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OAKHEN-TARA-HBNOt appointed hi8 g k d 8.

soperintend the building. He proceeded to the spot with his dimiple,
Sit1 &'~TAPA, but they were unable to complete it, althoryh aided in
every way by the Raja. Afterwards VARADA~I-NAIX-THEM
the Raja to undertake it, to which he readily nssented, commhioning
prince PFUTA~INO
to the work, who again deputed the younger Prvenragno, and hie minhkr RATHA,to cross over and repair the mcred
bailding. I t was thar constructed a foarth time, and finished on Fridny
the 10th day of Pyadola, in the Sakkaraj year 667 (A. D. 1305). On Sunday the 8th of TachAoon-mungla, 668 (A. D . 1306), it waa consecrated
with splendid ceremonies and offerings of food, perfumes, banners, and
lamps, and pi?ja of the famoua ornamented tree called c a l p a - d k u k :and
the poor (two ?)were treated with charitv, w the Raja's own children ?
Thw was completed thia meritorious act, which will produce eternal
reward and virtnous Eta. May the founder*endure in fame, enjoy the
traPqnillity of Nirbkn, and become Arahanta on the advent of Aarn
Mnlm (the future Buddha) ."

111.-CLam#cdion of the NCbdrs, or Aborigines of NPpdl Proper,prm&d

by tk mt authoritative Legend relative to the Origin and Early
Hidtmy of the Race.
The Swoyambhh W h a relatea in substance an follow8 :That former)g the vdey of N6phl wan of circular form, and fall of very deep water,
and that the moontains confining it were clothed with the densest for.
wts, giving shelter to numberless birds and beanb. Countless waterfowl q o M in the waters. The name of the lake was N&gaVdsa ; it
was beautiful ae the Lake of Indra : e ~ u t hof the Hedchal, the reaideuce of I C n a s h a ~ prince
of the N@ ; reven con long, and m many
.broad. In the lake were many wrts of water-planb ; but not the lotw.
After a time, V I P A ~ Y
arrived, with very many disciples and
Bhihhds, h r n Vindiunati Nagar, in Madhya DBsa, at the Lake of
Nb Vba, in the course of his customary religious peregrinations.
VrrArrr, having thrice circumambulated the lake, seated himself in the
N.W.(V&-dkona) side of it, and, having repeated eeverd mano v n the root of a lows, he threw it into the water, exclaiming, What
time thh root.sW1produce a flower, then, from out of the flower, Swogambhu, the Iard of Akniahtha Bhavana, shall be revealed in the form
of he;
and t k n shall the lake become a cultivated and populou
conntrg." Having repeated these words, VIPASTIdeparted. Long after
the d a b of h i e pmphecy, it was f W e d according to the letter.
A . t e r V ~ ? n . r l B u ~ ~ acame
to NIga V h w i t h a great
company of respectful followers, composedof rajae and persons of the four


so soon as he beheld JYOTI-RUP-Swow t e s (chatdr varana). SIXHI,

offered to him many laudatory forms of prayer : then rihg, he
thrice waked mund NBga Vbsa, and, having done m, thus addreseed
his disciples: " This place shall hereafter, by the bleeaing of SWOYAYBEC,
become a delightful abode to those who shall r&rt to it from a l l q u to dwell in it, and a sweet place of mjourn for the pilgrim and p
renger : my apotheosis is now near at hand, do you all take your leave of
me and depart to your own country." So saying SIXHIthrew h b d
into the waters of N i p Visa, grasping in his hands the stalk of tbe
lotos, and his soul was abeorbed into the essence of SWOYAY~EU.
Many of his disciples, following their maater, threw themselvu in the
lake, and were absorbed into S w o ~ ~ ~ a(i.a ue., the relf-existent ;) the
rest returned home. V x s w ~ ~ awar
u the third Buddha who visited
N&a V h . V I ~ W A B wae
B U born in Anfipama-puri-nagar, of Madhya d6sa. (in the Trita ynga;) hir life was devoted to benefitting hia
fellow-creatures. His visit to N6@ waslong after that of SIKEI, and,
like SIKUI,he brought with him a great many disciples and Bhikiba,
Rajas and cultivators, nativea of his own land. Having repeated tk
prabe8 of SWOTAMBEI~-JYOTI-E~P;~
h b o w n e d . " In t h h h b
aurGpa-Guhybwariwill be produced. A Bodhiaatrra will, in time, aake
her manifest out of the water8 : ard this place, through the bleeoipS of
wiUbeame replete ~ithvillagee,townr, and tirthae, and inhabitantu ofvariou and diverse tribes." Having thue prophesied hethria
circumambulated the lake and returned to his native country. TheBodhisatwa above alluded to is MANJUSBI, whose native place is very far 06
towardsthe north, and i8 &d Pancha Sireha Parvata, [whichisaitnated
in Maha China Des*.] One day in the Trita yugo, and immediately sftor
the coming of V r s w r ~ ~Buddha
to N Q a V k , MANJUSRI,meditating upon what was pwing in the world, disoovered by meam of his die
vine wience that SWOTAMBMU-JYOTI-am,
that is, the self-&tent, in
the form of flame, WN revealed out of a lobs in the Lake of Nig.
V h . Again, he reflected within himeelf : " Let me behold that
w e d spot, and my name wiU long be celebrated in the world ; a d
on the instant, collecting together hi6 disciples, comprising a midtitub
of the peasantry of the land, and a Raja named D u ~ n r r r a r hem-,
ed the form of V r r w r ~ ~ n u nand
, with his two D6vis (wives,) and &=
persons above-mentioned, e t out upon the long journey from SMh
Parvata to N&gaVisa. There having arrived, and having made pdja
to the self-existent, he began to cucumambolote the lake, bneeahiry
all the while the aid of S W O ~ A M Bin
prayer. In the leaond Wt,
when he bod reached the central barrier mountain on the -9th. L


The bncketad portions u a from the cokmsntrtwr.

whereat to dRw d t b d
the lake. Imrediately he struck the ntountsin with hu
acimh, when the mdered rock grvc pnmage to tbc watars, and the
battom of the lake became dry. He then descended &om the moanbin, md began to -1k
about the valley in dl directioru. . AB he ap&ed
G u h ~ a r i * ,he bebeld the water bubbling up violently from
the spot, and betook h i d witb piour zeal to the tack of stopping
it. No wner had he comnepced than the ebullitien d the watsr
betune leaa violent, when, leaving bare only the flower of the lotor, t
root of which wan the abode of Guhykwui, he etwted a p m h h g
dmctm of s h e and brick over the reemubent rtelk, and c$)ed the
rtruchnre, which rose into a considerable eler&ou aa it acued,tkr
5mz of the l o b , Sdya Giri. Thh work unnpkted, Mnnm 6m
begrn to look about him in ncreh of a 6t place of xwidena, and at
kngth conatmted for that ptupose a muall hill, to which he me t&
rime of MANJU Su Pubata, (the weatern hplt of the M e hill of Sambhti Nath.) md called the desiccated d e y , N w d - N L ipifying th
rcnch (to paradbe), who MGWOTA~BRU
;d # u ,
c k i a h d , implying
tbat tbs pr~tecting geaiu of the valley waa Swornu#u or ba
~ D E A . Thee the d e y got tbe name of NCp61I : and, since v q
m y plaom had
from Mmmt 6 k [or China] with MA=&i
, the x w n i b of Dxmurua Raja and hb r i t e , MAR-.
cmuhctd a large plPa of abode, half way between Momt Swoyambhn a d OPhphmi, sRd larrmed it Pfter himelf, Ma+ Petku, and atd&hed &rein DIUEYAUB [of Maha China], as Raja,
wbjecting the whole of the inferior mrt of people who came fmm G h h a
PvbPb to D a l ~ ~ r u rule,
' r .and providing &odes for them iu the
dtg of Manja Pattpna.
Thus w a NCpbl peopled : the fhat i n h . W of WW
c a m all
frcm Mount Sinha [which ir in Maha China], and thos the valley got
the name of N 4 W and ita inhabitantr that of N@&, [whom pri&
h e h g a q e was Chinew.] p i e language m anme of time came te
be much altered by the immigration of people fmm Madhya &a, rPd
by the n e m m q program of corruption and change in a new coantrp,
bslgmedfied thatQutwastheb&plrra
nrtae d

*The rite of tbe temph ir near the c m h of the vrllq, .on the r L i of the
b dJ grove d Pampati ; and above 23 or 3 m i h e u t h m maunt h b h u ,
Th hble 1.14 tbat the root of the lotor of Guhfiswari w u at the formv plrcq
md tluflower at the latter ; the recumbent #talk king axtanded throughout tb
interval between them. s w o ~ ~ x e or
a oAnal BUDDHA
is mpposed to reaide in
tbs dower, in tbe form of flame ;PRAJAXAPARAUITA
or Quu~rawrrr,in or at
tb root, in the form of water.

till a new language arow in NCpsl by the natural conme of thinga. Tbe
primitive inhabitants of NB* were all of one &e, or had 'no cash
But their descendants, in the course of time, became divided into many
-tea, aocording to the trader and pmfeaione which they followed; ad
of these, such aa abandoned the world and shaved their heads, beamc
Bhikehu. Sramana, Ch.ailaka, and A r b aud took up their abode in
foreeta or in monasteries. The latter four ordera are all -tical
; and in
rtrictnerr absolutely excluded from all worldly commerce. But &odd
any of them, atill retaining the castom of toaswe, become worldly men,
ruch are d e d SrCvaka, kc. to a great extent of diverue names]. MAXJU Sar, having by ouch deeda ae these.acquired the higheat celebrity io
NCI$I, ostensibly, and for the'imtruction of the people, relinquished h
mortal form, and became nirrrdn ; but, in truth, departed for Moant
S k h a with hi8 two mvis, and in due course arrived at h c h a S i
Pamata. Some time after the disappearance of MANJVSBI [in the 'Ititr
CBme t o N W , with romeBhikahuLas,Deu.
YAPAU Raja, and a mdtitude of the common people, h m Kshhiimti
nrgar, of Madbya d b . The beauty of the county delighted him, and he
remarked that in euch a land the cultivator mmt be mn to reap aa he
and then launched
mwed. He paid hie devotion8 to SWOTAYBRU,
praise of the merits of MANJUSPIthsNiNeae patriarch. AfterrnrQ bt
performed p ~ j to
a GnhyCswari, and then ascended Sankhocha mounbin
(6iva Plua) : the prospect of the valley from that mount Wed him with
freah delight, and he again celebrated the excellence of the omtry.
a Blrhman, and ABEAYANDADA,
a Kahetriy% and o t k a of
the four wtes (chat& varana), respectful followera of Kusnm SAND,
heresolicited at hin hands the favour of being made Bhhhnlua, in order
that they might remain in this happy land, and by the worship of SwoYAXBHU attain to high merit and honour. KVEXUTcheerfully complied,
and agreed to make a great many of the company Bbikrhukae; and &
.the mountain top afforded no water for that ceremony, he by his divine
#powercaused a spring to issue from the mck, and with its waters gave to
hb followere the reqnisite Abhiahbka or baptism. He d e d the river
thpt originated with this rpring Vbngmatij ; and then related to hh
followen both the p u t and futare hiatnry of the valley watered by the
VQgmati. Then, having left behind him at NC#, Raja DRAWL
a d =me BhiLehw and common folh, who had come with birn, a d
desired to rtay, KWBKUT
SANDdeparted with the rest of them to hia
native city of KahemBvati. Theaecompanionr of K ~ K USAND,
T or K u XUCCBIND, were the first nativee of the plain8 of India ( M a d h p - d m
who remained in N*.
Many of them, addicting t h d v e a to the

buaines of the world, became houeholders and the f o a n d e ~of neverpl

towns and villages in NCphl ; w h i i others, who edopted the d e a l
profemion, dwelt in the foreets and Vibrs. When thew Madhyad&pas had became numerous in N*,
they and their descendants
were confounded wi& the former or northern colonists d e r the
wmmon appellation of N 6 f i and N k M ; being only wpanted and
mtradistinguiahed by the neveral trades and profensions which they
henditarily ~ractised. Thus, in the early ages. NepeJ had four c h a a
of secnlar people, 'aBrahman, Kshatriya, Vaisya, and Sudrs, and four
metical classes, namely, Bhikehu, Srunana. Chailaka, and Arhantr,
dwelling in forests and mon~teriea; and all were Mdh-mdrgi.
Accovr~of DhamLka Rqia and D h p t i l Raja.
D s r r u r r m , the before noted Chinese prina of NBp41, being dbp t e d with the world, abandoned hie mvereign power, and placed D k +, the Raja of Gour-dh, already mentioned, upon his throne. D b nqp61 governed hie wbj- with perfect jutice and clemency, and nudo
pGjr at the Chaitya erectad by D H A ~ ~ A Xand
A Bregarded
with qd
favop~ wbjecta that a m e from Mount Sinha [or Maha China], and
thw who emigrated fmm Madhya-d&.
A c d of Prachada D~~~.-PRACHANDA
Ihvr, a Raja of Go&&,
(which is adjacent toMadhya-dQ.) andof the Kshetriya tribe, was the
plaa of hin age and country. At length, being inqired with the ambition
of becoming ahus, he abandoned his princely sway ; and taking with
hhn a few saga, he began to wander over varioua countries, viriting
d the h i n e e and pilgrhgea, and in the couree of hie peregrinatiom
arrived at N*.
He wan delighted with the beauty of the country,
md having virited every tirtha, snd pith, and devcrta, and having
made pnja to the Tri k t ~or,triad, he went to the temple of Sworrurea, and there performed hie devotions. He then ascended MANJV rn Pamat, and &d
his prayem to M m ~ Sax,
u and 6niehed by be.
c~&g a w p l e of GWNAKAB
a follower of MANJUSax. One
with the dieplay of h h ad e n t qualities, that GU'NAUBmade him a Bhikrhuka, and the
Raja P u c ~ n m r a f t e becoming
aBhikehu obtained the titularappellatioq
of SANTA~ B I . A great many Brahmans and others who accompcmied
to N + & received the toneure, and bacame Bhikehue at t b
m e timc with ~ C H A N D A and
took up their abode in the monaeterim
of N W . Some athers of those that came with PMCHANDA
to NdpPI.
praferriug the p d t a of the world, continued to exercine them in N4Rom V e h ,


pil, where they a h remained and be-

Bddhbta. A tbird portiaD

d F u c n u ~ n ' companion8
returned to Gnu*.
After a time,S u u
SN repmerited to big GdrG GU'NAUBhie &aim to protect the uered
&me of S w o r l u r ~ a uwith a covering otmctwe. Gu'nrun wslr chmad with the pmpoeition and p r o p e r , and having M6ed him with 13
of sacred water (trayodes dllidh),gave him the title of D5
llhita Santikar Vajra Ach6rpo. F
rom these trrur&
in doteatheuri.
val of the people of Gour-d& at NepPI, and their beambg BaddaLLr]
A c d of Kaaaka Mad.--Once on a time, frmn S6bhivati-~gu
of Madhya-dh, LNASA
with many dhciplm, lolrc
illustrious permma, and a c o a n k multitude of common people, urived at NBpP, in the course of hie religious peregrinatiom, and vt
mme months in the worship of sworranau, and the Tri Ratna, md
then deperted with m& of his nitendants. A few nmoin#l at N(pll,
became Bddh-s$gi m d worahippere of SWOYAY~PU
; [and tbae 04
like all the preceding, soon lotst their name and characta
d6sip1, and were blended with the New or N M race.
dmmt of Kddyapa -As.--Once
on a time, in MripMbnear Bemaree, ISisarrrn BUDDHA
wan born. He v g t e d N
w kg.
grimage,and made bis devotions to k b h u a a t h . [Mostof tk pe@
who came with bCm ataid in NCpQ1, and m u beame dd
the abOrigintcl.1
dccount of Sdklya 8hk W h . - - S o m e time after KASHTUA'I
in the beginning cd Kali yuga,] on the &ores of Gamga SBkn, in th
#than of KAPILAMUNI,
and city of Kapila-vmta, and reign of 6 ~ b A
h j a , of the 8&ya vanm, was born (aa the son of that Raja) Suv*
THA S m w n , who c b t c r d became a Bsddhawith the M s e of SuTA
SINHA.~ A K Y A , with 1350 B h f shukor, and the h j a of -%*
rcnl c o d of state, and a crowd of peasantry of that kbgb,
out on the piigrimnge to N*.
Having paid hia devotions to tbewlf.
ariatent, in the farm of flame, be went to the' Chsitya on
HI.and repeated to hie dbipler the p a t hietoy of N*. M rrdl a
its whole fature history, with many praieea of M~lrrrrSru boo it^ n m A :
he them observed, In all the world are 14 Pi&, and d dtbc*
that of N W ia the best." Having ao mid, he departed. E I i r c ~ m P
nbm, who were of the C b t u r varana, dr four castes, [Bdnna~,
trip, Vaisp, and S6dra3 and belonged to the four orders, [WQ~
md Sramana, and Chailska, and Arhanta,] being much p l d
.)J@-d&, continued to dwell in it ; [and in course of t
h **
blended with the abarigmd N6pCHe, and became divided into 4
castes, accordillg to the avocations which they hereditarily pwPcd.1

h u e time after the date of the .BoPe t m m c t b n . Roja On~nnnrr

of Cathmnd6, 8 principal city of NBpBil, became the die.
ciple ef the above-mentioned Shtikar Vajra A c w a . Gu'w Kim
h r , with tbe aid derived hPm the &rimmerits of b t i k a r , brought
tbe Nlg RajaEnuv'Tlra out of the lake or tauk of A M , and conveyed
him to SbtipG. with much ceremony and many religious rites. Tha
cme of this act was that for many previorvr years there had k n ad&h e y o i rain, whereby the people had been & v o d y -d
bsmine ; and it 4b#epmce w a , an ampk supply of trin, rad the rabnn of the map1 fertility of the earth end plemty of food.
hbmplentlJ, Bar Nnmzmu DSVAbecame Raja of B&@-pattan, (or
Bhatgaon) ;he
the dirciple of B A N D U D A
~ R Y and
A , brouggt
A n r ~ m ~ ~ m a w n(Padma
m ~ Phi) from Pbtahkiparvat (in h a a n ) to
the ciq of I , a h pothn in N C N The reason of inviting thin divinity
to NW1 waa 8 drought of 12 yearas duration, aad of the greakrt
ccwrity. The manure was attended with B e happy resol&, as in the
ciae o i conveying the NAGRaja with so arrrefi haaour to Slntipdr.
~ V A prince

me AsnHatbq will be g l v a in on amubg mmber.1

dw.-htkcr Accanj of tk RsrnaGu of an a d d

Bclhr, n a u Sehdmpr. Bp P. T. CauClry, Art. $apt. Doab C
flu a let-

to the S e m ,


read at the M&bg of the 30th April.)

With more coim and other articles that have been h a in

HercuIanenm. I have now the pleasure of sending a &etch of the
country in the neighbourhood of Behat, which will be more descriptive of the ancient town, with the size and extent of d e mountain
torrents in its vicinity, than any explanation that Icould give in writing r
the total absence moreover of any tradition of ita having exinted, and
the little information to be gained from nativea on subjects of thm nature,
nnless coming under their immediate obeemtion, piaces me h dependence solely on the few notes that I have by me, which I fear
bardly worthy of the notice of the Society.
Tradition, but even that of the vaguest dewription, carries a8 back te
the reign of Sara JBHAN,
aa well as to that of M V H A M XSEAR
~ D andhi8
atthe diseolution of the empire. SHAH
JBHAIbuilt apdact or
,hunting seat at the foot ofthe lowerrangeof hillsonabranch ofthe h m n e
river, about 1 4milesnorth of Behat: thh place which consiuts of amah qmdrangleof 800feet square, withnumeronsbd&ngs and minorconrtsattached, is now in perfed ruin, the superatmdure only remainmginafewplaee~~
md that entangled and held together by atma and roo@