Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 127

UNIUNEA EUROPEAN

GUVERNUL ROMNIEI

Fondul Social European


POSDRU 2007-2013

Instrumente Structurale
2007-2013

GUVERNUL ROMNIEI
MINISTERUL MUNCII, FAMILIEI
I PROTECIEI SOCIALE
I PERSOANELOR VRSTNICE
OIRPOSDRU REGIUNEA NORD EST

Proiect cofinanat din Fondul Social European prin


Programul Operaional Sectorial Dezvoltarea Resurselor
Umane - POSDRU 2007-2013
Investete n Oameni!

Comunicare n limba englez


Suport Curs

CAP.
1

ALFABET, FONETIC I VOCABULAR DE BAZ


N LIMBA ENGLEZ

Alfabetul englez (the alphabet) conine 26 de litere, dintre care 5 vocale (a, e, i,
o, u), 2 semivocale (w, y) i 19 consoane.
Literele alfabetului, luate singure, se citesc n felul urmtor:

[ei] [bi:] [si:]

[di:]

[i:]

[ef] [dI:] [eit]

[en] [ou] [pi:] [kju:] [a:] [es]

[ti:]

[ai]

[ju:] [vi:]

[dei]
[dblju:]

[kei]

[el]

[eks] [wai]

[em]
[zi:]

ALFABETUL FONETIC I TRANSCRIEREA FONETIC


V-ai ntrebat vreodat ce nseamn simbolurile din paranteze care apar lng un
cuvnt n dicionar? Acestea sunt simboluri fonetice folosite ca ghid pentru
pronunarea corect a cuvintelor. Sistemul fonetic al limbii engleze este diferit de
cel al limbii romne. Cele mai multe diferene se nregistreaz la nivelul sistemului
vocalic: dac n limba romn exist 7 vocale, n limba englez sunt 12. Exist
vocale lungi, marcate cu [:], caz care n limba romn nu se nregistreaz dect n
situaii de articulare sau interjecii de tipul Tii!, Dii!. Ct despre consoane, n
majoritatea cazurilor, se pronun ca n limba romn ( [b], [g], [m], [s], [v], [l], [p],
[c], [k], [t], [d], [n] ).

Vocale:
Sunetul
n limba
englez

i:
i sau
u:

Descriere

Exemplu cuvnt
n limba englez i
transcriere fonetic

Traducere n
limba romn

Pronunia
cuvntului
n limba
romn

i lung

see [si:]

a vedea

[sii]

i scurt

his [hz]

al lui

[hiz]

u lung

you [ju:]

tu

[iuu]

u scurt

football [ftb:l]

fotbal

[futbool]

e romnesc

ten [ten]

zece

[ten]

romnesc

letter [let]

scrisoare

[let]

: sau :
: sau o:

lung

learn [l:n] sau [l:n]

a nva

[ln]

o lung

morning [m:n]

diminea

[moonin]

sunet ntre e i a
(deschidei gura ca
i cum ai pronuna a
i pronunai e)

stamp [stmp]

timbru

[steamp]

a:

a scurt

sun [sn]

soare

[san]

a lung

father [fa:]

tat

[faad]

sau o

o scurt

hot [ht]

erbinte

[hot]

Descriere

Exemplu cuvnt
n limba englez i
transcriere fonetic

Traducere n
limba romn

Pronunia
cuvntului
n limba
romn

p romnesc

pen [pen]

stilou

[pen]

f romnesc

four [fo:]

patru

[foo]

t romnesc

tea [ti:]

ceai

[tii]

un fel de s sau t romnesc


rostit cu limba ntre dini;

thanks [ks]

mulumesc

[encs]

un fel de d sau z romnesc


rostit cu limba ntre dini;

this [is]

acest

[is]

s romnesc

son [sn]

[san]

romnesc

she [i:]

ea

[ii]

c romnesc

cat [kt]

pisic

[chet]

b romnesc

big [big]

mare

[big]

v romnesc

very [veri]

foarte

[veri]

d romnesc

do [du:]

a face

[duu]

z romnesc

Zoo [zu:]

Zoo

[zuu]

j romnesc

television [telivin]

televiziune

[telivijn]

g romnesc

go [gu]

a merge

[gu]

h romnesc

happy [hpi]

fericit

[hepi]

m romnesc

my [mai]

al meu

[mai]

n romnesc

near [ni]

aproape

[ni]

l romnesc

live [liv]

a tri

[liv]

Consoane:
Sunetul
n limba
englez

p
f
t

k
b
v
d
z

g
h
m
n
l

n velar (care se articuleaz


n partea posterioar a
cavitii bucale, prin
atingerea sau prin apropierea rdcinii limbii de
vlul palatului) ca n
cuvintele romneti
creang sau pung

English [ili]

englez()

[ingli]

semnicativ diferit de r
romnesc; are o foarte
scurt i slab vibraie
a limbii

red [red]

rou

[red]

seamn cu u romnesc

want [want]

a vrea

[uant]

seamn cu i romnesc

yes [jes]

da

[ies]

w
j

Consoanele i sunt reprezentate n scriere prin grupul th.

Combinaii de semne:
Sunetul
n limba
englez

d
t

Descriere

Exemplu cuvnt
n limba englez i
transcriere fonetic

Traducere n
limba romn

Pronunia
cuvntului
n limba
romn

asemntor cu gi

German [:mn]

german()

[gemn]

asemnor cu ci

child [aild]

copil

[ciaild]

Consoana d este ntlnit n romnete n cuvinte ca: gimnastic, geam, legi etc. Observai c n limba
romn aceast consoan poate urmat numai de vocalele e sau i. Trecerea la oricare din celelalte
vocale (o, a, u) se face cu ajutorul unui i sau e de legtur. De exemplu: geam, George, giulgiu. n limba
englez, trecerea de la d la oricare dintre vocale se face direct. De exemplu: John [don], George
[do:d]. Nu pronunai deci cuvntul John ca gion. n limba englez, sunetul d termin cuvntul. De
exemplu: Geroge [do:d], judge [dd]. Nu pronunai giorgi i giagi.
Consoana t este aproape identic cu consoana romneasc din cuvinte ca: cine, ceas, cel etc., i se
pronun cu o uoar aspiraie, ca i k, p, t. ns, consoana englezeasc rmne perfect surd i poate
urmat direct de orice vocal, fr a necesita un e sau i de legtur, ca n limba romn. De semenea,
consoana t nal, spre deosebire de consoana corespunztoare din limba romn, nu este urmat de un i
asilabic (care nu formeaz silab) ca n cinci, pleci etc. De exemplu: much mt. Este necesar s dm o
deosebit atenie pronunrii acestei consoane cnd este urmat de alte vocale dect i i e, sau cnd este
n poziie nal. Deci pronunai child ca - taild i nu ciaild sau much ca- mt i nu maci.

Diftongi (dou vocale mpreun):

Descriere

Exemplu cuvnt
n limba englez i
transcriere fonetic

Traducere n
limba romn

Pronunia
cuvntului
n limba
romn

se citete i

hear [hi]

a auzi

[hi]

se citete e

where [we]

unde

[we]

sau u
a sau au

se citete u

no [nu]

nu

[nu]

se citete au

how [hau]

cum

[hau]

ei
ai

se citete ei

name [neim]

nume

[neim]

se citete ai

my [mai]

al meu

[mai]

i sau oi

se citete oi

boy [boi]

biat

[boi]

Sunetul
n limba
englez

i
e

RECAPITULARE:
Pronunarea vocalelor:
Vocala E:
- n interiorul unui cuvnt se pronun:
[i] (i scurt) - keep [kip] (a pstra), speech [spi] (discurs), leave [li:v] (a pleca), compete [kmpit ]
(a concura)
[e] (e romnesc) - stress [stres] (stres), question [kwesn] (ntrebare), terrible [terbl] (teribil), however
[haev] (oricum)
[] ( romnesc) - channel [nl] (canal), letter [lt] (scrisoare), problem [problm] (problem), member
[mmb] (membru)

Vocala A:
- cnd cuvntul se termin cu E, A se pronun [ei] (ei romnesc): face [feis] (fa), wave [weiv] (val), take
[teik] (a lua)
- cnd cuvntul se termin cu R, A se pronun [a] (a romnesc): car [ca:] (main), jar [a:] (borcan), far
[fa:] (departe)
- cnd cuvntul se termin cu alte litere, A se pronun [] (sunet ntre a i e): fat [ft] (gras), sad [sd]
(trist), man [mn] (brbat)

Vocala I:
- cnd cuvntul se termin cu E, I se pronun [ai] (ai romnesc): kite [kait] (zmeu), life [laif] (via),
smile [smail] (zmbet)
- cnd cuvntul se termin cu alte litere, I se pronun [i] (i scurt): big [big] (mare), lip [lip] (buz), to hit
[hit] (a lovi)

Vocala O:
- cnd cuvntul se termin cu E, O se pronun [u] (u romnesc): hope [hp] (speran), rope [rp]
(frnghie), rose [rz] (trandar), nose [nz] (nas)
- cnd cuvntul se termin cu alte litere, O se pronun [o] (o scurt): hot [hot] (erbinte), dog [dog] (cine)

Vocala U:
- cnd cuvntul se termin cu E, U se pronun [iu] (iu romnesc): tune [tiu:n] (ton), tube [tiu:b] (tub),
cute [kiu:t] (drgu)
- cnd cuvntul se termin cu alte litere, U se pronun [] (a scurt): sun [sn] (soare), fun [fn] (distracie),
gun [gn] (puc)

Pronunarea consoanelor:
Consoana C:
- cnd este urmat de E sau Y, litera C se pronun [s] (s romnesc): center [sentr] (centru), ice
[ais] (ghea), cycle [saikl] (ciclu)
- cnd este urmat de O, U sau A sau de o consoan, litera C se pronun [c] (c romnesc) : cold
[kld] (rece), cup [kp] (ceac), cat [kt] (pisic)

Consoana G:
- cnd este urmat de E, I sau Y, litera G se pronun [] (gi romnesc): germ [em] (germene),
gigantic [aigntik] (gigant), gym [ im] (sal de sport)
- cnd este urmat de U sau A sau de o consoan, litera G se pronun [g] (g romnesc): gum [gm]
(gum), garden [ga:dn] (grdin), glass [gla:s] (pahar)

Consoana K:
- de obicei, litera K se pronun [c] (c romnesc): book [bk] (carte), work [wk] (munc), king [ki]
(rege)
- cnd se a naintea literei N, litera K nu se pronun: knife [naif] (cuit), knight [nait] (cavaler), to
know [n] (a ti)


Consoana L:

- de obicei, litera L se pronun [l] (l romnesc)


- exist cuvinte n care nu l pronunm pe L: talk [to:k] (a vorbi), walk [wo:k] (a merge), half [ha:f]
(jumtate)

Consoana R:
- cnd consoana R apare nainte de o vocal se pronun [r] (r romnesc): grass [gra:s] (iarb)
- cnd consoana R apare nainte de o consoan sau la nalul unui cuvnt nu se pronun deloc: fork
[fk] (furculi), mother [m] (mam)

Litera Y:
- cnd se a la sfritul unui cuvnt format dintr-o singur silab, litera Y se pronun [ai] (ai romnesc):
my [mai] (al meu), sky [skai] (cer), y [ai] (a zbura)
- cnd se a la sfritul unui cuvnt format din dou sau mai multe silabe, litera Y se pronun [i] (i scurt):
happy [hpi] (bucuros), baby [beibi] (bebelu)

Cele mai ntlnite grupuri de litere:


Grupul de litere IE:
- n unele cazuri, IE se pronun [i] (i scurt): achieve [iv](a ndeplini), believe [bili:v] (a crede)
- la sfritul cuvintelor formate dintr-o silab, IE se pronun [ai] (ai romnesc): tie [tai] (cravat), die
[dai] (a muri)
- uneori, cele dou vocale se pronun separat, I = [ai] (ai romnesc), iar E = [] ( romnesc): anxiety
[zaiti ] (anxietate)

Grupul de litere GH:


- n majoritatea cazurilor, atunci cnd se a la sfritul unui cuvnt, GH nu se pronun: high [hai] (sus),
sigh [sai] (suspin), though [ ] (dei)
- n unele cuvinte, GH de la sfrit se pronun [f]: enough [inf] (destul), laugh [lf] (a rde), tough
[tf] (greu)

Grupul de litere TH:


- n unele cuvinte, TH se pronun [] (un fel de s sau t romnesc rostit cu limba ntre dini): think
[ik] (a gndi), thing [i] (lucru), athlete [lit] (atlet), both [b] (ambii)
- n alte cuvinte, TH se pronun [] (un fel de d sau z romnesc rostit cu limba ntre dini): this [is]
(acest), that [t] (acel), there [e] (acolo)

Grupul de litere DGE:


- DGE se pronun [] (asemntor cu gi romnesc): badge [b] (insign), bridge [bri] (pod),
edge [e] (capt), judge [] (judector)

Grupul de litere ANCE i ENCE:


- ANCE se pronun [ns] (ns romnesc): ambulance [mbilns] (ambulan), ignorance [ignrns]
(ignoran), arrogance [rgns] (arogan)
- ENCE se pronun [ns] (ns romnesc) sau, mai rar, [ens] (ens romnesc): inuence [inns]
(inuen), essence [esns] (esen)

Grupul formate din dou litere identice - se pronun ca o singur liter (ll-l, tt - t, nn - n)
Grupul de litere AW [o:]- se pronun la fel ca litera o din om - law [lo:] (lege)
Grupul de litere CH [] - se pronun la fel ca ci din cine - each [i] (ecare)
Grupul de litere EA [i:] - se pronun la fel ca i din inel - each [i] (ecare)
Grupul de litere EE [i:] - se pronun la fel ca i din inel - bee [bi:] (albin)
Grupul de litere OO[u:] - se pronun la fel ca u din unde - room [ru:m] (camer)
Grupul de litere SH []- se pronun la fel ca din arpe - sheep [ip] (oaie)

EXERCIII I APLICAII PRACTICE:


ncercuii semnul fonetic din limba englez corespunztor ecrui sunet din
limba romn:
i lung

/ i / i:

romnesc

s//

a scurt

a: / /

romnesc

/ /

j romnesc

//

u scurt

//

c romnesc

c/k/o

sunet ntre e i a

//

s/t romnesc rostit

//

cu limba ntre dini


gi romnesc

d / /

lung

: / /

ci romnesc

/ t /

n velar (similar cu ng

n / n: /

din creang)
d/z romnesc rostit

//

cu limba ntre dini


Completai n transcierea fonetic,sunetul lips corespunztor sunetului din limba
romn i scriei traducerea ecrui cuvnt:
e - where - [w............] = .....................
ei - name - [n...........m] = .....................
oi - boy - [b.........] = .....................
ai - tie - [t........] = .....................
au - how - [h........] = .....................
i - hear - [h.........] = .....................
u - no - [n.........] = .....................
7

Alegei caracterul de adevrat / fals al urmtoarelor propoziii:


A / F Grupul de litere EE se pronun la fel ca i lung romnesc.
A / F Semnul fonetic este echivalentul lui o romnesc.
A / F Consoana d se echivalentul lui ci din cuvintele romneti cine, cinci, pleci
A / F Grupul de litere OO se pronun la fel ca u din unde.
A / F Grupul de litere GH se pronun ntotdeauna, indiferent unde este situat n cadrul
cuvntului.
A / F Grupul de litere SH se pronun ca romnesc i se reprezint prin semnul
fonetic .
Completai cuvntul corect din lista din dreapta ( i traducerea) pentru ecare transcriere
fonetic din lista din stnga:
cat = ..............
believe = ..................
inuence = ...............
this = .....................
W
football = ..................
happy = ....................
letter = ......................
law = .....................
bridge = ....................

[ dbliu: ] - ................
[ let ] - .....................
[ ftb:l ] - ...................
[ bili:v] - ......................
[ brid ] - ......................
[ lo: ] - ..........................
[ inns ] - .....................
[ kt ] - ...........................
[ hpi ] - .........................
[ is ] - ..........................

ncercuii care din cele trei cuvinte are un sunet diferit fa de celelalte.
a:

car

jar

channel

big

u:

book

sun

i:

each

cat
letter

life
hot
fun
hear

ten

lip
room
cute
bee
8

A1. Ascultai cele dou cuvinte i ncercuii-l pe acela care conine


sunetul precizat la nceput:

a)
b)
c) d
d)
e)

English
she
morning
letter
sun

ten
see
German
learn
put

A2. Ascultai cuvintele i apoi alegei sunetul corespunztor prii subliniate a cuvntului:

a) cheese (= brnz)

f) shoe (=pantof)

s
g) arrow (=sgeat)
a
h) bag (=geant)
b g k
i) shirt (=bluz)
: :
j) light
g t l

b) f ish (= pete)
f v p
c) car (=main)
: : a:
d) king (=rege)
n g
e) cap (=apc)
c k p

Citii cu voce tare urmtoarele cuvinte i ncercuii traducerea corect:


room [ru:m]
each [I]
bridge [bri]
high [hai]
believe [bili:v]
footbal [ftb:l]
happy [hpi]
sun [sn]
father [fa:]
hot [ht]
wave [weiv]
life [laif]
keep [kip]
speech [spi]

camer
oricum
pod
sus
ncredere
fotbal
fericit
u
tat
er
vale
via
a pstra
a vorbi

cas
ecare
an
jos
a crede
minge
suprat
soare
fars
erbinte
val
a tri
chip
discurs

Scriei numele dumneavoastr i apoi citii-l cu voce tare, pe litere, n limba englez:
......................................................................................................................................
9

CAP.
2

NUMERALUL CARDINAL I
ORDINAL

Numeralul este partea de vorbire care exprim un numr, determinarea


numeric a obiectelor - numeralul cardinal, sau ordinea obiectelor prin numrare
- numeralul ordinal.

NUMERALUL CARDINAL
Numeralul cardinal exprim numrul (one-unu, two-doi, three-trei) sau
determinarea numeric a obiectelor (three books-trei cri, one hundred years - o sut de ani).

Numeralele cardinale 1-19


Cifra 0 (zero) ocup un loc special n cadrul numeralelor cardinale. Ea se poate citi zero (zirou),
oh (ou ), nil, nothing.,
Numeralele cardinale ntre 13-19 se formeaz cu ajutorul suxului teen adugat la numerele 3-9.
De asemenea, numeralele 13 i 15 prezint deosebiri ortograce i de pronunie fa de numeralele
3 i 5 de la care s-au format - thirteen, fteen.
0
zero

1
one

2
two

3
three

10
ten

11
eleven

12
twelve

4
four

13
14
thirteen fourteen

5
ve
15
fteen

6
six

7
seven

8
eight

9
nine

17
16
19
18
sixteen seventeen eighteen nineteen

Numeralele cardinale 20-90


Zecile (2090) se formeaz de la numerele 29 la care se adaug terminaia "
ty"(cu unele deosebiri
la numerele 20, 30, 40 si 50):

20
twenty

30
thirty

40
fourty

50
fty

60
sixty

70
seventy

80
eighty

90
ninety

10

Numeralele intermediare i multiplii de sut, mii, milioane


Numele intermediare (cele ntre 20, 30, 40, 50,90) se formeaz ca mai jos, unde numele zecilor se
leag de uniti direct, cu ajutorul unei liniue de unire:
21
twenty-one

32
thirty-two

68
sixty-eight

79
seventy-nine

95
ninety-ve

Numeralele cardinale n limba englez - multiplii de sut se formeaz adugnd dup numr
cuvntul "hundred", iar miile se formeaz adugnd cuvntul "thousand".
100
one hundred

200
two hundred

600
six hundred

1000
one thousand

5000
ve thousand

Numeralele cardinale n englez, care denumesc sute, mii sau milioane sunt legate prin "and"
de cele care denumesc zeci i uniti.

116
one hundred and sixteen

832
eight hundred and thirty-two

2009
two thousand and nine

Atunci cnd numeralele cardinale care denumesc zecile, sutele, miile, milioanele
sunt aproximri, acestea apar la forma de plural: tens (zeci), hundreds (sute),
thousands (mii), millions (milioane). - zeci de milioane = tens of milions

ntrebuinarea numeralelor cardinale


Pentru exprimarea numelor numerelor abstracte (one, two, three, four, ve ) sau a determinrii
numerice a obiectelor: three apples (trei mere), one hundred pupils (o sut de elevi)
Pentru exprimarea datei sau a anilor: Anii se citesc:
1980 - one thousand nine hundred and eighty sau nineteen hundred and eighty - n engleza ocial
sau
1980 - nineteen eighty - n engleza vorbit
Pentru indicarea numrului unui obiect sau n exprimarea adresei:
- Chapter ve (capitolul 5), Flat Twelve (Apartamentul 12)
- I live at No. 9, Eminescu street. (Locuiesc pe strada Eminescu, numrul 9)
n exprimarea timpului cronologic (propoziiile vor ncepe mereu cu pronumele it):
- It is / Its two oclock. (Este ora dou) - Oclock se folosete doar cu ora exact i se poate omite.
- What time is it? Its ve. (Ce or e? E cinci.)
Pentru a indica un numr de telefon (numere de telefon se citesc cifr cu cifr):
0723546784 oh seven two three ve four six seven eight four.
- Dac exist dou cifre la fel se folosete cuvntul double:
566789 ve double six seven eight nine
5555 - double ve, double ve

11

Pentru operaiile aritmetice (verbul poate folosit la singular i la plural):


2 + 4 = 6 two plus four is/are six.
5 x 6 = 30 six multiplied by ve is/are thirty.
7 3 = 4 seven minus three makes/make four. 40 :5 = 8 fourty divided by ve is/are eight.
Pentru exprimarea vrstei:
How old are you? I am nineteen years old. Ci ani ai? Am 19 ani.
n limba englez se poate omite partea nal - years old. = > I am nineteen.

NUMERALUL ORDINAL
Numeralul ordinal exprim ordinea n timp sau n spaiu a obiectelor sau a aciunilor.
Ex: He was the rst to come. The second house round the corner is mine.
Numeralul ordinal n limba englez este alctuit prin adugarea suxului "-th" la numeralul cardinal.
Numeralele de la 1 la 3 se abat puin de la aceast regul.
the 1st / rst = primul
the 2nd / second = al doilea
the 3rd / third = al treilea
the 4th / fourth = al patrulea
the 5th / fth = al cincilea
the 6th sixth = al aselea
the 7th / seventh = al aptelea
the 8th / eighth = al optulea
the 9th / nineth = al noualea
the 10th / tenth = al zecelea
the 11th / eleventh = al unsprezecelea
the 12th / twelfth = al doisprezecelea
the 13th / thirteenth = al treisprezecelea
the 14th / fourteenth = al patrusprezecelea

the 15th / fteenth = al cincisprezecelea


the 16th / sixteenth = al aisprezecelea
the 17th / seventeenth = al aptesprezecelea
the 18th / eighteenth = al optusprezecelea
the 19th / nineteenth = al nousprezecelea
the 20th / twentieth = al douzecilea
the 21st / twenty-rst = al douzeciiunulea
the 22nd / twenty-second = al douzeciidoilea
the 23rd / twenty-third = al douzeciitreilea
the 24th / twenty-fourth = al douzeciipatrulea
the 30th / thirtieth = al treizecilea
the 50th / ftieth = al cincizecilea
the 100th / hundredth = al o sutlea

La numeralele compuse, numai ultimul primete -th :


al 27 -lea the twenty seventh, al 234-lea the two hundred and thirty-fourth.
Abrevierea numeralelor ordinale se face prin adugarea ultimelor dou litere la cifr:
al aselea - the sixth - the 6th
primul - the rst - the 1st
al 21-lea - the twenty rst - the 21st
al doilea - the second - the 2nd
al 100-lea - the one-hundredth - the 100th
al treilea - the third - the 3rd

ntrebuinarea numeralelor ordinale


Pentru exprimarea datei (numeralul poate aezat nainte sau dup numele lunii:
May, 15th / the 15th of May
-Dac numeralul ordinal precede denumirea lunii, acesta este urmat de of:
I was born on the 15th of May 1988.
-Dac numeralul ordinal este aezat dupa denumirea lunii, of este omis:
I was born on May (the) 15th.
Pentru a exprima repetarea la intervale regulate (n aceste expresii articolul the este omis):
Every second day - Din dou n dou zile / la dou zile
Every third month - Din trei n trei luni.

12

ZILELE SPTMNII (Days of the week)


Zilele sptmnii (Days of the week) n limba englez se scriu ntotdeauna cu
liter mare (sunt substantive proprii n limba englez)
Enumerarea zilelor sptmnii, n special n calendare ncepe cu duminic (Sunday).
Sunday - duminic
Monday - luni
Tuesday - mari
Wednesday - miercuri
Thursday - joi
Friday - Vineri
Saturday - Smbt
Zilele sptmnii nu se articuleaz.
Se folosete prepoziia ON cu zilele sptmnii:
On Friday I visit my parents. - Vinerea mi vizitez prinii.
I go to church every Sunday. - M duc la biseric n ecare duminic.

LUNILE ANULUI (Months of the year)


Ca i zilele sptmnii, lunile anului (Months of the year) se scriu n limba englez
ntotdeauna cu liter mare (sunt substantive proprii n limba englez).
January - ianuarie
February - februarie
March - martie
April - aprilie
May - mai
June - iunie
July - iulie
August - august
September - septembrie
October - octombrie
November - noiembrie
December - decembrie
Lunile anului nu se articuleaz.
Se folosete prepoziia IN cu lunile anului:
I go to the seaside in July. - n iulie merg la plaj.
May is a wonderful month. - Mai este o lun minunat.
His birthday is in October. - Ziua lui de natere este n Octombrie.

13

DATA I ORA (Date and time)


n limba englez pentru exprimarea datei se folosete numeralul ordinal,
care poate pus nainte sau dup numele lunii.
Dac numeralul ordinal precede denumirea lunii, acesta este urmat de "of":
Ex.: I was born on the 7th of July 1996. - M-am nascut pe 7 Iulie 1976.
Dac numeralul ordinal este aezat dup denumirea lunii, "of" este omis:
Ex.: I was born on April (the) 7th. - M-am nascut pe 7 Iulie.
n engleza american ordinea obinuit este luna, ziua, anul.
05.02.1981 - May the 2nd 1981.
n engleza britanic ordinea este ziua, luna, anul.
15.05.1981 - 15th of May 1981.
Ora n limba englez se exprim folosind numerale cardinale pentru ore i pentru minute. La minute
sunt cteva excepii pe care le vedem n exemplele de mai jos:
n exprimarea timpului cronologic se folosete forma "o'clock", iar propoziia ncepe de obicei cu
pronumele "It".
It is ten o'clock. = E ora zece.
It is ve o 'clock sharp. = Este cinci x.
O'clock se folosete numai cu ora x.
Jumtatea de or se exprim prin half, iar sfertul de or prin (a) quarter .
Pentru a indica fraciunile de ore pna la i jumtate se menioneaz numrul minutelor urmat
de prepoziia "past" i de ora respectiv.
It is ten (minutes) past nine. - Este (ora) 9 i 10 (minute).
Fraciunile ntre jumtate i ora urmtoare se redau n limba englez spunnd numrul minutelor,
prepoziia "to" i apoi ora.
It is twenty (minutes) to six. = Este ase fr 20 (de minute).
n engleza american se folosesc i prepoziiile "after" i "before" n loc de "past" i "to".
8:10 - It is ten (minutes) after 8.
8:40 - It is twenty (minutes) before 9.
n engleza american, pentru jumtate de or se folosete expresia cu "thirty" dup or.
8:30 - It's eight thirty.
Se practic exprimarea orei i n felul urmtor:
2:15 two fteen (dou i un sfert)

What time is it? - Ct este ceasul?


It's ten to one - E unu fr zece.
It's half past six - E ase i jumtate.
It's a quarter past twelve - E dousprezece i un sfert.
It's a quarter to two - E dou fr un sfert.
It's six past ve - E cinci i ase.
It's ve o'clock - E cinci x.
14

EXERCIII I APLICAII PRACTICE:


Completai rebusul urmtor cu numeralele indicate mai jos. Pentru numeralele compuse
trecei inclusiv cratima (ex. 45 = fourty-four) :

Pe orizontal:
10) 22
1) 33
11) 13
3) 90
13) 15
5) 80
14) 4
7) 18
15) 70
9) 24

Pe vertical:
8) 44
1) 32
9) 40
2) 8
12) 5
4) 19
6) 55

15

Traducei propoziiile i subliniai la ecare propoziie cuvintele care reprezint


numerale, menionnd felul acestora (cardinal/ordinal) :
a) They have two children. ..............................................................................................
b) The tenth month is October. .......................................................................................
c) The year has twelve months. ........................................................................................
d) She is thirty-four years old. .........................................................................................
e) I was born on May, the fteenth. .................................................................................
Scriei i pronunai cu voce tare numeralele cardinale i ordinale de mai jos:
450 - ...................................................................................................
19 - ...................................................................................................
al 28-lea - ...................................................................................................
202 - ...................................................................................................
al 73-lea - ...................................................................................................
al 436-lea - ...................................................................................................
Scriei i pronunai cu voce tare datele de mai jos:
Smbt, 23.10.1987 - ...................................................................................................
Luni, 14.05.2011 - ...................................................................................................
Vineri, 19.02.1876 - ...................................................................................................
Mari, 1.03.2014 - ...................................................................................................
Duminic, 2.07.1900 - ...................................................................................................
Completai cuvintele lips din transcrierea ecrei ore:
8:30 - Its ....................... past eight.
12:45 - Its a quarter ............... one.
5:40 - Its ........................... minutes to six.
10:00 - Its ten .............................
11:10 - Its ten minutes .............................. eleven.
7:15 - Its a ................................. past seven.
9:36 - Its nine .......................................... .
Scriei n cuvinte i pronunai cu voce tare orele de mai jos:
05:00 - ...................................................................................................
11:45 - ...................................................................................................
7:30 - ...................................................................................................
12:02 - ...................................................................................................
10:56 - ...................................................................................................
8:59 - ...................................................................................................
6:15 - ...................................................................................................
16

Completai cuvintele pentru ecare propoziie i apoi traducei:


I visit my parents ........... Sunday. (...............................................................................)
My birthday is .............. June. (...............................................................................)
She is nineteen years .............. (...............................................................................)
I was born on ......... sixteenth ...... May, 1988. (........................................................)
I go to the seaside .......... February. (...........................................................................)
I live ........ No. 9, Eminescu street. (............................................................................)
A3. Ascultai i rostii cu voce tare numeralele cardinale i ordinale.
A4. Ascultai i rostii cu voce tare zilele sptmnii.
A5. Ascultai i rostii cu voce tare lunile anului.
A6. Ascultai i transcriei numerele de telefon, apoi rostii-le cu voce tare:
a) .............................................
b) .............................................
c) .............................................
d) .............................................
e) .............................................
A7. Ascultai i selectai ora corect din ecare propoziie:
1. Our class begins at ................. : a) 4:05 b) 4:15 c) 4:50
2. My mother left this morning at .............. : a) 9:03 b) 9:13 c) 9:30
3. I am going to catch my bus at ................ : a) 3:40 b) 4:20 c) 12:04
4. Lets get together at ...................... : a) 12:05 b) 5:12 c) 5:22
5. The store closes today at ........... : a) 4:06 b) 5:45 c) 6:15
6. The movie starts at ..............: a) 7:04 b) 7:14 c) 7:40
7. She called this morning at ...............: a) 10:00 b) 10:05 c) 10:10
8. Their plane arrives at ....................: a) 11:05 b) 4:12 c) 11:45
A8. Ascultai i selectai data corespunztoare:
1. The school begins on ..... : a) March 7th b) March 11th c) March 17th
2. My sister will travel to France on .... : a) January 9th b) January 19th c) January 29th
3. Well take the test on .... : a) November 2nd b) November 22nd c) November 27th
4. On .... the store will have a big sale: a) June 8th b) June 18th c) June 28th
5. Can you send me an email by ......? : a) September 3rd b) September 13th
c) September 30th
6. You need to turn in your homework by ..... : a) May 4th b) May 14th c) May 24th
7. What time will your mom come on .....?: a) July 2nd b) July 12th c) July 22nd
8. The new students arrive on .......: a) December 9th b) December 19th
c) December 29th
17

ANOTIMPURILE I VREMEA (The seasons and the weather)


Ca i zilele sptmnii, lunile anului (Months of the year) se scriu n limba englez
ntotdeauna cu liter mare (sunt substantive proprii n limba englez).

spring - primvara

summer - vara

autumn - toamna

winter - iarna

18

Despre vreme:

WEATHER OPINIONS - OPINII


DESPRE VREME

NATURAL PHENOMENAFENOMENE NATURALE

Its sunny - E nsorit

Its raining - Plou

Its windy - Este vnt

Its snowing - Ninge

Its cloudy - Este nnorat

The sky is overcast - Cerul e plin de nori

Its foggy - Este cea

Its drizzling - Burnieaz

Its cold - Este frig/rece

Its thawing - Se dezghea

Its warm - Este cldu

Its pouring - Plou torenial

Its hot - Este erbinte/foarte cald

The snow is melting - Se topete zpada

Its chilly - Este rcoare

The wind is starting to blow - Vntul


ncepe s bat
The mist is lifting - Ceaa se ridic

VOCABULAR I EXPRESII
sun -soare,
cloud nor
rain ploaie
snow zpad

wind vnt
storm - furtun
mist / fog - cea
sky - cer

hot - erbinte
cold - rece
warm - cald

The spring months are March, April and May - Lunile de primvar sunt martie, aprilie i mai.
I like all seasons: spring, summer, autumn and winter. - mi plac toate anotimpurile: primvara,
vara, toamna i iarna.
What's the weather like? - Cum este vremea?
It's a lovely day/ morning! - Ce zi minunat!
Lovely day, isn't it? - O zi minunat, nu-i aa?
It doesn't look like it's going to stop raining today - Se pare c nu o s se termine ploaia azi.
It's an early spring - E o primvar timpurie.
It's a hot summer - E o var clduroas.
They say it's going to be sunny - Se spune c va nsorit.

19

CULORILE (The colours)


Black - Negru
White - Alb
Gray - Gri
Blue - Albastru
Yellow - Galben
Red - Rou
Purple - Purpuriu / Mov

Green - Verde
Orange - Portocaliu
Brown - Maro
Pink - Roz
Cream - Crem
Light Blue - Albastru deschis
Dark Blue - Albastru nchis

Se poate pune "light" n faa oricrei culori n englez dac vrei s v referii la o nuan mai deschis
albastru deschis = light blue
Se poate pune "dark" n faa oricrei culori n englez dac vrei s v referii la o nuan mai nchis
verde nchis = dark green
Dac nu stii exact cum s descriei o culoare putei aduga suxul "-ish" culorii cu care credei c
seamn
Your face is yellowish => Faa ta este galben. (nu este un galben denit, ci o nuan
asemntoare.)
Pentru cuvntul culoare/culori sunt acceptate dou variante de scriere : colour / colours sau
color / colors.
Cum folosim culorile n propoziii?
1. Verbul a + numele culorii = My purse is brown. (Geanta mea este maro.)
2. Numele culorii + un substantiv = The red pillow is mine. (Perna roie este a mea)
3. Numele culorii este substantivul = Blue is the colour of my eyes. (Albastru este culoarea ochilor mei)

RI I NAIONALITI (Countries and nationalities)


A9. Ascultai i repetai urmtoarele dialoguri:
Is this a German engine?
Yes, it's German.

Este un motor german?


Da, este german.

Is this Romanian wine?


No, it isn't Romanian. It's French.

Este vin romnesc?


Nu,nu este un vin romnesc. Este franuzesc.

Are these Irish songs?


No, they aren't Irish. They're Scottish.

Acestea sunt cntece irlandeze?


Nu, nu sunt irlandeze. Sunt scoiene.

Are these Italian shoes?


Yes, they're Italian.

Acetia sunt panto italieni?


Da, sunt italieni.

A10. Ascultai i repetai urmtoarele ri i naionaliti cuprinse n tabelul de mai jos. n coloana ri
regsii numele rii, coloana Adjectiv conine cuvntul folosit pentru a descrie ceva din acea ar (ex:
limba englez - English Language), coloana Naionalitate descrie o persoan din acea ar ( un
diplomat german - a German diplomat), iar coloana de Locuitor arat numele persoanei care locuiete
acolo. De reinut: toate aceste cuvinte se scriu ntotdeauna cu majuscul.

20

21

EXERCIII I APLICAII PRACTICE:


Scriei anotimpul care se potrivete descrierii i apoi traducei propoziiile:
............................... - Its sunny =
............................... - Its snowing =
............................... - Its warm =
............................... - The snow is melting =
............................... - The sky is overcast =
............................... - Its hot =
............................... - Its windy =
Citii propoziiile i completai cuvintele lips n spaiile corespunztoare din rebusul
de mai jos:
Orizontal: 1. Lunile toamnei sunt Septembrie, Octombrie, Noiembrie. - The ................
months are September, October, November.
4. Vara este foarte cald. - Its hot in the .....................
5. n Octombrie vntul ncepe s bat. - In October the wind is starting to ..............
6. E o iarn timpurie. - Its an ................. winter.
7. Toamna cerul e plin de nori. - The ............. is overcast in autumn.
8. Ieri a fost o zi minunat. - Yesterday was a .................... day.
9. Astzi ploaia se va opri. - Today is going to stop ..........................
10. Primvara vremea este cldu. - In the ............... the weather is warm.
11. Se dezghea afar. - Its ............... outside.
12. Nu imi place cand e nnorat. I dont like it when its .........................
Vertical: 2. Cum este vremea? - Whats the ................. like?
3. Primvara zpada se topete. - In the spring the snow is ...................
12. n Octombrie e rcoare. - Its ................. in October.
11

12

4
8
6
7
5
9
10

22

Folosind dicionarul traducei propoziiile urmtoare n limba englez.


Mrul este rou. Poeta mea este maro nchis. Cerul este albastru deschis . Violetul este culoarea mea preferat Curcubeul este: rou, portocaliu, galben, verde, albastru, violet Creionul roz este al meu A11. Ascultai i rostii cu voce tare anotimpurile.
A12. Ascultai i rostii cu voce tare vocabularul specic vremii.
A13. Ascultai i rostii cu voce tare culorile.
A14. Ascultai i alegei varianta corespunztoare cuvntului lips:
Hows the weather?
1. Its ............... a) sunny b) chilly c) cold
2. Its ............... a) snowing b) raining c) drizzling
3. Its ............... a) sunny b) stormy c) hot
4. Its ................. a) warm b) cold c) hot
5. Its ................. a) cloudy b) foggy c) stormy
6. Its ................. a) snowing b) pouring c) melting
7. Its ................. a) chilly b) sunny c) foggy
8. Its .................. a) cloudy b) cold c) windy
A15. Ascultai i completai cuvntul lips i traducerea acestuia:
What colour is this?
1. Its ...............
2. Its ...............
3. Its ...............
4. Its .................
5. Its .................
6. Its .................
7. Its .................
8. Its ..................
9. Its ..................
10. Its ..................

23

CAP.
3

3.1. FORMULE DE SALUT (Greetings)

Salutul este o parte nelipsit n procesul de interaciune dintre oameni. n


ecare limb exist numeroase forme de salut, n funcie de clasa social creia i
aparin interlocutorii, de nivelul profesional, educaie, principii morale, tipul de
cultur din regiunea respectiv, tipul de relaie dintre interlocutori sau situaie.
n limba englez sunt mai multe categorii de saluturi, cele uzuale pentru ecare parte a zilei
sau cele prieteneti, informale folosite ntre aduli sau tineri.
Formule de salut formale n limba englez:
Bun dimineaa! (pn n ora 12 ) - Good morning!
Bun ziua! (pn la ora 6) - Good afternoon!
Bun seara! - Good evening!
Bun = Hello
Ce mai faci ? = How are you?
Bine ai (ai) venit = Welcome
Good night /gu:d nait/ = Noapte bun => aceast exprimare se folosete doar atunci
cnd cineva se duce la culcare, nu pentru a saluta pe cineva pe timp de noapte.
O zi bun! - Have a good day.
O zi minunat! - Have a wonderful day!
La revedere! n limba englez:
La revedere - Goodbye!
Pa - Bye bye!
Pe curnd! - See you soon!
Formule de salut informale n limba engleza:
Bun = Hey / Hi
Salutare / Salve = Howdy
Care-i treaba? = What's up?
Cum merge? = How's it going?
Cum sunt treburile? = How are things ?
La nici una din saluturile sub form de ntrebri nu se ateapt un rspuns concret,
ci rspunsuri simple i concise de genul :
Bine = Good
Nu aa bine = Not so good
Ru = Bad
Foarte ru = Very bad
Expresii informale:
Ne vedem mine! - See you tomorrow!
Ne vedem sptmna viitoare! - See you next week!
Ai grij de tine! - Take care of yourself! sau simplu, Take care!

24

3.2 FORMULE DE PREZENTARE (Meeting people)


Modul de prezentare atunci cnd ntlnim o persoan nou poate diferi de la ar la ar.
Spre exemplu, n Statele Unite unul din obiceiurile de salutare adoptate de tinerii adolesceni este
btutul palmei ("hi ve") sau ciocnitul uor al pumnului. La noi n ar este mult mai obinuit strngerea
minii drepte. Acesta nu trebuie s e ns nici foarte puternic, nici foarte slab.
O vorb veche spune c poti ghici caracterul unui brbat dupa modul n care d" noroc".
Englez

Romn

Hello! / Hi!

Salut!

How are you? / What's up?

Ce mai faci?

Pleased to meet you. / Nice to meet


you.

ncantat() de cunotin

Goodbye! / Bye! / BBye!

La revedere!

Have a great day! / Have a good day!

S avei o zi minunat! / S avei o zi plcut!

Best regards! / Best wishes!

Cele mai calde salutri! / Cele mai calde dorine!

Good morning! / Morning

Bun dimineaa!

Good afternoon!

Bun ziua!

Good evening!

Bun seara!

Good night!

Noapte bun!

Merry Christmas! / Happy Christmas!

Crciun Fericit!

Happy Easter!

Pate Fericit!

Happy Birthday! / Happy New Year!

La muli ani!

Congratulations! / Well Done! / Good


job!

Felicitri! / Foarte bine! / Bine lucrat!

Good Luck!

Succes! / Noroc!

Get well soon!

nsntoire grabnic!

Give me 5! / Hi 5!

Bate palma!

What is you name?

Cum te cheam? Care este numele tu? Cum te


numeti?

My name is Ann.

M numesc Ana. /M cheam Ana. /Numele meu


este Ana.

I'm Ann.

Eu sunt Ana.

And you are...?

i tu cine eti?

(Very) Nice to meet you.

mi pare bine s te cunosc. ncntat de cunotin.

25

Formule de adresare:
Atunci cnd ne adresm unei femei cstorite se folosete forma MRS (se citete misis)
Pentru brbai cstorii sau nu, forma de adresare este MR (se citete mistr)
Pentru femeile necstorite se folosete MS (se citete mis)
Exemplu de conversaie n limba englez:
Care este numele dvs.? ; Cum te numeti? - What is your name? (pronunia : uat iz ior neim?)
Eu m numesc... ; Numele meu este... - My name is... (pronunia : mai neim iz...)
ncntat de cunotin - Glad to meet you! (pronunia : glead tu mit iu)
ncntat de cunotin, de asemenea! - Nice to meet you too. (pronunia : nais tu mit iu tu)
Cum i merge? - How are you? (pronunia : hau ar iu?) (formal)
Cum i merge? - What up? / What's up? (pronunia : uat up? / ua up?)
Cum i merge? - How's it going? / How's it goin'? (pronunia : hau iz it goin? / hau iz it goin?)
Mie mi merge bine. Dar dumneavoastr? - Very well, thank you. How are you? (pronunia : veri
uel, fenc iu. hau ar iu) (formal)
Mie mi merge bine. Dar ie? - Fine, thanks. How are you? (pronunia : fain, fencs. hau ar iu?)
mi pare ru. Nu neleg. - I'm sorry. I do not understand. (pronunia : ai em sori. i du
nat andrstend)
ntr-adevr? / Serios? / Adevrat? - Really? (pronunia : ruili?)
Nu vorbesc aa bine Engleza - I do not speak English so well (pronunia : ai du nat spic so
uel ingli)
Da. Nici o problema - Yes. No problem (pronunia : ies. no problm)

EXERCIII I APLICAII PRACTICE:


Combinai cifrele cu literele corespunztoare:
1. Bun dimineaa!
a. Merry Christmas!
2. Care-i treaba?
b. Nice to meet you!
3. Ai grij de tine!
c. Good night!
d. Good morning!
4. ncntat de cunotin!
e. What is your name?
5. O zi bun!
f. Congratulations!
6. Felicitri!
g. Whats up?
7. Ne vedem mine!
h. See you tomorrow!
8. Noapte bun!
i. Take care!
9. Care este numele tu?
j. Have a good day!
10. Crciun fericit!
Completai n spaiile punctate cuvintele corespunztoare:
1. Pate fericit! - Happy .................................!
2. i tu cine eti? - And ............... are?
3. Ce mai faci? Nu aa bine. - ................. are you? .................... good.
4. Ne vedem sptmna viitoare! - ........... you ................ week!
5. La revedere! - ........................................!
6. Bine lucrat! - Good ...............!
7. La muli ani! - Happy ...............................!
26

A16. Ascultai dialogul urmtor i ncercai s-l traducei:


Jenny: Im Jenny Rose. Are you..?
Fiona: Im Fiona. Im so sorry.
Jenny: Thats OK, Fiona.
Its nice to meet you.
Fiona: Its nice to meet you, too.
Im so sorry, Im late. Im so late.
Jenny: Thats OK, Fiona. Youre here now.
Fiona: Im here and youre here too...
Wheres your luggage?
Jenny: Its here.
Fiona: OK.
Vocabular:
Im (so) sorry - mi pare (att) de ru.
Im (so) late - Am ntrziat (mult).
too - de asemenea
here - aici
luggage - bagaj

TRADUCERE:
Jenny:............................................................
Fiona:............................................................
Jenny: ............................................................
Fiona: ............................................................
.......................................................................
Jenny:............................................................
Fiona:............................................................
Jenny:............................................................
Fiona:............................................................

n limba englez nu exist


nici o diferen ntre TU, VOI, i
DUMNEAVOASTR, folosindu-se
ntotdeauna YOU.
De asemenea englezii nu fac nici o diferen ntre PE TINE, TE, IE, I, VOI, V,
VOU i DUMNEAVOASTR. Se folosete, la fel, YOU.
Persoana I singular (EU) se scrie ntotdeauna cu liter mare: Im here, too. Sorry, Im late.

Traducei n limba englez urmtorul dialog:


Adam : Bun, m numesc Adam. Care este numele tu?
Anna: Bun dimineaa! Eu sunt Anna.
Adam: ncntat de cunotin.
Anna: mi pare bine s te cunosc de asemenea.
Adam: Cum merge, Anna?
Anna: Foarte bine, mulumesc. O zi minunat!
Adam : .......................................................................................................
Anna: .......................................................................................................
Adam: .......................................................................................................
Anna: .......................................................................................................
Adam: .......................................................................................................
Anna: .......................................................................................................
27

3.3 INDICAII DE ORIENTARE (Giving and asking for directions)


n general, atunci cnd cutm ceva, este mult mai uor s cerem indicaii care s ne direcioneze
ctre locul cutat. Dar pentru asta trebuie s nelegem cu uurin mesajul care ni se transmite.

A da indicaii (Giving directions):


Where is the library? (Unde este biblioteca?)
Its .........:

ACROSS FROM
sau OPPOSITE TO
(peste drum de)

BETWEEN
(ntre)

IN FRONT OF
(n faa)

IN THE MIDDLE OF
(n mijlocul)

NEXT TO
(lng)

ON THE RIGHT
(pe dreapta)

ON THE LEFT
(pe stnga)

ON THE CORNER
(OF .. AND ..)
(la colul str.... cu str..)

BEHIND
(n spatele)

STRAIGHT AHEAD
(tot nainte)

NEAR
(lng)
ON ... STREET
(pe strada ...)

MAGAZINE I ALTE LOCAII:


LIBRARY = bibliotec
SCHOOL = coal
RESTAURANT = restaurant
BANK = banc
SUPERMARKET = supermarket
MUSEUM = muzeu
BOOK SHOP = librrie
TRAFFIC LIGHTS = semafor
ROUNDABOUT = sens giratoriu

THEATRE = teatru
TRAIN STATION = gar
TOWN HALL = primrie
POST OFFICE = pot
CHURCH = biseric
BUS STATION = staie autobuz
FACTORY = fabric
CAFE = cafenea

CINEMA = cinema
HOTEL = hotel
HOSPITAL = spital
PHARMACY = farmacie
POLICE STATION = poliia
SHOP = magazin
UNDERGROUND STATION
= staie metrou

28

VOCABULAR I EXPRESII

29

Pentru indicaii referitoare la Autostrad (freeway), vom folosi cele patru puncte cardinale:

North Nord, South - Sud, East - Est, sau West Vest


Alte variante utilizate sunt: Northbound, Southbound, Westbound, or Eastbound
Cum cerem indicaii de orientare?
Excuse me. Do you know where the post ofce is? M scuzai, putei s mi spunei unde
este Pota?
Excuse me. Can you point me to the nearest gas station? M scuzai, putei s imi indicai cea
mai apropiat benzinrie?
Excuse me. Do you know how to get to the Shopping mall from here? - M scuzai, tii cum se
ajunge la Mall de aici?
Excuse me. What is the best way to get to Bucharest? M scuzai, care este cea mai scurt cale
pn la Bucureti de aici?
Cum oferim indicaii de orientare?
When you get to Central Street, take a left. = Cnd ajungei pe strada Central luai-o la stnga.
Take a left when you come to a stop sign. = Luai-o la stnga cnd ajungei la Stop.
Turn left after you pass McDonalds. = ntoarcei la stnga dup ce trecei de McDonalds.
When you see a church on your left hand side, turn right on the next street.
= Cnd vedei o biseric pe partea stng, facei la dreapta pe urmtoarea strad.
It's just right around the corner on the left side. = Este chiar dup col, pe partea stng.
Go down the street, turn left on Williams Street, and it will be right around the corner from
the gas station. = Mergei n josul strzii, facei la stnga pe strada William, i va exact dup
col de la benzinrie.

EXERCIII I APLICAII PRACTICE:


Traducei urmtoarele propoziii:
1. Biblioteca este lng poliie.
....................................................................................................................
2. Cum ajung la primrie?
....................................................................................................................
3. M scuzai, tii cum se ajunge la banc de aici?
....................................................................................................................
4. ntoarcei la dreapta dup ce trecei de spital.
....................................................................................................................
5. Biserica este tot nainte, pe strada Elm.
....................................................................................................................
6. Caut o benzinrie.
....................................................................................................................
7. Hotelul este la 2 mile deprtare.
....................................................................................................................
8. Ct de departe este pota?
....................................................................................................................
30

Urmrii harta de mai sus i stabilii caracterul de adevrat / fals al urmtoarelor armaii:
1. The school is behind the restaurant. A / F
2. The bar is on Second Avenue. A / F
3. The police station is on the left from the Town Hall. A / F
4. The supermarket is across from the post ofce. A / F
5. The train station is on Beech Way. A / F
6. The restaurant is in front of the school. A / F
7. The bar is next to the post ofce. A / F
Urmrii harta i n funcie de indicaiile de mai jos alegei numele corect al locaiei:
1. Take the rst street on the left. Take the next street on the right. Go straight on and cross
the road. The building is on the left. .........................................
2. Take the rst street on the left. Go down on Pine street. The building is straight ahead.
..................................
3. Take the rst street on the left. Turn on the right. Take the next street on the right.
The building is across from the hotel. ............................................
4. Take the rst street on the left. Turn on the right. Take the next street on the left. Pass
the bar. The building is on your left. ...............................................
Urmrii harta i completai cuvintele lips:
1. The theatre is ................................... the school.
2. The cinema is ................................... the library.
3. The train station is ........................ Second Avenue.
4. The school is ................................. the restaurant and .......................... the theatre.
5. The theatre is ....................................... the school and the church.
31

Completai cuvntul corespunztor ecrei imagine de mai jos:


turn left

roundabout

turn right

opposite
(across from)

next to

go past

take the second


left

trafc lights

go straight on

take the second


right

A17i. Ascultai indicaiile i completai spaiile libere cu cuvintele


corespunztoare:
take

past

on

straight

At

second

Go

1. Go __________________ on.
2. ____________________ past the trafc lights.
3. Its the building next to the library ________________ the left.
4. ______________ the roundabout turn left.
5. Then ___________________ the rst left on to Green Street.
6. Go ______________ the trafc lights and take the _____________ right on to
Kings Road.

32

A17ii. Ascultai indicaiile i urmrind harta de mai jos identicai cldirea


despre care se vorbete.

Kings Road

Bond Street

Kings Road

Green Street

Green Street

The speaker gives directions to ....:


A.

C.

B.

D.

A18. Ascultai dialogurile i completai spaiile lips:


1. A ......................... me?
B Yes?
A .................................................. to the post ofce?
B Go past the ............................ and turn left onto Main Street.
Go one block and turn right. It's ............................. the train station.
A Thank you.
2. A How do I get to the .....................................?
B It's easy. ................................... at the corner onto Apple Street. Go one block.
The supermarket is on the corner of First Avenue and Apple Street, ....................
the police station.
A Thanks.
33

CAP.
4

NOIUNI ELEMENTARE DE GRAMATIC A


LIMBII ENGLEZE
4.1 PRONUMELE (The pronoun)
n gramatica tradiional, pronumele este partea de vorbire care ine locul
unui substantiv sau grup nominal. Pronumele reprezint o clas eterogen - unele
pronume pot nlocui substantive (He, she, it), alte pronume desemneaz direct
vorbitorul sau asculttorul ( I, you), sau desemneaz global sau parial obiecte sau
fenomene ( all, every, each).

PRONUMELE PERSONAL (The personal pronoun)


Desemneaz persoanele ce pot aprea ntr-un dialog, sau nlocuiete obiectul despre care se
vorbete. Are categorii gramaticale de persoan, gen, numr.
Persoana

Singular

Plural

eu = I

noi = WE

II

tu = YOU

voi = YOU

III

el = HE (masculin)
ea = SHE (feminin)
IT ( neutru)

ei/ele = THEY ( are acceai


form pentru masculin,
feminin i neutru )

n limba Englez, pronumele personal ce desemneaz persoana I singular - EU = I se scrie


ntotdeauna cu majuscul.
I am a teacher. - Eu sunt profesor.
Persoana I desemneaz persoana care vorbete, persoana a II a desemneaz persoana cu care
se vorbete, persoana a III a indic pe cel despre care se vorbete.
De asemenea, pronumele You poate folosit i cu sensul nedenit de one:
You can never tell. Nu se tie niciodat.
n limba englez pronumele personale se folosesc i cu valoare generic: Pronumele he/she este
folosit cu valoare generic n propoziii care exprim un adevr universal.
He, who laughs last, laughs best - Cine rde la urm, rde mai bine.
HE este folosit pentru a nlocui nume de personae de sex brbtesc : Tom Brown / HE is my nephew.
SHE este ntrebuinat pentru nume de personae de sex feminin : Barbara / SHE is my sister.
IT se folosete pentru obiecte, animale, lucruri i fenomene. The dog / IT barks every day.
ITS este un pronume in Genitiv i nu se scrie cu apostrof, spre deosebire de Its care provine de la
It is sau It has.

34

n Englez, persoana a III-a plural THEY nu are forme distincte pentru gen:
The girls / They are here. - Fetele / Ele sunt aici.
The boys / They are young. - Bieii / Ei sunt tineri.
These birds / They are very pretty. - Psrile / ele sunt foarte drgue.

EXERCIII I APLICAII PRACTICE:


Completai pronumele personale corecte, n locul cuvintelor subliniate:
1. George is going to school. .................... is going to school. - George merge la coal.
2. The dog barks at strangers. ................. barks at strangers. - Cinele latr la strini.
3. The posters are on the wall. .................. are on the wall. - Posterele sunt pe perete.
4. The owers are in the garden. ................. are in the garden. - Florile sunt n grdin.
5. Tom is riding his bike. ................ is riding his bike. - Tom se plimb cu bicicleta.
6. My mother and I are watching TV. .......................... are watching TV. - Eu i mama mea
ne uitm la TV.
ncercuii pronumele personal corect pentru ecare propoziie:
1. I / You / They am sitting on the sofa. - Stau pe canapea.
2. You / I / She are watching TV. - Te uii la TV.
3. Are I / They / You from England? - Eti din Anglia?
4. He / They / We is going home. - El se duce acas.
5. We / He / I are playing football. - Noi jucm fotbal.
6. It / I / He is a wonderful day today. - E o zi minunat astzi.
7. They / She / He are speaking English. - Ei vorbesc Engleza.

A19. Ascultai i completai pronumele personale care lipsesc.

1. ........... arent going, but ............. are.


2. ........... didnt see it, but ............ did.
3. .............. dont know who ................. is.
4. .........m not sure what that was.
5. ............ doesnt want that cookie, but ............... does.
6. The plants werent watered, so ................ died.
7. ............... think this is important, but ........... isnt.
8. Did ........... see what ........... saw?
9. I have a car, but ............... dont.
10. ............. was feeling sick, so ........... left.

35

PRONUMELE POSESIV

ADJECTIVUL POSESIV

Este de sine stttor


This room is mine. - Aceast camer e a mea.

St n faa unui substantiv pe care l determin:


My room is small. - Camera mea este mic.

The room is MINE - Camera este a mea


The business is YOURS - Afacerea este a ta
That book is HIS - Acea carte e a lui
Those shoes are HERS - Acei panto sunt ai ei
The toy is ITS - Jucria este a lui/a ei.
This garden is OURS - Aceast grdin e a noastr
This painting is YOURS - Acest tablou e al vostru
The house is THEIRS - Casa este a lor

MY room - camera mea


YOUR business - afacerea ta
HIS wife - soia lui
HER shoes - pantoi ei
ITS fur - blana lui/ei (pentru animale/obiecte)
OUR garden - grdina noastr
YOUR painting - tabloul tu
THEIR house - casa lor

OBSERVAII
1. HIS este i pronume posesiv i adjectiv posesiv. Evident, deosebirea se poate face doar din
context, precum i din faptul c adjectivul posesiv st naintea unui substantiv:
Ex.: I arrived at HIS house. - Am ajuns la casa lui. (adjectiv posesiv)
The big house is HIS. - Casa cea mare e a lui. (pronume posesiv)
2. Acelai lucru ca n cazul lui HIS se ntmpl i n cazul lui ITS, acesta avnd aceeai form
i ca pronume posesiv i ca adjectiv posesiv:
Ex.: The dogs teeth are very sharp. ITS teeth are very sharp.
Dinii cinelui sunt foarte ascuii. Dinii lui sunt foarte ascuii.
This is the dogs toy. This toy is ITS.
Aceasta este jucria cinelui. Aceast jucrie este a lui.
! A nu se confunda ITS (pronume/adjectiv posesiv)
cu ITS care este forma prescurtat de la IT IS.
3, Putem folosi pronumele posesive sau adjective posesive i dup prepoziia OF:

Susan is a friend Susan este o prieten -

OF MINE - de-a mea


OF YOURS - de-a ta
OF HIS / HERS - de-a lui / ei
OF OURS - de-a noastr
OF YOURS - de-a voastr
OF THEIRS - de-a lor

Susan is ONE OF Susan este una dintre -

MY friends - prietenele mele


YOUR friends - prietenele tale
HIS / HER friends - prietenele lui/ei
OUR friends - prietenele noastre
YOUR friends - prietenele voastre
THEIR friends - prietenele lor

36

EXERCIII I APLICAII PRACTICE:


A20. Ascultai textul i completai spaiile
libere cu pronumele corespunztoare, apoi
scriei traducerea textului:
Dear Helen,
This is my third week in Italy; ............ am very happy here.
........... host family is wonderful. John is the father;
.............has a beautiful wife, ........... name is Sally.
............. is from Argentina; ............ speaks Italian and Spanish.
John and Sally have a son; ............ name is Mark. ........... spend a lot of time together;
............. like to watch TV, ........... favorite show is Friends. Mark has a dog;
................ name is Rocky; ............... is playful and cheerful.
................. are going to Venice next weekend. Helen, tell me about your plans for the weekend.
See you soon!
Vocabular:
host family - familie gazd
to spend a lot of time - a petrece mult timp
together - mpreun
favorite show - serial preferat

playful - jucu
cheerful - vesel
tell - spune
plans - planuri

Completai propoziiile cu pronumele corespunztoare din lista de mai jos:

Your

my

We

mine
He

his

theirs
Her

ours

1 ............ live in this house. The house is ....................


Noi locuim n aceast cas. Casa este a noastr.
2. ............... has a new computer. The computer is ..............
El are un nou calculator. Calculatorul este al lui.
3. ............. brother and ............. sister bought the tickets. The tickets are ................
Fratele ei i sora mea au cumprat biletele. Biletele sunt ale lor.
4. .............. dog is older than .............
Cinele tu este mai btrn dect al meu.

ncercuii pronumele/adjectivul posesiv corect din urmtoarele propoziii:


1. John is a friend of theirs / they.

4. Our / Ours computer is here.

2. Susan is my / mine sister.

5. This is your / yours car.

3. Linda is one of her / she students.

6. This house is mine / their.

37

PRONUMELE REFLEXIV
Aceste tipuri de pronume se folosesc ca s ari c o aciune se efectueaz asupra subiectului,
deci asupra persoanei care desfoar aciunea.
Pronume personal Pronume reexiv
I

myself

you (singular)

yourself

you (plural)

yourselves

he

himself

she

herself

it

itself

we

ourselves

they

themselves

Pronumele reexive au terminaia:


self la singular
i
selves la plural.
I wash myself. - M spl.
Get yourself a dog - Ia-i un cel.
I hurt myself. - M-am rnit singur.
I'll do it myself. - O voi face eu.
She did it by herself. - Ea a fcut-o singur.
He did it by himself. - El a fcut-o singur.

Pronumele de ntrire (reexiv) se folosete de regul n 3 cazuri:


Cnd subiectul i obiectul asupra cruia se rsfrange aciunea e acelai (I hurt myself. - M-am rnit)
Cnd se dorete ntrirea faptului c un anume subiect a facut aciunea i nu altul (She did it by herself.
- A fcut-o singur);
Se folosete o prepoziie n faa unui pronume care face referire la subiect (I am talking to myself. Vorbesc cu mine nsumi.).

EXERCIII I APLICAII PRACTICE:


Completai pronumele reexive corecte n spaiile libere:
1. She made ............................ a sandwich. - Ea i-a fcut un sandwich.
2. My father repaired the car ...................... . - Tatl meu i-a reparat singur maina.
3. We can move the table ................................ . - Noi putem muta masa singuri.
4. I looked at ............................. in the mirror. - M-am uitat la mine n oglind.
5. They have to do their homework ......................... . Ei trebuie s-i fac temele singuri.
6. I wrote this story ..................... . - Am scris povestea aceasta singur.
7. Did you come here by ........................... ? - Ai venit aici singur?
8. The dog can defend ..................... - Cinele se poate apra singur.

38

PRONUMELE DEMONSTRATIV
Pronumele demostrative: this, these, that, those, such (acesta, acestea, acela, acelea, acest) pot
funciona att ca pronume, ct i ca determinani substantivali.
That is incredible! (expresie, referitor la ceva tocmai vzut) - Asta e incredibil!
I will never forget this. (referitor la o experien recent) - Nu voi uita niciodat asta.
Such is my belief. (referitor la o explicaie tocmai fcut) - Asta e ce cred eu.
This i these sugereaz ceva apropiat temporal sau spaial, pe cnd that i those fac referire la
ceva de la deprtare.
These pancakes are delicious. - Aceste cltite sunt delicioase.
Those pancakes seem delicious. - Acele cltite par delicioase.
This book (in my hand) is well written. - Aceast carte (din mna mea) e scris bine.
Are you going to wear these? (I do not like them.) - Ai de gnd s pori astea? (Nu mi plac.)
sg.
pl.
sg.
pl.

Acesta, Aceasta
Acetia, Acestea
Acela, Aceea
Aceia, Acelea

THIS
THESE
THAT
THOSE

sugereaz ideea de apropiere temporal sau spaial


sugereaz ideea de deprtare.

These are your things. - Acestea sunt lucrurile tale


These things are yours. - Aceste lucruri sunt ale tale.
That was a good question. - Aceea a fost o ntrebare bun.
That question was good. - Acea ntrebare a fost bun.
Those are his children. - Aceia sunt copiii lui.
Those children are his. - Acei copii sunt ai lui.
Aceste pronume se folosesc n urmtoarele situaii:
Pentru a nlocui un substantiv: Is this (seat) taken? - E acesta (acest loc) ocupat?
Pentru a sugera poziia fa de vorbitor, this i these sugernd apropiera n spaiu, iar that i those
sugernd distana.
Ex: There is a seat here, and there is that in the fourth row. - Este un loc aici i este acela pe rndul 4.
Pentru a face o anumit referire.
Ex: Those who are lazy will never pass. - Cei care sunt lenei, nu vor trece.
n engleza mai puin formal, se folosete cu valoare emotiv.
Ex: It gives you this great feeling. - i d sentimentul acela minunat.
Cnd faci cunotin:
This is Diane. - Ea este Diana
This is my friend, Jerry. - El e prietenul meu, Jerry.

39

EXERCIII I APLICAII PRACTICE:


Reformulai propoziiile ca n exemplul de mai jos, iar apoi traducei-le:
Ex. : This car is mine. - This is my car.
These things are yours - These are your things.
1. This dog is his. - .................................................
2. Those clothes are mine. - ...........................................
3. That hat is your. - .................................................
4. These books are hers. - ................................................

ncercuii varianta corect a pronumelui demonstrativ:


1. That / Those shirt looks great. - Acea bluz arat minunat.
2. Look at that / this man over there! - Uit-te la acel brbat acolo!
3. That / This is a beautiful day today. - Aceasta este o zi frumoas.
4. Do you like these / those owers? - i plac orile acestea?
5. What are the answers to this / these questions? - Care sunt rspunsurile la aceste
ntrebri?
6. I love that / these shoes. - Iubesc aceti panto.
7. Lets watch a movie. This is / Those are a good idea! - S ne uitm la un lm.
Aceasta este o idee bun!
8. Whose house is those / that? - A cui e acea cas?
9. This / These book isnt very good, but that / those book is great. - Aceast carte nu
e foarte bun, dar acea carte este minunat.

A21. Ascultai, completai spaiile libere i apoi traducei:


1. ................... scissors -

6. ................... movie -

2. ................... city -

7. ................... students -

3. ................... children -

8. ................... man -

4. ................... pencil -

9. ................... morning -

5. ................... ideas -

10. ................. books 40

PRONUMELE INTEROGATIV
Pronumele interogative introduc ntrebari, propoziii interogative directe sau indirecte. De regul
acestea in loc cuvintelor ateptate ca rspuns la ntrebare.
Pronumele interogative sunt specializate:
WHO? (cine?) - este folosit pentru ine
Who are forme deosebite pentru ecare caz. Celelalte pronume interogative sunt invariabile.
WHO? - cine?
WHOM? / TO WHOM - pe cine? / cui?
WHOSE? - a/ale cui?
Forma WHOSE se poate referi i la lucruri/animale. - Whose dog is this? - Al cui este acest cine?
WHAT? (ce?) - este folosit pentru lucruri
Ca pronume interogativ se refer la substantive sau nlocuitori ai acestora de orice gen.
What is she? - Ce e ea? , What is the meaning of this word? - Ce nseamn acest cuvnt?
What did she tell you? - Ce i-a spus?
WHAT se traduce n limba romn prin:
CE? - atunci cnd presupune un rspuns prin care se arat profesiunea sau funcia
What is your father? - Ce e tatl tu?
CARE? - What are the days of the week? - Care sunt zilele sptmnii?
CT? - What time is it? - Ct este ceasul?
WHAT implic o selecie dintr-un numr nedenit de obiecte :
What books do you like most? - Ce cri i plac cel mai mult?
WHICH? (ce?) - este folosit pentru ine i lucruri
Implic selecia dintr-un numr limitat de obiecte:
Which is shorter? Betty or Jane? - Cine e mai scund? Betty sau Jane?
Which of this books do you prefer?- Pe care dintre aceste cri o preferi?
Which of the girls do you like? - Pe care dintre aceste fete o placi?
HOW MUCH? (CT?) - este folosit pentru cantiti
How much money do you need? - De ci bani ai nevoie?
HOW MANY? (CI?) - este folosit pentru numr
How many people were there? - Ci oameni erau acolo?
WHAT KIND OF? (CE FEL DE?) - este folosit pentru caliti
What kind of person are you? - Ce fel de persoan eti?
Cnd pronumele sau adjectivul interogativ este nsoit de o prepoziie, aceasta l precede n
limba scris: From what country does she come? - Din ce ar vine ea?
n vorbirea curent forma utilizat este: What country does she come from? - Din ce ar vine ea?
Exemple:
What's the weather like? - Care /Cum e vremea?
Who said that? - Cine a spus asta?
Whose are those books? - Ale cui sunt acele carti?
I do not remember to whom I gave my sweater. - Nu-mi amintesc cui i-am dat puloverul meu.
What happened? - Ce s-a intamplat?

41

EXERCIII I APLICAII PRACTICE:


Formulai ntrebri pentru rspunsurile de mai jos, ca n exemplu:
Ex. ..............................
Whose dog is this? - This is my dog. (Al cui e acest cine? - Acesta este cinele meu)
1. ................................................................- The weather is cold. (Vremea e rece)
2. ................................................................- She said that. (Ea a spus asta)
3. ................................................................- It is 5:30. ( E ora 5:30)
4. ................................................................- Nothing happened. (Nu s-a ntmplat nimic)
5. ................................................................- I need 100 dollars. ( Am nevoie de 100$)
6. ................................................................- I am a nice person. (Sunt o persoan drgu)
Alegei varianta corect a pronumelui interogativ pentru ecare propoziie:
1. .............. do you want to do?
a) What

b) Who

c) Whose

d) Which

2. ..................... of this books do you prefer?


a) Whom

b) Who

c) Which

d) How

3. I do not remember to ......................... I gave my pen.


a) who

b) which

c) whom

d) what

4. .............................. apples are in the basket?


a) How many

b) How much

c) What

d) Whose

5. ................. kind of job do you have?


a) Who

b) Which

c) What

d) How

Formulai ntrebri care s conin urmtoarele pronume interogative:


1. what - ...............................................................................................................
2. which - ...............................................................................................................
3. who - ...............................................................................................................
4. whose - ...............................................................................................................
5. how many - ...............................................................................................................
6. how much - ...............................................................................................................

42

PRONUMELE RELATIV
Pronumele relativ face referire la un substantiv sau nlocuitor substantival menionat n contextul
anterior i leag propoziia sau grupul de cuvinte care explic sau d mai multe detalii despre
substantivul antecedent, din propoziia ce conine substantivul determinat.
Pronumele relative sunt: WHO? (cine, care?), WHOEVER (oricine, oricare), WHICH (care,
pe care), THAT (care, acel)
Alegerea corect dintre THAT i WHICH se nscrie printre lucrurile care necesit practic
i experien:
- n general, WHICH se folosete pentru a introduce propoziii care au natur de paranteze, explicaii
suplimentare, dar care pot nlturate sau omise fr a schimba nelesul propoziiilor. Din acest motiv
propoziiile introduse prin which sunt n general ntre virgule.
- Propoziiile introduse de THAT sunt considerate indispensabile sensului frazei i nu se vor pune
ntre virgule.

WHO i formele sale se refer la persoane


WHICH se refer la lucruri
THAT poate face referire la ambele
Exemple:
The boy who reads the book is my brother. - Biatul care citete cartea e fratele meu.
The couple who live next house have the radio on all night. - Perechea care locuiete la urmtoarea
cas are radioul pornit toat noaptea.
The team that won the championship received a great honour. - Echipa care a ctigat campionatul a
primit o mare onoare.
This is the program which won the prize. - Acesta este programul care a ctigat premiul.
We'll plant new trees to replace those which fell. - Vom planta copaci noi care s nlocuiasc pe cei
care au czut.

EXERCIII I APLICAII PRACTICE:


Corelai prima parte a propoziiei din coloana 1 cu partea potrivit din coloana 2:
Coloana 1

Coloana 2

1. The boy

a) which we planted.

2. I like movies

b) who are bad

3. I dislike people

c) which have happy endings

4. This is the tree

d) who reads the book is my brother

43

Citii propoziiile i completai spaiile libere cu who (cnd este vorba de persoane) sau
which (cnd se vorbete despre lucruri)
1. The people ...................... built Stonehenge
lived several thousand years ago. (Oamenii
care au construit Stonehenge au trit n urm
cu mii de ani. )
2. The huge stones ...................... are more than 6 metres high weigh about 45 tons.
(Pietrele imense care au mai mult de 6 metri nlime cntresc aprox. 45 de tone)
3. The smaller stones weigh about 4 tons and are from an area in Wales .................... is
400 km away from Stonehenge. (Pietrele mai mici cntresc 4 tone i sunt provin dintr-o
zon din ara Galilor care este la 400 km deprtare de Stonehenge)
4. Tourists ..................... come to this place can already see the stones from a distance.
(Turitii care vin n acest loc pot vedea pietrele de la mare distan)
5. Everybody ..................... has visited Stonehenge says that it is very impressive.
(Toi cei care au vizitate Stonehenge spun c este foarte impresionant)

A22. Ascultai dialogul i completai spaiile libere:


Ana: Hello, ................. are you?
James: Hello, Im James. Im the one ............... invited you here. Youre the girl
................. won the writing competition, right?
Ana: Yes, Im Ana, nice to meet you. Sorry Im late, I didnt know ................. house
was yours.
James: No problem. Tell me, Ana, ................... did you write in the competition?
Ana: I wrote a story .................... was inspired from my childhood.
James: ............................ pages did you write?
Ana: I wrote 12 pages, ............... are going to be published in the school newspaper.
James: I cant wait to read the story!
Ana: Bun, cine eti tu?
James: Bun, eu sunt James. Eu sunt cel care te-a invitat aici. Tu eti fata care a
ctigat concursul de scriere, aa-i?
Ana: Da, eu sunt Ana, mi pare bine. mi cer scuze c am ntrziat, nu am tiut care
este casa ta.
James: Nici o problem. Spune-mi, Ana, ce ai scris la concurs?
Ana: Am scris o poveste care a fost inspirat din copilria mea.
James: Cte pagini ai scris?
Ana: Am scris 12 pagini care urmeaz s e publicate n ziarul colii.
James: Abia atept s citesc povestea!

44

PRONUMELE NEHOTRT
Pronumele nehotrt desemneaz global (all) sau parial (each), (either) obiecte sau
fenomene. Some, any, every se pot combina cu -one, -body, -thing pentru a obine pronumele
nehotrte. Acestea sunt:
anyone (oricare), anybody (oricine), anything (orice), someone (cineva), somebody (cineva),
something (ceva), everyone (oricare, toat lumea), everybody (toat lumea), everything (totul).
No poate forma mpreun cu "-body" sau "-one" pronumele: nobody, no-one (nici unul).
Alte pronume nehotrte: enough (destul), few (puin), fewer (mai puin), less (mai puin), many
(muli), several (muli), all (toi), both (amndoi), every (ecare), each (ecare), none (nici unul).
Att n engleza britanic ct i n cea american, pronumele nehotrte: anyone, anybody,
someone, somebody, everyone, everybody, no-one sunt din punct de vedere gramatical la
singular i trebuie folosite cu un verb la singular.
SOME ceva, nite, puin, puin, unii, unele, civa, cteva, vreun, vreo
- se utilizeaz n propoziii armative i indic existent unui numr restrns de lucruri, ine sau a unei
cantiti restrnse.
There are some oranges on the table. - Sunt nite/cteva portocale pe mas.
- SOME poate utilizat n propoziii interogative.
a. Cnd se pune accentul pe o parte din obiectul sau obiectele menionate
Did you read some of the books the teacher gave you? - Ai citit mcar cteva dintre crile pe care i
le-a dat profesorul?
b. n propoziiile n care se ofer ceva: Will you have some? - Ai dori puin (din ceva) ?
c. Cnd ntrebarea nu se refer la some: Did you ask him to give me some? - L-ai ntrebat s-mi dea i
mie puin (din ceva) ?
ANY - vreun, vreo, nici un(ul), nici o, nici una
- se utilizeaz:
a.n propoziii armative cu sens de oricare, orice: Any of you could answer this question. - Oricare
din voi putea rspunde la aceast ntrebare.
b.n propoziii interogative sau negative : Have you got any?, I haven't got any. - Ai vreo una? Nu am
nici una.
Pronumele nehotrte, compuse sunt:
Somebody/ someone (pe cineva), Something (ceva), Anybody/anyone (pe oricine), Anything (orice),
Nobody/no one/ none (pe nimeni / nici unul), Nothing (nimic)
EACH - ecare
- Se refer la membrii unui grup luai individual.
Each of them wanted to try.- Fiecare dintre ei voia s ncerce.
EITHER (forma negativ neither) - ecare (nici unul) din doi
- Este folosit mai ales n propoziii interogative i negative:
Have you seen eitfher of them? L-ai vzut pe vreunul dintre ei (doi)?
n propoziii armative, either are sensul de oricine, oricare:
Either of you can do it. - Oricare dintre voi (doi) poate face acest lucru.
EVERY - ecare
- Este folosit doar ca determinant:
Every pupil must do his homework. - Fiecare elev trebuie s-i fac tema acas.
Compuii lui every ns snt folosii doar ca pronume nehotrte:
Everybody is present. - Toi sunt prezeni.
I have everything I need. - Am tot ce-mi trebuie.

45

ALL = tot, toat, toi, toate


- Exprim totalitatea lucrurilor sau inelor i nlocuiete substantivele numrabile la plural:
I've read them all.- Le-am citit pe toate.
- Sau substantive nenumrabile la singular:
I've read all about this subject. - Am citit tot n legtur cu acest subiect.
ALL poate folosit i ca predeterminant :
Give me all the books I need. - D-mi toate crile de care am nevoie.
- n vorbirea curent, ALL este nlocuit de obicei cu everybody sau everything, n funcie de sens:
All are here = Everybody is here. = Toi sunt aici.
Tell me all about it = Tell me everything about it. - Spune-mi tot despre asta.
ONE = un, unul, una, cineva
- Are o singur form, indiferent de gen, numr i caz:
There were two women in the room: one was young and one was old. - Erau dou doamne n camer:
una era tnra i una btrn.
- ONE cu valoare impersonal se ntrebuineaz n sens foarte general:
One should always perform his duty. - Trebuie ntotdeauna s-i faci datoria.
- ONE se acord cu he, she, it i cu formele corespunztoare: his, him, her, etc.:
One of the boys said he would stay at home. - Unul dintre biei a spus c va sta acas.

EXERCIII I APLICAII PRACTICE:


Completai propoziiile cu some sau any, respectiv traducerea lor:
1. Sue went to the movies with ....................... of her friends. (Sue a mers la cinematograf
cu ................. dintre prietenii ei.)
2. Jane doesnt have ...................... friends. ( Jane nu are ....................... prieten)
3. Here is ........................ food for the cat. ( Aici este ................... mncare pentru pisic)
4. You should put ............................ owers on the table. ( Ar trebui s pui ................
ori pe mas)
5. I dont want ..................... present for my birthday. (Nu vreau ........................ cadou
de ziua mea de natere)
6. Have you got .................. brothers or ...................... sisters? (Ai ............... frate sau
.................. sor?
Completai propoziiile cu urmtoarele cuvinte:
somebody
anybody
nobody
something

anything

nothing

1. I hear................................... behind the house. ( Aud ceva n spatele casei)


2. Ask .............................. if they received a phone call. (ntreab pe oricine dac au primit
un telefon.)
3. There is ..................................... at the door. (Este cineva la u)
4. I know ............................... of this. ( Nu tiu nimic despre asta)
5. ........................... told me that you came . (Nu mi-a spus nimeni c ai venit)
6. I cant eat .............................. before going to the doctor. (Nu pot mnca nimic nainte
de a merge la medic).

46

4.2 SUBSTANTIVUL (The Noun)


Substantivul:
a)
denumete obiecte n sens foarte larg, adic ine, lucruri, fenomene (chair,
snow, walk, wisdom);
b)
are categoriile gramaticale de gen, numr i caz;

Clasicarea substantivelor:
Din punct de vedere al formrii lor substantivele se mpart n:
a)substantive simple: boy (biat), meal (mas), day (zi).
b)substantive formate prin derivare cu suxe sau prexe: childhood (copilrie), unhappiness (nefericire).
c)substantive formate prin compunere (substantive compuse): classroom (sal de clas);
d)substantive formate prin contragere: ad (advertisement - reclam), fridge (refrigerator - frigider),
gym (gymnastics - gimnastic), lab (laboratory - laborator)
e)abrevieri: MP (Member of Parliament - membru al Parlamentului), Dr (doctor - doctor), Mr Brown (
Dl. Brown), Mrs Brown (dna Brown), Miss Brown (dra Brown)
Din punct de vedere al gradului de individualizare, substantivele n limba englez se mpart n
dou clase mari: substantive comune i substantive proprii.

SUBSTANTIVELE COMUNE denumesc:


a) un element dintr-o categorie: table (mas), school (coal);
b)obiecte constnd din mai multe elemente de acelai fel: family (familie), people (oameni);
c)obiecte sau substana constitutiv a unor obiecte: wood (lemn), steel (oel);
d)denumesc abstraciuni: difculty (dicultate), worry (grij), peace (pace), love (dragoste) .

SUBSTANTIVELE PROPRII denumesc:


a) nume de persoane: Churchill;
b) denumiri geograce:
Nume de localiti: London, Bucharest;
Nume de ri i continente: Romania, Britain, the United States, Europe;
Nume de ape si muni: the Danube, the Black Sea, the Suez Canal,
c) Lunile anului : January;
Zilele sptmlnii: Sunday;
Srbtori: Independence Day;
Nume de cri, ziare si reviste: The Times, The Sunday Times
Nume de instituii: The Grand Hotel, the National Theatre, the British Museum

Ortograa substantivelor proprii. 


n limba englez substantivele proprii se scriu cu liter mare, ca i n limba romn
(Roma-Rome), ns exist i cteva situaii speciale n care se folosesc majuscule:
a) numele lunilor anilor si zilelor sptmnii (Monday, April)
b) titluri de cri, ziare, reviste, capitole, articole ( The Daily Mirror, New York Times)
c) titluri de instituii (United Nations Organization)
d) nume de naionaliti i limbi (English, Italian, Romanian)

47

Numrul substantivelor:
SUBSTANTIVE NUMRABILE (denumesc noiunile ce pot numrate: a boy, two boys, etc)
Caracteristici:
a) sunt variabile ca form, avnd att numrul singular, ct i numrul plural: museum museums,
child children;
b) pot precedate de numerale cardinale sau cuanticatori: one book, three books, several apples,,
a lot of brushes;
c) la numrul singular se acord cu verbe la singular: The book is on the table. iar la numrul plural,
cu verbe la plural: The apples are in the basket.
FORMAREA PLURALULUI SUBSTANTIVELOR NUMRABILE:
Substantivele numrabile au dou forme: o form de singular i o form de plural.
Forma de singular este nemarcat: book, box, child.
Formele de plural sunt de dou feluri:
- regulate, cnd pluralul se formeaz prin adugarea desinenei la forma de singular: book books.
- neregulate, cnd pluralul se formeaz n alte moduri.
A. Pluralul regulat al substantivelor se formeaz prin adugarea desinenei -s la forma de
singular a substantivului.
1)Desinena -s se scrie -s dup majoritatea substantivelor, incluzind substantivele terminate In -e mut:
book, books, table tables.
Excepii:
a) Substantivele terminate n -s; -z; -x; -ch; -sh adaug es :
bus buses; glass glasses; buzz buzzes; box boxes; watch watches; brush brushes;
b) La cteva dintre substantivele din acest grup se dubleaz consoana nal: quiz quizzes.
c) Substantivele terminate n -o : adaug desinena -s :
cnd -o e precedat de o vocal: kangaroo - kangaroos; radio - radios; studio-studios
la substantive proprii: Filipinos; Eskimos; Neros; Romeos;
n abrevieri: kilos (kilogrammes), photos (photographs), pros (professionals) ;
la unele substantive strine: concertos, pianos, solos, sopranos, tangos, tobaccos;
adaug -es la substantive ca: echoes, heroes, mosquitoes, potatoes, tomatoes;
au dou forme de plural: buffalos buffaloes (bizoni); cargos - cargoes
(ncrcturi); mementos mementoes; mottos mottoes; volcanos volcanoes;
zeros zeroes etc.;
d) Substantivele terminate n -y precedat de o consoan transforma pe y in i i adaug *es :
city cities; factory factories.
Transformarea nu are loc:
- dup vocale: boy boys, play plays;
- n substantive proprii: the Kennedys;
- n substantive compuse: stand-bys;
e) Literele, numeralele i abrevierile formeaz pluralul prin adugarea unui apostrof i 's:
A's, 1929's; MP's: There are two A's and three 2's in the number of that English car.

48

B. Pluralul neregulat al substantivelor se formeaz n mai multe feluri:


a)consoana surd [], [f] sau [s] n care se termin substantivul se transform n perechea ei sonor:
[], [v] sau [z] (voicing) la unele substantive:
1. -th [] - ths [z]: bath baths; mouth mouths; path paths; youth youths;
2. -f(e) f- ves [vz]: calf calves; elf elves; half halves; knife knives; leafleaves;
lifelives; loaf loaves; selfselves; shelf shelves; thief thieves; wife wives; wolf wolves;
3. -st [s] - ses [ziz]: house houses.
Unele substantive numrabile au aceeai form la singular i plural:
Substantivele cu desinena zero la plural se deosebesc de substantivele invariabile care au numai
singular (music) sau numai plural (catlle) prin faptul c se acord att cu un verb la singular ct i
cu un verb la plural:
There is a stray sheep on the road. - E o oaie rtcit pe drum.
There are two stray sheep on the road. - Sunt cteva oi rtcite pe drum.
Pluralul zero este folosit:
cu unele substantive n -s: barracks barac; headquarters sediu; means mijloc;
series serie; species specie:
This is an army barracks. These are army barracks.
cu numele de naionaliti terminate n -ess : the Chinese, the Japanese, the Portuguese,
the Vietnamese.
He is speaking to a Portuguese. - El vorbete cu un portughez.
The Portuguese live in Europe. - Portughezii triesc n Europa;
cu substantivele denumind animale. Acestea pot avea doar pluralul zero: carp carp; deer - deer;
game game; grouse groase; sheep sheep; pike pike; salmon salmon; trout trout.
Plurale strine
Unele dintre aceste desinene sunt mai bine reprezentate n limba englez:
-us -i: stimulus stimuli; bacillus bacilli.
-um -a: addendum
 addenda; datum data; agendum agenda; erratum errata;
bacterium bacteria.
-is -es: analysis analyses; ellipsis ellipses; axis axes; hypothesis hypotheses; basis bases;
crisis crises; diagnosis diagnoses; parenthesis parentheses; synthesis syntheses;
thesis theses.
SUBSTANTIVE NENUMRABILE (denumesc noiuni vzute ca un ntreg i pot concrete:- sugar,
coal, steel sau abstracte: beauty, kindness, patriotism).
Caracteristici:
a)sunt invariabile ca form: tea, information, cattle, scissors;
b)neavnd contrastul singular plural, ele nu pot numrate cu ajutorul numeralelor sau al altor
cuanticatori.
- tea,
I need some
- information,
- scissors
c)Se acord cu verbul la singular: Chinese tea is very good. - Ceaiul chinezesc este foarte bun.
sau la plural: The scissors are on the table. - Foarfeca este pe mas.

49

Exist unele substantive care au dou foume, cu nelesuri diferite: o form invariabil la
singular i o form invariabil la plural.
colour culoare ; pl. colours
colours (doar plural) = drapel
compass - busol; pl. compasses
compasses (doar plural) compas
custom obicei pl. customs
coustoms' (doar plural) = vam
damage avarie ; pl. damages
damages (doar plural) despgubiri
effect = efect; pl. effects
effects (doar plural) efecte, haine
glass = pahar; pl. glasses
glasses (doar plural) ochelari
ground = motiv, cauz; pi. grounds
grounds (doar plural) = teren n jurul unei cldiri
letter ~ scrisoare ; pl. letters
letters (doar plural)= literatur, litere
manner ~ mod; pl. manners
manners (doar plural) = maniere, purtare

minute = minut; pl. minutes


minutes (doar plural) = proces-verbal
pain = durere ; pl. pains
pains (doar plural) osteneal
quarter ~ sfert, cartier; pl. quarters
quarters (doar plural) == locuin, cantonament
receipt chitan; pl. receipts
receipts (doar plural) = ncasri
scales (doar plural) = balan
scrap - bucic, fragment
spectacle spectacol ; pl. spectacles
spectacles (doar plural) = ochelari
term = perioad, termen, trimestru; pl. terms
terms (doar plural) termeni, relaii, condiii

Genul substantivelor:
n limba englez, substantivele care denumesc persoane de sex brbtesc sunt de gen masculin: man,
brother, iar substantivele care denumesc persoane de sex feminin sunt de genul feminin: woman, sister.
1) La unele substantive genul este marcat lexical, prin cuvinte diferite:
brother sister (frate/sor)
king queen (rege/regin)
monk nun (clugr/clugri)
earl countess(conte/contes)
Mister - Misses (domn-doamn) uncle aunt (unchi/mtu)
father mother(tat/mam)
lord lady (dormn/doam)
nephew niece(nepot/nepoat)
gentleman lady (domn/doamn)
man woman(brbat/femeie)
2) La alte substantive genul este marcat morfologic, prin adugarea unui sux la forma
de masculin
a)
 ess:
actor actress (actor/actri)
 host hostess (gazd)
count countess (conte/contes)
master mistress (maestru)
duke duchess (duce/duces)
waiter waitress (chelner /chelneri
god goddess(zeu/zei)
prince princess (prin/prines)
heir heiress (motenitor/motenitoare)
b)-ine:
hero heroine(erou/eroin)
sau prin adugarea unui sux la forma de feminin;
a)-er: widow widower (vduv/vduv)
b)-groom: bride bridegroom (mireas/mire)
3)Alte substantive au o singur form att pentru masculin ct i pentru feminin. Ele aparin
genului comun.
Ex.: artist, chairman, cook, cousin, doctor, foreigner, friend, guest, inhabitant, musician, neighbour,
Apartenena la genul masculin sau feminin se precizeaz n context cu ajutorul unor cuvinte
la care genul este marcat lexical:
boy-friend girl-friend(prieten/prieten)
male-student female-student(student/student)

policeman policewoman (poliist)


chairman chairwoman (preedinte)

50

RECAPITULARE:
Tipuri de substantive:
a. Substantive comune : desemneaz ine i obiecte
Exemple:
- ine: child (copil) , man (brbat), woman (femeie), brother (frate), sister (sor), doctor
(doctor)
- obiecte: chair (scaun), ball (minge), car (main), energy (energie)
b. Substantivele proprii : se scriu cu majuscule i indic:
Exemple:
- nume de familie: Brown, Johnson, Popescu
- prenume: Mark, David, Mary, Johanna
- nume de localiti: Paris, London (Londra), Bucharest (Bucuresti)
- ri: England (Anglia), Spain (Spania), France (Franta)
- muni: the Alps (Alpi), the Carpathians (Carpati)
- ape: the Danube (Dunrea), the Thames (Tamisa)
- srbtori: Christmas (Crciun), Easter (Pate)
- nume de cri, lme, instituii: The Old Man and The Sea ( Btrnul i Marea),
European Union (Uniunea European)
c. Substantive abstracte: de obicei nu pot numrate
Exemple: beauty (frumusee), fear (fric), love (dragoste), happiness (fericire)
d. Substantive colective (prin care se subnelege c sunt implicate mai multe ine, obiecte)
Exemple: group (grup), team (echip), crowd (mulime)

Genul substantivelor:
a) Substantive de genul masculin sunt inele i animalele de sex masculin:
Ex.: man (brbat), boy (biat), lion (leu), dog (cine)
b)Substantivele de genul feminin sunt intele si animalele de sex feminin:
Ex.: woman (femeie) , girl (fat), cat (pisic), giraffe (giraf)
c) Substantive de genul neutru sunt lucrurile, plantele, animale sau inte al cror sex nu
este cunoscut :
Ex.: world (lume), peace (pace), house (cas), mouse (oarece) , baby (bebelu)
Excepii: rile, navele, n majoritatea cazurilor i autovehiculele sau alte vehicule sunt
de genul feminin.
d) Substantivele de genul comun sunt o particularitate a limbii engleze.
Substantivele care intr n aceast categorie au aceeai form pentru ambele sexe:
Ex.: child (copil, copil), cook (buctar, buctreas), teacher (profesor,profesoar).
e) Unele substantive au forme diferite pentru genul masculin i cel feminin:
Ex.: boy - girl (biat/fat), husband - wife (so/soie), brother - sister (frate/sor), father - mother
(tat/mam), son - daughter (u/ic), uncle - aunt (unchi/mtu) , dog - bitch (cine/cea),
bull - cow (taur/vac), king - queen (rege/regin)

51

Numrul substantivelor:
Singularul coincide cu forma de baz a unui substantiv: dog (cine), girl (fat), wife (soie),
world (lume), storm (furtun)
Pluralul substantivelor se formeaz prin adugarea unui -s la forma de singular:
Ex.: cat+s=cats (pisic), day+s=days (zi), world+s=worlds (lume)
Pluralul substantivelor teminate n ch, o, sh, s, x se formeaz adaugnd -es la singular.
Ex.: church+es=churches (biseric), bush+es=bushes (tu), class+es=classes (clas),
potato+es=potatoes (cartof), box+es=boxes (cutie)
Pluralul substantivelor terminate ntr-o consoan i y se formeaz adugnd -ies la
singular:
Ex.: lady - ladies (doamn), country - countries (ar), party - parties (petrecere)
Pluralul substantivelor terminate ntr-o vocal i y se formeaz adugnd -s la singular:
Ex.: boy-boys (biat), day-days (zi), play-plays (pies)
Pluralul substantivelor terminate n f sau fe se formeaz adugnd -ves.
Ex.: leaf - leaves (frunz), half - halves (jumtate), wife - wives (soie), life - lives (via),
wolf - wolves (lup)
Excepii: roof - roofs (acoperi), handkerchief - handkerchiefs (batist), gulf - gulfs (golf)
Unele substantive au un plural neregulat:
Ex.: foot - feet (picior), man - men (brbat), woman - women (femeie), tooth - teeth (dinte),
child - children (copil)
Unele substantive ramn identice la plural:
Ex.: aircraft (aeronav), deer (cprioar), series (serie), sheep (oaie), species (specie), sh (pete)
n cazul substantivelor compuse, numai ultimul cuvnt va trece la plural:
Ex. boy-friend - boy-friends (prieten), break-in - break-ins (spargere), travel agent - travel agents
(agent de turism).
Abrevierile sau iniialele vor forma pluralul prin adugarea unui -s:
Ex: MPs (Members of Parliament - Membru al Parlamentului), VIPs (Very Important Person persoane foarte importante)
Substantivele nenumrabile (unice) reprezint e unicate sau noiuni abstrace:
nume de substane (coffee-cafea, bread-pine, gold - aur, glass - sticl, oil-ulei, stone-piatr,
wood - lemn), abstraciuni (earth - pmnt, paradise - paradis, nature - natur, advice - sfat, helpajutor, death-moarte, news - tire, beauty - frumusee, experience - experien) sau altele
(baggage-bagaj, damage-pericol, shopping - cumprturi, parking - parcare, weather - vreme)

52

Substantivele unice:
- sunt ntotdeauna la singular i vor lua un verb la singular:
Ex. : This coffee is cold. - Aceast cafea este rece / The weather is awful. - Vremea este urt.
- nu sunt precedate de articolele a/an, pentru a putea exprima o unitate din aceste substantive
folosindu-se : some, any, no, a little, piece of, slice of, etc.
Ex.: I want a slice of bread. - Vreau o felie de pine.
I need a piece of advice / some information . - Am nevoie de un sfat / de nite informaii.
I dont need any help. - Nu am nevoie de ajutor

Forma posesiv a substantivelor:


n cazul substantivelor care NU se termin n -s, forma posesiv se realizeaz prin
adugarea unui s la forma de singular a substantivului:
Ex: a childs voice - vocea unui copil
the peoples choice - alegerea oamenilor
womens clothes - haine de femei
n cazul substantivelor la plural care se termin n -s vom folosi doar apostroful :
Ex.: boys school - coala bieilor
the Johnsons residence - reedina (familiei) Johnson
n cazul numelor proprii terminate n -s se pot folosi ambele variante: apostrof sau s:
Ex.: Mr Joness / Mr. Jones car - maina domnului Jones
Charless / Charles brother - fratele lui Charles
n cazul substantivelor compuse i a titlurilor, ultimul cuvnt primete s :
Ex.: My father-in-laws house - casa socrului meu
Henry the Eights wives - soiile lui Henry al optulea
Forma posesiv s se folosete i la abrevieri:
Ex.: The CEOs (Chief Executive Ofcer) assistant - asistentul directorului executiv
The MPs speech - discursul membrului de parlament
Ideea de posesie se poate exprima i cu ajutorul construciei of+substantiv. Aceast
construcie se folosete mai ales pentru lucruri, ine umane sau animale atunci cnd
acestea sunt urmate de o propoziie subordonat.
Ex.: the walls of the town (zidurile oraului), the roof of the church (acoperiul bisericii),
I took the advice of the girl I met on the bus and bought the book - Am ascultat sfatul fetei
pe care am ntlnit-o n autobuz i am cumprat cartea.

53

EXERCIII I APLICAII PRACTICE:


Aranjai urmtoarele substantive pe categorii:
the Danube, child, love, chair, Paris, Bucharest, fear, team, woman, car, Amanda,
the European Union, Christmas, happiness, group, brother, ball, England, beauty
substantive comune:
substantive proprii:
substantive abstracte:
substantive colective:

Scriei formele de feminin/masculin ale urmtoarelor substantive:


boy dog son father -

sister queen cow wife -

Completai forma de plural a urmtoarelor substantive:


day church boy-friend cat foot child -

deer half sheep wife tooth bush -

ncercuii forma posesiv corect a urmtoarelor substantive:


1. coala bieilor - boys school / boys school
2. maina doamnei Jones - Mrs. Jones car - Mrs. Joness car
3. casa prietenului meu - my boy-friends house - my boy-friends house
4. zidurile casei - the wallss house - the walls of the house
5. piscina familiei Johnsons - the Johnsons pool - the Johnsons pool
Completai pluralul urmtoarelor substantive, utiliznd terminaia -s sau -es:
ower -

tool -

crash -

box -

apple -

beach -

lunch -

wish -

tax 54

A23. Ascultai propoziiile i completai spaiile libere cu forma posesiv


a substantivelor din parantez :
. She went to the ........................... ofce. (doctor - A mers la cabinetul medicului)
2. My ........................ dog is barking. (neighbors - Cinele vecinilor latr)
3. Mary went to her ............................. house. (mother - Mary a fost la casa mamei ei)
4. Bob stopped by his .......... apartment. (friends - Bob s-a oprit la apartamentul prietenilor lui)
5. That's my......................... (brother - Acela este al fratelui meu)
6. The....................... books are on the shelf. (students- Crile studenilor sunt pe raft)
7. The ..................... engine needs to be replaced. (car - Motorul mainii trebuie nlocuit)

Completai substantivele corecte n rubricile corespunztoare din rebusul de mai jos:


Orizontal:
Vertical:
1. Pluralul lui leaf 1. Pluralul lui life 2. Pluralul lui wife 11. Forma feminin pentru son
3. Forma masculin pentru daughter - 12. Care este substantivul colectiv? GROUP
4. Pluralul lui box sau CHILD?
5. Forma masculin pentru aunt 13. Pluralul lui sheep 6. Forma feminin pentru king 7. Forma feminin pentru brother 8. Pluralul lui foot 9. Pluralul lui tooth 1
10. Care este substantivul abstract?
CLASS sau PEACE?
2

3
11

4
5
12

13

8
9

10

55

4.3 ARTICOLUL (The article)


Articolul este partea de vorbire care:
a) Constituie un mijloc de individualizare a obiectelor i a fenomenelor ntrun context lingvistic sau situaional.
b) Nu are forme exionare i are funcie de determinant.
Articolul este redat prin aticolul hotrt THE, articolul nehotrt A sau AN
sau prin articolul zero.

Articolul hotrt (The Denite Article)


Articolul hotrt se folosete :
Atunci cnd att vorbitorul ct i asculttorul cunosc noiunea exprimat de substantiv,
dei nu a mai fost menionat n context.
Ex.: - Where's the bathroom? - It's on the rst oor.- Unde este baia? Este la primul etaj.
n propoziii sau fraze n care denim sau identicm anumite persoane sau obiecte:
Ex.: The girl in red is her neighbor.- Fata n rou este vecina ei.
Referitor la obiecte pe care le considerm unice:
Ex.: the earth (pmntul), the sun (soarele), the moon (luna), the stars (stelele)
Ann is in the garden. Ana este n grdin.
naintea superlativului sau numeralelor ordinale rst, second, thirds i only:
Ex.: the best day (cea mai bun zi), the rst week (prima sptmn), the last chapter (ultimul
capitol) , the only way (singura cale).
naintea unor adjective pentru a te referi n general la un grup de oameni care au n
comun o anumit nsuire:
Ex.: the young (tinerii), the beautiful (frumoii), the old (btrnii), the best (cei mai buni),
the Japanese (japonezii), the British (britanicii)
Nume de locuri geograce, oceane, ruri, mri, deerturi, muni, regiuni:
Ex.: the Caribbean, the Sahara, the Atlantic
Se folosete naintea unor nume proprii (muzee, instituii celebre, hoteluri, ziare, orchestre,
grupuri muzicale, vapoare, nume de famili la plural):
Ex.: the National Gallery, the Royal Shakespeare, the Savoy, the Beatles, the Spice Girls,
the Guardian, the Telegraph, the Daily, the Titanic, the Tower of London, the House of
Parliament, the Smiths
Decade, secole, grupe de ani:
Ex.: My parents went to University in the seventies. - Prinii mei au mers la facultate n anii
aptezeci.
The movies appeared in the twentieth century. Filmele au aprut n secolul al 20-lea.

56

Articolul hotrt THE


THE se folosete naintea unui substantiv la singular sau plural, cnd
substantivul este exact- se refer la un anume membru care face parte dintr-un
grup.
Exemplu:
"The dog that bit me ran away."- Cinele care m-a mucat, a fugit. (Aici vorbim
despre un anume cine, acela care m-a mucat.)
"I saw the elephant at the zoo." Am vzut elefantul la Grdina Zoologic. ( Aici
vorbim despre un substantiv specic. Probabil este doar un elefant la Grdina
Zoologic.
THE poate folosit i cu substantive nenumrabile, sau poate omis n
totalitate:
Exemplu:
"I love to sail over the water" mi place s navighez pe ( o anumit) ap.
sau
"I love to sail over water"- mi place s navigez pe ap (n general- pe oricare ap).
"He spilled the milk all over the oor" El a vrsat laptele pe podea.
(Ne referim la u anume lapte, pe care probabil l-a cumprat mai devreme)
sau
"He spilled milk all over the oor" A vrsat lapte pe podea. (orice lapte).

Utilizarea geograc a articolului THE:


Se utilizeaz THE nainte de:
Nume de ruri, oceane i mri: the

NU se utilizeaz THE nainte de :


Numele rilor/teritoriilor: Italy,

Nile, (Nil), the Pacic Ocean


(Oceanul Pacic)

Puncte de pe Glob: the Equator

(Ecuatorul), the North Pole (Polul


Nord)

Zone geograce: the Middle East

(Estul Mijlociu), the West (Vestul)

Deerturi, pduri, golfuri i

peninsule: the Sahara (Sahara), the


Persian Gulf (Golful Persan), the
Black Forest (Pdurea Neagr), the
Iberian Peninsula (Peninsula
Iberic)

Mexico, Bolivia;
Nume de orae, comune sau
regiuni: Seoul, Manitoba, Miami
Nume de strzi: Washington
Blvd., Main St.
Nume de lacuri sau golfuri: Lake
Titicaca, Lake Erie (excepie fac
gruprile de lacuri - the Great
Lakes)
Nume de muni: Mount Everest,
Mount Fuji (excepie fac
lanurile muntoase - the
Carpathians)
Nume de continente (Asia,
Europe)
Nume de insule (Easter Island,
Maui, Key West)

57

Articolul nehotrt (The Indenite Article - a / an)


Articolul nehotrt se folosete naintea substantivelor care ncep cu o
consoana (articolul - a) i naintea substantivelor care ncep cu o vocal (a, e, i,
o, u) ( articolul - an)
Ex.: a boy, an apple, a car, an orange, a house, an opera
Excepii:
An nainte de un h mut - an hour, an honor.
A nainte de u sau eu atunci cnd se pronunta ca you: a European, a university, a
unit.
Articolul nehotrt se folosete:
Pentru a te referi la ceva pentru prima dat:
Ex.: Would you like a drink? Vrei ceva de but?
Pentru a te referi la un anume membru al unui grup sau clase:
Exemple:
nume de profesii: John is an engineer.- John este inginer.
naionaliti i religii: John is an Englishman. John este Englez.
Kate is a Catholic Kate este catolic.
instrumente muzicale: Sherlock Holmes was playing a violin.
- Sherlock Holmes cnta la vioar.
numele zilelor: I was born on a Thursday. M-am nscut ntr-o joi.
pentru a desemna un fel de, sau un exemplu de: The girl had a tiny hat.
Fata avea o plrie micu.
cu substantive la singular, dup cuvinte cum ar what i such:
What a bluff! - Ce cacealma!
He is such a smart young man.- El este un tnr aa de inteligent.
atunci cnd te referi la un singur obiect sau persoan, echivaleaz cu one:
I' want to buy an orange and two lemons please.
- A vrea s cumpr o portocal i dou lmi, v rog.
! Reinei c se spune a hundred, a thousand, a million.
Articolele nehotrte a i an
"A" i "an" sunt semne c substantivul modicat este nehotrt i face referire la
oricare dintre membrii unui grup.
De exemplu:
"Somebody call a policeman!" Cineva s cheme poliia. (Asta nseamn cineva s
cheme oricare dintre poliitii disponibili.)
"When I was at the zoo, I saw an elephant!" Cnd am fost la Zoo, am vzut un elefant.
(Aici, vorbim despre un singur element- in acest caz un elefant. Probabil sunt mai
muli ellefani, dar n acest caz se vorbete doar despre unul.)

58

Utilizarea articolelor nehotrte a i an


A + substantive singular care ncepe cu o consoan:
a boy (un biat); a car (o main) ; a bike (o biciclet) ; a dog (un cine)
AN + substantive singular care ncepe cu o vocal :
an elephant (un elefant); an egg (un ou); an apple (un mr); an idiot (un idiot);
A + substantiv singular care ncepe cu un sunet care sun ca o consoan:
a user (sun ca 'yoo-zer,' sun ca i un 'y' - semiconsoan, aa c se folosete cu articolul 'a')
a university; a unicycle
Dac substantivul se modic n funcie de adjectiv, alegerea ntre a i an
depinde de sunetul de dup articolul hotrt:
a broken egg (un ou spart)
unusual problem (- unusual ncepe cu sunetul - care este vocal,
drept urmare folosim an = o problem neobinuit)
a European country (sun ca 'yer-o-pi-an', ncepe cu o semiconsoan
sunetul 'y', deci folosim a = o ar European)
an

A, AN i ONE
Atunci cnd numrm sau msurm timpul, distana, greutatea, se poate folosi e a/an
e one pentru singular:
Ex.: a / one pound, a / one million pounds
You can take an/ one hour for lunch. - i poi lua o or pentru prnz.
Dar a/an i one nu nseamn ntotdeauna acelasi lucru:
Ex.: We need a crate not a box. - Avem nevoie de o lad, nu o cutie
One box is no good, we need two boxes. - O cutie nu ajunge, avem nevoie de dou.

Articolul zero (The zero Article)


NU se folosete articol n urmtoarele cazuri:
Cu nume de ri (la singular)

Germany is an important economic power - Germania este o importanta putere


economic.
Cu numele meselor:
Dinner is in the evening.- Cina se servete seara.
Breakfast is the rst meal of the day.- Micul dejun este prima mas a zilei.
Cu numele persoanelor (la singular):
John's coming to the party.- John vine la petrecere.
George King is my uncle.- George King este unchiul meu.
Cu titluri i nume:
President Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas.- Preedintele Kennedy a fost asasinat
n Dallas.
Dr. Watson was Sherlock Holmes' friend.- Dr. Watson era pietenul lui Sherlock
Holmes.

59

Dup cazul posesiv format cu 's:

His sister's car. Maina surorii lui.


Laura's basket.- Coul Laurei.
Cu numele profesiilor:

Engineering is a useful career. Ingineria este o meserie util.


He'll probably go into medicine.- El probabil va urma medicina.
Cu nume de magazine:

I'll get the card at Auchan .- Voi lua cardul la Auchan.


I go to Denis for shopping. Merg la Denis la cumprturi.

Cu ani:

1948 was a wonderful year.- 1948 a fost un an minunat.


Do you remember 1998?- i aminteti de anul 1998?
Cu substantive unice (uncountable nouns):

War is destructive. Rzboiul este distructiv.


Cu numele unor muni, lacuri i insule:

Have you visited Long Island?- Ai vizitat Long Island?


Cu majoritatea numelor de strzi, orae, staii pentru mijloacele de transport i aeroporturi:

She lives in Florence. Ea locuiete n Florena.


n unele expresii invariabile:

Ex.: by car (cu maina), at school (la coal), at work (la munc), at University (la
universitate) , in church (n biseric), in prison (n inchisoare), in bed (n pat), by train (cu
trenul ), by plane (cu avionul), on foot (la pas), on holiday (n vacan)

Omisiunea articolelor
Cele mai ntlnite tipuri de substantive care nu se utilizeaz cu articol sunt:
a) Nume de naionaliti : Chinese, English, Spanish, Russian (atunci cnd nu ne referim la populaia
unei ri :
"The Spanish are known for their warm hospitality."- Spaniolii sunt cunoscui pentru ospitalitatea lor.)
b) Denumiri de sporturi: volleyball, hockey, baseball
c) Denumiri de obiecte colare: mathematics, biology, history, computer science

60

EXERCIII I APLICAII PRACTICE:


Decidei dac se utilizeaz sau nu articolul hotrt THE n popoziiile urmtoare:
1. This was the / - best day of my life. - Aceasta a fost cea mai bun zi din viaa mea.
2. The / - Italy is my favourite country. - Italia este ara mea preferat.
3. They were in the / - Europe last summer. -Ei au fost n Europa vara trecut.
4. The / - Nile is a river in Africa. - Nilul este un ru n Africa.
5. The / - sun rises earlier in the summer - Soarele rsare mai devreme vara.
6. The / - Bucharest is the capital of the / - Romania. - Bucureti e capitala Romniei.

A24. Completai textul de mai jos cu articolul hotrt THE unde este
cazul. Dac nu este nevoie , marcai spaiul liber cu un x. Ascultai apoi
textul i corectai-v rspunsurile.
We arrived in ............ America last Monday. We left ............. Rome, ew over ..........
Alps and made a quick stop in ................. London. There we visited ............ Tower of
London and .............. rooms of Buckingham Palace. Next day we left for ......... New York.
........... people on .......... plane were all ............ Italian. In New York ........... hotel I stayed
in was on ............ corner of ............... 42nd Street and ............. 5th Avenue.
Am ajuns in America Lunea trecut. Am prsit Roma, am zburat peste Alpi i am fcut
o scurt oprire la Londra. Acolo am vizitat Turnul Londrei i camerele Palatului
Buckingham. Ziua urmtoare am plecat spre New York. Oamenii de pe avion erau toi
italieni. n New York hotelul n care am locuit era la intersecia dintre 42nd Street cu 5th
Avenue.

ncercuii varianta corect de utilizare a articolelor a sau an:


1. Mary is a / an teacher. - Mary este profesoar.
2. He was playing a / an guitar at the concert. - La concert el cnta la chitar.
3. They were born on a / an Sunday. - Ei s-au nscut ntr-o duminic.
4. This is a / an unusual problem. - Aceasta este o problem neobinuit.
5. Romania is a / an European country. - Romnia este o ar european.

61

Trecei cuvintele urmtoare n coloana cu articolul potrivit:


Germany, apple, Nile, unusual story, National Gallery, older sister, 1948, cup of tea,
stars, aunt, Sahara, egg, broken egg, baseball, sun, dinner, error, car, history, book,
university, Pacic Ocean, violin, President Nixon
THE

AN

ARTICOL ZERO

A25. Ascultai propoziiile i completai spaiile libere cu a/ an / the:

1. Is this ............. right place? - Este acesta locul potrivit?


2. They have ......... apartment. - Ei au un apartament.
3. Throw me .......... ball. - Arunc-mi mingea.
4. That's ......... good place for lunch. - Acela e un loc bun pentru prnz.
5. Where's ......... remote control? - Unde e telecomanda?
6. Here's ............ stuff we ordered. - Aici sunt lucrurile pe care le-am comandat,
7. An old song is playing on ......... radio. - Un cntec mai vechi se aude la radio.
8. Those aren't .......... right clothes. - Acelea nu sunt hainele potrivite.
9. Who's ........... teacher for this class? - Cine este profesorul la aceast clas?
10. I need .......... nap. - Am nevoie de un pui de somn.

62

4.4 ADJECTIVUL (The adjective)


Adjectivele sunt acele cuvinte folosite pentru a descrie un substantiv, de
exemplu: biat mare, fat frumoas, trei mere, etc.
Adjectivele n limba englez sunt invariabile, adic nu i schimb forma
n funcie de gen sau numr.
Exemple: a good cake - o prjitur bun, good cakes - prjituri bune
a good boy - un biat bun ,
a good girl - o fat bun

Tipuri de adjective:
1. ADJECTIVELE DEMONSTRATIVE (aceeai form la genuri, form diferit la plural) :
SINGULAR:
THIS
aceasta)

PLURAL:

(acest, THESE (aceti,


aceste)

MOD DE UTILIZARE:
This, these - arat ceea ce este apropiat de cel
care vorbete
Ex. This man is my father. - Acest brbat este
tatl meu.
These owers are my favourite . - Aceste ori
sunt preferatele mele.

THAT (acel, acea)

THOSE (acei, acele) That, those - arat ceea ce este indeprtat de


cel care vorbe?te.
Ex. That girl is my best friend.
este prietena mea cea mai bun.

- Acea fat

Those shoes are old. - Acei panto sunt vechi.

2. ADJECTIVELE POSESIVE ( indic raportul de posesie dintre un posesor i ceea ce posed acesta:
my house - casa mea; your book - cartea ta, sunt invariabile n gen i numr)
SINGULAR

PLURAL

My - meu, mea, mei, mele


Your - tu, ta, ti, tale
His - lui, sau, sa, si, sale
Her - ei, sau, sa, si, sale
Its - lui, ei, sau, sa, si, sale

Our - nostru, noastr, notri, noastre


Your - vostru, voastr, votri, voastre
Their - lor

63

3. ADJECTIVELE NEHOTRTE cele mai ntlnite sunt :


a) se folosete n propoziii armative.
There are some apples on the table. - Sunt cteva mere pe
mas.
SOME (ceva, civa,
cteva, unii, unele,
oarecare, nite)

ANY (oricare, orice,


ceva, nite)

b) Some poate folosit i n sens calitativ, admirativ.


That was some dress! - Aceea era o rochie grozav! (Ce
rochie grozav!)
a) n propoziiile armative se traduce prin "oricare, orice"
She may come at any moment . - Poate veni n orice
moment.
b) n propoziiile interogative se traduce prin "vreun, vreo,
nite, unii, unele, caiva, cteva"
Can we have any tea? - Putem bea nite ceai?

Alte adjective nehotrte:


NO, NOT ANY - niciun, nicio, niciunul, niciuna
ONE - adjectivul numeral - un, o, singurul, singura
EVERY - ecare, toi, toate
EACH - ecare
SUCH - asemenea, astfel de
SAME - aceeai, acelai, aceiai, aceleai
OTHER - alt, alta, ali, alte
THE OTHER - cellalt, cealalt, ceilali, celelalte
ANOTHER - un alt, o alta, nc unul
MUCH - mult, mult - pentru substantivele care nu se pot numra money, milk
MANY - muli, multe - pentru substantivele care se pot numra
A LOT OF / LOTS OF - o mulime de
LITTLE - puin, puine - pentru substantivele care nu se pot numra
FEW - puin, puine - pentru substantivele care se pot numra
ENOUGH - destul, destule
PLENTY OF - o mulime de

Gradele de comparaie ale adjectivelor:


Adjectivul are urmtoarele grade de comparaie:
a)pozitiv
b)comparativ de inferioritate (nu aa de)
not as as (nu att de ca / nu la fel de ca)
not so as (nu att de ca / nu la fel de ca)
He is not as tall as his brother. Nu este att de nalt ca fratele lui.

c)comparativ de egalitate (tot aa de)


as as (tot att de ca / la fel de ca)
She is as pretty as her mother. Ea este la fel de drgu ca i mama ei.

d)comparativ de superioritate (mai).


e)superlativ (cel mai).

64

n cazul adjectivelor scurte, formele de Comparativ de superioritate i Superlativ sunt:


POZITIV

COMPARATIV DE
SUPERIORITATE

SUPERLATIV

se formeaz adugnd -er

se formeaz adugnd -est

small - mic

smaller - mai mic

the smallest - cel mai mic

fast - rapid

faster - mai rapid

the fastest - cel mai rapid

great - mare,
important

greater - mai mare, mai


important

the greatest - cel mai mare, cel mai


important

Adjectivele care se termin n -y precedat de o consoan schimb aceast liter n -I


cnd adaug -er / -est:
- dry - drier - the driest uscat - mai uscat - cel mai uscat
- happy - happier - the happiest - fericit- mai fericit- cel mai fericit
Exist i excepii:
- shy - shyer - the shyest
- timid- mai timid- cel mai timid
Adjectivele monosilabice care se termin ntr-o singur vocal + o singur consoan
dubleaz consoana nal:
- hot - hotter - the hottest erbinte- mai erbinte- cel mai erbinte
- big - bigger - the biggest mare- mai mare- cel mai mare
n cazul adjectivelor lungi, formele de Comparativ de superioritate i Superlativ sunt:
COMPARATIV DE
POZITIV

SUPERLATIV
SUPERIORITATE
se formeaz cu ajutorul
adverbului more

se formeaz cu ajutorul
adverbului most

interesting- interesant

more interesting- mai interesant

the most interesting- cel mai


interesant

beautiful - frumos

more beautiful- mai frumos

the most beautiful- cel mai frumos

expensive - scump

more expensive - mai scump

the most expensive - cel mai scump

wonderful - minunat

more wonderful - mai minunat

the most wonderful- cel mai


minunat

65

Lista celor mai ntlnite adjective:

66

67

Ordinea adjectivelor n propoziie:


Cnd se succed mai multe adjective, acestea trebuie aezate ntr-o anumit ordine. Aceasta este
cea mai folosit:
1. determiner (determinant)

A, an, two, three, this, those , some , her,


our

2. opinion (opinie)

lovely (drgu), beautiful (frumos), boring


(plictisitor), ugly (urt)

3. size/weight (mrime/greutate)

huge (imens), tiny (micu), light (uor), big


(mare), little (mic)

4. shape (form)

round (rotund), long (lung), square (ptrat)

5. age (vrst)

ancient (strvechi), old (vechi), new (nou),


young (tnr), brand-new (nou nou)

6. colour (culoare)

grey (gri), blue (albastru), white (alb)

7. origin (origine, naionalitate)

German (german), Spanish (spaniol), Greek


(grec)

8. material (material)

plastic (plastic), leather (piele), stone


(piatr), wooden (lemn), gold (aur), silver
(argint)

I saw some lovely, old, gold earrings in a shop yesterday.Am vzut nite cercei dragui, vechi i din aur ieri ntr-un magazin
I met a beautiful little German girl last week.
Am ntlnit o fat frumoas, micu, german sptmna trecut

EXERCIII I APLICAII PRACTICE:


Trecei n tabel formele de comparativ de superioritate / superlativ pentru ecare cuvnt
din prima coloan:
POZITIV

COMPARATIV

SUPERLATIV

great
cheap
difcult
wonderful
old
good
expensive
bad
happy
short
intelligent
tall
dangerous
68

Trecei adjectivele scurte din parantez la comparativ de superioritate:


1. An apple is .............................. (cheap) than a hamburger. (Un mr este mai ieftin dect
un hamburger)
2. Parents are ...............................(happy) when their children eat apples. (Prinii sunt mai
bucuroi cnd copiii lor mnnc mere).
3. My sister was ........................... (thin) three years ago. (Sora mea era mai slab
acum 3 ani)
4. Her mother is ........................... (young) than mine. (Mama ei e mai tnr dect a mea)
5. His brother bought a car which is ....................... (fast) than yours. (Fratele lui a cumprat
o main care este mai rapid dect a ta).

Trecei adjectivele lungi din parantez la comparativ (mai..) sau superlativ (cel mai..)
-dup caz:
1. Julie is ............................................................... (beautiful) girl here. (Julie este cea mai
frumoas fat de aici.)
2. I think Robin is ................................................ (intelligent) than Jack. (Eu cred c Robin
este mai inteligent dect Jack.
3. This math problem is ........................................... (difcult) than yours. (Aceast
problem de matematic este mai dicil dect a ta)
4. Mary is .............................................. (careful) friend I have. (Mary este cea mai grijulie
prieten pe care o am)
5. This is ........................................... (delicious) cake I have ever tasted. (Aceasta este
cea mai delicioas prjitur pe care am gustat-o vreodat.

A26. Ascultai i completai adjectivele care lipsesc la gradele de


comparaie corespunztoare:
1. This is ................................. than that one.
2. Their house is ................................................ than ours.
3. He's .............................................. than you are.
4. Our teacher is ............................................ than yours.
5. The weather today is ............................. than what it was yesterday.
6. She makes ............................. lasagna.
7. January is .......................................... month of the year.
8. That's ............................................ hotel in the city.

69

4.5 PREPOZIIA (The preposition)


prepoziie)

Prepoziia reprezint partea de vorbire care indic relaia dintre substantive,


pronume i alte pri de vorbire dintr-o propoziie. Cel mai des, acestea preced un substantiv
i nu i schimb forma.
Prepoziiile nu au neles de sine stttor, ele capat diferite sensuri puse n legtur
cu alte cuvinte.

Tipuri de adjective:
Prepoziiile
de timp:
PREPOZIIA
ON - se utilizeaz pentru a exprima zilele
sptmnii
IN (n) - se utilizeaz pentru a exprima:
-luna / anotimpul
-timpul zilei
-anul
- o anumit perioad de timp

AT (la) - se utilizeaz pentru a exprima:


- pentru noapte:
- pentru weekend
- ora exact

EXEMPLU
on Monday luni
on Sunday - duminic
in March / in spring n martie / n primvar
in the afternoon dup amiaz
in 2001 n 2001
in a minute ntr-un minut

at night - la noapte
at the weekend (British English) sau on
weekend (American English) - n weekend
at half past ten - la 10 i jumtate

SINCE (din)- se utilizeaz pentru a exprima


- since 2011 - din 2011
de cnd a nceput aciunea pn n prezent:
FOR (de)- se utilizeaz pentru a exprima de
for two years - de doi ani
cnd dureaz aciunea pn n prezent:
TO (ctre, pn la) - precizeaz timpul

ten to six - ase far zece minute

exact:
PAST (dup) - precizeaz timpul:

ten past eight - opt i zece minute

TO, TILL, UNTIL (pn la) - precizeaz


de cnd i pn cnd are loc aciunea:

from Monday to/till Saturday -de luni pn


smbt

BY (de, pn la)- precizeaz pn cnd are


loc aciunea:

by 7 o'clock - pn la ora 7

AGO (n urm)
AFTER (dup)
BETWEEN (ntre)
DURING (pe perioada, n timpul)
BEFORE (nainte)
WITHIN (n)
UP TO (pn la)

six years ago - cu 6 ani n urm


after school - dup coal
between Monday and Thursday - ntre luni i
joi
during the holidays - pe perioada srbtorilor
before Easter -nainte de Pate
within an hour - ntr-o or
up to three hours a day - pn la 3 ore pe zi

70

Tipuri de adjective:
Prepoziiile
de loc:
PREPOZIIA
IN (n)

EXEMPLU

in the room - n camer, in the kitchen - n


buctarie, in the book - n carte, in the car -n
main

AT (la)

at the concert- la concert, at the table - la


mas, at the door - la u, at school - la coal

ON (la/pe)

on the rst oor - la primul etaj, on the wall pe perete, on the table -pe mas, on the plane n avion, on the radio - la radio.

BY / NEXT TO / BESIDE (lng)


UNDER (sub)
OVER (peste)
AFTER (dup)

standing by/ next to /beside the car - st lng


main
under the table - sub mas
over the bridge - peste pod
She ran after the dog. A alergat dup cine

IN FRONT OF (n faa)

in front of the house n faa casei

AMONG (printre)

among friends - printre prieteni

BEHIND (n spatele)
ON TO (pe)
FROM (din)

behind the closet dup dulap


on to the roof pe acoperi
from Tokio din Tokio

Tipuri de adjective:
Prepoziiile
de micare:
PREPOZIIA
THROUGH (prin)

EXEMPLU

through the tunnel prin tunel

TO (la)

to the theatre la teatru

TOWARDS (ctre)

towards the hospital ctre spital

ALONG (de-a lungul)


ACROSS (peste)
PAST (pe lng)
AROUND (n jurul)

along the river de-a lungul rului


across the ocean peste ocean
past the shop pe lng magazin
a round the lake n jurul lacului

71

Tipuri deidiomatice:
Expresii
adjective:
Aceeai prepoziie poate da frazelor din care face parte un neles diferit de cel obinuit, formnd
expresii idiomatice. Cteva exemple sunt urmtoarele:

in the street (Engl. americ. - on the stret) - pe strad


in the playground - pe terenul de sport
in the sky - pe cer
in the sun - la soare
in the open air - la aer curat
on the way to - n drum spre
on the 1st oor - la etajul 1
round the corner - dup col
at present - n prezent
at the some time - n acelai timp
at this moment - n acest moment
at last - n sfrit
in a year`s time - peste un an
in my opinion - dupa prerea mea
beyond control - independent de voina ...
in all probability - dup toate probabilitile
by my watch - dup ceasul meu
by heart - pe de rost, pe dinafar
by mistake - din greeal
to go on a trip / on holiday - a merge n cltorie / n vacan
to go (out) for a walk - a merge la plimbare
lo look out of the window - a privi pe fereastr
to get in through the window - a intra pe fereastr
he`s the tallest in the class - e cel mai nalt din clas
outside the garden - n faa grdinii

Prepoziii
cu substantive, adjective i verbe
Tipuri
de adjective:
Numeroase substantive, adjective i mai ales verbe se folosesc corect numai nsoite de prepoziiile
care le ntregesc sensul aa cum vei vedea n exemplele urmtoare.

Substantive
approval of - aprobarea

hatred of - ura fa de

awareness of - gradul de

hope for - sperana pentru

contientizare a

interest in - interes n

belief in - credina n

love of - dragostea de

concern for - preocuparea pentru

need for - necesitatea /nevoia de a

confusion about - confuzie cu privire

participation in - participarea la

la

reason for - motiv pentru

desire for - dorina de

respect for - respectul pentru

fondness for - toleran pentru

success in - succes n

grasp of - stpnire de

understanding of - nelegerea

72

Adjective
afraid of - frica de

made of - fcut /fabricat n (din)

angry at - furios la

married to - cstorit /a cu

aware of - contient de

proud of - mndru de

capable of - capabil s

similar to - asemanator cu

careless about - neatent la /cu

sorry for - mi pare ru pentru ...

familiar with - familiarizat cu

sure of - sigur de

happy about - fericit n legtur cu

tired of - obosit de (stul de)

interested in - interesat

worried about - ngrijorat de / n

jealous of - gelos

legtur cu

Verbe
apologize for - a cere scuze (iertare)

look up - a privi n sus

pentru

make up - a alctui, a nscoci, a

ask about - a ntreba despre

prepara

ask for - a cere [ceva]

pay for - a plti pentru

belong to - a aparine [cuiva]


bring up - a aduce
care for - a avea grij de
nd out - a aa
give up - a renuna
grow up - a crete
look for - a cuta [ceva]

prepare for - a se pregti pentru


study for - a nva pentru
talk about - a vorbi despre
think about - a (se) gndi la
trust in - a avea ncredere n
work for - a lucra pentru

look forward to - a atepta cu

worry about - a ngrijorat de, a-i

nerbdare s

face griji pentru

73

EXERCIII I APLICAII PRACTICE:


Completai spaiile libere cu prepoziia de timp corect:
1) What are you doing ...................... Saturday? (Ce faci smbt?)
2) Do you stay home ........................ the holidays? ( Stai acas pe perioada srbtorilor?)
3) She arrived at the party .................... 12:30. (Ea a ajuns la petrecere la 12:30)
4) My birthday is ............ May. (Ziua mea de natere este n mai.)
5) I went to the seaside 4 years ............... . (Am mers la mare acum 4 ani)
6) My parents have been together ............. 15 years. (Prinii mei sunt mpreun de 15 ani)
ncercuii preoziia de loc potrivit pentru ecare propoziie:
1) Mary is waiting for you in / at / on the kitchen. (Mary te ateapt n buctrie)
2) John is living at / in / on the rst oor. (John locuiete la etajul nti)
3) The children are in / at / on school right now. ( Copiii sunt la coal acum)
4) The car is parked after / in front of / on the house. ( Maina este parcat n faa casei.)
5) My husband always sits at / next to / in me at the table. (Soul meu st mereu lng
mine la mas)
6) Your friend is behind / at / among you! (Prietena ta e n spatele tu!)
Completai prepoziia de micare corect:
1) America is ....................... the Atlantic Ocean. ( America este peste ocean)
2) We just drove ............................. a tunnel. (Tocmai am trecut printr-un tunel)
3) Are you going ............... the cinema after school? (Mergi la cinema dup coal?)
4) We are heading .................... the police station right now. ( Ne ndreptm ctre poliie
chiar acum)
5) I drive ....................... the mall every day. (Trec pe lng mall n ecare zi)
Completai prepoziia potrivit i traducerea pentru ecare expresie de mai jos:
............. present =
............. the way to =
............ the rst oor =
........... my opinion =
............ this moment =
............. mistake =
.............. last =
74

A27. Ascultai i completai prepoziiile corespunztoare:


1. I bought a bag ........... chips. ( Am cumprat o pung de chipsuri)
2. Who went with you ............. the trip? (Cine a mers cu tine n excursie?)
3. Go ................. that door and take a right. (Treci pe ua aceea i f dreapta.)
4. How much did you pay ............ your phone? (Ct ai pltit pentru telefonul tu?)
5. There's a supermarket .................... the street. (E un supermarket peste drum)
6. I need to get to the airport .............. 9:30. (Trebuie s ajung la aeroport pn la 9:30)
7. The sign ............................... the store says it's closed. (Semnul din faa magazinului spune
c e nchis)

A28. Ascultai i completai prepoziiile corespunztoare:


1. What are you looking ..........? ( La ce te uii?)
2. Who is she talking .........? ( Cu cine vorbete?)
3. How long does he work ................? (Pn la ce or lucreaz?)
4. This is the best place I've ever lived .............. ( Acesta este cel mai bun loc n care am locuit)
5. My email didn't go .................... (E-mailul meu nu s-a trimis)
6. You have to push the lever .................. (Trebuie s mpingi mnerul n sus)
7. I'm going to the store if you want to come ............ (M duc la magazin dac vrei s vii cu mine)
8. Who are they playing ..................? (mpotriva cui joac?)
9. How much are you asking ..............? (Ct de mult ceri?)
10. Where are these bananas ...................? (De unde sunt aceste banane)

75

4.64.5
VERBELE
PREPOZIIA
I TIMPURILE
(The prepoziie)
VERBALE

Verbele limbii engleze se clasic n verbe regulate, verbe neregulate, verbe auxiliare i
verbe modale.

VERBE REGULATE

Verbele regulate formeaz past tense i past participle prin adugarea


terminaiei ED.
Ex: worked lucrat ; cleaned - curat ; closed - nchis

VERBE NEREGULATE

Verbele neregulate formeaz past tense i past participle neregulat i


aceste forme trebuie nvate.

Verbele neregulate se mpart n 3 categorii:


-grupa verbelor care nu suport nici o modicare de genul:
cut cut cut (a tia)
put put put (a pune)
-grupa verbelor care suport o modicare:
bring brought brought (a aduce)
meet met met (a ntlni)
-grupa verbelor care suport dou modicri:
do did done (a face)
ring rang rung (a suna)

VERBE AUXILIARE

Sunt formatori temporali, ajut la formarea timpurilor verbale compuse.

-DO se folosete la present tense simple i past tense simple - forma interogativ i negativ; (do, does, did)
-BE se folosete la formarea diatezei pasive i a timpurilor verbale continue; (am, are, is, was, were)
-HAVE se folosete la formarea timpurilor verbale perfecte; (have, has, had)
-SHALL, WILL se folosesc la formarea timpurilor verbale de viitor;
-SHOULD, WOULD se folosesc la formarea lui Future-in-the-Past i a modului Condiional;
-LET se folosete la formarea Imperativului pentru persoana I-a sg i pl i persoana a III-a sg i pl.

VERBE MODALE

Sunt o clas special de verbe care exprim permisiunea, abilitatea,


probabilitatea, obligaia, necesitatea: MAY, MIGHT, CAN, COULD,
MUST, NEED, SHOULD, OUGHT TO, HAVE TO, NEED TO.

Tipuri
VERBUL
de adjective:
TO BE :
Armativ
Singular
Pers I
I am (I'm) - Eu sunt
Pers a II a You are (You're) - Tu eti
Pers a III a He is (He's) - El este
She is (She's) - Ea este
It is (It's) - El/Ea este

Plural
Pers I
We are (We're) - Noi suntem
Pers a II a You are (You're) - Voi suntei
Pers a III a They are (They're) - Ei/Ele sunt

*Forma contras (Im, Youre, Hes..etc.) este uzual n engleza vorbit.

76

Interogativ
Singular
Pers I
Am I? - Sunt eu?
Pers a II a Are you? - Eti tu?
Pers a III a Is he? - Este el?
Is she? - Este ea?
Is it? - Este el/ea?

Plural
Pers I
Are we? - Suntem noi?
Pers a II a Are you? - Suntei voi?
Pers a III a Are they? - Sunt ei/ele?

Negativ
Pers I
Pers a II a

Singular
I am not (I'm not) - Eu nu sunt

Plural
Pers I
We are not (We aren't) - Noi nu
suntem
You are not (You aren't) - Tu nu Pers a II a You are not (You aren't) - Voi nu
e?ti
sunte?i

Pers a III a He is not (He isn't) - El nu este

Pers a III a They are not (They aren't) - Ei/Ele


nu sunt

She is not (She isn't) - Ea nu este


It is not (It isn't) - El/Ea nu este

Tipuri
VERBUL
de adjective:
TO HAVE :
Face parte din categoria verbelor auxiliare i alturi de verbul to be formeaz innterogativul prin
inversarea subiectului cu predicatul, iar negativul prin simpla adugare a negaiei not.

Armativ
Pers I
Pers a II a
Pers a III a

Singular
I have (I've) - Eu am
You have (You've) - Tu ai
He has (He's) - El are
She has (She's) - Ea are
It has (It's) - El/Ea are

Plural
We have (We've) - Noi avem
You have (You've) - Voi avei
They have (They've) - Ei/Ele au

Interogativ
Pers I
Pers a II a
Pers a III a

Singular
Have I? - Am eu?
Have you? - Ai tu?
Has he? - Are el?
Has she? - Are ea?
Has it? - Are el/ea?

Plural
Have we? - Avem noi?
Have you? - Avei voi?
Have they? - Au ei/ele?

Negativ
Pers I
Pers a II a

Pers a III a

Singular
Plural
I have not (I haven't) - Eu nu am
We have not (We haven't) - Noi nu avem
You have not (You haven't) Tu You have not (You haven't) - Voi nu ave i
nu ai
He has not (He hasn't) - El nu are
She has not (She hasn't) - Ea nu are
It has not (It hasn't) - El/Ea nu are

They have not (They haven't) - Ei/Ele nu


au

77

Tipuri
VERBUL
de adjective:
TO DO :
ATENIE! Cu excepia verbelor auxiliare "TO BE" i "TO HAVE", toate verbele din limba englez
se conjug la formele simple interogative i negative cu ajutorul verbului auxiliar "TO DO".

Armativ
Pers I
Pers a II a
Pers a III a

Singular
I do Eu fac
You do - Tu faci
He does El face
She does - Ea face
It does - El/Ea face

Plural
We do - Noi facem
You do - Voi face i
They do - Ei/Ele fac

Singular
Do I? - Fac eu?
Do you? - Faci tu?
Does he? - Face el?
Does she? - Face ea?
Does it? - Face el/ea?

Plural
Do we? - Facem noi?
Do you? Facei voi?
Do they? - Fac ei/ele?

Interogativ
Pers I
Pers a II a
Pers a III a

Negativ
Pers I
Pers a II a

Pers a III a

Singular
Plural
I do not (I don't) - Eu nu fac
We do not (We don't) - Noi nu avem
You do not (You don't) - Tu You do not (You don't) - Voi nu face i
nu faci
He does not (He doesn't) - El They do not (They don't) - Ei/Ele nu fac
nu face
She does not (She doesn't) Ea nu face
It does not (It doesn't) - El/Ea
nu face

4.5 PREPOZIIA
prepoziie)
TIMPURILE(The
VERBALE

Timpurile verbale (Tenses) sunt construcii verbale care exprim diverse relaii temporale.
Timpurile verbale (tenses) difer n funcie de ecare limb n parte.
Timpurile n limba englez indic dac o aciune este realizat n prezent, n trecut sau n viitor.

78

Tipuri
Prezentul
de adjective:
simplu (Present Tense Simple)
Prezentul simplu se formeaz folosind indicativul, cu excepia persoanei a III-a singular,
armativ, la care se adaug -E / -ES.
Armativ
I work
You work
He/she/it works
We work
You work
They work

Negativ
I do not (dont) work
You do not (dont) work
He/she/it does not (doesnt) work
We do not (dont) work
You do not (dont) work
They do not (dont) work

Interogativ
Do I work?
Do you work?
Does he/she/it work?
Do we work?
Do you work?
Do they work?

Atunci cnd verbul se termin n s, x, z, ch, rch sau o - terminaia pentru persoana a III-a sg.
devine - ES: she presses / reaches / goes / buzzes (excepie - play: plays)
Prezentul simplu se folosete:
We go to school every morning. Mergem la coal n ecare
diminea.(repetat)
Jane (She) works in a big factory. Jane lucreaz ntr-o fabric
mare.( permanent)

pentru activiti repetate,


obinuite, permanente

pentru aciuni care sunt

Ice melts in the sun. Gheaa se topete la soare.

adevruri general valabile

The sun rises in the East. Soarele rsare de la Est.

referitor la orare i programe,

The lm starts at 10.30. Filmul (va) ncepe la 10:30.


The train leaves at 8.00. Trenul pleac la 8:00 (va pleca)

cu sens de viitor

-Adverbele de frecven sunt deseori folosite pentru a sublinia repetarea. Cele mai
comune adverbe de frecven sunt: usually (de obicei), always (totdeauna), never
(niciodat), ever (vreodat), often (des), seldom (rar), rarely (rar), sometimes
(cteodat), generally (n general), occasionally (ocazional).
- Pentru a sublinia repetarea unei aciuni se mai poate folosi adverbul every ecare
n combinaie cu anumite cuvinte ce denesc momente n timp:
every day/week/month/year ecare zi, sptmn, lun, an etc.

Tipuri
Prezentul
de adjective:
continuu (Present Tense Continuous)
Prezentul simplu se formeaz folosind verbul auxiliar to be (conjugat n funcie de persoan)
i verbul la innitiv plus terminaia -ING.

Subiect + To be + verb la innitiv + ing


She

is

working

- Ea lucreaz.

79

Armativ
I am working
You are working
He/she/it is working
We are working
You are working
They are working

Negativ
I am not working
You are not (arent) working
He/she/it is not (isnt) working
We are not (arent) working
You are not (arent) working
They are not (arent) working

Interogativ
Am I working?
Are you working ?
Is he/she/it working?
Are we working?
Are you working?
Are they working?

Interogativ-Negativ
Am I not (aren't I) working? Are you not (aren't you) working? Is he not (isn't he) working?
Prezentul continuu se folosete:
pentru aciuni care se petrec
n momentul vorbirii
pentru a exprima un aranjament
anume ntr-un viitor apropiat

Kate is at school. She is reading a book. Kate este la coal.


Ea citete o carte.
Pete is at home with mum. He is playing. Pete este acas cu
mama. El se joac.
What are you doing tomorrow? - Ce faci mine?

pentru a exprima viitorul (cu


verbe de micare: to come, arrive,
go, leave.

He is going to London on Friday. El (va) merge la Londra vineri.


I am coming home on Christmas. - Vin acas de Crciun.

mpreun cu always sau


constantly pentru a arta
iritarea sau dezaprobarea

She is always coming in when we are talking. - Ea ntotdeauna intr


n camer n timp ce noi vorbim.
He is always interrupting me. - El m ntrerupe mereu.

pentru aciuni n desfurare


ntr-o perioad limitat n
preajma momentului vorbirii.
pentru aciuni care indic o
schimbare sau trecerea de
la o stare la alta

John is looking for a job.- John i caut un serviciu.

The children are growing up very fast.- Copiii cresc foarte repede.

Cu prezentul continuu se folosesc adverbele now i just, dar ele nu sunt menionate cnd
sensul lor este subneles.
Look, the children are sleeping! (now) Uite, copiii dorm! (acum)

Verbele dinamice (care pot folosite la Prezent continuu) sunt verbele care exprim:
o activitate - ask (a cere), beg (a implora) , call (a suna), drink (a bea), eat (a mnca), help
(a ajuta), learn (a nva), listen (a asculta), etc. - procese - change (a schimba), deteriorate (a
deteriora), grow ( a crete), mature (a se maturiza) , slow down ( a ncetini), widen (a lrgi) percepii senzoriale - ache (a durea), feel (a simi), hurt (a durea), itch (a mnca) - aciuni
tranzitive - arrive ( a ajunge), die (a muri), fall (a cdea), land ( a ateriza), leave (a pleca), lose
(a pierde) - aciuni momentane - hit (a lovi), jump (a sri), kick (a lovi), knock (a ciocni)
Verbele statice (sunt folosite cu Prezentul simplu) sunt verbele:
de percepie, senzaie, activitate mental - adore (a adora), astonish (a uimi), believe (a crede) ,
desire (a dori), detest (a detesta), feel (a simi), forgive (a ierta), hate (a ur), hear (a auzi), etc. de relatie si posesie - be ( a ), belong to (aparine), consist of ( a se compune din), contain
( conine), cost (a costa), depend on (a depinde de)

80

EXERCIII I APLICAII PRACTICE:


Completai forma corect a verbelor TO BE. TO HAVE i TO DO n propoziiile
urmtoare:
1. do - ................... he leave today? ( Pleac el astzi?)
2. be - We .................. from Spain. (Noi suntem din Spania)
3. have - He ....................... called her yet. (El nu a sunat-o nc)
4. be - ................... he an engineer? (Este el inginer?)
5. do - We ................. yoga every morning. (Noi facem yoga n ecare diminea)
6. have - They ..................... a meeting today. (Ei au o ntnire astzi)
n funcie de timpul la care face referire completai n dreptul ecrei armaii de mai
jos cu PS (prezent simplu) sau PC (prezent continuu) :
1......... Acest timp este marcat de adverbele now i just.
2......... Acest timp se folosete cu verbele de micare (come, arrive) pentru a exprima
viitorul.
3......... Acest timp se utilizeaz pentru a exprima aciuni repetate, obinuite.
4......... Acest timp se folosete pentru a exprima aciuni petrecute n momentul vorbirii.
5......... Acest timp este marcat de adverbe precum every, usually, always, never.
6......... Acest timp se folosete pentru a exprima adevruri general valabile.
7......... Se formeaz cu ajutorul verbului auxiliar to be i a terminaiei -ing adgate la
forma de innitiv a verbului.
8......... Acest timp se folosete cu always pentru a exprima iritarea sau dezaprobarea.
9......... Se formeaz adugnd -ES la verbele care se termin n sh, ch, x, z, s, o
10........ Se formeaz cu ajutorul verbelor statice (adore, belong, believe, feel, etc.)
Conjugai verbele urmtoare astfel:
to sleep - PC
(a dormi)

to play - PS
(a juca)

to go - PS
(a merge)

to fall - PC
( a cdea)

to teach - PS
(a preda)

I
You
He/
She/
It
We
You
They

I
You
He/
She/
It
We
You
They

I
You
He/
She/
It
We
You
They

I
You
He/
She/
It
We
You
They

I
You
He/
She/
It
We
You
They
81

Corectai ecare propoziie sau ntrebare:


I dont like this lm

a) I doesnt like this lm.


b) What do you wants?
c) Jim walk to school sometimes.
d) When do the lesson begins?
e) I dont gets up early on Sundays.
f) Tina like computer games.
g) John watchs TV every evening.

Alegei varianta corect pentru ecare propoziie:


1) Someone ........... for you outside. (Cineva te ateapt afar)
a) waits

b) is waiting

c) waiting

2) What ........... of this book? (Ce crezi despre aceast carte?)


a) do you think b) is you think

c) you do think

3) Kate is busy. She ........... for a test. (Kate este ocupat. Studiaz pentru un test)
a) study

b) is studying

c) studies

4) .......... a great time at the moment! (Noi ne simim minunat momentan!)


a) We are have

b) Were have

c) We are having

5) Tina always .......... at 7.00 am. (Tina se trezete tot timpul la 7)


a) get up

b) is getting up

c) gets up

6) What time ....... to bed? (La ce ora te culci?)


a) you do go

b) do you go

c) you go

7) Frank ........... to work every day. (Frank merge la lucru n ecare zi)
a) go

b) is going

c) goes

8) What .....? (Ce mnnci?)


a) do you eat

b) you are eating

c) are you eating

9) When the weather is warm, the snow .......... (Cnd vremea e cald, zpada se topete)
a) melts

b) is melting

c) melt

10) Excuse me, .......... to Bucharest? (M scuzai, drumul sta duce la Bucureti?)
a) this road goes b) does this road go

c) is this road going

82

Tipuri
Trecutul
de adjective:
simplu (The Past Tense Simple)
n funcie de modalitatea de formare a trecutului i a participiului trecut, verbele engleze se mpart
n regulate i neregulate.

Verbul TO DO - Past Simple


Armativ
I did
you did
he/she/it did
we did
you did
they did

Negativ
I did not (didnt)
you did not (didnt)
he/she/it did not (didnt)
we did not (didnt)
you did not (didnt)
they did not (didnt)

Interogativ
Did I?
Did you?
Did she/he/it?
Did we?
Did you?
Did they?

Trecutul simplu al verbelor regulate se formeaz adugnd terminaia ed innitivului fr to.


Armativ: subiect + verb (innitiv)+ed : I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they worked
Negativ: subiect + did not + verb (innitiv): I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they did (didnt) work
Interogativ: did + subiect + verb (innitiv): Did I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they work?
Interogativ negativ: did + subiect + not + verb (innitiv)/ didnt + subiect + verb (innitiv)
Did I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they not work?
Didnt I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they work?
Trecutul simplu al verbelor neregulate nu urmeaz nici o regul. Ele trebuie memorate: (vezi
lista verbelor neregulate - pg.)
Trecutul simplu se folosete:
pentru o aciune nalizat n
trecut cnd este menionat
momentul aciunii:

Tom arrived yesterday. - Ei au venit ieri.


Colombus discovered America in 1492. Columb a descoperit
America n 1492.

pentru o aciune nalizat


sigur n trecut chiar dac
timpul nu este menionat:

Brutus assassinated Julius Caesar. - Brutus l-a asasinat pe


Iulius Cezar
Graham Bell invented the telephone. - Graham Bell a
inventat telefonul

pentru o obinuin din


trecut

She always woke up early on school days. Mereu e trezea


devreme n zilele de coal.

pentru o naraiune n
trecut

I stopped to buy a newspaper and then sat down to read it.


M-am oprit s cumpr un ziar, apoi m-am aezat ca s-l citesc.

Adverbele sau expresiile de timp pot o marc a trecutului simplu: yesterday (ieri), last week
(sptmna trecut), two years ago (acum doi ani), last summer (vara trecut).Trecutul simplu folosit
pentru aciuni obinuite din trecut este adesea nsoit de adverbe de frecven: sometimes (cteodat),
always (totdeauna), often (deseori), usually (de obicei), rarely (mai rar), seldom (rar) etc.

83

Lista verbelor neregulate:

84

85

86

Traducerea lui Past Tense Simple n limba romn:


1.perfectul compus:
When he opened the door, he saw the dog.- Cnd a deschis ua, a vzut cinele.
2.imperfect:
The little boy was very tired. - Bieelul era foarte obosit.

87

EXERCIII I APLICAII PRACTICE:


Trecei propoziiile de la prezent la trecutul regulat (terminaia -ed)
1. He learns English. 2. I like apples. 3. They ask many questions. 4. We open the windows. 5. She talkes to David. 6. She lives in Scotland.7. They work at the weekends. 8. John plays basketball 9. First I watch TV and then I visit my friend. 10. Emily bakes a cake. Scriei forma de trecut armativ, negativ i interogativ a urmtoarelor propoziii :
Ex. My sister cleans her room. - My sister cleaned her room.
- My sister didnt clean her room.
- Did my sister clean her room?
1. We live in New York.

2. The lms ends very late.

3. Tom travels to Dublin.

4. They talk on the phone.

5. I brush my teeth twice a day.

5. We start school at 7 am.

88

Completai tabelul cu formele verbelor neregulate ca n model:


Innitiv
make

Trecut simplu

Traducere
A uita

drive
was, were
A ncepe
cost
had
learn
A se ntlni
knew
spent
A se trezi
think

Completai spaiile libere cu forma de trecut a verbelor din parantez, apoi ncercai
s-l traducei i s rspundei la ntrebrile de mai jos:
Last summer Mary ...................... (go) to Miami with her family. She ................. (be)
very happy before the trip because it ................ (be) the rst time she ...................
(traveled) by plane. They ......................... (stay) at a hotel near the sea. The weather
..................... (be) sunny and very hot. In the morning they usually .................... (go)
to the beach. The children ....................... (play) with the ball ......................... (make)
sand castles. Dad ...................... (swim) in the sea and ......................... (read) the
newspaper under the umbrella. We usually .................... (have) lunch in a restaurant
near the beach. In the afternoon, we .................... (visit) interesting places. One day
we .................... (go) out on a boat. It ............... (be) amazing! We.................... (see)
different sh and a dolphin ..................... (jump) in front of the boat. We .....................
(watch) some people feed the sh. Mary ..................... (take) a lot of photos. The last
day it ........................ (rain). The family .................... (go) to a shopping center. They
.................... (buy) some souvenirs.
a. Where did Mary and her family go on holiday?
b. How did Mary and her family travel to Miami?
c. What did the family buy from the shopping center?
d. What did the dolphin do?
89

Tipuri
Viitorul
de adjective:
simplu (The future simple)
Viitorul simplu se formeaz cu will i verbul la innitiv:
Armativ: subiect + will +verb (innitiv) : I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they will work
Negativ: subiect + will not + verb (innitiv): I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they will not (wont) work
Interogativ: Will + subiect + verb (innitiv): Will I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they work?
Interogativ negativ: will + subiect + not + verb (innitiv)/ wont + subiect + verb (innitiv)
Will I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they not work?
Wont I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they work?
Viitorul simplu se folosete:
pentru a exprima o reacie sau
decizie spontan sau neplanicat,
fcut la momentul vorbirii:

pentru a prezice
evenimente viitoare

pentru a te oferi s faci ceva

I'm too tired to go out tonight. I think I will / I'll stay home.
Sunt prea obosit s ies n seara aceasta. Voi sta acas.

By the year 2050 we will all be driving electric cars.


n anul 2050 toi vom conduce maini electrice.

I can't do my homework. Don't worry. I will / I'll help you.


Nu tiu s mi fac tema. Nu te ngrijora. Te voi ajuta eu.

pentru a promite c faci /


nu faci ceva

I will / I'll say hello to Kathy for you. O voi saluta pe Kathy
din parea ta.

pentru a cere cuiva s fac


ceva

I'm trying to do some work. Will you be quiet, please?


ncerc s muncesc. Putei face puin linite?

O alt modalitate de formare a viitorului simplu este cu SHALL, ns tendina actual este de
a folosi WILL .
! Shall se poate folosi pentru sugestii sau oferte la persoana I singular i plural
shall I ? Shall we ?
Where shall I put these boxes? Unde ar bine s pun aceste boxe?
(= where do you suggest I put them? - Unde sugerezi s le pun?)
Shall we go now? (Ar trebui s) Mergem de acum?

! Will not (sau won't) se folosete adesea pentru a exprima o intenie negativ foarte clar:
He won't move his car = He refuses to move his car. Nu i va muta maina.

90

EXERCIII I APLICAII PRACTICE:


Completai forma de viitor simplu a verbelor din parantez:
1. I (get) .......................................... some coffee for breakfast. (Voi lua nite cafea ca
mic dejun)
2. I am feeling homesick. I (go)......................... home to visit my family. (Mi-e dor de
cas. O s ma duc acas s-mi vizitez familia.)
3. We (win)........................ the trophy this year! (O s ctigm trofeul anul acesta!)
4. I promise I (be/not) ........................... late. (Promit c nu voi ntrzia)
5. Peter (call) .................................. you in the afternoon. (Peter te va suna dup-amiaz)
6. They (walk)................................ to work tomorrow. (Ei vor merge la serviciu mine)
7. I (study) ................................. harder next year. (Voi studia mai tare anul viitor)
Formulai propoziii armative, interogative i negative la viitorul simplu cu ajutorul
urmtoarelor cuvinte:
Ex.: he / get up / early - He will get up early
- He will not / wont get up early.
- Will he get up early?
1. you / learn / French

2. Everything / be / perfect

3. we / plant / a tree

4. Many people / love / you

5. I / swim / tomorrow

5. we / go/ to work / tomorrow

91

4.5 PREPOZIIA
(The prepoziie)
VERBELE MODALE
Verbele modale reprezint o categorie special de verbe ale limbii engleze. Ele au cteva
trsturi caracteristice:
1. Nu accept particula to lng ele ( Exist o singur excepie, ought to, a crui
construcie l include pe to.
2. Nu primesc terminaia -s la persoana a treia singular pentru prezentul simplu;
3. Nu primesc terminaia -ing;
4. Formele negative i interogative se construiesc fr ajutorul verbelor auxiliare (de genul to
do); La interogativ se inverseaz subiectul cu modalul respectiv, iar la interogativ se ataeaz
not direct dupa modal.
5. Nu au toate timpurile i modurile i de aceea au construcii echivalente cu ajutorul crora se
pot folosi la restul timpurilor.

CAN i COULD
CAN se folosete la indicativ prezent la toate persoanele, iar COULD este folosit pentru toate
persoanele la timpul trecut. CAN / COULD pot exprima:
1. ABILITATEA
n general CAN arat o abilitate zic sau
He can solve the difcult Maths problems.
intelectual (se poate traduce cu a putea, a
(Poate s rezolve problemele dicile de matematic.)
capabil)
That man can carry your suitcase.
Omul acela i poate cra geamantanul.
Atunci cnd arat o dexteritate, o rutin, CAN I can speak English. ( tiu s vorbesc Englez)
mai poate tradus si cu a ti
She can swim. (Ea tie s noate)
COULD este nlocuitorul lui CAN doar pentru He could solve the difcult Maths problems.
Trecut simplu
(El putea s rezolve problemele dicile de matematic.)
BE ABLE TO este nlocuitorul lui CAN pentru
celelalte timpuri (doar atunci cnd nseamn a
n stare s)

He will be able to solve the difcult Maths problems.


(El va putea (va n stare) s rezolve problemele
dicile de matematic.)

2. PERMISIUNEA
CAN poate exprima permisiunea (mai puin
Can I borrow your bike? ( Pot s-i mprumut bicicleta?)
formal) la fel ca i may
You can smoke in this restaurant. (Poi s fumezi n
acest restaurant.)
COULD este o modalitate mai politicoas de a Could I borrow your bike? ( A putea s-i mprumut
cere permisiunea
bicicleta?)

3. POSIBILITATEA
CAN, la armativ, exprim o posibilitate:
Have you seen her? No, but she can be in the library.
(Ai vzut-o? Nu, dar ea poate n bibliotec)
CAN, la negativ, exprim certitudini referitoare
la prezent cu sens de sigur nu, nu se poate The lights are off. She cant be at home ( Luminile sunt
s
stinse. Sigur nu e acas / Nu se poate s e acas)
Subiect + cant + verb (la innitiv)

92

MAY i MIGHT
MAY , i forma la trecut MIGHT se traduc prin - a putea, a avea voie - i pot exprima:
1. PERMISIUNEA
MAY se folosete pentru a cere sau a acorda
You may use your dictionaries during the test (Putei s
permisiuni cu sens de a putea, a avea voie: folosii dicionarele pe durata testului)
MAY poate nlocuit pentru celelalte timpuri I will be allowed to play with my friends in the park.
cu TO BE ALLOWED TO
(Voi avea voie s m joc cu prietenii mei n parc.)
2. POSIBILITATEA
MAY exprim o posibilitate referitoare la o
aciune prezent:
It may snow today. (S-ar putea s ning astzi)
Subiect + may + verb (la innitiv)
MAY exprim o posibilitate referitoare la o
She may be writing her letter now. (S-ar putea s-i scrie
aciune n curs de desfurare n prezent:
scrisoarea acum.)
Subiect + may + be + verb+ing
MIGHT este nlocuitorul lui MAY pentru
trecutul simplu (ntlnit mai ales n vorbirea
He said I might go on that trip. ( A spus c puteam s
indirect atunci cnd verbul din propoziia
merg n acea excursie)
principal e la trecut)
MIGHT se folosete cu aceleai funcii ca i
MAY, doar c exprim o posibilitate mai vag.

She might be in the park, but Im not sure at all. ( Ea ar


putea n parc, dar nu sunt sigur deloc.)

3. BINECUVNTRI I BLESTEME
MAY se folose te pentru a exprima dorine i urri (n propoziii exclamative)
May your wish come true! Fie ca dorina ta s se mplineasc!
May you both be very happy! Fie ca voi s i foarte fericii!
May you have a Happy New Year! S avei un an nou fericit!

MUST i HAVE TO
MUST i HAVE TO (=trebuie) pot exprima:
1. OBLIGAIE
MUST ( trebuie) arat obligaia venit de la
I like Johnny Depp. I must see his lastest movie.
vorbitor sau impus de vorbitor.
(mi place Johnny Depp. Trebuie s-i vd ultimul lm.)
HAVE TO este nlocuitorul lui MUST atunci
Our teacher gave us a lot of homework. I have to write
cnd obligaia vine din exterior.
about 10 pages. ( Profesoara noastr ne-a dat o grmad
de teme. Trebuie s scriu vreo 10 pagini.)
HAVE TO HAD TO este nlocuitorul lui
I had to read the book before going to bed.
MUST la trecutul simplu.
(A trebuit s citesc cartea nainte s m duc la culcare)
2. INTERDICIE
MUST la negativ exprim o interdicie:
You mustnt chew gum when you speak! (Nu trebuie s
mesteci gum cnd vorbeti)
Visitors must not smoke in the lobby

93

3. CONCLUZIE/PRESUPUNERE LOGIC. CERTITUDINE


MUST exprim o concluzie/presupunere logic
i sigur a vorbitorului, referitoare la
The lights are on. She must be home. (Luminile sunt
o aciune prezent
aprinse. Sigur e acas/Trebuie s e acas)
Subiect + must + verb (innitiv)
O aciune n curs de desfurare n prezent:
Subiect + must+ be+ verb+ing

The guests havent arrived yet, but they must be driving


to our place. (Musarii nu au ajuns nc, dar sigur sunt
n drum spre noi cu maina Trebuie s e n drum spre
noi)

WILL
Poate exprima:
1. CERERE
WILL se ntlnete n special n ntrebri i se Will you carry my suitcase, please?
poate traduce cu a vrea:
(Vrei s-mi cari tu geamantanul, te rog?)
Pentru a formula o cerere mai politicoas putem
folosi:
Will you be so good as to open the door for me? ( Vrei
expresii de genul be so good as, be good s i aa bun/drgu s-mi deschizi u?a?)
enough to
sau
Would you close the window, please? (Vrei s nchidei
fereastra, v rog?
WOULD
2. PREDICTIBILITATE
n exprimri generalizate de genul:
Boys will be boys. (Bieii..tot biei.)
Accidents will happen. (Accidente se vor ntmpla
mereu)

WOULD
Poate exprima:
WOULD se folosete pentru a exprima
obiceiuri din trecut:
WOULD se folosete pentru a cere
permisiunea:
WOULD se folosete pentru a exprima o
cerin:
WOULD se folosete pentru a exprima o
preferin, o dorin:
WOULD intr n expresia modal WOULD
RATHER (as/ar/am/ai prefera s..)

When I was a child I would climb trees.(Cnd eram


copil m cram n copaci obinuiam s ma ca?r n
copaci)
Would you mind if I borrow your T-shirt?(Te-ai supra
dac i mprumut tricoul?)
Would you give me your phone number, please?(Vrei
s-mi dai numrul tu de telefon, te rog?)
Would you like a cup of tea? (Vrei o ceac de ceai?)
I would rather you didnt tell her about this. ( A prefera
s nu-i spui despre asta)

94

SHOULD
Se traduce ar trebui / ar trebuit i nu este la fel cu MUST (=trebuie)!
SHOULD se folosete pentru a exprima sfaturi
i recomandri:
SHOULD se folosete pentru a exprima o
obligaie nendeplinit, dezaprobare:

You should learn more.(Ar trebui s nvei mai mult.)


She should see a doctor if she feels sick. (Ea ar trebui s
vad un doctor dac se simte ru.)
She should do more than that.(Ar trebui s fac mai
mult de att)

OUGHT TO
Se traduce ar trebui, s-ar cuveni. Este singurul verb modal care accept particula to, aceasta
fcnd parte din el.
OUGHT TO se folosete pentru a exprima
sfaturi sau recomandri, de regul moral
dezirabile
OUGHT TO poate exprima i posibilitatea
atunci cnd e logic ca lucrurile s stea ntr-un
anume fel:

You ought to help your parents.(S-ar cuveni s-i ajui


prinii)
All people ought to speak politely. (Toi oamenii ar
trebui s vorbeasc politicos.)
They ought to be home by now. (Ar trebui s e acas
pn acum)

EXERCIII I APLICAII PRACTICE:


Completai cu can / cant , could (pentru trecut) i be able to (pentru viitor):
1. .............................. you swim when you were 10 years old? (Puteai s noi cnd aveai
10 ani?)
2. He ................. speak 5 languages, including Chinese. (El poate vorbi 5 limbi, inclusiv
chineza)
3. I ........................ drive a car until I moved to the city. (Nu puteam conduce maina
pn cnd m-am mutat la ora)
4. She ....................................... to play the piano after taking lessons weekly. (Ea va
putea s cnte la pian dup ce va lua lecii sptmnal. )
5. Im reading the book now but I ........................... understand it. (Citesc cartea acum,
dar nu o pot nelege. )
6. He ....................................... to drive after he takes the test. (El va putea conduce dup
ce va da testul.)
7. I ..................... lift this box, it is too heavy. (Nu pot ridica aceast cutie, e prea grea.)
8. I looked everywhere for my glasses, but I ............................. nd them anywhere.
(M-am uitat peste tot dup ochelarii mei, dar nu i-am putut gsi nicieri.)
95

ncercuii verbul modal corect din ecare propoziie:


1. When I grow up I may / might become an engineer. ( Cnd cresc mare, s-ar putea s
devin inginer.)
2. There is a small chance that we may / might go to the wedding. (E o posibilitate
mic ca noi s mergem la nunt)
3. May / Might I have a cup of coffee please? ( Pot avea o ceac de cafea, v rog?)
4. Im sorry, I may / might not be coming to your party after all. (mi pare ru, nu cred
c voi putea veni la petrecerea ta pn la urm)
5. May / Might your children bring you only happiness! ( Copiii votri s v aduc
numai bucurii!)
Completai cu have to / must / ought to / should i formele lor negative (acolo unde
este nevoie):
1. If you want to lose weight, you .................................. eat so many potatoes and
bread. (Dac vrei s slbeti, nu ar trebui s mnnci aa muli carto i pine)
2. You ............................ drink and drive. (Nu trebuie s bei i s conduci)
3. The door is open. Mary ................... be home. (Ua e deschis. Mary sigur e acas.)
4. You ............................................. come to the wedding if you dont want to. (Nu
trebuie s vii la nunt dac nu vrei.)
5. These instructions are very complicated. They .......................... explain things better.
(Aceste instruciuni sunt foarte complicate. S-ar cuveni s explice lucrurile mai bine.)
6. The orange juice from the supermarket isnt healthy. You................... make it
yourself at home. (Sucul de portocale de la supermarket nu e sntos. Ar trebui s i-l
faci singur acas.)
Traducei urmtoarele porpoziii n limba englez:
1. John nu putea nota cnd avea 6 ani.

2. Nu trebuie s te duci acolo astzi!

3. Ar trebui s mnnci mai sntos.

4. S-ar cuveni ca tu s vorbeti mai mult cu sora ta.

96

4.7.
4.5
VOCABULAR
PREPOZIIAI(The
APLICAII
prepoziie)
PRACTICE
1. FAMILIA I LOCUINA
My name is Annie. I am living with my husband and
my children at the countryside. My father, my mother, my
brother and my sister are living here too. The best friends of
our children are their cousins. They are playing every day
together. Our grandparents are living in Germany, but we are
visiting them often. Our house is big, so anyone can come
visit us. We have a small fence and a big lawn. Every day, we
come back home at 16:00 o'clock. We all love animals.
Those cats and these parrots are ours too.

VOCABULARY:
husband - so
wife - soie
child, pl. children copil, copii
father - tat
mother - mam
grandfather - bunic
grandmother - bunic
grandparents- bunici
sister - sor
brother - frate
cousin verior/ verioar

computer

aunt - mtu
uncle - unchi
friend - prieten
together - mpreun
single - singur
married - cstorit
divorced - divorat
widowed - vduv
to live a locui/ a tri
to visit a vizita
often - adesea

back n spate/ napoi


home - acas
to love a iubi
cat - pisic
parrot - papagal
countryside - la ar
house - cas
fence - gard
lawn - peluz
every day n ecare zi

attic
box

toys
window
bathroom

study

bedroom

shower

bed
lamp
pillows

bathtub
toilet

desk
kitchen

door

living room

clock

microwave

sink

cooker

sta

irs

fridge

chair
TV

oor

table
telephone
97

EXERCIII:
Rspundei la urmtoarele ntrebri:
1. Are you married or single?
2. Do you have any brothers or sisters? What are their names?
3. What is your mothers name?
4. Do you have any children? What are their names?
5. Whats your favourite room in the house?

Descriei unde locuii. Urmrii exemplul:


I live in an apartment / a house. My apartment has two bedrooms, a living room,
two bathrooms and a kitchen. My apartment is near a supermarket and a school. My
favourite room in the apartment is the living room.

Traducei n limba englez propoziiile:


1. Mary se uit la TV n sufragerie.
2. John are o soie frumoas i doi copii.
3. Bunicii mei locuiesc la ar. i vizitez n ecare sptmn.
4. M-am dus n pod s caut o cutie.
5. Ea are n buctrie o mas cu ase scaune.

98

2. PROFESIILE
My name is John. I used to be an engineer, but for three months
I have been unemployed. I unexpectedly met an old friend of mine
on the bus yesterday. He is an insurance agent and his wife is a
doctor.
'Hello John!'
'Hi Michael! How are you?'
'Excellent, thank you! I am going to work right now. I am
working for an insurance company. And you?'
'I'm ne. I am looking for a job. I have been unemployed for
three months.'
'Oh! I'm sorry. Hmm You know what? My boss wants to hire
two new clerks. Would you be interested? So far we are four
employees in the company. The executive director, the
secretary, and two insurance agents. We need more employees in that ofce.'
' Yes, of course. I would like to apply for this job.'
'Great. Please send your CV at this e-mail address, and you will be called as soon as possible.'
'Thank you a lot. Good bye Michael!'
Have a nice day, John.'

VOCABULARY:
used to be eram, obinuiam s
engineer - inginer
month lun (calendarisic)
unemployed far serviciu/ neangajat
unexpectedly n mod neateptat
to meet- a ntlni
old vechi, btrn
bus - autobuz
yesterday - ieri
insurance - asigurri
agent agent
doctor - doctor
to go a merge
to work a munci/ munc

right now chiar acum


ofce - birou
company - rm
of course - bineneles
to look for (smth) a cuta (ceva)
to apply a aplica,
boss ef
great - minunat
to hire a angaja
to send a trimite
clerk - funcionar
to call a suna
to be interested in smth a interesat
as soon as de ndat ce
de ceva
possible - posibil
so far pn acum
employee(s) angajat(i)
executive director executiv
secretary - secretara
to need a avea nevoie
apply for a job a candida pentru un serviciu

Other useful words:


a obine o slujb = to get a job
salariul = salary
a ctiga bani = to earn money
o fabric, o uzin = a factory, a plant
un atelier = a workshop
un stagiar = a trainee
personalul = the staff
o unealt = a tool
avocat = lawyer
brutar = baker
chelner = waiter

cizmar = shoemaker
contabil = accountant
profesor = teacher
farmacist = chemist
instalator = plumber
marinar = sailor
om de serviciu = janitor
poliist = policeman
sor medical = nurse
vnztor = sales man
ziarist = journalist

chelneri = waitress
coafez = hairdresser, hairstylist

99

3.EXPRIMAREA PRERII I A PREFERINELOR:


Checking in (at the front desk of a hotel)
Receptionist: Good evening, madam. May I help you?
Guest: Yes, my name is Jane Smith and I have a
reservation.
Receptionist: Let me check on our computer. Yes, Ms.
Smith, there is a reservation for a double room for two nights.
Am I right?
Guest: Yes, that's right.
Receptionist: What kind of room would you like? I
mean, a smoking or a non-smoking room?
Guest: Oh, I'd prefer a non-smoking room.
Receptionist: Room 306, then. Could I ask you to ll in
this card and sign here?
Guest: Sure. By the way. Can you send the bill to my ofce? Here is the fax number.
Receptionist: Of course. Can you sign here please? That's all.
Guest: Is the room available right now? I need to rest.
Receptionist: Yes, of course it is. Here is your key card.
Guest: Thank you very much. Oh, I'd also like a wake- up call in the morning, at six o'clock.
Receptionist: No problem. Thank you, Ms. Smith.

VOCABULARY:
madam doamn
to help - a ajuta
reservation rezervare
to let a lsa
to check a verica
computer pc, computer
double room - camera dubl
to be right a avea dreptate
kind fel, tip de
to mean a nsemna
i mean (context) vreau s spun c..

to smoke a fuma
right now chiar acum
then atunci
to need a avea nevoie
to ask a cere
need to trebuie
to ll in a completa
to rest a se odihni
to sign a semna
key card card (de acces)
sure sigur
wake up call apel telefonic
by the way apropo
(de trezire)
bill factura, not de plat
thats all asta este tot
available liber, disponibil
non-smoking room - camer de nefumtori

Despre preferine:
Urmtoarele verbe i expresii se utilizeaz pentru a arta ct de mult cineva ndrgete sau nu ceva:
to adore = a adora
to love = a iubi
to be crazy/ mad about = a nebun dup
to be a great fan of = un mare admirator al
to like = a plcea
to be fond of = a se da n vnt dup

don't care = a nu-i psa


dislike = a displcea
to hate = a ur
can't stand/bear = a nu suporta
detest = a detesta
to loathe = a dispreui

100

Despre opinii:
Pentru a-i cere cuiva prerea despre ceva, avem posibilitatea de a alege intre diverse expresii:
What do you think about this idea?
What do you think about it?
What is your opinion?

Ce crezi despre ideea asta?


Ce crezi despre asta?
Care-i prerea ta?

Pentru a rspunde la aceste ntrebri, se poate ncepe cu:


I think...Cred c...
I don't think...N
 u cred...
I believe...C
 red...
My opinion is that...P
 rerea mea este c...
Folosirea conjunciei that dup verbul to think nu e obligatorie, dar n romn conjuncia
c trebuie folosit.
I think it is important- Cred c este important
Sau
I think that it is important - Cred c este important
TO MEAN
O alt modalitate de a exprima propriile preri este folosirea verbului to mean cu semnicaia
vreau s zic, adic. Se folosete foarte des n limba vorbit, iar vreau s zic formeaz o propoziie
incident.
Things are different today, I mean , women work now! - Astzi lucrurile sunt altfel, vreau s zic,
astzi femeile lucreaz.
I AGREE I DON'T AGREE
O formul politicoas de a exprima dezacordul este urmtoarea:
I'm sorry, I don't agree with you

mi pare ru, nu sunt de acord cu tine/dumneavoastr

Pe de alt parte, dac vrem s spunem c suntem de acord cu cineva, folosim:


I agree with you
You're right!  

Sunt de acord cu tine/dumneavoastr


Ai/avei dreptate

101

4. TIMP LIBER
On Fridays I come home from the travel agency at
about 6.00 in the evening and I call some friends. On
Friday evenings I don't go out, because my friends come
over for dinner. They bring the wine and I cook. After
having dinner we always play bridge, listen to music
and chat. We never turn on the T.V.
On Saturday mornings I go shopping. Then I cook
lunch and just relax. In the evenings, I go clubbing with
my friends. I love dancing! I arrive home late at night
and I'm usually very tired. On Sunday mornings I stay in
bed late and I don't get up until 11.00.
Sometimes, in the afternoon, I visit my parents or my brother. Other times, I like going on short trips on
foot or by bike. I know by heart all the surroundings. All in all, I really love weekends!

VOCABULARY:
to come - a veni
travel agency agenie de voiaj
about aproximativ (pe la)
evening dup amiaz
to call a suna
to go out a iei n ora
because pentru c
come over a veni la
dinner cin
to bring a aduce
wine vin
to cook - a gti
after dup
to play bridge a juca bridge
listen to music a asculta muzic
to chat - a vorbi, a discuta
never niciodat
turn on a deschide
to go shopping a merge la cumprturi
lunch prnz
just doar
to relax - a se relaxa
go clubbing a merge n club

to love dancing a-i plcea s danseze.


to arrive a ajunge
late at night trziu n noapte
usually - de obicei
tired obosit
to stay a sta
bed pat
late trziu
to get up - a se trezi
until pn la
sometimes uneori
afternoon dup amiaz
other alt/ alt
short - scurt
trip cltorie
on foot pe jos
by bike cu bicicleta
really ntr-adevr/ cu adevrat
to know by heart a ti pe dinafar
surroundings mprejurimi
all in all - toate acestea ind luate n considerare

102

5. SPORT I SNTATE:
Many of us love watching sports on TV, but how
many of us get out and do sport on a regular basis?
The most popular sports around the world may change
from country to country, but football is high on the
list. Millions of people play and watch football. A
large number of people support a football team and
attend matches regularly.
Athletics is also done by many people around the
world and it is one of the most watched events in the Olympics. For those without access to an athletics
stadium, there is always the possibility of running.
In fact, more and more people are taking up this sport as a hobby. Otherwise, as a usual and
achievable hobby you can play billiards, bowling, darts, you can go cycling, swimming or dancing.

VOCABULARY:
many of us muli (dintre noi)
to watch (tv) a se uita ( la tv)
to get out - a iei
to do sport a face sport
regular basis n mod regulat
popular popular
around n jurul
world lume
to change a schimba
country ar
high sus
large number numr mare
people (pl) oameni
to support - a susine
team echip
to attend a participa

match meci
regular(ly) - regular (cu regularitate)
event eveniment
olympics jocurile olimpice
without fr
access acces
stadium stadion
possibility posibilitatea
to run - a alerga
in fact de fapt
to take up a lua, a considera
otherwise altfel
usual obinuit
achievable - realizabil
hobby pasiune, hobby

Here's a list of most popular sports: Lista cu cele mai populare sporturi
Aerobics - aerobic
Badminton - badminton
Baseball -basebal
Basketball - basket
beach volleyball volei pe plaj
billiards- biliard
bowling - bowling
boxing - box
canoeing - canotaj
car racing curse de maini
chess - ah
climbing - crri
cycling - ciclism
dancing - dans
darts - darts

diving - scufundri
gure skating patinaj artistic
shing - pescuit
gliding a plana cu parapanta
golf - golf
gymnastics - gimnastic
handball - handbal
high jump sritura n nlime
hiking crat ( pe muni)
hockey - hochei
ice skating patina (pe ghea)
jogging - jogging
judo - judo

karate - karate
tennis - tenis
swimming - not
running alergat

103

What Are the Benets of Exercise? (Care sunt beneciile exerciiilor?)


Exercise/ Sport improves the body in many ways.
The lungs take in more air, giving us more oxygen. Plmnii absorb mai mult aer, oferindu-ne mai
mult oxigen.
The heart works harder to get more blood and oxygen to the parts of the body that are working. Inima
lucreaz mai mult (cnd facem sport) pentru a pompa mai mult snge i oxigen n zonele solicitate
ale corpului.
The heart and muscles become larger, stronger and tter. Inima i muchii devin mai elastici i mai
puternici.
The skin, hair and eyes look better because the inside is healthy. Pielea, prul i ochii arat mai bine
pentru c i interiorul este sntos.
Improved muscle tone gives the body a better shape and posture. Musculatura lucrat ofer corpului
o postur mai bun.
Endorphins are released into the brain which make us feel happy. They make us feel more condent and
improve our self-esteem. Endornele sunt eliberate la nivelul creierului i asta ne face s ne simim
fericii. Astfel ne vom simi mai ncreztori, mbuntindu-ne i stima de sine.
We sleep better - Dormim mai bine.

VOCABULARY:
diet, regim= diet;
sntos= in good health;
nu prea sntos= in bad health;
m simt bine= I feel good;
bolnav= ill/ sick;
boala= illness, disease ;
a vindeca= to recover;
a (se) rni, a durea= to hurt; rnit= injured/ hurt;
durere de cap= headache ;
durere de stomac= stomach-ache;
durere de dini= toothache;
durere de gt= sore throat;
a avea febr (temperatura)= to have temperature;
reet= prescription;
a avea grip= to have the ue ;
a rupe un picior= to break a leg;

104

CAP.
5

CONVERSAIE
N LIMBA ENGLEZ

5.1. SALUTURI (Greetings)


Formule de salut n englez pot formale i informale. n limba englez sunt mai multe
categorii de saluturi, cele uzuale pentru ecare parte a zilei sau cele prieteneti, informale
folosite ntre aduli sau tineri.

Formule de salut formale n englez:


Bun dimineaa! = Good morning!
Bun ziua! = Good afternoon!
Bun dup-amiaza! / Bun seara! = Good
evening!
Bun! = Hello!
Ce mai faci ? = How are you?
Bine ai (ai) venit! = Welcome!
Obs! Good night = Noapte bun => aceast
exprimare o folosim doar atunci cnd cineva se
duce la culcare, NU pentru a saluta pe cineva
pe timp de noapte.

Formule de salut informale n limba


englez:
Hi = Hey / Hi
Care-i treaba? = What's up?
Cum merge? = How's it going?
Cum i-e viaa? = How's life?
Cum sunt treburile? = How are things ?

Cum spunem la revedere n limba


englez:
La revedere! = Goodbye!
Pa! = Bye!
Pe curnd! = See you soon!
Ne vedem! = See you!
Ne vedem curnd! = See you soon!
Ne vedem mai trziu! = See you later!
O zi bun! = Have a nice day!
Un weekend plcut! = Have a good weekend!

La nici una din saluturile sub form de


ntrebri nu se ateapt un raspuns concret, ci
rspunsuri simple i concise de genul :
Bine = Good / ok
Nu aa bine = Not so good
Ru = Bad
Foarte ru = Very bad

5.2. PREZENTRI (Introducing yourself)


ntrebri i rspunsuri:

Whats your name?


My name is
How old are you ?
I am years old.
What do you do?
I am a/an. . I work as.

- Cum te numeti?
- Numele meu este....
- Ci ani ai?
- Am ani.
- Cu ce te ocupi?
- Sunt.. . sau Lucrez ca i. .

105

Where do you live ?


Do you like living there?
I live in. .
I like/i dont like living there because
How old are you ?
I am years old.
What are your hobbies?
I like to in my spare time.

- Unde locuieti?
- i place s locuieti acolo?
- Eu locuiesc n....
- mi place / nu-mi place s locuiesc acolo deoarece
- Ci ani ai?
- Am ani.
- Care sunt hobby-urile tale?
- mi place s.... n timpul meu liber

ntr-o

situaie formal cum ar un interviu, oamenii vor s ae despre trecutul nostru educaional i
experiena de munc dar i de ce am aplicat pentru jobul respectiv.
Pe cnd ntr-o situaie informal, cum ar cnd cunoatem pe cineva la o petrecere, oamenii vor
dori s ae despre noi ca persoane, cu ce ne ocupm, cum i-am cunoscut pe ceilali invitai i cum ne
petrecem timpul liber.

CUM VORBIM DESPRE NOI NINE (Talking about ourselves)


DESCRIPTION (Descrierea)
Im a tall/ short man / woman.
Sunt un brbat/ o femeie nalt()/ scund().
I am a dark/ blond/ red/ grey-haired person. Sunt brunet/ blond/ rocat/ crunt.
I have a curly/ straight/ frizzy/ wavy hair.
Am prul cre/ drept/ crlionat/ ondulat.
Im a long-haired/ short-haired person.
Am pr lung/scurt.
I wear sport/ fashionable/ casual clothes.
Port haine sport/ elegante/casual.
FAMILY (Familia)
I have a big/ small family.
Am o familie numeroas/ restrns.
I have three sisters older than me/ I only
Am trei surori mai mari / am doar o sor mai mic
have one younger sister than me.
dect mine.
Im the youngest/ the oldest of all. Im an
Sunt cel mai mic/ cel mai mare copil. Sunt singurul
only child.
copil.
Both my parents are doctors.
Ambii prini sunt doctori.
We usually get together on Sundays.
Ne ntlnim de obicei duminica
SELF-DESCRIPTION (Autodescrierea)
Im highly self-condent and I also trust
Sunt foarte ncreztor n mine i de asemenea n
people.
oameni.
People can rely on me when I make a
Oamenii se pot baza pe mine atunci cnd promit
promise.
ceva.
Im very hard-working and I like doing my
Sunt foarte muncitor i mi place s mi fac treaba
job until its well done.
pn la capt.
Im social and I enjoy work team.
Sunt sociabil i mi place munca n echip.
Im a creative person.
Sunt o persoan creativ.

106

5.3 MULUMIRI (Thanking)


Cnd mulumim cuiva pentru ce a fcut, folosim expresia:
Thank you (for)... - Mulumesc pentru... sau mai familiar Thanks! - Mulam!
Cnd mulumim cuiva ntr-o scrisoare ocial, folosim formula:
I am grateful for... - Sunt recunosctor pentru...
Thank you! - Mulumesc!
Thank you very much for... - Mulumesc foarte mult pentru
Many thanks! - Multe mulumiri!
Thank you a lot! - Mulumesc mult!
That is/ That was really nice of you! - Este / a fost foarte drgu din partea ta!
I am very grateful! - i sunt foarte recunosctor!
I really can t thank you enough for - Nu-i pot mulumi ndeajuns pentru

Cum rspundem la mulumiri


Atunci cnd cineva ne mulumete, trebuie s i rspundem ntr-un anumit fel . n funcie de ct
de ocial este modul de mulumire, putem utiliza una dintre formulele de mai jos:
Sure. Sigur.
No problem. - Nicio problem.
You're welcome. - Cu placere.
Don't worry about it. Nu-i f problem despre asta.
Don't mention it. Nicio problem.
No, not at all. Nu, chiar deloc.
It's my pleasure. My pleasure Cu plcere .
It's the least I could do. E tot ce am putut face.
It s no trouble at all - Absolut nicio problem.
That s ok. E n regul.
Any time. - Oricnd.
Delighted I was able to help. - ncntata c am putut s v ajut.
You would have done the same in my place, Im sure Ai fcut la fel dac erai n locul meu,
cu siguran.
Appreciate it! - Apreciez ( pentru ce ai fcut.)
I appreciate all of your help. Apreciez ntregul dumneavoastr efort.

5.4 SCUZE (Apologies)


1.Cum ne cerem scuze
Cel mai obinuit mod de a ne cere scuze este I'm sorry! mi pare ru!
Se pot utiliza adverbe precum very - foarte, so att de, terribly groaznic i extremely grozav.
Dac vrem s ne cerem scuze pentru o greeal neintenionat, spunem I beg you pardon mi cer scuze,
n loc de Sorry! mi pare ru!.
Excuse me! - M scuzai (poate folosit s atragi atenia cuiva, s treci de cineva sau s i ceri scuze)
Este utilizat preponderant de vorbitorii de englez american.
Atunci cnd dorim s cerem scuze ntr-o manier formal, spunem I apologize! mi cer scuze!
O alt exprimare formal este Please accept my apologies! V rog s-mi acceptai scuzele.
Cu sensul de a ierta, exist expresia Forgive me! Iart-m!

107

2.Cum acceptm scuze


Dac cineva i cere scuze putei s i rspundei cu una din urmtoarele expresii:
No problem - Nicio problem
It's OK sau That's OK - Este n regul
Don't worry about it - Nu-i face griji (cu privire la)
That's quite all right -

Este n regul

Oh, I'm terribly sorry - Oh, mi pare foarte ru.


Not at all. - Nu-i nimic.
Please, don't be. S nu v par ru.
It really doesn't matter Nu conteaza absolut deloc.
That's all rigt! E n regul!
There's no reason to apologise! Nu ai niciun motiv s i ceri scuze.
It's really of no importance - Nu are absolut nicio importan.

5.5 SFATURI (Asking for advice)


1. Cum cerem sfaturi - Asking for advice:
Do you think I should? Crezi c ar trebui s?
Should I? S?/
What should I do? - Ce ar trebui s fac?
Would you advise me to? - M-ai sftui s?
What would you do in my position? Ce ai face n locul meu?
What/ When/ How/ Where/ Who would you.? - Ce/ Cnd/ Cum/Unde/ Pe cine ai.
What would you do if you were me? Ce ai face dac ai n locul meu?
I would appreciate some advice on/ about A aprecia un sfat n privina/ asupra
I should like to ask you - A vrea s v ntreb..
Would you recommend me? - Mi-ai recomanda?
2. Cum sftuim pe cineva s fac ceva - Advising someone to do something
Dac dorim s dm un sfat i avem o anumit autoritate, putem utiliza formula
You'd better Mai degrab ai
Un mod mai formal de a da un sfat este I advise you to Te sftuiesc s.
Un mod imperativ de a da sfaturi este You must.. - Trebuie s
I think you should Cred c ar trebui
You should/shouldn't (innitive without "to") Nu ar trebui s
You ought to... (innitive without "to") - Ar trebui s.
Why don't you ? De ce nu ..?
How about? (verb+ing) Ce ai zice despre?
If I were you, I'd (innitive without "to") Dac a n locul tu, a
You'd better (innitive without 'to ) - Ar trebui s/ Mai bine ai
It might be an idea to - Ar o idee s.
Take my advice and Ascult-m pe mine i.
If you follow my advice, you'll Dac mi urmezi sfatul, vei.
I would recommend you - i-a recomanda

108

3. Cum sftuim pe cineva s nu fac ceva - Advising someone not to do something


You should go on a diet. Ar trebui s ii o diet
You ought to drink less beer. Ar trebui s bei mai puin bere.
How about going for a run? - Ce ai zice s mergem s alergm?
You'd better stop eating so much! Ar trebui s nu mai mnnci att de mult.
You'd better not Mai bine n-ai
It's up to you, but I wouldn't E treaba ta, dar eu nu a.
Go the other way Ia-o pe drumul cellalt.
I wouldn't advise you to. Nu te-a sftui s.

5.6. CEREREA I RUGMINTEA (Asking and request)


Exis mai multe variante de a ne exprima politicos atunci cnd rugm pe
cineva, ceva n limba englez. Folosim expresiile:
Would you? Could you? Would you like to? Do you?
n general utilizm formele Would you sau Could you + innitive pentru a ne
exprima rugmintea.
Would you like to? Ai vrea s este o form mai politicoas de a cere ceva,
mult mai politicoas dect formula Do you want to?
Would you please bring your library books ? Ai vrea te rog s aduci crile de la
bibliotec?
Could you join us on Saturday? Ai putea s ne nsoeti Duminic?
Would you like to join us on Saturday? Ai dori s ne nsoeti Duminic?
Would you mind? - Te deranjeaz dac?
Can I / could I / may I / might I
Dac dorim s cerem ceva pentru noi, putem utiliza oricare dintre formulele de mai sus. May, ct i Might
sunt considerate ca ind formule mai politicoase, Can i Could ind folosite n vorbirea uzual.
'Can I ask a favour of you?' Pot s te rog ceva?
'Of course you can.' Bineneles c poi.
'Could I possibly have another cup of coffee?' A putea s beau nc o ceac de cafa?
'I don't think you should. You won't sleep tonight if you do.'- Nu cred c ar trebui. Nu o s mai dormi la noapte.
'May I turn the computer off?' - A putea s nchid computerul?
'Yes, please do.'- Da, te rog.
'Might I leave work a bit earlier today?' A putea pleca mai repede astzi de la munc?
Would you / Do you mind if I?
Utilizm formulele Do / Would you mind if I? s rugm pe cineva ceva, atunci
cnd anticipm posibile obiecii:
Would you mind if I put off talking to Henry until tomorrow? - Pot s amn discuia cu Henry pn mine?
I think that's a mistake. I think you should speak to him today. - Cred c ar o greeal. Cred c ar trebui
s vorbeti astzi cu el.

109

1. Cum cerem informaii:

4. Cum cerem acordul:

Can you tell me please... Ai putea s mi spunei...


Excuse me, do you know... - Scuzai-m, tii cumva...
I should be interested to know - A interesat s tiu
Can you help me? M putei ajuta?
I'd like to know Mi-ar plcea/ A vrea s tiu
Can anyone tell me Poate s mi spun cineva
Do you happen to know- tii cumva..?

Right - Corect?
Ok?- OK/ n regul?
Don't you think so? Nu crezi?
Ok by you? Eti de acord?
Do you agree with...?- Eti de acord cu..?
Can I ask you if you agree?- Pot s te ntreb
dac eti (ai ) de acord...

2. Cum cerem prerea cuiva:


What do you think about..?- Ce credei despre...?
What s your opinion of? - Care este opinia dumneavoastr despre...?
What about? Ct despre...?
How do you see? Cum consideri?
What is your reaction to?. Care este reacia dvs. la...?
Do you have any opinion on? - Avei vreo opinie despre
3. Cum cerem permisiunea:
Can I... please? - Pot s...,v rog?
Do you mind if...? V deranjeaz dac...?
Mind...? Deranjez?
OK? E n regul dac?
Mind if? - Deranjez dac?
?May I/ Might I- Pot/ A putea?
Is there any problem if...? Este vreo problem dac..?

5.7. ACCEPTAREA I REFUZAREA OFERTEI (Accepting and


refusing an oer)
1. Cum facem o ofert:
Would you like to...? - i-ar face placere s?
Shall we.? Vrei s?
What about...? Ce-ai zice de..?
I'd very much like you to - Mi-ar face
mare plcere s
Would you care to? - i-ar plcea s?
Could you? - Ai putea s..?
Would you mind? - Te-ar deranja s?
Can you ? - Poi s?

3. Refuzarea unei oferte:

2. Acceptarea unei oferte:


Thank you, I'd like to - Mulumesc, mi-ar plcea s
That would be very nice Ar foarte drgu s
With pleasure! Cu placere!
I'd like nothing better. Nimic nu mi-ar plcea mai mult.
All right! - Bine
I won't say no. - N-am sa te refuz.
Great! Grozav!
Lovely - ncnttor.
Smashing - Teribil.
I'd love to Mi-ar plcea s
We'd be delighted to Am ncntai s
What a splendid idea. - Ce idee minunat.

Thank you (very much), but- Mulumesc mult, dar


That's very kind of you, but E foarte drgu din partea ta, dar
Thank you very much for asking me but- Mulumesc foarte mult pentru propunere, dar
I'm terribly sorry, but I don t think I can - mi pare tare ru, dar nu cred c pot.
I'd like to, but.. Mi-ar pcea s., dar
I wish I could, but - A vrea s pot, dar.
I'd love to, but Mi-ar plcea s, dar
Sory, I can't mi pare ru, dar nu pot.
Much to my regret Spre marele meu regret

110

Aceste dialoguri arat cum se accept i cum se refuz ofertele:


"Can I help you?"
"No thanks, I'm just looking."
"Would you like another coffee?"
"No thanks." Or, "No thank you."
"Shall I open the window for you?"
"Yes please. That would be very kind of you."
"Would you like another coffee?"
"Yes please, that would be lovely." Or, "Yes please, I'd love one."
"I'll do the photocopying, if you like."
"It's OK, I can do it." Or, "Don't worry, I'll do it.
"Or, "Thank you, that would be great."

5.8. RSPUNSURI AFIRMATIVE I NEGATIVE (Positive and


negative answers)
Putei ntreba pe cineva dac este de acord sau nu cu opinia dumneavoastr utiliznd
ntrebri de tipul: It is a difcult task, isn't it? Este o tem dicil, nu-i aa?
n situaii ociale, formale, se folosesc expresii ca: Don' t you agree...? - Nu suntei
de acord c.... i Would you agree...? - Ai de acord s..?
Ca rspuns la aceste ntrebri se folosete Sure Desigur, cnd se accept
armaiile interlocutorului. Expresia I agree - Sunt de acord, este mai formal.
Pentru a exprima acordul, se spune Yes Da, sau I see what you mean neleg ce
vrei s spunei.

1. Exprimarea acordului:
Yes, I agree - Da, sunt de accord.
That's (quite) right - E drept.
I absolutely / entirely agree Sunt absolut/ total de accord.
How right you are! Ct dreptate avei!
Right! - Corect!
Yeah - Mda
You're so right! Ai ( atta) dreptate!
Oh, I agree entirely! Oh, sunt total de accord!
I don't think anyone could disagree. Nu cred c m-ar putea contrazice cineva.

111

2. Exprimarea dezacordului:
Oh, I don't agree. Nu sunt de accord.
Well, as a matter of fact Vedei, defapt.
I'm not so sure. Nu sunt att de sigur c
Not really Nu chiar
No, I don't think so Nu, nu cred c
I disagree - Nu sunt de accord
I don't think that's right - Nu cred c este aa.

Oh, surely not! - Oh, cu siguran, nu!


I don't see why! Nu vd de ce
Oh, come off it! Las-o balt!
No way! / Never! - n niciun caz!
You can't be serious! Nu vorbeti serios!
I can't accept! - Nu pot accepta!

ntrebri disjunctive (Question tags)


Question tags se folosesc pentru a cere aprobarea (sau dezaprobarea) cuiva. n limba
romn, question tags poart denumirea de ntrebri disjunctive i se traduc prin nu-i
aa? sau aa-i?. Ele sunt poziionate mereu la sfritul unei ntrebri.
ntrebri pozitive/ negative
Dac prima parte a propoziiei este pozitiv, intrebarea disjunctiv este negativ.
Ex: He's a doctor, isn't he? El este doctor, nu este aa?
You work in a bank, don't you? - Tu lucrezi ntr-o banc, nu-i aa?
... iar dac prima parte a propoziiei este negativ, ntrebarea disjunctiv va pozitiv.
Ex: You haven't met him, have you? Nu te-ai ntlnit cu el, aa-i?
She isn't coming, is she? Ea nu vine, aa-i?
ntrebrile disjunctive se formeaz cu verbe auxiliare:
Dac n prima parte a propoziiei este unul din verbele auxiliare (to be, to have) ntrebarea
disjunctiv va format cu acelai verb.
They weren't here, were they? Nu au fost aici, aa-i?
He had met him before, hadn't he? S-au ntlnit nainte, nu-i aa?
This isn't working, is it? Asta nu funcioneaz, aa-i?
Dac prima parte a propoziiei nu este folosit un verb auxiliar ntrebarea disjunctiv se va forma
cu forma verbului to do, la timpul corespunztor.
I said that, didn't I? - Eu am spus asta, nu-i aa?
She eats fruits, doesn't she? - Ea mnnc fructe, nu-i aa?
Atenie!
n cazul ntrebrilor care ncep cu 'I am', ntrebarea disjunctiv este 'aren't I?'
I'm the fastest, aren't I? Eu sunt cel mai rapid, nu-i aa?

112

5.9. FELICITRI (Congratulations)


Cnd felicitm pe cineva spunem Congratulations! Felicitri! sau ntr-o manier mai familiar,
Well done! Bravo!

COMPLIMENTS (Compliments)
To pay somebody a compliment
Congratulations on..
Its wonderful.
Its marvellous.
Youve done this so well.
Im very impressed.
Youre a marvellous
Well done!
Let me congratulate you!
Id like to be the rst to congratulate you!
Im very pleased with ...

- A complimenta pe cineva
- Felicitri pentru...
- E minunat
- E uimitor
- Te-ai descurcat aa de bine
- Sunt foarte impresionat
- Eti o/un .... uimito(a)re
- Bravo!
- Permite-mi s te felicit!
- A vrea s u primul care te felicit!
- Sunt foarte mulumit de...

GOOD WISHES, CONGRATULATIONS (Urri, felicitri)


Welcome!
Welcome to
Congratulations!
Congratulations on your success/ anniversary!
Enjoy yourself!
Enjoy your holiday!
Good luck!
Speedy recovery!
Merry Christmas!
A happy new Year!
A happy and prosperous new year!
Happy Easter!
Happy Birthday!
Have a safe trip!
Keep up the good work!
All the best!
Ill keep my ngers crossed!

- Bine ai venit!
- Bine ai venit la...
- Felicitri!
- Felicitri pentru succesul / aniversarea dvs
- Distracie plcut!
- Vacan plcut!
- Noroc!
- nsntoire grabnic!
- Crciun fericit!
- Un an nou fericit!
- Un an nou fericit i prosper!
- Pate fericit!
- La muli ani!
- Drum bun!
- Spor la treab!
- Toate cele bune!
- i in pumnii!

Cum rspundem la felicitri:


Thank you! - Mulumesc!
It s very nice of you to say so Foarte drgu din partea ta c spui asta
How nice/ kind of you to say so Ce drgu/ amabil din partea ta s spui asta.
Im glad you think so M bucur c tu crezi asta.
I m glad you like M bucur c i place.

113

5.10. EXPRIMAREA SENTIMENTELOR (Expressing feelings)


1. Exprimarea plcerilor:
I like to / I love to mi place s
I really enjoy mi place ntr-adevr...
I ve always liked/ loved ntotdeauna mi-a plcut..
...is wonderful/ very lovely - ...este minunat/ foarte plcut
I adore Ador...
I realy go for (sh) Sunt nnebunit dup ( pete)
I'm crazy about... Sunt absolut nebun dup...
I'm really sold on... - M dau n vnt dup...
I'm really fond of - Chiar mi place foarte mult...
2. Exprimarea strilor de spirit:
Adjective care indic stri de spirit, sentimente, atitudini, stri emoionale:
enthusiastic - entuziast
worried - ngrijorat
shy - ruinos
bitter - aspru
threatened - ameninat
thankful - recunosctor
furious - furios
curious - curios
cheated pclit
tense - tensionat
left out - evitat
hopeful - ncreztor

rebellious - rebel
puzzled nedumerit/ derutat
cautious precaut
impressed - impresionat
(so)bored (att de) plictisit
discouraged descurajat
down and blue suprat, (cu moralul la pmnt)
sad - trist

Alte verbe care exprim sentimente, atitudini, triri emoionale:


to love a iubi
to like a plcea
to dislike a displcea
to detest a detesta
to prefer a prefera
to adore a adora
to hate a ur
3. Exprimarea neplcerilor:
I'm afraid I don't like M tem c nu-mi place...
I've never liked - Nu mi-a plcut niciodat....
...is not one of my favorites... ...nu e printre preferatele mele.
I really hate Ursc ...
I think ...is awful Cred ca... este groaznic/ neplcut
I am not keen on Nu-mi place....
I can't bear/ stand Nu pot suporta/ suferi...
Oh, how awful!- Oh, ce groaznic!
I rather dislike Nu-mi prea place.
I'm not to fond of ... Nu sunt prea ncntat de...

114

5.11. LA RESTAURANT (At the restaurant)


Mncarea britanic nu exceleaz prin varietate i ranament. Sunt binecunoscute cteva
feluri de mncare specic englezeti - ham and eggs - unc cu ou, sh and chips - pete cu
carto prjii. Se bea foarte mult ceai - tea, preferat cafelei, i se mnnc cereale - cereals. n
Scoia, un sortiment culinar celebru este haggis, asemntor drobului de oaie de la noi. n
Marea Britanie sunt foarte apreciate dulciurile plcint cu ane - mulbeny, brio - mufn.
Se servesc patru mese pe zi: micul dejun breakfast - la restaurantele de lux clienii pot
comanda att buctria casei - regular meal, ct i meniu la alegere - a la carte, prnzul - supper,
ceaiul - tea - ocazie cu care se servesc i gustri i cina - lunch / supper.

VOCABULARY:
Iat cteva cuvinte n englez care pot folositoare la restaurant
Bar - bar
Buctar - chef
Rezervare - reservation, booking
Mesele zilei - Meals of the day
Mic dejun - Breakfast
Prnz - Lunch
Cin - Dinner
Restaurant - restaurant
Chelner - Waiter
Chelneri - Waitress
Lista de vinuri - Wine list
Meniu - Menu

Tacmuri - Tableware
farfurie - plate
cuit - knife
furculi - fork
lingur - spoon

pahar - glass
sticl - bottle
vase - dishes

Antreu - starter
Sup - Soups
Carne/Pete/Vegetarian
- Meat / Fish / Vegetarian
Fel principal - main course
Meniu de buturi - Drinks menu
Desert - Dessert
Nota de plat - bill
Baci - Tip
Comand - Order

Buturi - Drinks
ap plat - still water
ap mineral - sparkling water
butur rcoritoare - soft drink
bere - beer
cafea - coffee
ceai - tea

ciocolat cald - hot chocolate


lapte - milk
suc - soda
vin - wine
vin alb - white wine
vin rou - red wine

Prepararea mncrurilor
afumat - smoked
cald - warm
rece - cold
coapt - baked

art - boiled
prjit - fried
ulei - oil
oet - vinegar

picant - spicy
sare - salt
piper- pepper
zahr - sugar

Rezervarea unei mese - Booking a table


Avei vreo mas liber?
O mas pentru doi/trei/patru, v rog
A vrea s fac o rezervare
A vrea s rezerv o mas, v rog
Pentru cnd?

Do you have any free tables?


A table for two/three/four, please
I would like to make a reservation
I would like to book a table, please
When for?

115

La ce or?
This evening at:
seven o' clock
seven thirty
eight o'clock
eight thirty
Tomorrow at:
noon
twelve thirty
one oclock
one thirty
For how many people?
I have a reservation
Do you have a reservation?

For what time?


n aceast sear la:
ora apte
apte treizeci
ora opt
opt treizeci
Mine la:
prnz
dousprezece i treizeci
ora unu
unu treizeci
Pentru cte persoane?
Am o rezervare
Avei o rezervare?

Cum comandm de mncare - Ordering the meal


A putea s vd meniul, v rog?
A putea s vd lista de vinuri, v rog?
A putea s v aduc ceva de but?
Suntei gata s comandai?
Care este supa zilei?
Ce recomandai?
Ce este acest fel de mncare?
Sunt la regim
Sunt alergic la:
produse din gru
produse lactate
nuci
crustacee
Sunt vegetarian
Nu mnnc:
carne
porc
Voi servi aceasta
mi pare ru, nu mai avem felul acesta
Eu voi servi:
piept de pui
friptur de vit
paste
Pentru felul nti voi servi supa i
pentru felul doi voi servi friptura
Cum dorii friptura?
n snge
mediu spre n snge
medie
bine fcut

Could I see the menu, please?


Could I see the wine list, please?
Can I get you any drinks?
Are you ready to order?
What is the soup of the day?
What do you recommend?
What is this dish?
I am on a diet
I am allergic to:
wheat
dairy products
nuts
shellsh
I am a vegetarian
I dont eat:
meat
pork
I will take this
Im sorry, we are out of this
I will have the :
chicken breast
roast beef
pasta
For my starter Ill have the soup and
for my main course the steak
How would you like your steak?
rare
medium-rare
medium
well done

116

Asta e tot?
Mai dorii ceva?
Nimic, mulumim
Ne grbim
Ct va dura?
Va dura cam douzeci de minute

Is that all?
Would you like anything else?
Nothing else, thank you
We are in a hurry
How long will it take?
It will take about twenty minutes

n timpul mesei - During the meal


Dac dorii s chemai chelnerul, cel mai politicos mod este s spunei:
M scuzai! - Excuse me!
Alte expresii pe care le putei folosi n timpul mesei sunt:
Poft bun!
Dorii s gustai vinul?
Mai putei s ne aducei..?
nc o sticl de vin
nite pine
nite lapte
ap de la robinet
nite ap plat / mineral
Dorii cafea sau desert?
Avei desert?
A putea s vd meniul pentru desert?
A fost totul n regul?
Mulumesc, a fost delicios

Enjoy your meal!


Woul you like to taste the wine?
Could we have?
another bottle of wine
some more bread
some more milk
some tap water
some still/sparkling water
Would you like any coffee or dessert?
Do you have any desserts?
Could I see the dessert menu?
Was everything alright?
Thank you, it was delicious

Probleme - Problems
Asta nu este ceea ce am comandat
Mncarea aceasta este rece
Asta e prea srat
Asta nu pare bun
Ateptm de mult vreme
Mncarea noastr e preparat?
Va mai dura mult?

This isnt what we ordered


This food is cold
This is too salty
This doesnt taste right
We have been waiting for a long time
Is our meal on its way?
Will our food be long?

Pltirea notei de plat - Paying the bill


Nota, v rog
Putei s ne aducei nota, v rog?
Pot s pltesc cu cardul?
Acceptai cri de credit?
Putem plti separat?
Iau eu asta
S mprim asta
S pltim amndoi

The bill, please


Could we have the bill, please?
Can I pay by card?
Do you take credit cards?
Can we pay separately?
Ill get this
Lets split this
Lets share the bill

117

5.12. LA ALIMENTAR (At the grocery store)

At the grocery store - First situation (La alimentar Prima situaie)


Where can I buy.., ?1 need...
I would like to make some purchases in a
department store.
Where is the elevator / escalator / lift?
Do you have... ?
Please show me... Please give me...
How much does it cost?
Do I pay you, or at the cash register ?
Where is the cash register?
Please wrap it up for me.
Wrap everything together, please.
Please put this in the bag.
Thank you.
Where is the exit ?
I would like a loaf of French bread.
I would like...a packet of coffee / tea.
one hundred grams of cheese.
three hundred fty grams of ham
a half of kilo of sugar.

Unde pot cumpra...? ! Am nevoie...


A dori s fac cumprturi la magazinul
universal.
Unde este liftul ?
Avei...?
V rog s mi artai... V rog s mi dai...
Ct cost?
Pltesc la dvs. sau la casierie ?
Unde este casieria ?
V rog s l / o mpachetai pentru mine.
mpachetai totul, v rog.
V rog s o punei n saco.
V mulumesc.
Unde este ieirea ?
A dori o franzel.
A dori un... pachet de cafea / ceai.
100 g de brnz.
350 g de unc.
jumtate de kg de zahr.

At the grocery store - Second situation (La alimentar A doua situaie)


Please weigh out one kilo of... oranges,
apples, tomatoes, cucumbers.
Please give me... ten eggs, a dozen of eggs,
two lemons.
Do you have... olives? sardines?
grapefruit?
A bottle / a box of... milk / juice / dry wine/
beer / mineral wat er / fruit drink / CocaCola please.
I would like to make an order for tomorrow
I will pay for this order now.

V rog s cntrii 1 kg de... portocale, mere,


roii, castravei.
V rog s mi dai... 10 ou, o duzin de ou.
dou lmi.
Avei... msline? sardine ? grepfrut ?
O sticl / o cutie de... lapte / Suc/ vin sec / bere
ap mineral / suc de fructe / Coca-Cola v
rog.
A vrea s fac o comand pentru mine.
Voi plti comanda acum.

118

VOCABULARY:

beef
beefsteak
goulash
liver
pork
veal
pork chop
goose
turkey
chicken
duck
fried chicken
mutton chop
ker
yoghurt
milk
pudding
cream
cheese
cottage cheese
vegetables
green peas
cabbage
cauliower
potatoes
boiled potatoes
mashed potatoes
onions
carrots
tomatoes
marinated tomatoes
radishes
garlic
beans
spinach
sherbet
fruits
apricots
pineapple
oranges

muchi de vit
friptur de oaie
gula
cat
carne de porc
carne de viel
cotlet de porc
carne de gsc
carne de curcan
carne de pui
carne de ra
pui fript
cotlet de oaie
ker
iaurt
lapte
budinc
fric / smntn
brnz
ca / cacaval
legume
mazre verde
varz
conopid
carto
carto eri
piure
ceap
morcovi
roii
roii marinate
ridichi
usturoi
fasole
spanac
erbet
fructe
caise
ananas
portocale

watermelon
bananas
grapes
cherries
pomegranates
grapefruit
pears
strawberries
lemons
raspberries
tangerines
peaches
plums
currants
dates
gs
fruit salad
apples
soft drinks
Cola-Cola
black coffee
white coffee
Turkish coffee
Pepsi-Cola
juice
apricot juice
orange juice
grape juice
grapefruit juice
tomato juice
apple juice
tonic
tea
chocolate
mineral water
still water

pepene verde / harbuz


banane
struguri
ciree
rodii
grapefruit
pere
cp?uni
lmi
zmeur
mandarine
piersici
prune
coacze
curmale
smochine
salat de fructe
mere
buturi rcoritoare
Coca-Cola
cafea neagr
cafea cu fric
cafea turceasc
Pepsi-Cola
suc
suc de caise
suc de portocale
suc de struguri
suc de grepfrut
suc de roii
suc de mere
tonic
ceai
ciocolat
ap mineral
ap plat

119

5.13. LA CUMPRTURI (Shopping)

Go shopping - First situation (La cumprturi Prima situaie)


What oor are the... cosmetics / furs/ watches
on?
Are there any salespeople who speak French ?
The customers are dissatised.
I am looking for some gloves / a scarf / a pair of
trousers / pants.
Please show me something... a bit less expensive
/ better
Please show me something... in a different style
Please show me something in a different
colour / with another design.
I will /I will not buy this.
I like/ I don't like this.
This is not what I wanted.
This is not quite what 1 wanted.

La ce etaj sunt... produsele cosmetice /


blnurile / ceasurile de mn?
Vnztorii vorbesc franceza?
Clienii sunt nemulumii.
Caut mnui / un batic / o earf / o pereche
de pantaloni.
V rog s mi artai ceva mai puin scump/
mai bun.
V rog s mi artai cevacu un stil diferit.
V rog s mi artai cevade alt culoare.
cu alt design.
Voi/ Nu voi cumpra asta
mi / Nu mi place asta.
Nu este ceea ce doream.
Nu este tocmai ce am dorit.

Go shopping - Second situation (La cumprturi A doua situaie)


May I try it on ?
Where is the tting-room ?
What size is this shirt ?
Please give me a pullover.

Pot s l / o ncerc ?
Unde este cabina de prob?
Ce mrime are aceast cma?
V rog s mi dai un pulover.

What perfumes do you have?


How much is this perfume ?
Please give me... some French perfume
/
some cologne / some powder
Please give me... some hairspray /some
mascara / some eye shadow / some
perfumed soap.
Please give me...a hair brush /a package of
razor blades.

Ce parfumuri avei ?
Ct cost acest parfum?
V rog s mi dai... parfum franuzesc / ap de
colonie / pudr.
V rog s mi dai...un spray de pr / rimel / un
fard de pleoape / un spun parfumat.

I need a pair of... shoes/ boots.


Can you give me a discount ?
This price suits me.

Doresc o pereche de., panto / ghete.


Putei s mi facei o reducere?
Acest pre mi convine.

V rog s mi dai... un pieptene / un pachet de


lame de ras.

120

5.14. LA HOTEL (At the hotel)


n Marea Britanie sunt foarte populare pensiunile B&B (bed and breakfast), o asigur
cazare i micul dejun la preuri rezonabile, n condiii decente. Tinerii prefer hotelurile pentru
tineret hostels , cu faciliti minime i preuri avantajoase.

At the hotel - First situation (La hotel Prima situaie)


What hotel are you staying at ?
What hotel is the Australian delegation staying at?
Where is the hotel located ?
I (we) need a hotel not far from...the centre of the
town.
I (we) need a hotel not far from...the international
fair (exhibition) / the congress centre.
Please reserve a room / two rooms in that hotel.
My rst name is...
My last name is...
I have a reservation.
I reserved a room by...fax / telegram /telephone .
Here is the conrmation.
Here is my passport.

La ce hotel locuii ?
La ce hotel este cazat delegaia australian ?
Unde este situat / se a hotelul ?
Am (avem) nevoie de un hotel situat nu departe
de... centrul oraului.
Am (avem) nevoie de un hotel situat nu departe
de... trgul / expoziia internaional / centrul de
conferine.
V rugm s rezervai o camer / dou camere n
acel hotel.
Prenumele meu este...
Numele meu de familie este...
Am rezervare.
Am rezervat o camer prin... fax /telegram /
telefon .
Aceasta este conrmarea.
Acesta este paaportul meu.

At the hotel - Second situation (La hotel A doua situaie)


Please help me ll in this form.
V rog s m ajutai s completez acest formular.
I /we need a room for...one person/ two persons.
Am /avem nevoie de camer pentru...o persoan/
dou persoane.
Does the room have... an air-conditioner ?
Camera are...aer condiionat ?
Does the room have...a radio/ a TV set/a
Camera are... radio / televizor / frigider / mini-bar
refrigerator / a mini-bar /hot water/a telephone ? / ap cald / telefon?
Whats the price of a room per night ?
Ct cost o camer pe noapte ?
Does that i nclude... breakfast /personal services / Include...micul dejun / servicii personale /
the use of the swimming pool / sauna?
utilizarea piscinei / saunei ?
When and where is breakfast served ?
Cnd i unde se servete micul dejun ?
What oor is my room on?
What is my room number ?
Your room is on the...rst oor/ second oor.
May I see the room ?
Do I have to pay in advance or at departure ?
How long will you be staying with us?
I / we plan to stay for...one day /three days/ one
week/ a fortnight.
I want a room for one day.
Please take my things...to my room/ to the
vestibule.

La ce etaj se a camera mea?


Care este numrul camerei mele ?
Camera dumneavoastr se a la...primul etaj /
etajul al doilea.
Pot vedea camera?
Trebuie s pltesc anticipat sau la plecare ?
Ct timp vei sta la noi?
Intenionez / intenionm s stau /stm... o zi/ trei
zile / sptmn/ dou sptmni.
Am nevoie de o camer pentru o zi.
V rog s mi ducei lucrurile...n camera mea / n
vestibul.

121

5.15. CLTORII (Traveling)


Where...is the information ofce ?
Where...is the schedule of trains?
Where...is the ticket ofce ?
Where is the waiting room?
Where...can I change money ?
Where...is the restaurant ? is the snack bar ?
is the newspaper stand?
How much does the ticket cost ?
How many days is the ticket good for ?
Where do I change trains?
When does the boarding begin ?

Unde...este biroul de informaii ?


Unde...este orarul trenurilor?
Unde...este casa de bilete?
Unde...este sala deateptare ?
Unde...pot schimba bani ?
Unde...este restaurantul / snack
standul de ziare?
Ct cost biletul ?
Cte zile este valabil biletul?
Unde schimb trenurile?
Cnd ncepe ncepe mbarcarea?

-barul /

By plane Cu avionul (Formule uzuale)


I would like to conrm my reservation.
A dori s mi conrm rezervarea.
On what days are there planes for... London? New
n ce zile sunt avioane spre... Londra / New York /
York? Sydney ?
Sydney ?
When is the ight to...?
Cnd este zborul spre..?
When does ight number... leave?
Cnd este zborul nr... ?
Is this a direct ight? How long is the ight?
Este un zbor direct? Ct dureaz zborul ?
I want a ticket on a plane to..., please, ight
number...
When should I be at the airport ?
Is the airport far from the city ?
Have they already announced...ight number
/check-in / the boarding ?
Here is my...ticket / passport / luggage / baggage /
hand luggage.
May I take this bag in the cabin ?
How much is overweight ?
Where do I board? Help me, please... fasten my
safety belt.

Vreau un bilet de avion spre..., v rog, zborul


numrul...
Cnd ar trebui s u la aeroport ?
Aeroportul este departe de ora ?
S-a anunat deja...zborul numrul/ check -in-ul /
mbarcarea?
Poftii...biletul / paaportul / bagajele/ bag ajul de
mn.
Pot s v duc bagajul n cabin?
Cu ct depete greutatea (admis) ?
Unde m mbarc ? Ajutai -m, v rog... s mi leg
centura de siguran.

Where is the toilet ?


What altitude are we ying at ? What is the speed ?
I am not well / I feel sick.
Please bring me... a glass of mineral water /
candies / some cookies .
When are we to land ?

Unde este toaleta?


La ce altitudine zburm? Care este viteza ?
Nu m simt bine / M simt ru.
V rog s mi aducei... un pahar de ap mineral /
bomboane / nite prjituri.
Cnd urmeaz s aterizm ?

By train Cu trenul (Formule uzuale)


What terminus do trains for Sibiu leave from?
De la ce terminal pleac trenurile spre Sibiu?
Where is the terminal ?
Unde este terminalul ?
How do I get to the station?
Cum ajung la gar ?
Is there a through train to...Bucharest / Chicago?
Este un tren direct spre...Bucureti / Chicago?
Please give me a ticket for a return / round
-trip V rog s mi dai un bilet dus -ntors / n vagonul
ticket in the slpeeping-car to...
de dormit spre...

122

When does the train leave for... ?


When does the train get in to...Rome / Brussels ?
When does train number... leave / arrive ?
How long does it take the train to get to... Berlin /
Edinburgh ?
Is this train number... ?
The conductor / ticket inspector is coming soon.
Here is my ticket.
Please show me my place.
Please wake me an hour before we arrive at....
Where is the... dining-car / toilet?
How many minutes will the train stop for?
What is the next station?

Cnd pleac trenul spre...?


Cnd ajunge trenul la...Roma / Bruxelles
Cnd pleac / sosete trenul numrul... ?
Ct dureaz drumul cu trenul pn la...Berlin /
Edinburgh ?
Acesta este trenul numrul... ?
Controlorul vine imediat.
Poftim biletul.
V rog s mi artai locul.
V rog s m trezii cu o or nainte de a sosi la....
Unde este...vagonul restaurant / toaleta?
Cte minute oprete trenul ?
Care este urmtoarea staie ?

By ship Cu vaporul (Formule uzuale)


Where is the river / ocean port?
Unde este portul uvial / maritim ?
How do I get there ?
Cum ajung acolo?
How much does a...rst / second / third class ticket Ct cost un bilet la clasa... nti / a doua / a treia
to... cost?
spre... ?
When does the ship sail for / get to... Washington /
Cnd pleac
/ ajunge vaporul spre / la...
Glasgow ?
Washington / Glasgow?
How long is the voyage?
Ct de lung este drumul ?
How long does the ship stay in port?
Ct st vaporul n port?
Where is the... / lift /swimming-pool ?
Where is my / your cabin?
How do I get to the deck ?
When do we get to... ?
I would like to speak to the captain.

Unde este liftul / piscina?


Unde este cabina mea/ dumneavoastr.?
Cum ajung pe punte?
Cnd ajungem la...?
A dori s vorbesc cu cpitanul.

By car Cu automobilul (Formule uzuale)


Here is my international drivers licence.
Acesta este permisul meu internaional de
conducere.
Here are the documents.
Acestea sunt documentele /actele.
Please show me the road to...
V rog, artai-mi drumul spre...
How do I get to... the highway?
Cum ajung pe ....autostrad ?
Where is the nearest lling station ?
Unde este cea mai apropiat benzinrie ?
How much is one litre of petrol ?
Ct cost un litru de benzin?
I need... litres of petrol.
Am nevoie de... litri de benzin.
Fill the tank up, please.
Umplei-mi rezervorul, v rog.
Do you have... motor oil / brake uid / distilled
Avei... motorin lichid de frn / ap distilat /
water /antifreeze?
antigel?
Please... wash the car/ ll it up / change the oil.
V rog s... splai maina / i fa cei plinul /
schimbai uleiul.

123

5.16. TRADIII I SRBTORI (Traditions and Celebrations)


Some of the celebrations are common to most of the countries where English is the
ofcial language.
For instance St. Valentine's, on the 14th of February, is the lovers' celebration. People
send greeting cards or Valentines. It is supposed that the day celebrates a Christian saint who
secretely celebrated marriages in ancient Rome.
Easter is celebrated as in other Christian countries celebrates Christ's resurrection. In Britain
people, especially children compete with red eggs falling down from a higher place.This is called egg
hunt.
On Halloween, on the 31st of October, children light pumpkin lanterns to protect themselves of evil
spirits. They dress up in strange clothes and go from a house to another, where they get sweets. The origins
of the custom are connected to an old Celtic custom on the same day there is a Christian celebration named
All Saints Day.
On Christmas children sing carols and wait for presents, which they open on the 25th of December.
There is a tradition of waiting for Santa Clouse to come through the chimney with the presents, so the
stockings are prepred for that purpose.
On the New Year's eve, people wait for the coming of the New Year. At midnight they gather in squares
or with their family.
Unele srbtori sunt comune majoritii rilor n care engleza este limb ocial.
De exemplu, Valentine's Day pe 14 februarie este srbtoarea ndrgostiilor, cnd foarte muli trimit
felicitri. Se presupune c ziua celebreaz un sfnt cretin care ocia cstorii n secret n Roma antic.
Patele este srbtorit ca i n alte ri cretine. Se srbtorete nvierea lui Hristos. n Marea
Britanie, copiii n special, se ntrec aruncnd oule roii de pe un deal. Acest obicei se numete vntoarea
oulor.
De Halloween, pe 31 octombrie, copiii aprind fclii fcute din dovleci pentru a se proteja de spiritele
rele. Ei se mbrac n haine ciudate i merg dintr-o cas n alta, primind dulciuri. Origine obiceiului sunt
celtice. Pe 1 noiembrie are loc o srbtoare cretini numit Ziua tuturor snilor.
De Crciun copiii cnt colinde i ateapt cadouri pe care le deschid pe data de 25 decembrie.
Conform tradiiei, Mo Crciun coboar pe horn, iar copiii i pregtesc ciorapii pentru ca Moul s pun n
ei darurile.
Pe 31 decembrie, oamenii ateapt venirea Anului Nou. La miezul nopii se adun n piee sau
alturi de familie.
Here are some typical British celebrations. On May Day people, especially in the country, celebrate
fertility with dancing around Maypoles.
The midsummer day is a ceremony dedicated to the sun at Stonehenge, on the 24th of June. It is an
old tradition since pre-Christian times.
On the seventh day after Easter, people celebrate Whitsun Monday by organising fairs.
Guy Fawkes celebration is on November 5th. The celebration reminds of an unsuccessful plot to kill
the Protestant king and is commemorated with reworks, bonres and burning of puppets called guys, from
the name of Guy Fawkes, the leader of the conspirators.
On the 11th of november or the next Sunday, Remembrance Day is celebrated when two minutes
silence commemorate the people who died in the world wars.
Iat cteva srbtori britanice tipice. Cu ocazia May Day oamenii, n special la ar, srbtoresc
fertilitatea cu dansuri n jurul unor pari.
Miezul verii este o srbtoare dedicat soarelui la Stonehenge, pe 24 iunie. Este o veche tradiie ce
dateaz din perioada pre-cretin.
In cea de-a aptea luni dup Pati se celebreaz Whitsun Monday, cnd se organizeaz blciuri.

124

Srbtoarea lui Guy Fawkes se desfoar pe 5 noiembrie. Ea reamintete conspiraia euat de


asasinare a regelui protestant i este celebrat cu focuri de articii, focuri n aer liber i arderea unor ppui
numite guys de la numele lui Guy Fawkes, conductorul conspiratorilor.
Pe 1 noiembrie sau n duminica urmtoare, Ziua Rememorrii este srbtorit prin dou minute de
reculegere n cinstea celor care au murit n rzboaiele mondiale.
Memorial Day is on the fourth Monday in May. The Americans honour the dead of all wars.
Independence Day is celebrated on the 4th of July, the birthday of the U.S.A.
Labor Day is placed on the rst Monday in September. This holiday is meant to honour the nation's
working people. Public schools below the college level open just after this day.
Columbus Day is on the second Monday in October commemoraies Christopher Columbus landing
in the New World on October I2th, 1492.
Veteran's Day takes place on November 11th. This day honours the Americans who had served in
World War I.
Thanksgiving Day occurs on every fourth Thursday in November. People traditionally eat turkey,
maize, sweet potatoes, apple and pumpkin pie. It is a day when the members of the family reunite and
celebrate together.
Ziua Eroilor se srbtorete n a patra luni din mai. Americanii i cinstesc morii din toate
rzboaiele.
Ziua Independenei este srbtorit pe 4 iulie, cnd au luat in StateleUnite ale Americii.
Ziua Muncii este n prima luni din septembrie. Aceast srbtoare i omagiaz pe oamenii muncii. In
aceast zi, elevii din colile publice, pn la nivelele inferioare ale colegiului, nu merg la cursuri.
Ziua lui Columb are loc n a doua luni din octombrie. Aceast zi comemoreaz debarcarea lui
Cristofor Columb n Lumea Nou, pe 12 octombrie 1492.
Ziua Veteranilor se srbtorete pe 11 noiembrie. Aceast zi i cinstete pe americanii ce au luptat n
primul rzboi mondial.
Ziua Recunotinei este n a patra joi din luna noiembrie. Se mnnc n mod tradiional carne de
curcan, porumb, carto dulci, plcint de mere i dovleac. Este o zi n care membrii familiei se reunesc i
srbtoresc mpreun.
The most important day celebrated by the Irish is St. Patrick's Day, the national day of the Republic
of Ireland. It is celebrated in all the places of the world where Irish live.
Saint Patrick is the patron saint of the Irish people and is credited with bringing Christianity to
Ireland. St. Patrick's Day has come to be associated with green shamrocks and good luck. Of most
importance to those who celebrate its intended meaning, St. Patrick's Day is meant for spiritual
renewal.
Why is it celebrated on March 17th? One theory is that commemorates the day when St. Patrick
died. With the exception of restaurants and pubs, almost all business close on March 17th. In United
States especially, day is celebrated with big parades and activities for kids such as crafts, colouring and
games. Anyway for all the people is an excellent opportunity for eating, drinking, dancing and listening
to the wonderful Irish music.
Cea mai important zi srbtorit de ctre irlandezi este Ziua Sfntului Patrick, ziua naional a
Republicii Irlanda. Este celebrat n toate colurile lumii unde locuiesc irlandezi.
Sfntul Patrick este patronul spiritual al poporului irlandez i lui i se atribuie aducerea
cretinismului n Irlanda. Ziua Sfntului Patrick a ajuns s e asociat cu irlandezii: verde, trifoi i noroc.
De o deosebit importan pentru cei ce srbtoresc semnicaia iniial, ea reprezint rennoirea spiritual.
De ce se srbtorete pe 17 martie? Conform unei ipoteze, n aceast zi a murit Sfntul Patrick. Cu
excepia restaurantelor i localurilor, aproape toate instituiile sunt nchise pe 17 martie. n Statele Unite n
special, este srbtorit prin mari parade i activiti pentru copii, precum meteuguri i jocuri. n orice
caz, pentru toat lumea este o excelent ocazie de a mnca, a bea, a dansa i a asculta minunatata muzic
irlandez.

125

Material oferit n cadrul proiectului


COALA PENTRU FEMEI

BENEFICIAR PROIECT
ASOCIAIA PATRONATUL JUDEEAN AL
FEMEILOR DE AFACERI DIN IMM SUCEAVA
Adres: B-dul 1 Decembrie 1918 Nr.15, Suceava
Telefon: 0230 222 722
E-mail: contact@scoalapentrufemei.ro
PARTENERI PROIECT
PATRONATUL TINERILOR
NTREPRINZTORI JUDEUL SUCEAVA
Adres: B-dul 1 Decembrie 1918 Nr.15, Suceava
Telefon: 0230 222 722
E-mail: contact@ptirsuceava.ro
LUST EXPERT SUCEAVA
Adres: Strada Bistriei nr. 28, Suceava
Telefon: 0230 523107
E-mail: lustexpert@yahoo.com

S.C. LUST EXPERT S.R.L.

CONSILIUL LOCAL AL NTREPRINDERILOR


MICI I MIJLOCII HARGHITA
Adres: Petofi Sandor nr. 23, Miercurea-Ciuc
Telefon: 0266 316 415
E-mail: climm@astra.com.ro

CONSILIUL LOCAL AL NTREPRINDERILOR


MICI I MIJLOCII HARGHITA

ASOCIAIA PATRONILOR I
MESERIAILOR CLUJ
Adres: Strada Decebal nr. 17A, Cluj-Napoca
Telefon: 0264 595 793
E-mail: apm@apm.ro
POS DRU/144/6.3/S/129423
coala pentru femei
Editorul materialului:
Asociaia Patronatul Judeean al Femeilor de Afaceri din IMM Suceava,
Bulevardul 1 Decembrie 1918, nr. 15, Suceava
Data: Noiembrie 2014
Coninutul acestui material nu reprezint n mod obligatoriu poziia oficial a Uniunii
Europene sau a Guvernului Romniei