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INTERNSHIP REPORT

SUBMITTED TO
MR. MANSOOR AHMED
GM (TRANSMISSION)
DATED: 20 September 2013

SUBMITTED BY
MUHAMMAD USMAN SIDDIQUI
ALAP ALI ZAHID
DAWOOD UNIVERSITY OF
ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
B.E PETROLEUM & GAS

SUI SOUTHERN GAS COMPANY LIMITED


INTERNSHIP REPORT
ALAP ALI ZAHID & MUHAMMAD USMAN SIDDIQUI

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We are grateful to Al mighty ALLAH who gave us all the strengths, courage preservation and
patience to finish our internship program at SSGC and in achieving our task fruitfully.

We would like to take this opportunity to formally thank Mr. Saeed Alam (DCE MPL-I), Mr.
Rashid (MPL-I), Mr. Bashir Bhatti (CE OPS SECT. IV), Mr. M. Shoaib (CE Maintenance), Mr.
Shoaib Khan (DCE MAINT.), Mr. Saleem Manghi DGM (CP), Mr. S.M. Jeelani CM (GC), Mr. Aqeel
Ahmed CE (I&C) and Mr. M.Taj CE (Measurement) for providing their immense support and
unwavering guidance during conduct and completion of this internship report on SSGC and it
became possible for me to complete this work within short time.

We would specially like to thank Mr. Rashid for his constant support and guidance and for
solving all our queries during the course of our internship. It was because of his motivating and
encouraging efforts that we have been able to explore the practical world in a very professional
manner.

Last, but not the least, our fellow internees. They have been remarkable in lending us support
and encouraging us in our work. They deserve special mention here. We would take this
opportunity to thank Syed Raza Ur Rehman and Muhammad Yousuf Khan.

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CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION TO SSGC ....................................................................................................................................... 4
MAIN PIPE LINE (INSTRUMENTATION) ................................................................................................................... 7
VALVES .................................................................................................................................................................. 9
FILTERS ................................................................................................................................................................ 14
SCRUBBER............................................................................................................................................................ 15
PRESSURE GAUGE ................................................................................................................................................ 22
ORIFICE PLATE ..................................................................................................................................................... 24
TURBINE FLOW METER ........................................................................................................................................ 26
NATURAL GAS PIPELINES ..................................................................................................................................... 27
PRESSURE ............................................................................................................................................................ 29
BOYLES LAW ....................................................................................................................................................... 30
CHARLES LAW ..................................................................................................................................................... 31
BERNOULLIS PRINCIPLE....................................................................................................................................... 32
OPERATION & MAINTENANCE (SECTION IV) DEPARTMENT ................................................................................. 34
MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT ............................................................................................................................. 35
HOT TAPPING ...................................................................................................................................................... 36
COLD CUTTING ..................................................................................................................................................... 38
WHAT IS PIGGING? .............................................................................................................................................. 39
SAND BLASTING MACHINE................................................................................................................................... 42
BALANCING MACHINE ......................................................................................................................................... 43
WELDING ............................................................................................................................................................. 44
CORROSION AND PREVENTION DEPARTMENT ..................................................................................................... 46
CATHODIC PROTECTION....................................................................................................................................... 48
GAS CONTROL FUNCTION .................................................................................................................................... 52
MAJOR GAS FIELD SUPPLIES AND CONSUMERS ................................................................................................... 53
PIPELINE COMPRESSORS AT SSGC........................................................................................................................ 54
MEASUREMENT DEPARTMENT ............................................................................................................................ 58
NATURAL GAS ...................................................................................................................................................... 62
REMOVAL OF CO2, H2S & N2 .................................................................................................................................. 64
APPENDIX ............................................................................................................................................................ 66

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INTRODUCTION TO SSGC

Sui

Southern Gas Company (SSGC) is

Pakistans leading integrated gas Company.


The company is engaged in the business of
transmission and distribution of natural gas
besides construction of high pressure
transmission and low pressure distribution
systems.

SSGCL transmission system extends from Sui in Baluchistan to Karachi in Sindh comprising
over 3,220 KM of high pressure pipeline ranging from 12 24 in diameter. The distribution
activities covering over 1200 towns in the Sindh and Baluchistan are organized through its
regional offices. An average of about 388,828 million cubic feet (MMCFD) gas was sold in
2009-2010 to over 2.5 million industrial, commercial and domestic consumers in these
regions through a distribution network of over 37,000 Km. The company also owns and
operates the only gas meter manufacturing plant in the country, having an annual
production capacity of over 750,000 meters.
The Company has an authorized capital of Rs. 10 billion of which Rs 6.7 billion is issued and
fully paid up. The Government owns the majority of the shares which is presently over 70%.
The Company is managed by an autonomous Board of Directors for policy guidelines and
overall control. Presently, SSGCs Board comprises of 14 members. The Managing
Director/Chief Executive is nominee of GOP and has been delegated with such powers by the
Board of Directors as are necessary to effective conduct the business of the company.

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HISTORY
SSGC was created on March 30, 1989 after merging of 3 companies Sui Gas Transmission Company,
Karachi Gas Company and Indus Gas Company. Sui Gas Transmission Company Limited was formed
in 1954 with the initial responsibility of gas purification at Sui field in Baluchistan and then its
transmission to the consumption centre at Karachi. Two distribution companies were established
in 1955 and were responsible for the distribution of gas to consumers in Karachi and in other towns
along the route of the transmission pipeline between Sui and Karachi. In 1985 these two
companies were merged to form Southern Gas Company Limited. Later in 1989 Southern Gas
Company Limited and Sui Gas Transmission Company Limited were merged to form Sui Southern
Gas Company Limited.

VISION
To be a model utility providing quality service by
maintaining a high level of ethical and professional
standards and through optimum use of resources.

MISSION
To meet the energy requirements of customers
through reliable, environment-friendly and sustainable
supply of natural gas, while conducting business
professionally, efficiently, ethically and with
responsibility to all our stakeholders, community, and
the nation.
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SSGC PIPELINE NETWORK

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MAIN PIPE LINE (INSTRUMENTATION)


Main Pipe Line (Instrumentation) department is responsible for all the works related to pipe
lines.
This department includes designing the layout of the pipeline structure. This also includes
planning of how to install the structure of pipeline. They manage the material which will be used
be used in the pipe line structure.
This department works on the installation of the new SMS, upgradation of old SMS, technical
maintenance of SMS which includes the maintenance of Scrubbers, filters and valves.
They works on the operation and maintenance of MVA (Main valve Assembly).
They also deal in instrumentation and operation of pipelines. They also work on the
rehabilitation of the pipelines.

SALES METER STATION - KT


Sales Meter Station (SMS) consists of four different processes namely Filtration, Measurement
Regulation and then Distribution. In SSGC Sales Meter Station of KT three main lines named
BAJARA which is 24 in diameter, Indus Left Bank Pipeline 16 in diameter and Indus Right Bank
Pipeline 18 in diameter joining together and make its way to filtration process. After filtration
gas goes to measurement section where the pressure of the gas is measured. After
measurement section the gas is passed to regulation section where the pressure of a gas is
regulated through plug control valve and when the gas is regulated it moves to the scrubber for
further process so that the remaining liquid droplets can be drained out. After this process the
gas is moved to distribution.
Main pipeline of 24 BAJARA consist of auto valve and a pig receiver. When a pipeline is passed
through the cleaning process the gas is passed through auto valve and a pig receiver do the
work of cleaning the pipeline. The waste material found in pipeline is drained through pig
receiver. Pig receivers do the same work in 16 ILBP and 18 IRBP.
In filtration process the gas is cleaned in the filter separators. In measurement section when the
gas is passed through orifice plates the pressure is measured through C Type Bourdon Tube.

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In regulation section the pressure of a gas is regulated through plug control valve. In case of
plug control valve failure relief valves are fitted in order to release gas to maintain the pressure.
In scrubber section liquid droplets are removed from gas. When the gas is removed from the
scrubber the liquid droplets and pollutants are removed drained away to the storage tank. The
gas is passed to distribution section.

SMS KT FLOW DIAGRAM

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VALVES
It is a device which controls the amount and direction of flow in piping system by opening,
closing, or partially obstructing various passage ways.

TYPES OF VALVES

Plug Valve
Ball Valve
Pressure Control Valve Or Regulator Valve
Relief Valve

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Body
Ports
Seat
Stem
Disc when valve is open
Handle or hand wheel when valve
is open.

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Bonnet
Packing
Gland nut
Fluid flow when valve is open
Position of disc if valve were shut
Position of handle or hand wheel if
valve are shut.

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PLUG VALVE
Plug valves are valves with cylindrical or conically tapered "plugs" which can be rotated
inside the valve body to control flow through the valve. The plugs in plug valves have one or
more hollow passageways going sideways through the plug, so that fluid can flow through
the plug when the valve is open. Plug valves are simple and often economical.
When the plug is conically tapered, the stem/handle is typically attached to the larger
diameter end of the plug. Plug valves usually do not have bonnets but often have the end of
the plug with the handle exposed or mostly exposed to the outside. In such cases, there is
usually not much of a stem. The stem and handle often come in one piece, often a simple,
approximately L-shaped handle attached to the end of the plug. The other end of the plug is
often exposed to the outside of the valve too, but with a mechanism that retains the plug in
the body.

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BALL VALVE
A ball valve is a valve with a spherical disc, the part of the valve which controls the flow
through it. The sphere has a hole, or port, through the middle so that when the port is in line
with both ends of the valve, flow will occur. When the valve is closed, the hole is
perpendicular to the ends of the valve, and flow is blocked.
Ball valves are durable and usually work to achieve perfect shutoff even after years of
disuse. They are therefore an excellent choice for shutoff applications. They do not offer the
fine control that may be necessary in throttling applications but are sometimes used for this
purpose.

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CONTROL VALVE
Control valves are valves used to control conditions such as flow, pressure, temperature,
and liquid level by fully or partially opening or closing in response to signals received from
controllers that compare a "set point" to a "process variable" whose value is provided by
sensors that monitor changes in such conditions.

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RELIEF VALVE
The relief valve (RV) is a type of valve used to control or limit the pressure in a system or
vessel which can build up by a process upset, instrument or equipment failure, or fire.
The pressure is relieved by allowing the pressurized fluid to flow from an auxiliary passage
out of the system. The relief valve is designed or set to open at a predetermined set
pressure to protect pressure vessels and other equipment from being subjected to
pressures that exceed their design limits. When the set pressure is exceeded, the relief valve
becomes the "path of least resistance" as the valve is forced open and a portion of the fluid
is diverted through the auxiliary route.
In high-pressure gas systems, it is recommended that the outlet of the relief valve is in the
open air.

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FILTERS
It refers to the separating of particles from a gas. Filters allow the reliable filtration of the
finest dirt particles in gases. Gas filter can filter out particles from downstream equipment.
Natural gas filters are designed to remove the impurities such as pipe scale, iron sulfide,
hydrates, water, liquid hydrocarbons, sulfur products and carbon dioxide to ensure the
quality.

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SCRUBBER
Scrubber removes traces of liquid droplets from gas streams to protect downstream
equipment from damage and failure. It is typically used upstream of gas treating equipment
that contains dry desiccants or mechanical equipment such as compressors. It is also used
downstream of equipment where liquids have condensed from the gas.
Scrubbers are used in the gas stream flows at high velocity through a narrow section to
atomize the liquid into droplets. The gas moves through pools of scrubbing liquid at high
speeds. As it exit, droplets and pollutants are removed.

TYPES OF SCRUBBERS

Spray Chambers
Cyclone Spray Chambers
Venturi Scrubbers
Orifice Scrubbers
Impingement Scrubbers
Packed Bed Scrubbers
Dry Scrubbers

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SPRAY CHAMBERS
In spray towers or spray chambers, gas streams are fed into a chamber and contacted with
scrubbing liquid produced by spray nozzles. The droplet size is controlled to optimize
particle contact and droplet separation from the gas stream. Chambers can be oriented for
cross-flow, countercurrent flow, or concurrent (co-current) flow. Chambers may also include
baffles to improve gas-liquid contact.
Spray towers have low power consumption but have relatively low particulate collection
efficiencies. The re circulated water in the system must be thoroughly cleaned to prevent
excessive nozzle fouling or clogging. Nozzle cleaning and replacement are a major part of
the maintenance required for these units.

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CYCLONE SPRAY CHAMBER


Cyclone spray chambers are scrubbers which combine the capture techniques of cyclones
and spray towers. Gas streams typically enter into the chamber tangentially at high speeds.
The high speeds induce cyclonic action, and the centrifugal force from this promotes droplet
separation, allowing the use of a smaller droplet size which increases collection efficiency.
Cyclone spray chambers are more efficient than spray towers and have lower liquid
requirements, but require more power due to higher pressure drops. They are preferred
over spray towers for gas streams with heavier particulate loads.

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VENTURI SCRUBBER
Venturi scrubbers are scrubbers with a venturi shaped chamber with converging and
diverging sections. Water is injected at low pressure into the throat of the venturi through
which the gas stream passes at high velocities. The energy from the gas atomizes the liquid,
allowing particles and pollutants to be entrained in droplets. Venturi jet scrubbers use a
modified design in which liquid is injected into the throat at high velocity rather than the gas
stream.
Venturi scrubbers have high collection efficiencies for particulate pollution and are simple to
install and maintain. However, they require large pressure drops leading to higher power
requirements than other scrubber designs. Venturi jet scrubbers have lower pressure drops
than typical venturi scrubbers, but have significantly lower efficiencies as a result.

ORIFICE SCRUBBER
Orifice scrubbers are similar to venturi scrubbers in that the gas stream flows at high velocity
through a narrow section (orifice) to atomize the liquid into droplets. The gas moves
through pools of scrubbing liquid at high speeds before it enters the orifice. As it exit,
droplets and pollutants are removed through impingement (collision) on a series of baffles.
Orifice scrubbers have the advantage of low water recirculation rates. Some manufacturers
provide units with adjustable orifices for changing the impingement velocity.

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IMPIGMENT SCRUBBER
Impingement or perforated plate scrubbers are a variation of orifice scrubbers. In these
units, the gas stream enters at the bottom of the unit and passes through a perforated tray
which contains or is sprayed with a layer of liquid. Gas-liquid contact is achieved within the
forth generated by the gas passing through the liquid layer. After passing through the
perforations the gas-droplet mixture impinges on plates or baffles mounted above the
perforations.

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PACKED BED SCRUBBER


Packed bed or packed tower scrubbers are chambers which contain one or more layers of
packing material to increase gas-liquid contact, such as Raschig rings, spiral rings, or Berl
saddles. Gas streams enter in the bottom of the chamber and flow upward (countercurrent)
or horizontally (cross-flow) through the packing as scrubbing liquid is distributed uniformly
to the packing material. Once through the packing, cleaned gas passes through a mist
eliminator while the waste liquid/slurry falls to the bottom by gravity. Some packed towers
designed for
Packed bed scrubbers are primarily gas absorbers and are the most effective scrubbers for
treating gas streams with gaseous pollutants. They can collect solids, but are not often used
for this purpose because wet dust collecting in the beds would require unreasonable
maintenance.

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DRY SCRUBBER
Wet scrubbers are the most common and well-known types of scrubbers. However, recently
the term 'scrubber' has also been used to describe air pollution devices which inject a dry
sorbent or spray into a gas stream. This effectively eliminates the problematic liquid waste
stream, capturing instead a dry solid. Applications for dry scrubbers include the removal of
acid and odorous gases from boilers, incinerators, and wastewater treatment plant
operations.
Dry sorbent injectors inject an alkaline material into a gas stream to react with acid gases.
The reaction produces solid salts which are removed in the system's particulate control
device. Efficiencies for these devices are limited, but can be improved by increasing the
humidity or using wet scrubbing in addition to dry injection.
Dry spray absorbers are packed towers where the gases are contacted with atomized
alkaline slurry. Acid gases form solid salts which can then be removed in the system's
particulate control device. Spray dryers can achieve acid gas removal efficiencies above 80%.

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PRESSURE GAUGE
A pressure gauge is a common component in operations from various industries to measure
pressure. It is also known as vacuum gauge.

DIGITAL PRESSURE GAUGE


The digital pressure gauge used for reading tire pressure is one of its simplest forms. A
pressure sensor is located at one terminal and it communicates the data to a central
processing unit called the microcontroller. An LCD, which is connected to the
microcontroller, shows the value in different units. The whole system is battery operated
and is usually enclosed in a plastic or metal casing.

Digital pressure gauges measure the difference between a system and its surrounding
atmosphere. They can quantify water pressure and air pressure. These gauges are mainly
used in fields in which precision and accuracy are critical, such as chemical processing plants.
Unlike its mechanical counterpart, this type of gauge gives the user a larger reading range
because of its high accuracy and very specific digital readouts.

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C TYPE BOURDON TUBE


As the fluid pressure enters the bourdon tube, it tries to be reformed and because of a free
tip available, this action causes the tip to travel in free space and the tube unwinds. The
simultaneous actions of bending and tension due to the internal pressure make a non-linear
movement of the free tip. This travel is suitable guided and amplified for the measurement
of the internal pressure. But the main requirement of the device is that whenever the same
pressure is applied, the movement of the tip should be the same and on withdrawal of the
pressure the tip should return to the initial point.

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ORIFICE PLATE
An orifice plate is a device used for measuring flow rate. Either a volumetric or mass flow
rate may be determined, depending on the calculation associated with the orifice plate. It
uses the same principle as a Venturi nozzle, namely Bernoulli's principle which states that
there is a relationship between the pressure of the fluid and the velocity of the fluid. When
the velocity increases, the pressure decreases and vice versa.
An orifice plate is a thin plate with a hole in the middle. It is usually placed in a pipe in which
fluid flows. When the fluid reaches the orifice plate, the fluid is forced to converge to go
through the small hole; the point of maximum convergence actually occurs shortly
downstream of the physical orifice, at the so-called vena contracta point. As it does so, the
velocity and the pressure changes. Beyond the vena contracta, the fluid expands and the
velocity and pressure change once again. By measuring the difference in fluid pressure
between the normal pipe section and at the vena contracta, the volumetric and mass flow
rates can be obtained from Bernoulli's equation.
Orifice plates are most commonly used for continuous measurement of fluid flow in pipes.

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VENA CONTRACTA
Vena contracta is the point in a fluid stream where the diameter of the stream is the least,
and fluid velocity is at its maximum, such as in the case of a stream issuing out of a nozzle.
The maximum contraction takes place at a section slightly downstream of the orifice, where
the jet is more or less horizontal.
The effect is also observed in flow from a tank into a pipe, or a sudden contraction in pipe
diameter. Streamlines will converge just downstream of the diameter change, and a region
of separated flow occurs from the sharp corner of the diameter change and extends past
the vena contracta.
The reason for this phenomenon is that fluid streamlines cannot abruptly change direction.
In the case of both the free jet and the sudden pipe diameter change, the streamlines are
unable to closely follow the sharp angle in the pipe/tank wall. The converging streamlines
follow a smooth path, which results in the narrowing of the jet (or primary pipe flow)
observed.
Measurement of the vena contracta is useful in echocardiography, where it describes the
smallest area of the blood flow jet as it exits a heart valve. This corresponds to the Effective
Orifice Area calculated for heart valves using the continuity equation.

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TURBINE FLOW METER


Turbine flow meters use the mechanical energy of the fluid to rotate a pinwheel (rotor) in
the flow stream. Blades on the rotor are angled to transform energy from the flow stream
into rotational energy. The rotor shaft spins on bearings. When the fluid moves faster, the
rotor spins proportionally faster.
Shaft rotation can be sensed mechanically or by detecting the movement of the blades.
Blade movement is often detected magnetically, with each blade or embedded piece of
metal generating a pulse. Turbine flow meter sensors are typically located external to the
flowing stream to avoid material of construction constraints that would result if wetted
sensors were used. When the fluid moves faster, more pulses are generated. The transmitter
processes the pulse signal to determine the flow of the fluid. Transmitters and sensing
systems are available to sense flow in both the forward and reverse flow directions.

Turbine flow meters measure the velocity of liquids, gases and vapors in pipes, such as
hydrocarbons, chemicals, water, cryogenic liquids, air, and industrial gases. High accuracy
turbine flow meters are available for custody transfer of hydrocarbons and natural gas.
These flow meters often incorporate the functionality of a flow computer to correct for
pressure, temperature and fluid properties in order to achieve the desired accuracy for the
application.

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NATURAL GAS PIPELINES


FLOW LINES
Flow lines connect to a single wellhead in a producing field. Flow lines move natural gas
from the wellhead to nearby storage tanks, transmission compressor stations, or processing
plant booster stations.
Flow lines are relatively narrow pipes that carry unodorized raw gas at a pressure of
approximately 250 psi (pounds per square inch). Typically, flow lines are buried four feet
underground.
Flow lines can corrode, especially if they are carrying wet gas. Flow lines are also prone to
methane leakage.

GATHERING LINES
Gathering lines collect gas from multiple flow lines and move it to centralized points, such as
processing facilities, tanks, or marine docks.
Gathering lines are medium size steel pipes (usually under 18" diameter) that carry
unodorized, raw gas at a pressure of approximately 715 psi. Typically, gathering lines are
buried four feet underground.
Gathering lines carry corrosive content that can affect pipeline integrity within a few years.

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FEEDER LINES
Feeder lines move products from batteries, processing facilities and storage tanks in the
field to the long-distance haulers of the pipeline industry, the transmission pipelines.

TRANSMISSION PIPE LINES


Transmission pipelines carry natural gas across long distances and occasionally across
interstate boundaries, usually to and from compressors or to a distribution center or storage
facility.
Transmission lines are large steel pipes (usually 2" to 42" in diameter; most often more than
10" diameter) that are federally regulated. They carry unodorized gas at a pressure of
approximately 200 to 1,200 psi.
Transmission pipelines can fail due to: seam failures, corrosion, materials failure, or defective
welding.

DISTRIBUTION PIPE LINES


Natural gas is moved along distribution pipelines to homes, businesses and some industries.

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PRESSURE
Pressure is the amount of force acting per unit area.
The symbol of pressure is p.
Mathematically:

Where:
p is the pressure,
F is the normal force,
A is the area of the surface on contact.
Unit:
The SI unit for pressure is the Pascal (Pa), Newton per square meter (N/m2 or kgm1s2).
Non-SI measures such as pounds per square inch and bars.
The CGS unit of pressure is the barye (ba), equal to 1 dyncm2 or 0.1 Pa.
Pressure is sometimes expressed in grams-force/cm2 or as kg/cm2 and the like without
properly identifying the force units.
Pascal (Pa)
Bar (bar)
Technical atmosphere (at)
Standard atmosphere (atm)
Torr (Torr)
Pounds per square inch (psi)

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BOYLES LAW
Boyle's law is a gas law which describes how the pressure of a gas tends to decrease as the
volume of a gas increases.
A modern statement of Boyle's law is:
The absolute pressure exerted by a given mass of an ideal gas is inversely proportional to
the volume it occupies if the temperature and amount of gas remain unchanged within a
closed system.
This can be written as:

Or

Where:
P is the pressure of the gas
V is the volume of the gas
k is a constant

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CHARLES LAW
Charles's law is a gas law which describes how gases tend to expand when heated.
A modern statement of Charles's law is:
The volume of a given mass of an ideal gas is directly proportional to its temperature on the
absolute temperature scale (in Kelvin) if pressure and the amount of gas remain constant;
that is, the volume of the gas increases or decreases by the same factor as its temperature.
This directly proportional relationship can be written as:

Or

Where:
V is the volume of the gas
T is the temperature of the gas (measured in Kelvin).
k is a constant.
This law explains how a gas expands as the temperature increases; conversely, a decrease in
temperature will lead to a decrease in volume. For comparing the same substance under
two different sets of conditions,
The law can be written as:

The equation shows that, as absolute temperature increases, the volume of the gas also
increases in proportion.

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BERNOULLIS PRINCIPLE
Bernoulli's principle is named after the Swiss scientist Daniel Bernoulli who published his
principle in his book Hydrodynamica in 1738.
Bernoulli's principle states that for an inviscid flow, an increase in the speed of the fluid
occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a decrease in the fluid's potential
energy.
Bernoulli's principle can be derived from the principle of conservation of energy. This states
that, in a steady flow, the sum of all forms of mechanical energy in a fluid along a streamline
is the same at all points on that streamline. This requires that the sum of kinetic energy and
potential energy remain constant.

Each term in this equation has pressure units, and thus each term represents some kind of
pressure:

P is the static pressure (it does not incorporate any dynamic effects); it represents
the actual thermodynamic pressure of the fluid. This is the same as the pressure used
in thermodynamics and property tables.

PV2/2 is the dynamic pressure; it represents the pressure rise when the fluid in motion
is brought to a stop isentropically.

pgz is the hydrostatic pressure term, which is not pressure in a real sense since its
value depends on the reference level selected; it accounts for the elevation effects,
i.e., fluid weight on pressure. (Be careful of the sign unlike hydrostatic pressure
pgh which increases with fluid depth h, the hydrostatic pressure term pgz decreases
with fluid depth.)

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ACTUATOR
An actuator is a type of motor for moving or controlling a mechanism or system. It is
operated by a source of energy, typically electric current, hydraulic fluid pressure,
or pneumatic pressure, and converts that energy into motion.

ELECTRIC ACTUATORS
An electric actuator provides a stem force output for a variety of process applications by
using electricity as the power source.

MANUAL ACTUATORS
Manual hand wheel actuators are used in applications that require a throttling type of
control valve that can be manually operated and set. Capable of giving precise manual
throttling control, these actuators can be used on nearly all standard globe-style or anglestyle valve body assemblies. A travel indicator on the actuator yoke can provide a visual
indication of valve plug position.

PNEUMATIC ACTUATORS
A pneumatic actuator provides high stem force output for demanding service conditions.
These actuators are usually air operated but some can be self operated by the process fluid.

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OPERATION & MAINTENANCE


(SECTION IV) DEPARTMENT
Section IV deals with the surveys of Sales Meter Station constructed far from the main
terminal. They deal with the maintenance which is inside the boundary of SMS. This
department also deals with the removal of any type of hurdles present in the ROW (Right Of
Way) or near gas lines. The department is also responsible to maintain the 60 ft line which is
the property of SSGC.
They also provide SOP to other companies who want their lines to be installed near SSGC
lines. Section IV is also responsible for the repair of the vehicles.

OPERATION LINES
IRBP
DIAMETER
OF LINE
18 inch
20 inch
24 inch

ILBP

ESTABLISHED
ON
1977
1992
2007

LENGTH
130 km
119 km
131 km

DIAMETER
OF LINE
16 inch
20 inch
24 inch

ESTABLISHED
ON
1955
1995
2005

LENGTH
102 km
90 km
66 km

INTER LINK
KHADEJI PAKLAND
LENGTH = 21.5 km

SMS
MVA

REPEATERS
CP STATION

ILBP

IRBP

INTER LINK

1 SMS EDHI-LUCKY
2 SMS FJFC/FFBL
2

16 inch
20 inch
24 inch

12
5
3
1
9

18 inch
20 inch
24 inch

5
4
5
2
4

0
0

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MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT
Maintenance department deals with the service to ensure the availability of utilities such as
water, gas, electricity, telephone and pneumatic pressure also to maintain the good and
sound condition of machines and equipments through effective maintenance system.
They also provide services and maintenance of machines or equipment.
The maintenance also deals with the installation, repairing, and breakdown maintenance of
electrical system, piping work, water or gas supplies, and pneumatic pressure lines. The
maintenance section also operates fire fighting system, compressor, generator and cooling
system.
The maintenance section also keeps the record of all machines and equipments installed and
carry out the schedule maintenance based on monthly, half yearly or yearly, to follow the
maintenance plan.

MACHINES IN MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT

Lathe Machine

Shaper Machine

Drilling Machine

Milling Machine

Cutting Machine

Hydraulic Press

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HOT TAPPING
Hot Tapping is the ability to safely tie into a pressurized system while it is on stream and
under pressure. Typical connections consist of a tapping fitting, isolation valve and hot
tapping machine. The hole saw is advanced through the valve, to the pipe. The machine is
engaged and the cut begins. When the cut is finished, the machine is disengaged and
retracted beyond the gate of the valve. The valve is closed and the machine is removed. The
coupon is retained by using a wired pilot drill. The wire on the pilot toggles, thus catching
the coupon and preventing it from falling off. Elbow taps, angle taps, and taps perpendicular
to the pipe are all feasible means of connecting to your existing pipeline system.

NOMINAL HOT TAP SIZE

NOMINAL CUTTER SIZE

3/4

5/8

3/4

1-1/4

1-1/8

1-1/2

1-1/4

1-3/4

2-1/2

2-1/4

2-1/2

3-1/2

5-1/4

7-1/4

10

9-1/2

12

11-1/4

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HOT TAPPING PROCESS

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COLD CUTTING
In hazardous environments where the potential for fire or explosion exists or when greater
precision is desired, Cold Cutting method is used. Fully preparing the pipe end for welding
with greater accuracy and a higher level of safety, field cuts are performed quickly and
effectively often without the requirement for hot work permits.
A cold cutting procedure is used to cut or bevel pipe work without generating spark, flame
or excessive heat. The fact that the procedure generates no flame or spark to complete the
cut and weld preparation makes it the safest and most cost effective way for abandonment,
additions and replacement of pipe work.

ADVANTAGES OF COLD CUTTING

Safety
No spark
No flame
No air born contamination
No chance of Explosion
Cost productive

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The aluminum frame is a split ring assembly capable of being disassembled to be installed
around in-line piping. The frame has bearing mountings for the rotating head, a drive motor
mount, locator pads for mounting to the pipe, and a gear cover. Our low clearance
clamshells are designed to fit into tight working areas as well as minimize machine weight.
These clamshells are lightweight, but retain rigidity during operation.
These lathes simultaneously sever and bevel as they cut. Tool bits are automatically fed into
the work piece with each rotation of the lathe, which assures precise machining. The
machines can be fitted with single point beveling tool boxes for heavy wall pipe. The split
frame design enables easy setup on in-line piping, elbows, tees, valves, nozzles and flanges.

WHAT IS PIGGING?
Pigging in the context of pipelines refers to the practice of using pipeline inspection gauges
or 'pigs' to perform various maintenance operations on a pipeline. This is done without
stopping the flow of the product in the pipeline.
These operations include but are not limited to cleaning and inspecting the pipeline. This is
accomplished by inserting the pig into a 'pig launcher' (or 'launching station') a funnel shaped Y section in the pipeline. The launcher / launching station is then closed and
the pressure-driven flow of the product in the pipeline is used to push it along down the pipe
until it reaches the receiving trap the 'pig catcher' (or 'receiving station').
Pigging has been used for many years to clean large diameter pipelines in the oil industry.
Today, however, the use of smaller diameter pigging systems is now increasing in many
continuous and batch process plants as plant operators search for increased efficiencies and
reduced costs.

PIG LAUNCHER AND RECEIVER


Pig launchers are used to launch the pig into the pipeline, and pig receivers are used to
receive the pigs after they have made a successful run. The choice of these pig traps will
depend on the type of pig to be run and pipeline design conditions.

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PIG LAUNCHING PROCEDURES

1. Make sure that the isolation valve and the kicker valve are closed.
2. In liquid systems, open the drain valve and allow air to displace the liquid by
opening the vent valve. In natural gas systems, open the vent and vent the
launcher to atmospheric pressure.
3. When the pig launcher is completely drained (0 psi), with the vent and drains
valves still open; open the trap (closure) door.
4. Install the pig with the nose firmly in contact with the reducer between the barrel
and the nominal bore section of the launcher.
5. Clean the closure seal and other sealing surfaces lubricate if necessary and close
and secure the closure door.
6. Close the drain valve. Slowly fill the trap by gradually opening the kicker valve and
venting through the vent valve.
7. When filling is complete, close the vent valve to allow pressure to equalize across
the isolation valve.
8. Open the isolation valve. The pig is ready for launching.
9. Partially close the main line valve. This will increase the flow through the kicker
valve and behind the pig. Continue to close the main line valve until the pig leaves
the trap into the main line as indicated by the pig signaler.
10. After the pig leaves the trap and enters the main line, fully open the main line
valve. Close the isolation valve and the kicker valve.
11. The pig launching is complete.

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PIG RECEIVING PROCEDURES

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Make sure the receiver is pressurized.


Fully open the bypass valve.
Fully open the isolation valve and partially close the main line valve.
Monitor the pig signaler for pig arrival.
Close the isolation valve and bypass valve.
Open the drain valve and the vent valve.
Check the pressure gauge on the receiver to assure the trap is depressurized (0 psi).
Open the trap closure and remove the pig from the receiver.
Clean the closure seal and other sealing surfaces lubricate if necessary and close and
secure the trap (closure) door.
10. Return the receiver to the original condition.

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SAND BLASTING MACHINE


A sand blast cabinet is essentially a closed loop system that allows the operator to blast the
part and recycle the abrasive. It usually consists of four components; the cabinet, the
abrasive blasting system, the abrasive recycling system and the dust collection. The operator
blasts the parts from the outside of the cabinet by placing his arms in gloves attached to
glove holes on the cabinet, viewing the part through a view window, turning the blast on
and off using a foot pedal or treadle.
There are three systems typically used in a blast cabinet. Two, siphon and pressure, are dry
and one is wet.
A siphon blast system (suction blast system) uses the compressed air to create vacuum in a
chamber (known as the blast gun). The negative pressure pulls abrasive into the blast gun
where the compressed air directs the abrasive through a blast nozzle. The abrasive mixture
travels through a nozzle that directs the particles toward the surface or work piece. In a
pressure blast system, the abrasive is stored in the pressure vessel then sealed. The vessel is
pressurized to the same pressure as the blast hose attached to the bottom of the pressure
vessel. The abrasive is metered into the blast hose and conveyed by the compressed gas
through the blast nozzle. Wet blast cabinets use a system that injects the abrasive/liquid
slurry into a compressed gas stream. Wet blasting is typically used when the heat produced
by friction in dry blasting would damage the part.

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BALANCING MACHINE
A balancing machine is a measuring tool used for balancing rotating machine parts such as
rotors for electric motors, fans, turbines, disc brakes, disc drives, propellers and pumps. The
machine usually consists of two rigid pedestals, with suspension and bearings on top
supporting a mounting platform. The unit under test is bolted to the platform and is rotated
either with a belt-, air-, or end-drive. As the part is rotated, the vibration in the suspension is
detected with sensors and that information is used to determine the amount of unbalance in
the part. Along with phase information, the machine can determine how much and where to
add weights to balance the part.

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WELDING
Welding is a fabrication process that joins materials by causing coalescence. This is often done by
melting the work pieces and adding a filler material to form a pool of molten material that cools to
become a strong joint, with pressure sometimes used in conjunction with heat, or by itself, to
produce the weld. This is in contrast with soldering which involve melting a lower-melting-point
material between the work pieces to form a bond between them without melting the work pieces.

ARC WELDING
Arc welding uses a welding power supply to create an electric arc between an electrode and the base
material to melt the metals at the welding point. They can use either direct DC or alternating AC
current and consumable or non-consumable electrodes. The welding region is usually protected by
some type of shielding gas, vapor, or slag. Arc welding processes may be manual, semi-automatic, or
fully automated.

MIG WELDING
Metal Inert Gas (MIG) welding is a process in which an electric arc forms between a consumable wire
electrode and the work piece metals, which heats the work piece metals, causing them to melt and
join. Along with the wire electrode, a shielding gas feeds through the welding gun, which shields the
process from contaminants in the air. The process can be semi-automatic or automatic. A constant
voltage, direct current power source is used, but constant current systems, as well as alternating
current, can be used.

TIG WELDING
Tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding is an arc welding process that uses a non-consumable tungsten
electrode to produce the weld. The weld area is protected from atmospheric contamination by an
inert shielding gas (argon or helium), and a filler metal is normally used, though some welds, known
as autogenously welds, do not require it. A constant-current welding power supply produces energy
which is conducted across the arc through a column of highly ionized gas and metal vapors known as
plasma. TIG welding is most commonly used to weld thin sections of stainless steel and non-ferrous
metals such as aluminum, magnesium, and copper alloys.

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PROCESSES INVOLVED IN WELDING


The processes involved in welding are:

Root Pass
Hot Pass
Filling Pas
Capping

ROOT PASS
Root pass is the first layer of a multi-layer weld. The root pass is the most critical layer of a
weld because it is susceptible to slag inclusion and cracking.
A root pass is made on beveled material or in filet welds to achieve 100% fusion without
having to weld both sides. A proper root weld will actually melt through the other side,
forming a bead on the backside of the weld. It should more or less resemble the front side of
the weld in appearance.

HOT PASS
The Hot pass is a technique which helps resurface the root pass, and make it usable without
a lot of grinding and clean -up of the weld.

FILLING PASS
Filling Pass is the single progression of welding with the purpose of filling the joint with
metal.

CAPPING
The last bead of a groove weld, it can be made with a weave motion back and forth, or with
stringer beads tied into each other.

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CORROSION AND PREVENTION


DEPARTMENT
Corrosion and Prevention department is responsible for the maintenance of the pipeline
using following steps.

Cathodic Test Post (CTP) maintenance

Pipe to Soil Potential (PSP)monitoring

Coating Integrity Surveys;

1.
2.
3.
4.

Close Interval Potential


Direct Current Voltage Gradient
Pipeline Current Mapper
C-SCAN

Power Source performance evaluation

Ground Bed performance evaluation

Stray current (Interference) survey with parallel pipelines evaluation & necessary
mitigation

After every 3 months the team of CP department checks the PSP. They held surveys to see
whether the PSP is according to their standard. The PSP is checked every 30km. The
standard value of PSP is between 0.85-1.5. If the value is found to be above 1.5 then the
current is regulated to the standard value. If the PSP is found to be below 0.85 then they
check Cathodic Test Post connection, Terrain (Soil Resistivity), CP Power Source Status and
current interference of parallel pipeline. Then they Plot Survey Graphs & assess the coating
as per MPL SOP. Then they inspect through Bell hole (Hot spot). Lastly they refurbish the
defective coating as per MPL SOP.
The preventive steps of main pipe lines are coating of main pipe line. Putting up power
resource and setting up anodic ground bed.

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WHAT IS CORROSION?
Corrosion is the degradation of a material through environmental interaction. This definition
encompasses all materials, both naturally occurring and man-made and includes plastics,
ceramics, and metals.

COATING TYPES
Following types of coating are in use against the length of MPL;

COATING TYPE

LENGTH (Km)

Coal tar enamel

1589

Polyethylene

1725

Tape coating

40

TOTAL

3334

COATING PROCESS

Remove old coating.

Sand Blasting

Using of primer

Bitumen/ Coal Tar

Wrapping Fiber glass

Again using Bitumen/ Coal Tar

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CATHODIC PROTECTION
Cathodic Protection (CP) is a technique used to control the corrosion of a metal surface by
making it the cathode of an electrochemical cell. A simple method of protection connects
protected metal to a more easily corroded "sacrificial metal" to act as the anode. The
sacrificial metal then corrodes instead of the protected metal. For structures such as long
pipelines, where passive galvanic cathodic protection is not adequate, an external DC
electrical power source is used to provide sufficient current.
Cathodic protection systems protect a wide range of metallic structures in various
environments.

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POWER SOURCES USED


The power sources used in cathodic protection are:

Transformer Rectifier
Thermo Electric Generator
Solar Panels

TRANSFORMER RECTIFIER
Transformer Rectifier is the combination of transformer and rectifier in which input AC
current may be varied and then rectified into DC current.

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THERMO ELECTRIC GENERATOR


Thermoelectric generators (also called Seebeck generators) are devices that convert heat
(temperature differences) directly into electrical energy, using a phenomenon called the
thermoelectric effect.
Standard thermoelectric generator units are available at power outputs up to 600 W and
voltages up to 48 V. Higher power outputs can be achieved by adding parallel units. If higher
voltages are required for a CP installation, it is also possible to convert the low DC voltage
from the generator to a higher DC voltage. The converters, although of high efficiency, do
cause some power loss. For this reason, maximum efficiency will result if ground beds can be
built to directly use the output of the thermoelectric generator. Designing ground beds
without carbonaceous backfill will reduce the applied voltage requirement by reducing the
ground bed back voltage substantially.
Since thermoelectric generators contain no moving parts, maintenance is minimal. Annually,
it is necessary to replace the fuel filter and clean the fuel orifice.

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SOLAR ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS


In areas where sunlight can be expected for relatively large percentages of the time, a
combination of solar cells and storage batteries can be used to provide a continuous flow of
current to a CP installation. Solar cells rely on the photoelectric effect: a process in which a
material liberates an electric charge when electromagnetic radiation (sunlight) is incident on
the material surface. Solar cells are typically P-N junction semiconductors fabricated of
crystalline silicon and doped to provide the desired photovoltaic properties.
The initial cost of the solar electric powered CP systems has dropped dramatically over the
past 20 years as the technology has advanced. This advancement has occurred, in part, as a
result of rapid development in the semiconductor industry in general. Solar electric power
systems also are used for other applications such as satellite communications and cellular
telephony. Systems are now available that operate at power outputs up to 1000W, voltages
up to 20 V, and currents up to 50 A. Battery storage capacities up to 3200 A-h (at 12 V) are
available. Such a battery backup could supply a 10 A rectifier for almost two weeks with no
recharging.

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GAS CONTROL FUNCTION


SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system team works for 24 hours and are
responsible for making the daily sales record of the gas supply from the gas fields and the
consumers.
The team is responsible for consistent supply of gas by making necessary operational
adjustments.
Operational data like pressure, flow, temperature of gas etc are obtained from gas
producers and HQ stations through microwave, T&T phone and through SCADA.
The data recorded on daily basis helps to analyze the pipeline condition for gas supply,
system failures, consumers demand status and maintain historical record.
The team operates pipeline using every safe limit. They plans the maintenance of pipelines
like hot tapping, gas cutting etc.
They also work on gas load management my making balance in sales and purchase of gas.
They design hydraulic system of same ratio of gas to ensure same B.T.U as all gas lines do
not have same B.T.U.
They also monitors the point at which the gas is delivered called POD (Point Of Delivery).
They also monitor the regulating system for the houses known as TBS (Town Bar Station).

SCADA ROOM

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LHF PROCESSING
The LHF (Liquid Handling Facility) processing is to separate out the pipeline condensate
from natural gas and save it in storage tanks.
SSGC recovers condensate from the gas supplied from Badin gas field in Kunar, Pasaki and
Bobi through LHF. The existing LHF facility is installed at Hyderabad.

MAJOR GAS FIELD SUPPLIES AND


CONSUMERS
MAJOR GAS FIELDS (MMCFD)
FIELD NAMES

FLOW

MAJOR GAS CONSUMERS


(MMCFD)
CONSUMER NAMES

FLOW

SUI
Mazarani
Zamzama I
Zamzama II
Bhit
Bhadra
Sari
Kadanwari
Miano
Latif
Sawan
Bobi
Naimat Basal
Kausar
Badin
Pakhro
Adam
Haseeb

120.0
10.0
150.0
104.0
291.0
25.0
0.0
66.0
70.0
65.0
60.0
4.0
5.0
17.0
86.0
2.0
6.0
0.0

KESC
BinQasim
Jamshoro
Kotri Power
Coastal
Quetta Power
Naudero
FFBQL
Pak Steel SMS
Karachi City
Hyderabad
Sukkur
Other Sindh
Quetta City
Other Baluchistan
JJVL Sale
Internal Use of SSGC

65.0
95.0
0.0
0.0
14.0
8.0
6.0
60.0
40.0
572.0
39.0
7.0
120.0
38.0
5.0
7.0
2.0

Total

1081.0

Total

1078.0

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PIPELINE COMPRESSORS AT SSGC


SSGC has installed compressors at various locations. In 1952 when the first gas field of
Pakistan was discovered at Sui, it was difficult to transmit the natural gas from Sui to far
areas of Pakistan, so the need of compressor arises. With the passage of time more fields
were discovered so the need of compressors was reducing.
The compressors of SSGC are installed at Hyderabad, Dadu, Shikarpur and Sibi. The
compressors which are used by SSGC are manufactured by Dresser and solar.

COMPRESSOR STATIONS OF SSGC


LOCATION

NO OF
COMPRESSORS

CONDITION MANUFACTURING
STATUS
COMPANY

Hyderabad

Stand By

Dressers

Dadu

Stand By

Dressers

Shikarpur

1 Working
1 Stand By

Dressers

Sibi

Stand By

Solar

Shikarpur compressor is operated by gas turbine and its gas turbine has power of
5000hp.

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COMPRESSORS
A gas compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its
volume.
Compressors are similar to pumps: both increase the pressure on a fluid and both can
transport the fluid through a pipe. As gases are compressible, the compressor also reduces
the volume of a gas. Liquids are relatively incompressible, while some can be compressed,
the main action of a pump is to pressurize and transport liquids.

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TYPES OF COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal Compressors.

Reciprocating compressor.

Axial Compressors.

APPLICATIONS OF GAS COMPRESSORS

Gas gathering.

Gas lifting.

Gas boosting.

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GAS TURBINES
A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a type of internal combustion engine. It
has an upstream rotating compressor coupled to a downstream turbine, and a combustion
chamber in-between. Gasses passing through an ideal a gas turbine undergo three
thermodynamic processes. These are isentropic compression, isobaric (constant pressure)
combustion and isentropic expansion. Together these make up the Brayton cycle.
Energy is added to the gas stream in the combustor, where fuel is mixed with air and ignited.
In the high pressure environment of the combustor, combustion of the fuel increases the
temperature. The products of the combustion are forced into the turbine section. There, the
high velocity and volume of the gas flow is directed through a nozzle over the turbine's
blades, spinning the turbine which powers the compressor and, for some turbines, drives
their mechanical output. The energy given up to the turbine comes from the reduction in the
temperature and pressure of the exhaust gas.
Energy can be extracted in the form of shaft power, compressed air or thrust or any
combination of these and used to power aircraft, trains, ships, generators, or even tanks.

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MEASUREMENT DEPARTMENT
Measurement department is responsible for the monthly check of the meters installed on
the point of delivery. There are two meters installed on Point of Delivery one is of seller, to
cross check their meter SSGC have installed its own meter.
Measurement Department is also responsible for the monthly check of meters installed on
the SMSs.
They are responsible to measure the gas quality. They make sure that the gas coming from
the gas field should be greater than 900 B.T.U as described by OGRA.
They ensure the percentage of gas and other impurities should be of the ratio as prescribed
by OGRA.

TYPES OF METERS
About 450 meters have been installed of different types, they include:

Orifice Meter
Turbine Meter
Rotary Meter
Ultrasonic Meter
Diaphragm Meter

ORIFICE METER
An orifice gas meter consists of a straight length of pipe inside which a precisely known
orifice creates a pressure drop, thereby affecting the flow. Orifice meters are a type of
differential meter, all of which infer the rate of gas flow by measuring the pressure
difference across a deliberately designed and installed flow disturbance. The gas static
pressure, density, viscosity, and temperature must be measured or known in addition to the
differential pressure for the meter to accurately measure the fluid. Orifice meters often do
not handle a large range of flow rates. They are however accepted and understood in
industrial applications since they are easy to field-service and have no moving parts.

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TURBINE METER
Turbine gas meters infer gas volume by determining the speed of the gas moving through
the meter. Because the volume of gas is inferred by the flow, it is important that flow
conditions are good. A small internal turbine measures the speed of the gas, which is
transmitted mechanically to a mechanical or electronic counter. These meters do not
impede the flow of gas, but are limited at measuring lower flow rates.

ROTARY METER
Rotary meters are highly machined precision instruments capable of handling higher
volumes and pressures than diaphragm meters. The rotors spin in precise alignment. With
each turn, they move a specific quantity of gas through the meter. The rotational movement
of the crank shaft serves as a primary flow element and may produce electrical pulses for a
flow computer or may drive an odometer-like counter.

ULTRASONIC METER
Ultrasonic flow meters are more complex than meters that are purely mechanical, as they
require significant signal processing and computation capabilities. Ultrasonic meters
measure the speed of gas movement by measuring the speed at which sound travels in the
gaseous medium within the pipe. American Gas Association Report No. 9 covers the proper
usage and installation of these meters, and it specifies a standardized speed-of-sound
calculation which predicts the speed of sound in a gas with a known pressure, temperature
and gas composition.

DIAPHRAGM METER
Within the meter there are two or more chambers formed by movable diaphragms. With the
gas flow directed by internal valves, the chambers alternately fill and expel gas, producing a
near continuous flow through the meter. As the diaphragms expand and contract, levers
connected to cranks convert the linear motion of the diaphragms into rotary motion of a
crank shaft which serves as the primary flow element. This shaft can drive an odometer-like
counter mechanism or it can produce electrical pulses for a flow computer.

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FLOW COMPUTERS
Flow computer is a device which receives differential pressure, static pressure and
temperature information about the flowing gas and gas quality information from a gas
chromatograph and stores the record for a period of time.

It is a Micro Processor- Based Flow Computer that provides functions required for gas flow
measurement and custody transfer in accordance with the standards such as AGA-3, Orifice
Metering.
The interface electronics controls Communication with the sensor modules, does scaling of
process variables i.e.: Differential Pressure, Static Pressure & Temperature, aids calibration,
provides storage of operating parameters, performs protocol conversion and responds to
the requests from the flow Computer.

ELECTRONIC VOLUME CORRECTOR


The electronic volume corrector takes incoming pulses from a meter and records the
pressure and temperature to calculate the standard cubic feet of gas that has passed
through the meter.

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GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY
Gas chromatography (GC) is a common type of chromatography used in analytical chemistry
for separating and analyzing compounds that can be vaporized without decomposition.
Typical uses of GC include testing the purity of a particular substance, or separating the
different components of a mixture (the relative amounts of such components can also be
determined). In some situations, GC may help in identifying a compound. In preparative
chromatography, GC can be used to prepare pure compounds from a mixture.
In gas chromatography, the mobile phase is a carrier gas, usually an inert gas such as helium
or unreactive gas such as nitrogen.
The stationary phase is a microscopic layer of liquid or polymer on an inert solid support,
inside a piece of glass or metal tubing called a column. The instrument used to perform gas
chromatography is called a gas chromatograph.

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NATURAL GAS
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of
methane, but commonly includes varying amounts of other higher alkanes and even a lesser
percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and hydrogen sulfide. Natural gas is an energy
source often used for heating, cooking, and electricity generation. It is also used as fuel for
vehicles and as a chemical feedstock in the manufacture of plastics and other commercially
important organic chemicals.
Natural gas is found in deep underground rock formations or associated with other
hydrocarbon reservoirs in coal beds and as methane clathrates. Petroleum is also another
resource found in proximity to and with natural gas. Most natural gas was created over time
by two mechanisms: biogenic and thermogenic. Biogenic gas is created by methanogenic
organisms in marshes, bogs, landfills, and shallow sediments. Deeper in the earth, at greater
temperature and pressure, thermogenic gas is created from buried organic material.
Before natural gas can be used as a fuel, it must undergo processing to remove impurities,
including water, to meet the specifications of marketable natural gas. The by-products of
processing include ethane, propane, butanes, pentanes, and higher molecular weight
hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulfide (which may be converted into pure sulfur), carbon dioxide,
water vapor, and sometimes helium and nitrogen.
Natural gas is often informally referred to simply as gas, especially when compared to other
energy sources such as oil or coal. But not to be confused with gasoline especially in North
America, the term gasoline also is often shortened in colloquial usage to gas.

PROPERTIES OF NATURAL GAS

Lighter than air


Highly combustible
Clean burning
Efficient
Abundant
Odourless and invisible (An odourant, called mercaptan, is added to natural gas to
make even the smallest leak easy to smell)
Non-corrosive
Explosive under pressure

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CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF NATURAL GAS

Methane (CH4) - 95%

Ethane (C2H6) - 2.5%,

Propane (C3H8) - 0.2%

Butane (C4H10) - 0.06%

Pentanes Plus (C5H12 + C10H22) - 0.02%

It also contains small amounts of

Nitrogen (N2) - 1.6%

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) - 0.7%

Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) - traces

Water (H2O) - traces

USES OF NATURAL GAS

Electricity and heat generation.


Household consumption.
In transport use.
Natural gas containing H2S is a source of sulphur.

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REMOVAL OF CO 2, H 2 S & N 2
AMINE GAS SWEETING
Amine gas sweetening is a proven technology that removes H 2S and CO2 from natural gas
and liquid hydrocarbon streams through absorption and chemical reaction. Each of the
amines offers distinct advantages to specific treating problems.

AMINE GAS SWEETING PROCESS


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.

Sour gas enters the contactor tower and rises through the descending amine.
Purified gas flows from the top of the tower.
The amine solution is now considered Rich and is carrying absorbed acid gases.
The Lean amine and Rich amine flow through the heat exchanger, heating the Rich
amine.
Rich amine is then further heated in the regeneration still column by heat supplied
from there boiler. The steam rising through the still liberates H 2S and CO2,
regenerating the amine.
Steam and acid gases separated from the rich amine are condensed and cooled.
The condensed water is separated in the reflux accumulator and returned to the still.
Hot, regenerated, lean amine is cooled in a solvent aerial cooler and circulated to the
contactor tower, completing the cycle.

Methods of nitrogen removal may be divided into three classifications:


(a) Methods involving fractional distillation at low temperature and (usually) high pressure,
i.e. cryogenics. Since nitrogen has a lower boiling point than methane and the other
hydrocarbons present in natural gas, it may be removed as a gas on liquefying the remaining
constituents, which are then re vaporized.
(b) By selective adsorption of the methane and higher hydrocarbons on an adsorbent such
as activated charcoal. The adsorbed gases are then desorbed to give a gas free of nitrogen.
(c) Miscellaneous processes involving selective diffusion through a series of organic
membranes, formation of lithium nitride by treatment with lithium amalgam, absorption of
the nitrogen in liquid ammonia or in liquid sulphur dioxide.

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N 2 REMOVAL FROM NATURAL GAS


CRYOGENIC PROCESS
Cryogenic processes capitalize on the fact that methane and nitrogen change phase (from
gas to liquid) at different temperatures. By manipulating and controlling the pressures and
temperatures in the system, the methane is liquefied and collected as it drops out of the
gas. The gas is then re-vaporized, yielding a sales stream with nitrogen levels that conform
to pipeline quality standards. The excess nitrogen is either flared or vented to the
atmosphere. Because of the temperatures involved (-240 to -250 degrees), the long cool
down time and extensive equipment required, cryogenic systems are most often used for
large projects where processing volumes exceed five million cubic feet per day and in those
instances where nitrogen levels range from 30% to 40% or higher.

SOLVENT RECOVERY PROCESS


In solvent recovery processes, the hydrocarbons in the feed stream are absorbed by a
chemical solvent and the nitrogen that remains is dispersed by vent. The hydrocarbons are
recovered from the solvent through a series of flash operations. Because the process
requires that the gas stream be cooled to only -30 degrees, effective separation usually
begins within 2 or 3 hours after start-up. In addition, solvent recovery processes provide the
benefit of handling one of the problems commonly associated with nitrogen rejection: the
presence of natural gas liquid elements in the feed stream. After nitrogen has been
removed, the presence of these additional heavy hydrocarbons usually results in a stream
with a hydrocarbon dew point that exceeds pipeline requirements.

PRESSURE SWING ADSORPTION


The pressure swing adsorption process utilizes a carbon bed technology to separate the
nitrogen from the hydrocarbons and can perform effectively even where there are large
amounts of nitrogen in the feed stream. A particular advantage of the pressure swing
adsorption process is its scale ability. It can be used in small plants designed to handle
100,000 cubic feet of gas per day as well as plants processing volumes in the millions of
cubic feet.

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NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION OVER THE


WORLD
Rank

Country

Continent

Annual natural gas production (m)

Russia

Eurasia

United States

North America

European Union

Date of
information

669,600,000,000

2011 est.

651,300,000,000

2011 est.

167,600,000,000

2011 est.

Canada

North America

160,100,000,000

2011 est.

Iran

Asia

146,100,000,000

2010 est.

Qatar

Asia

116,700,000,000

2010 est.

Norway

Europe

103,100,000,000

2011 est.

China

Asia

102,700,000,000

2011 est.

Saudi Arabia

Asia

99,230,000,000

2011 est.

Nigeria

Africa

92,000,000,000

2010 est.

10

Algeria

Africa

84,610,000,000

2010 est.

10

Indonesia

Asia

82,800,000,000

2010 est.

11

Netherlands

Europe

81,090,000,000

2011 est.

12

Malaysia

Asia

66,500,000,000

2010 est.

13

Egypt

Africa

61,330,000,000

2010 est.

14

Uzbekistan

Asia

60,110,000,000

2010 est.

15

Turkmenistan

Asia

59,500,000,000

2011 est.

16

Mexico

North America

55,100,000,000

2011 est.

17

United Arab Emirates Asia

51,280,000,000

2010 est.

18

United Kingdom

Europe

47,430,000,000

2011 est.

19

India

Asia

46,100,000,000

2011 est.

20

Australia

Oceania

44,990,000,000

2011 est.

21

Pakistan

Asia

42,900,000,000

2011 est.

22

Trinidad and Tobago Caribbean

42,460,000,000

2010 est.

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Rank

Country

Continent

Annual natural gas production (m)

Date of
information

23

Argentina

South America

40,100,000,000

2010 est.

24

Thailand

Asia

36,270,000,000

2010 est.

25

Venezuela

South America

31,200,000,000

2011 est.

26

Peru

South America

31,120,000,000

2011 est.

28

Oman

Asia

27,100,000,000

2010 est.

29

Brazil

South America

24,070,000,000

2011 est.

30

Kazakhstan

Asia

20,200,000,000

2011 est.

31

Bangladesh

Asia

20,130,000,000

2010 est.

32

Ukraine

Europe

19,360,000,000

2010 est.

33

Libya

Africa

16,810,000,000

2010 est.

34

Azerbaijan

Asia

16,680,000,000

2010 est.

35

Bolivia

South America

14,370,000,000

2010 est.

36

Bahrain

Asia

12,250,000,000

2010 est.

37

Burma

South East Asia

12,100,000,000

2010 est.

38

Germany

Europe

11,900,000,000

2011 est.

39

Brunei

Asia

11,800,000,000

2010 est.

40

Kuwait

Asia

11,730,000,000

2010 est.

41

Colombia

South America

11,260,000,000

2010 est.

42

Romania

Europe

10,590,000,000

2010 est.

43

Syria

Asia

8,940,000,000

2010 est.

44

Vietnam

Asia

8,500,000,000

2011 est.

45

Italy

Europe

8,364,000,000

2011 est.

Europe

7,069,000,000

2011 est.

46

Denmark

47

Equatorial Guinea

Africa

6,740,000,000

2010 est.

48

Poland

Europe

6,247,000,000

2011 est.

49

Yemen

Asia

6,240,000,000

2010 est.

50

New Zealand

Oceania

4,367,000,000

2011 est.

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