesor
promise n veda veda
promise v veden veden
promote v kakwajen
kakwajen
promotion n kakwaja
kakwaja
Purim n purimu purimu
purple adj idoni idoni

117

put v vonen vonen

rarely adv peton peton,

puzzle n bazla bazla

petone petone

pyramid n maziga maziga

rat n jardon jardon

Q
quality n kulla kulla
quarter n katod katod
queen n azira azira
question n sola sola
question v solen solen
quick adj viti viti
quickly adv vite vite
quickness n vita vita
quota n kota kota
Qur'An n koranu koranu

R
rabbit n zajik zajik
rain n racca racca
rain v raccen raccen
rainbow n kor-ce-rac
kor-ce-rac
rainy adj racci racci

ray n cea cea


read v karen karen
real adj rii rii
reality n ria ria
really adv rie rie
reason [cause] n era era
reason [logic] n use-kala
use-kala
red adj adoni adoni
referee n gyoja gyoja
religion n dinya dinya
religious adj dinyi dinyi
remember v kala-cofen
kala-cofen
rent v gerden gerden
repeat v reren reren
replace v gegrayen
gegrayen
requirement n leza leza
respect v reten reten
restaurant n cec-manja
cec-manja
resurrect v giabiten giabiten
return n rata rata

raison n kicmic kicmic

return v raten raten

Ramadan n ramadanu
ramadanu

revenge n krista krista

random adj lotti lotti


randomness n lotta lotta

118

right [direction] n mina mina


right [entitelement] n krata
krata

right of prep mine-et mine-et

satisfying adj giori giori

rise v sohen sohen

Saturday n mom-satin
mom-satin

road n via via


roof n yakata yakata
room n cecita cecita
Rosh-Hashanah n
rochacanau rochacanau
rule n azira azira
rule v aziren aziren
ruler n aziron aziron
run v gren gren
Runner-up n junyuca
junyuca
Russia n rucu rucu
Russian adj ruci ruci
Russian n rucia rucia

S
sad adj zoli zoli
sadness n zola zola
Salamite n salami salami
salt n clet clet
same adj otte otte
Santa-Claus n baba-noelu
baba-noelu
Satan n citanu citanu
satisfaction n giora giora,
yora yora
satisfy v gioren gioren,
yoren yoren

say v kolen kolen


sea n tyama tyama
search v cercen cercen
season n ton-cebon toncebon
second adj pasini pasini
second n kika kika
see you later exp el
el cofir

cofir

see v cofen cofen


seem v zimen zimen
separate adj fsili fsili
separate v fsilen fsilen
separation n fsila fsila
September n lelon-novin
lelon-novin
Serb adj serbi serbi
Serbia n serbia serbia
seven num sat sat
Shakespeare n cekspiru
cekspiru
shark n joz joz
she pro hu
imi asi

imi

asi hu

sheep n abram abram


shirt n kamisata kamisata
shoe n bata bata
short adj kasi kasi
shortness n kasa kasa
should aux lezen lezen

119

show v gicofen gicofen

sleep n nomsa nomsa

shut up v zgiten zgiten

sleep v nomsen nomsen

shut v zagen zagen

slow adj clobi clobi

sign n aluma aluma

slowly adv clobe clobe

sign v alumen alumen

slowness n cloba cloba

signal v alumen alumen

small adj cmoli cmoli

signature n alumina alumina

smallness n cmola cmola

silence n zgita zgita

smell n cmila cmila

silence v zgiten zgiten

smell v cimen cimen,

similar adj mteli mteli

bicimen bicimen

similarly adv mtele mtele

snake n hanac hanac

sin n dala dala

snow flake n telgita telgita

sin v dalen dalen

snow n cna cna

since conj emtone emtone

snow v cnen cnen

sincere adj sisiri sisiri

snowy adj cni cni

sincerity n sisira sisira

so as to conj done done

sing v soten soten

so conj dize dize

singer n soton soton

socks n klot-jyaro klotjyaro

sinner n dalon dalon


sister-in-law n pasan-ahu
imi pasan-ahu imi
sister n ahu

imi ahu imi

sisterhood n ahuha ahuha


sit n assen assen
six num ses ses
size n psa psa
sky n ola ola
skylark n torga torga
Slav n slavi slavi
slave n ovin ovin
Slavic n slavi slavi

120

soil n erta erta


soldier n yecon yecon
some adj se se
some pro su su
sometime n seton seton
sometimes adv seton seton,
setone setone
son-in-law n pasan-sunu
omi pasan-sunu omi
son n sunu

omi sunu omi

song n sotin sotin


sorry exp tsutsu tsutsu

soul n havua havua

stop v sizen sizen

sound n sota sota

stork n lelek lelek

source n orga orga

straight adj komini komini

south n suda suda

strawberry n kilek kilek

southern adj sudi sudi

street n via via

space n vakoma vakoma

strength n xazka xazka

Spain n espanu espanu

strong adj xazki xazki

Spaniard n espani espani

student n lehon lehon

Spanish adj espani espani

study n leha leha

speak v darcen darcen

study v lehen lehen

speaker n darcon darcon

stuff n cuo cuo

speech n darca darca

stupid adj tefci tefci

spend v serfen serfen

stupidity n tefca tefca

spider n ankub ankub

subject n azirin azirin

spirit n havua havua

such adj ke ke

spoon n yarita yarita

sugar n sokar sokar

spouse n pasan pasan

suit n rsima rsima

spring n ton-icbon tonicbon

summer n ton-heron tonheron

squirrel n sankur sankur

sumo n ozuma ozuma

stand up v komen komen

sun n cebca cebca

star n serina serina

Sunday n mom-asin momasin

star v seren seren


starhood n sera sera
start n asina asina
start v asinen asinen
state n dola dola
status n dola dola

sunny adj cebci cebci


swan n cvanna cvanna
Syria n suriau suriau
Syrian adj suri suri

stick v ctoken ctoken

sticky adj ctoki ctoki

table n tabyula tabyula

stay v bakaken bakaken

121

take v latcen latcen

the art de de

tall adj toli toli

theater n sinema sinema

Talmud n talmudu talmudu

their pro huci huci

tangarine n tangarin
tangarin

theirs pro de

taste n guta guta


taste v biguten biguten
tea n tay tay
tear n yam-merna yammerna
Tehran n tehranu tehranu
television n televiza televiza
tell v gikolen gikolen
Ten Thousand Day celebration
n onedoza onedoza
Ten Thousand Day n mom
onedozi mom onedozi
ten num on on
terrible adj ivani ivani
Texan adj taksasi taksasi
Texas n taksasu taksasu
Thai n taylanti taylanti
Thailand n taylantu
taylantu
thank you very much exp te
dako te dako
thank you exp daka daka
thank v daken daken
Thanksgiving n mom-dakoci mom-dako-ci
that dem za za, zi zi
that rel etki etki, ki ki

122

them pro et

huci de huci
hu et hu

then adv ton-zi ton-zi


then conj adame adame,
dize dize
there adv zayna zayna
therefore conj erge erge
these dem di di, do do
they pro hu hu
thin adj xissi xissi
thing n cua cua
think v ken ken
third adj torini torini
thirteen num tor-v-on torv-on
thirty num toron toron
this dem da da, di di
those dem zi zi, zo zo
thought n kina kina
thousand num doza doza
thread n terda terda
three num tor tor
Thursday n mom-fafin
mom-fafin
Tibet n tebatu tebatu
Tibetan adj tebati tebati
tie n karavatta karavatta
tiger n golpar golpar

Tigris n dijlau dijlau

Trojan adj troadi troadi

time n ton ton

Troy n troadu troadu

tiny adj kiki kiki

true adj trodi trodi

title n dola dola

truth n troda troda

to whom inter elsi elsi

try n tra tra

to whom rel elki elki

try v tren tren

to prep -li -li, el el

Tuesday n mom-torin momtorin

to rel elki elki


today n moma

di moma di

toe n towa towa

turn off v zagen zagen

tomato juice n catina


tomata-ci catina tomata-ci
tomato n tomata tomata

tomorrow n moma
ati

ati

ati moma

tongue n lason lason


tonight n cena

turkey n kurka kurka


Turkish n turki turki

Tokyo n tokyu tokyu

tomorrow night n cena


cena ati

Turkey n turkiau turkiau

di cena di

too adv gamgam gamgam


tooth n dan dan
top n opa opa
Torah n torau torau
tournament n honbaca
honbaca
tradition n tradisyona
tradisyona

turn on v gazen gazen


turtle n tastud tastud
twelve num pas-v-on pas-von
twenty num pason pason
two num pas pas

U
ugliness n galfa galfa
ugly adj galfi galfi
uncle n antu

omi antu omi

under n ota ota


under prep ote-et ote-et

traffic n trafika trafika

underwear n ote-klota oteklota

transparent adj havoni


havoni

union n asuna asuna

trip n ton-via ton-via

unite v asunen asunen


university n universita
universita

123

Unix n uniksu uniksu

wake v sohen sohen

until conj eltone eltone

walk n mca mca

up adv ope ope

walk v mcen mcen

us pro et

walnut n yangak yangak

no et no

use n usa usa

want v boden boden

use v usen usen

war n yecina yecina

utility n usa usa

warm adj verri verri

utilize v usen usen

warra n company company

V
vacuum n vakoma vakoma
Vatican n vatikanu
vatikanu
vegetables n icbo icbo
Venice n venicu venicu
very adv me me
victory n nasra nasra

warren v accompany
accompany
warron n companion
companion
warwara n enchanting
song enchanting song
Washington n wacingtonu
wacingtonu
wasteful n serfi serfi
watch n sayona sayona
watch v cofen cofen

Virginia n virjinu virjinu

water n yam yam

Virginian adj virjini


virjini

watermelon n batix batix

visit n vetona vetona

wawa n heartfelt
laugh heartfelt laugh

visit v vetonen vetonen


voice n sota sota
vulture n xaritaz xaritaz

W
wait n atona atona
wait v atonen atonen

124

way n via via


we pro no no
weak adj viki viki
weakness n vika vika
weasel n agmigan agmigan
weather n vetra vetra
wedding n pasoda pasoda
Wednesday n mom-katin
mom-katin

week n satun satun

wine n van van

well adv kute kute

Winter n ton-berron tonberron

west n vuda vuda


western adj vudi vudi
whale n dagyon dagyon
what inter -si -si, etsi etsi,
osi osi
what rel etki etki, ki ki, oki
oki

wish n yarita yarita


wish v yariten yariten
with whom inter evsi evsi
with whom rel evki evki
with conj -vi -vi, ev ev
with rel evki evki

when inter tonsi tonsi

without prep evle evle

when rel tonki tonki

wolf n volva volva

where inter vasi vasi

woman n ima ima

where rel vaki vaki

word n darcita darcita

which rel etki etki, ki ki

work n bizba bizba

while conj evtone evtone

work v bizben bizben

white adj lavoni lavoni

world n olanta olanta

who inter etsi etsi, osi osi

worm n dundun dundun

who rel ki ki, oki oki

worship n aboda aboda

whom inter etsi etsi

worship v aboden aboden

whom rel etki etki

wrestle n rikicen rikicen

whose inter cesi cesi

wrestler n rikicon rikicon

why inter ersi ersi

write v honen honen

wide adj aridi aridi

writing n yahona yahona

width n arida arida


wife n pasan

imi pasan imi

wild n barri barri


will aux sa sa
win n koca koca
win v kocen kocen

X
X-mas n noelu noelu
X-ray n cea

gzi cea gzi

wind n havo havo


windy adj havoi havoi

125

to, ta ta, to to

yak n gyaga gyaga

yours pro de

young adj yani yani


your pro taci taci, toci toci

year n cebcona cebcona


yellow adj limoni limoni
Yemen n yamanu yamanu
yes exp vi vi
yesterday n moma
ali

ali moma

de

taci de taci,

toci de toci

youth n yana yana

you are welcome exp ev

zero num fec fec

ora ev ora

zoo n cec-kreto cec-kreto

you pro et

126

ta et ta, et

to et

127

Chapter Six

A Delason-English Dictionary

A
a a n existence
abita abita n life
abiten abiten v live
aboda aboda n worship
aboden aboden v worship
abram abram n sheep
abubres abubres n lizard
accompany accompany v
warren

sisterhood
alefbeta alefbeta n alphabet
alen alen v go
ali ali adj last
allahu allahu n Allah
aluma aluma n notice, sign
alumen alumen v mark, sign,
signal
alumina alumina n signature
am am title Miss, Mr., Mrs., Ms.
ama ama n lord
ameriki ameriki adj American
amerikia amerikia n
American

adama adama n front

ameriku ameriku n America

adame-et adame-et prep in


front of

amu amu n Lord

adame adame adv forward

ananas ananas n pineapple


anda anda n arm

adame adame conj after, then


adoni adoni adj red
agmigan agmigan n weasel
ahu

imi ahu imi n sister

ahu

omi ahu omi n brother

ahuha ahuha n brotherhood,

ankub ankub n spider


antiko antiko n antiques
antu

imi antu imi n aunt

antu

omi antu omi n uncle

anusa anusa n ass


arabi arabi adj Arabian,

Arabic
arabia arabia n Arab,
Arabic
arabu arabu n Arabia
arboni arboni adj brown
arca arca n breakfast
argun argun n ox
arida arida n width
aridi aridi adj wide
armut armut n pear
arsa arsa n art
arselan arselan n lion
arsi arsi adj artistic
arson arson n artist
aruma aruma n person
as-v-on as-v-on num eleven
as as num one
asasa asasa n base
asasi asasi n basic
ase ase adj only
asi asi adj only
asina asina n begining, start
asinen asinen v begin, start
asini asini adj first
assa assa n chair
assen assen n sit
asuna asuna n union
asunen asunen v unite
asyai asyai adj Asian, Asiatic
asyau asyau n Asia
ati ati adj next

atir atir v come


atona atona n wait
atonen atonen v wait
attora attora n acting
[theater]
attoren attoren v act
[theater]
attorina attorina n act
[theater], play
atufa atufa n mercy
atufi atufi adj merciful
atuli atuli adj everlasting
awa awa n dog
awen awen v bark
axilisu axilisu n Achilles
aynctaynu aynctaynu n
Einstein
azira azira n dominion,
king, queen, rule
aziren aziren v rule
azirin azirin n subject
aziron aziron n dean, ruler

B
-bi -bi prep in
baba-noelu baba-noelu n
Santa-Claus
babela babela n confusion
babelen babelen v confuse
babeli babeli adj confusing

129

babelini babelini adj


confused
babelu babelu n Babel
bacra bacra n meat

baykuc baykuc n owl


bayrutu bayrutu n Beirut
baytul baytul n horse

badam badam n almonds

bazla bazla n mystery,


puzzle

badawa badawa n bedouin

berri berri adj cold

badawi badawi adj bedouin

betlahmu betlahmu n
Bethlehem

badi badi adj far


bagdadu bagdadu n
Baghdad

biblu biblu n Bible


biboren biboren v be bored

bahai bahai adj Baha'i

bicimen bicimen v smell

bahaia bahaia n Baha'i

bicnen bicnen v freeze

bakaken bakaken v stay

bicofen bicofen v look

bakalor bakalor n bachelor

biguten biguten v taste

balam balam n donkey

binamen binamen v name

bale bale n ballet

binune binune prep among,


between

balerina balerina n
ballerina

binuni binuni adj middle

banana banana n banana

biora biora n enjoyment

banka banka n bank

bioren bioren v enjoy

banton banton n painter

bixatsen bixatsen v hurt

bara bara n creation, outside

bixatsi bixatsi adj hurt

bare-et bare-et prep outside

bizba bizba n work

baren baren v create

bizben bizben v work

barri barri adj outer

bizbi bizbi adj busy

barri barri n wild

bla bla n lip

baski baski adj Basque

blisa blisa n blessing

basku basku n Basque

blisen blisen v bless

bata bata n building, shoe

blisini blisini adj blessed,


endowed

baten baten v build


batin batin n building
batix batix n watermelon

130

boden boden v want


bokan bokan n antelope

bomarca bomarca n
cheapness
bomarci bomarci adj cheap
bora bora n boredom

cea

gzi cea gzi n X-ray

cea cea n ray


cebca cebca n sun

boren boren v bore

cebci cebci adj bright, light


[color], sunny

bori bori adj boring

cebcina cebcina n brightness

borini borini adj bored

cebcona cebcona n year

bova bova n bow

cec-antika cec-antika n
museum

boven boven v bow


brasilia brasilia n Brasilia
brazili brazili adj Brazilian
brazilu brazilu n Brazil
bricta bricta n head
britani britani adj British
britanu britanu n Britain
bubula bubula n baby
budau budau n Buddha
budi budi n Buddhist
budia budia n Buddhism

C
cadona cadona n blackness
cadoni cadoni adj black
camam camam n melon

cec-arsa cec-arsa n gallery


cec-kreto cec-kreto n zoo
cec-manja cec-manja n
restaurant
cec-msiha cec-msiha n
Christendom
cec-yara cec-yara n pocket
ceca ceca n house
cecita cecita n room
ceha ceha n appetite
cekspiru cekspiru n
Shakespeare
cena ati cena ati n
tomorrow night
cena

di cena di n tonight

cena cena n night


cercen cercen v search
ceri ceri adj expensive
cesi cesi inter whose

caten caten v drink

cima cima n nose

catina tomata-ci catina


tomata-ci n tomato juice

cimen cimen v smell

catina catina n drink, juice

cini cini adj Chinese


cinia cinia n Chinese

ce ce prep of

cinu cinu n China

131

cira cira n circle


cire cire prep around
ciri ciri adj circular
cirita cirita n circle diacritic
citanu citanu n Satan
clet clet n salt
cloba cloba n slowness
clobe clobe adv slowly
clobi clobi adj slow
cmila cmila n smell
cmola cmola n smallness
cmoli cmoli adj small
cna cna n ice, snow
cnen cnen v snow
cni cni adj snowy
cofa cofa n eye
cofen cofen v look, see, watch
cofini cofini adj manifest
cofito cofito n glasses
cokolada cokolada n
chocolate
coma coma n ear
comen comen v hear
companion companion n
warron
company company n warra
cpil-cuca cpil-cuca n
firework
cpilen cpilen v play
cra-cofo cra-cofo n eye
lashes
cra-fissa cra-fissa n

132

beard
cra-motta cra-motta n
moustache
cro cro n hair
cta cta n city
ctoka ctoka n addiction,
adhesion
ctoken ctoken v stick
ctoki ctoki adj addictive,
sticky
ctokon ctokon n glue
cua cua n thing
cuca cuca n fire
cucen cucen v burn
cuci cuci adj aflame
cuo cuo n stuff
cura cura n honor
curum curum n mushrooms
cvanna cvanna n swan

D
da da dem this
dada dada n invitation
daden daden v invite
dadin dadin n guest
daga daga n fish
dagyon dagyon n whale
daka daka exp thank you
daken daken v thank
dakka dakka n narrowness

dakki dakki adj narrow

dijlau dijlau n Tigris

dala dala n sin

dilul dilul n fox

dalen dalen v sin

dimacku dimacku n
Damascus

dalon dalon n sinner


dan dan n tooth
danita danita n knife
dara dara n back
darca darca n speech
darcen darcen v speak
darcita darcita n word
darcon darcon n speaker
darwinu darwinu n Darwin
dayna dayna adv here
de huci
pro hers

imi de huci imi

de huci
pro his

omi de huci omi

dinga dinga n money


dinya dinya n religion
dinyi dinyi adj religious
dize dize conj so, then
do do dem these
dohya dohya n boxing ring
dok dok title Dr.
doktor doktor n doctor
dola dola n state, status, title
dolar dolar n dollar
donalda donalda n duck
done done conj in order to, so
as to

de

huci de huci pro theirs

donen donen v award, give

de

naci de naci pro mine

donina donina n gift

de

noci de noci pro ours

de

taci de taci pro yours

doradora doradora n
agreement

de

toci de toci pro yours

de de art the
deca deca n decision
decen decen v decide
delason delason n Delason
delta delta n door,
introduction
derison derison n direction
desa desa n dance
desen desen v dance
di di dem these, this

doradoren doradoren v
agree
doradori doradori exp
O.K.
doza doza num thousand
druga druga n dress
dua dua n light
duda duda adj dear
dundun dundun n worm
dundunerta dundunerta n
earthworm
dzua dzua n number

133

E
eb eb prep in
eden eden v hide
edi edi adj hidden
el cofir el cofir exp see
you later
el el prep to
elektra elektra n electricity

era era n cause, reason [cause]


ere ere conj because
eren eren v cause
erge erge conj therefore
ersi ersi inter why
erta erta n earth, soil
erton erton n dust
ertyama ertyama n island
espani espani adj Spanish
espani espani n Spaniard
espanu espanu n Spain

elki elki rel to, to whom

esusu esusu n Jesus

elsi elsi inter to whom

et

eltone eltone conj until


elua elua n god
eluau eluau n God
em em prep at, from
emki emki rel from, from whom
emom emom n percent
emsi emsi inter from whom
emtone emtone conj since
en en v be
enaten enaten v become
enchanting song
enchanting song n warwara
eplatoni eplatoni adj Platonic
eplatoni eplatoni n Platonist
eplatonia eplatonia n
Platonism
eplatonu eplatonu n Plato
eppase eppase conj but

134

hu

et hu
him

imi et hu imi pro her


omi et hu omi pro

et

hu et hu pro it, them

et

na et na pro me

et

no et no pro us

et

ta et ta pro you

et

to et to pro you

etki etki rel that, what, which,


whom
eto eto pro it
etsi etsi inter what, who,
whom
ev ceha ev ceha exp bon
appetit
ev oba ev oba adv
passionately
ev olan ev olan exp
goodbye
ev ora ev ora exp you are
welcome

ev serta ev serta adv


certainly
ev ev conj and, with
evki evki rel with, with whom
evle evle prep without
evli evli adj free [no price]
evsi evsi inter with whom
evtone evtone conj as long as,
while
evva evva n addition
evven evven v add

F
faf faf num five
fafon fafon num fifty
falestini falestini adj
Palestinian
falestinia falestinia n
Palestinian
falestinu falestinu n
Palestine
fec fec num zero
fen fen v do
fenfen fenfen v act [do]
filfil filfil n elephant
finik finik n phoenix
fissa fissa n face
fita fita n adjustment
fitagorosi fitagorosi adj
Pythagorean

fiten fiten v adjust


folen folen v descend, fall
fonten fonten v find
fontini fontini adj found
forda forda n car
forden forden v drive
fordon fordon n driver
fotbolen fotbolen v play
football
fransi fransi adj French
fransia fransia n French
fransu fransu n France
froydu froydu n Freud
fruga fruga n frog
fsila fsila n separation
fsilen fsilen v separate
fsili fsili adj separate
fuli fuli adj full
fusuhu fusuhu n Easter

G
gadsa gadsa n holiness
gadsi gadsi adj holy
galen galen v equal
galeria galeria n gallery
galfa galfa n ugliness
galfi galfi adj ugly
galgola galgola n
management

135

galgolen galgolen v manage

gicucen gicucen v enflame

galgolina galgolina n
account

gicura gicura n praise [a


person]

galgolon galgolon n
accountant, manager

gicuren gicuren v praise [a


person]

gali gali adj equal

giduen giduen v enlighten

game-et game-et prep


including

gien gien v make

gamgam gamgam adv also, too

gigdola gigdola n
magnification

gamgam gamgam conj in


addition

gigdolen gigdolen v
magnify

gamgama gamgama n
inclusion

gigraten gigraten v absolve

gamgame-et gamgame-et
prep in addition to
gamgame gamgame adv
additionally
gamgamen gamgamen v
include
gata gata n cake
gazal gazal n gazelle
gazen gazen v turn on
gdola gdola n largeness
gdolen gdolen v grow
gdoli gdoli adj large
gdoli gdoli n big
gegrayen gegrayen v
replace
gerden gerden v rent
giabiten giabiten v resurrect
gicnen gicnen v freeze
gicofen gicofen v guide,
show
gicomen gicomen v listen

136

giken giken v acknowledge


gikolen gikolen v tell
gilua gilua n legalization
giluen giluen v legalize
gimakbeta gimakbeta n
blame
gimakbeten gimakbeten v
blame
giora giora n satisfaction
gioren gioren v satisfy
giori giori adj satisfying
gitamen gitamen v correct
giyen giyen v actualize, deliver
gobla gobla n meeting
goblen goblen v meet
gohi gohi adj hungry
golpar golpar n tiger
gora gora n heart
gota gota n cheese
gova gova n government
goven goven v govern

gowa gowa n inside

hargen hargen v graduate

gowe-et gowe-et prep inside

harka harka n movement

gowi gowi adj inner

harken harken v move

grata grata n freedom

harmageddu harmageddu
n Armageddon

grate grate adv liberally


graten graten v free
[liberated]

hava hava n air


havani havani adj dry

grati grati adj free [liberated]

havo havo n wind

graya graya n change

havoi havoi adj windy

grayen grayen v change

havoni havoni adj


transparent

gren gren v run

havua havua n soul, spirit

guta guta n taste

heartfelt laugh
heartfelt laugh n wawa

guz guz n goose


gyaga gyaga n yak
gyoja gyoja n referee

H
ha

yen

heno yerci heno yerci n


fortune scrolls
herri herri adj hot
heta heta n importance
heten heten aux must
heti heti adj important

tonki

ha

yen ha yen tonki ha yen exp


once upon a time
habaci habaci adj
Abyssinian
habacu habacu n Abyssinia
halowinu halowinu n
Halloween
haluf haluf n pig
hanac hanac n snake
hanukau hanukau n
Chanukah, Hanukkah
harga harga n graduation

hickoka hickoka n fear


hickoken hickoken v fear
hickoki hickoki adj afraid
hona hona n book
honbaca honbaca n
tournament
honen honen v compose,
write
honin honin n letter
hu
she

imi

asi hu imi asi pro

hu

omi hu omi pro he

hu hu pro it, they

137

huci

imi huci imi pro her

isi isi adj easy

huci huci pro its, their

israeli israeli adj Israeli

israelu israelu n Israel

icbo icbo n vegetables


icboni icboni adj green
ida ida n help
iden iden v help
idoni idoni adj purple
igeptu igeptu n Egypt
ilan ilan n advertisement
ilanen ilanen v advertise
ima ima n female, woman
imaksu imaksu n Emacs
imel imel n email
imelen imelen v email
imi imi adj feminine
ine ine adj any
ingli ingli adj English
inglia inglia n English
inglu inglu n England
inni inni adj cloudy
inno inno n clouds
intelga intelga n intelligence
intelgi intelgi adj intelligent
internet internet n internet
iraku iraku n Iraq
isa isa n easiness

138

itaha itaha n floor


ivani ivani adj terrible
ivne ivne adv even
ivnize ivnize conj even if
ixe ixe adj each
iyaga iyaga n jealousy
iyagi iyagi adj jealous
ize

ir ize ir adv hopefully

ize oren ize oren exp


excuse me, please
ize ize conj if

J
jaketa jaketa n jacket
jamal jamal n camel
jardon jardon n rat
javau javau n Java
jenya jenya n engineering
jenyon jenyon n engineer
joz joz n shark
jua jua n enjoyment, joy
juen juen v enjoy
jui jui adj joyful
junyuca junyuca n Runnerup
jyara jyara n foot

K
kadera kadera n destiny
kafa kafa n coffee
kagwa kagwa n crow
kahola kahola n alcohol
kakuk kakuk n cuckoo
kakwaja kakwaja n
promotion

excellent
karota karota n carrots
kasa kasa n shortness
kasi kasi adj short
kaswaja kaswaja n
demotion
kaswajen kaswajen v
demote
kat kat num four
katca katca n majority
katod katod n quarter
katod katod num one-fourth

kakwajen kakwajen v
promote

katon katon num forty

kala-cofa kala-cofa n
memory

kayka kayka n gull

kala-cofen kala-cofen v
remember

katrina katrina n hurricane


ke ke adj such
kefe kefe adj enough

kala kala n knowledge, mind

keklik keklik n chicken

kalen kalen v know

kemket kemket n otter

kalini kalini adj known

ken ken v think

kamisata kamisata n shirt

kepter kepter n pigeon

kamla kamla n perfection

kercifa kercifa n
handkerchief, napkin

kamli kamli adj perfect


kamun kamun n cumin
kanarka kanarka n canary
kapkup kapkup n cockroach
karama karama n dignity
karavatta karavatta n tie
karen karen v read
karnega karnega n
excellence
karnegi karnegi adj

ki ki rel that, what, which, who


kicmic kicmic n raison
kika kika n bit, second
kiki kiki adj tiny
kikik kikik n grasshopper
kilek kilek n strawberry
kina kina n thought
kiraz kiraz n cherry
kirkira kirkira n laugh

139

kirkiren kirkiren v laugh


kirkirita kirkirita n joke
kirkiron kirkiron n
comedian
kirkirona kirkirona n
comedy
kirpa kirpa n hedgehog
kla kla n amusement
klen klen v amuse
klon klon n clown
klot-jyaro klot-jyaro n
socks
klot klot n clothing
koca koca n win
kocen kocen v win
kocra kocra n approval
kocren kocren v approve
kocri kocri adj approved
koda koda n judgement
koden koden v judge
kodon kodon n judge
kokav
Earth

ertu kokav ertu n

kokav kokav n planet


kokmuc kokmuc n gadfly
kolen kolen v say
komen komen v stand up
komini komini adj straight
kompa kompa n completeness
kompen kompen v complete
kompi kompi adj complete
kompyuter kompyuter n

140

computer
komsa komsa n amount
komse komse inter how many,
how much
komsi komsi inter how
konfusi konfusi adj
Confucian
konfusu konfusu n
Confucius
kopa kopa n hat
kor-ce-rac kor-ce-rac n
rainbow
kor-ce-raconi kor-ceraconi adj multicolored
koranu koranu n Koran,
Qur'An
kota kota n cost, quota
koten koten v cost
krata krata n right
[entitelement]
kreta kreta n animal
kricnau kricnau n Krishna
krista krista n revenge
krusa krusa n cross
kulla kulla n quality
kulya kulya n college
kurka kurka n turkey
kuruk kuruk n plum
kurusa kurusa n curiosity
kurusi kurusi adj curious
kuta kuta n goodness
kute kute adv well
kuti kuti adj fine, good

leli leli adj dark


lelina lelina n darkness
lelon-as-v-onin lelonas-v-onin n November

-li -li prep to


ladoni ladoni adj gray
lason-leha lason-leha n
linguistics
lason lason n language,
tongue
lasvegasu lasvegasu n
Las-Vegas
latcen latcen v take
latfa latfa n beauty
latfe-kala latfe-kala n
conscience
latfe latfe adv beautifully
latfen latfen v beautify
latfi latfi adj beautiful
lavoni lavoni adj white
le ..
nor

le le .. le conj neither ..

le le adv not
le le exp no
lece lece adj less
lega lega n egg
leha leha n learning, study
lehen lehen v learn, study
lehini lehini adj eduacted
lehon lehon n student
lela lela n moon
lelek lelek n stork

lelon-asin lelon-asin n
January
lelon-fafin lelon-fafin n
May
lelon-katin lelon-katin n
April
lelon-monin lelon-monin n
August
lelon-novin lelon-novin n
September
lelon-onin lelon-onin n
October
lelon-pas-v-onin lelonpas-v-onin n December
lelon-pasin lelon-pasin n
February
lelon-satin lelon-satin n
July
lelon-sesin lelon-sesin n
June
lelon-torin lelon-torin n
March
lelon lelon n month
letami letami adj false,
incorrect
leton leton adv never
letone letone adv never
leyana leyana n adulthood
leyani leyani n adult
leza leza n necessity,
requirement
lezen lezen aux must, should

141

lezzi lezzi adj delicious

makbeta makbeta n guilt

limon limon n acid, lemon

makbeten makbeten v be
guilty

limoni limoni adj acidic,


yellow

makbeti makbeti adj guilty

limonia limonia n acidity

maken maken v operate

lispu lispu n Lisp

makentocu makentocu n
Macintosh

lixa lixa n lie


lixen lixen v lie [deceive]
lixta lixta n milk
logma logma n lunch
lota lota n catch
loten loten v catch
lotta lotta n randomness
lotti lotti adj random
lotto lotto n lottery
lu lu n none
lua lua n law
lui lui adj legal
luon luon n lawyer

M
-mi -mi prep at, from
mafta mafta n death
maften maften v die
mafti mafti adj dead
magrebi magrebi adj
Moroccan
magrebu magrebu n
Morocco

142

makina makina n machine


mamia mamia n mummy
mamun mamun n monkey
manja manja n meal
manjen manjen v eat
manjina manjina n food
manyu manyu n menu
masru masru n Cairo
masuba masuba n bout
mawac mawac n belt
maxa maxa adj anger
maxi maxi adj angry
maziga maziga n pyramid
mca mca n walk
mcen mcen v walk
me me adj most
me me adv very
memu memu n lots
mere mere adv more
merna merna n grief
mernen mernen v cry, grieve
meryama meryama n grace
meryami meryami adj
gracious
meton meton adv often

metone metone adv often


meza meza n dirtiness
mezi mezi adj dirty
mia mia n cat
mien mien v meow
mikya mikya n mouse
mila mila n dinner
milyon milyon num million
mima mima n minute
mimic mimic n kitten
mina mina n right [direction]
mine-et mine-et prep right of
mnixi mnixi adj kind
moden moden v lie [recline]
mohamadu mohamadu n
Mohammed
mom onedozi mom
onedozi n Ten Thousand Day
mom-asin mom-asin n
Sunday
mom-cecin mom-cecin n
Friday
mom-dako-ci mom-dako-ci
n Thanksgiving

Tuesday
moma ali moma ali n
yesterday
moma ati moma ati n
tomorrow
moma

di moma di n today

moma moma n day


momya momya n curse
motta motta n mouth
msihi msihi adj Chirstian
msihu msihu n Christ
msiva msiva n family
mtele mtele adv similarly
mteli mteli adj similar
mtile mtile prep as, like
mu mu n most
muc muc n fly
munuk munuk n mink
muzikon muzikon n musician

mom-fafin mom-fafin n
Thursday

na na pro I

mom-katin mom-katin n
Wednesday

nakca nakca n incompleteness

naci naci pro my

mom-nu mom-nu n birthday

nakci nakci adj incomplete

mom-pasin mom-pasin n
Monday

nakva nakva n cleanness

mom-satin mom-satin n
Saturday

nakvi nakvi adj clean


nama nama n name

mom-torin mom-torin n

namla namla n ant

143

nasra nasra n victory


naten naten v jump
natzi natzi n Nazi
natzia natzia n Nazism
navoni navoni adj new
nila nila n knee
niponi niponi adj Japanese
niponia niponia n Japanese
niponu niponu n Japan
nizar nizar n elixir
no no pro we
noba noba n attention
noben noben v notice
nobi nobi adj attentive
noci noci pro our
noelu noelu n Christmas, Xmas
nomsa nomsa n sleep
nomsen nomsen v sleep
nomsi nomsi adj asleep
nov nov num nine
nua nua n birth
nuda nuda n north
nudi nudi adj northern
nuen nuen v be born
nuta nuta n craziness
nuti nuti adj crazy
nyutonu nyutonu n Newton
nyuyorku nyuyorku n New
York

O
o o pro it
oba oba n love
oben oben v like, love
oci oci pro its
oden oden v be used to
oga oga n age
oki oki rel what, who
okt okt num eight
ola ola n sky
olan olan exp hello
olan olan n peace
olanta olanta n world
olo olo n Heavens
olte olte conj although, despite
olti olti adj old
om om num hundred
oma oma n man
omi omi adj masculine
on on num ten
onedoza onedoza n Ten
Thousand Day celebration
opa opa n top
ope-et ope-et prep on, over
ope ope adv up
ora ora n happiness
oren oren n be pleased
orenca orenca n orange

144

orga orga n origin, source


orgi orgi adj originial
ori ori adj happy
orora orora n aurora
orsa orsa n bear
osi osi inter what, who
oslanti oslanti n foreigner
osrux osrux n ostrich
ostenu ostenu n Austin
ostrali ostrali adj
Australian
ostralu ostralu n Australia
ota ota n bottom, under
ote-et ote-et prep under
ote-klota ote-klota n
underwear
ote ote adv down
otel otel n hotel
otomata otomata n
automation
otomaten otomaten v
automate
otomati otomati adj automatic
otre otre adj different
otricba otricba n fruit
otte otte adj same
ova ova n ownership
oven oven v own
ovin ovin n slave
ovon ovon n owner
ozuma ozuma n sumo

P
pa pa n ability
paha paha n end
pahen pahen v end
pahini pahini adj last
palisrau palisrau n Palisra
pantalona pantalona n
pants
pardonay
na exp pardon

na pardonay

pas-v-on pas-v-on num


twelve
pas pas conj but
pas pas num two
pasa pasa n couple
pasan

imi pasan imi n wife

pasan
husband

omi pasan omi n

pasan-ahu imi pasanahu imi n sister-in-law


pasan-ahu omi pasanahu omi n brother-in-law
pasan-sunu imi pasansunu imi n daughter-in-law
pasan-sunu omi
pasan-sunu omi n son-in-law
pasan pasan n spouse
pasini pasini adj second
pasle-et pasle-et conj except
pasod pasod n half

145

pasoda pasoda n wedding


pason pason num twenty
paza paza n comparison
pazen pazen v compare
pazi pazi adj comparable
pe pe adj few
peklik peklik n chick
pen

ir pen ir exp may be

pen pen aux can


pepu pepu n little
pesaxu pesaxu n Passover
peton peton adv rarely
petone petone adv rarely
pez pez n decimal point
pi pi adj able
pila pila n feeling
pilen pilen v feel
pla pla n plate
plena plena n airplane
politikon politikon n
politician
ponda ponda n pond
ponta ponta n font
pope-et pope-et prep divided
by
popen popen v divide
posibili posibili adj possible
potata potata n potato
pret pret n pepper
profesor profesor n
professor
prua prua n praise [the Lord]

146

pruen pruen v praise [the


Lord]
psa psa n size
pu pu n few
purimu purimu n Purim
pya pya n piece
pyana pyana n pain
pyani pyani adj painful

R
racca racca n rain
raccen raccen v rain
racci racci adj rainy
ramadanu ramadanu n
Ramadan
rata rata n return
raten raten v return
raya raya n badness, evil
rayi rayi adj bad, evil
reren reren v repeat
reten reten v respect
ria ria n reality
rie rie adv really
rigade rigade prep as for
rii rii adj real
rikicen rikicen n wrestle
rikicon rikicon n wrestler
riponta riponta n answer
riponten riponten v answer

rochacanau rochacanau
n Rosh-Hashanah
rosoni rosoni adj pink
rsima rsima n suit
ruci ruci adj Russian
rucia rucia n Russian
rucu rucu n Russia
rumman rumman n
pomegranate

S
-si -si inter what
sa sa aux will
saftu imi saftu imi n
grandmother
saftu omi saftu omi n
grandfather
sake-et sake-et prep for
sala sala n prayer
salami salami n Salamite
salen salen v pray
sankur sankur n squirrel
sara sara n left
sare-et sare-et prep left of
sari sari adj left
sat sat num seven
satulen satulen v intoxicate
satulini satulini adj drunk
satun satun n week
saya saya n hour

sayona sayona n watch


sba sba n color
sboba sboba n chest
se se adj some
sera sera n starhood
serbi serbi adj Serb
serbia serbia n Serbia
seren seren v star
serfen serfen v spend
serfi serfi n wasteful
serina serina n star
serta serta n certainty
ses ses num six
seton seton adv sometimes
seton seton n sometime
setone setone adv sometimes
simay simay exp be careful
simi simi adj careful
sinema sinema n cinema,
theater
sisira sisira n sincerity
sisiri sisiri adj sincere
sizen sizen v stop
slavi slavi n Slav, Slavic
soba soba n hardness
sobi sobi adj hard
socika socika n destruction
sociken sociken v destroy,
perish
soha soha n awakening
sohen sohen v rise, wake

147

sohi sohi adj awake

tadrib tadrib n practice

sokar sokar n sugar

taksasi taksasi adj Texan

sola sola n question

taksasu taksasu n Texas

solen solen v ask, question

talmudu talmudu n Talmud

soliden soliden v implore

tami tami adj correct

solta solta n authority,


control

tamra tamra n dates

solten solten v control

tangarin tangarin n
tangarine

solti solti adj authoritative

tapca tapca n problem

sota sota n sound, voice

tapwa tapwa n apple

soten soten v sing

tasten tasten v hate

sotin sotin n song

tasti tasti adj hateful

soton soton n singer

tastini tastini adj hated

su su pro some

tastud tastud n turtle

sua sua n health

tata tata n chief

suda suda n south

tavtuz tavtuz n peacock

sudi sudi adj southern

tay tay n tea

sui sui adj healthy

taylanti taylanti n Thai

sunu imi sunu imi n


daughter

taylantu taylantu n
Thailand

sunu

tazik tazik n beetle

omi sunu omi n son

suri suri adj Syrian

tcua tcua n cough

suriau suriau n Syria

tcuen tcuen v cough

susa susa n cup, glass

te barko te barko exp


congratulations

T
ta ta pro you
tabyula tabyula n table
taci taci pro your

148

te dako te dako exp thank


you very much
te

kuti te kuti adj excellent

te te adj all, every


te te adv extremely
tebati tebati adj Tibetan
tebatu tebatu n Tibet

tefca tefca n stupidity


tefci tefci adj stupid
tehranu tehranu n Tehran
telefonen telefonen v phone
televiza televiza n television
telgita telgita n snow flake
tenisen tenisen v play tennis
terda terda n thread
teton teton adv always
tetone tetone adv always
timsax timsax n alligator
tira tira n murder
tiren tiren v kill, murder
to to pro you
toci toci pro your
tohivoha tohivoha n mess
tohivohi tohivohi adj
formless, messy
tokyu tokyu n Tokyo
tola tola n height
toli toli adj tall
tomata tomata n tomato
ton-berron ton-berron n
Winter
ton-cebca ton-cebca n
morning
ton-cebon ton-cebon n
season
ton-di ton-di adv now
ton-heron ton-heron n
summer
ton-icbon ton-icbon n
spring

ton-ladon ton-ladon n
autumn
ton-lela ton-lela n evening
ton-ora ton-ora n festivity,
party
ton-oren ton-oren v
celebrate
ton-via ton-via n trip
ton-zi ton-zi adv then
ton ton n time
tonki tonki rel when
tonsi tonsi inter when
tor-v-on tor-v-on num
thirteen
tor tor num three
tora tora n flight
torau torau n Torah
toren toren v fly
torga torga n skylark
torini torini adj third
torita torita n bird
torod torod num one-third
toron toron num thirty
tote-et tote-et prep multiplied
by
towa towa n finger, toe
towita towita n fork
tra tra n attempt, try
tradisyona tradisyona n
tradition
trafika trafika n traffic
tren tren v attempt, try
troadi troadi adj Trojan

149

troadu troadu n Troy

usen usen v use, utilize

troda troda n truth

uzum uzum n grapes

troden troden v be truthful

trodi trodi adj true


tseta tseta n fat
tsutsu tsutsu exp sorry
tu tu n all
tunisu tunisu n Tunis,
Tunisia
turki turki n Turkish
turkiau turkiau n Turkey
tyama tyama n sea

U
u

..

-vi -vi conj with


va va n place
vaki vaki rel where
vakoma vakoma n space,
vacuum
van van n wine
vasi vasi inter where
vatikanu vatikanu n Vatican

u u .. u conj either .. or

u u conj or
uda binuni uda binuni n
Middle East
uda uda n east
udi udi adj eastern
ular ular n cock
uniksu uniksu n Unix
universita universita n
university

vavu

imi vavu imi n mother

vavu

omi vavu omi n father

vavu vavu n parent


vavuha
motherhood

imi vavuha imi n

vavuha
fatherhood

omi vavuha omi n

vavuha vavuha n parenthood


ve ve conj and
ve ve prep plus
veda veda n promise
veden veden v promise

upen upen v open

vehen vehen v happen

upi upi adj open

ven ven v place

uruk uruk n apricot

venicu venicu n Venice

usa usa n use, utility

verri verri adj warm

use-kala use-kala n reason


[logic]

veslen veslen v arrive

150

vesxa vesxa n heaviness

wara wara n behind

vesxi vesxi adj fat, heavy

ware-et ware-et prep behind

vetona vetona n visit

ware ware adv backward

vetonen vetonen v visit

ware ware conj before

vetra vetra n weather

warehonen warehonen v
plan

vi vi exp yes
via via n road, street, way
vien vien v pass
vika vika n weakness
viki viki adj weak
vile-et vile-et prep minus

wil wil n oil

virjini virjini adj Virginian

xaptul xaptul n peach

virjinu virjinu n Virginia

xaritaz xaritaz n vulture

visla visla n arrival


vita vita n quickness
vite vite adv quickly
viti viti adj quick
vodiren vodiren v mean
volva volva n wolf
vonen vonen v become, put
vuda vuda n west
vudi vudi adj western

W
wacingtonu wacingtonu n
Washington
wala wala n awe
wamaka wamaka n depth
wamaki wamaki adj deep

xatsa xatsa n accident,


injury
xatsen xatsen v hurt, injure
xazka xazka n strength
xazki xazki adj strong
xessi xessi adj light [weight]
xissa xissa n lightness
xissi xissi adj thin

Y
ya ya n existence
yacira yacira n arch
yacucen yacucen v burst,
explode
yahona yahona n article,
document, writing

151

yahwehu yahwehu n
Jehovah
yakata yakata n roof
yalen yalen v leave
yaleza yaleza n desire, lust
yalezen yalezen v desire
yalpuz yalpuz n leopard
yam-merna yam-merna n
tear
yam yam n water
yamani yamani adj humid
yamanu yamanu n Yemen
yamna yamna n belief
yamnen yamnen v believe

yazben yazben v attract


yazbi yazbi adj attractive
yeca yeca n army
yecina yecina n war
yecinen yecinen v fight
yecon yecon n soldier
yen yen v exist
yerca yerca n luck
yerci yerci adj lucky
yesra yesra n attack
yesren yesren v attack
yora yora n delight, pleasure,
satisfaction

yamoni yamoni adj blue

yoren yoren v delight, please,


satisfy

yana yana n youth

yori yori adj delightful

yanamen yanamen v define

yanamita yanamita n
definition
yangak yangak n walnut
yani yani adj young
yara yara n hand
yarita yarita n spoon, wish
yariten yariten v wish
yasota yasota n poetry
yasotin yasotin n poem
yasoton yasoton n poet
yatona yatona n future
yatoren yatoren v hover
yaviyen yaviyen v cross
yavona yavona n past
yazba yazba n attraction

152

za za dem that
zagen zagen v shut, turn off
zajik zajik n rabbit
zara zara n button
zayna zayna adv there
zetun zetun n olive
zgita zgita n silence
zgiten zgiten v shut up,
silence
zi zi dem that, those
zika zika n body

zimen zimen v seem

zobxa zobxa n bread

zirap zirap n giraffe

zola zola n sadness

zmela zmela n friendship

zoli zoli adj sad

zmelen zmelen v befriend

zuluk zuluk n leech

zmelin zmelin n friend


zo zo dem those

153

DE PAHA
DE PAHA
THE END

154

1990-2012 Nizar Habash. All Rights Reserved.


155