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EVOLUTION IN STEEL AND HIGH PURITY COPPER

G. Chiantoni1*, N. Bonora2, A. Ruggiero3

1

Tenaris-Dalmine - Dept. of R&D p.zza Caduti 6 Luglio 1944, 1 24044 Dalmine (BG) Italy

gchiantoni@tenaris.com

2

University of Cassino Dept. of DiMSAT Italy

nbonora@unicas.it

3

University of Cassino Dept. of DiMSAT Italy

a.ruggiero@unicas.it

ABSTRACT: In this contribution, the effect of the stress state (by mean of the triaxiality ratio) on the equivalent

plastic strain at fracture is experimentally investigated for different steels and high purity copper in the range of

triaxiality from 0 (pure torsion) up to 1.2. This range of stress state is particularly meaningful for the majority of the

mechanical applications. The prediction on the formability limit diagram for proportional loading paths (i.e. with

constant triaxiality) is verified in the framework of Continuum Damage Mechanics (CDM) using the LemaitreChaboches damage model. Furthermore the influence on triaxiality on the threshold plastic strain for damage initiation

and for the critical damage at rupture is experimentally studied. The results are compared with the prediction of the

aforementioned damage model. A very good agreement between experimental results and CDM prediction is achieved.

KEYWORDS: damage, triaxiality, formability limit, torsion test

1 INTRODUCTION

The first concern of this work is about the fracture locus

of ductile materials. This is usually intended as the

diagram of stress triaxiality ratio (Tx, minus hydrostatic

pressure divided by von Mises equivalent stress) versus

equivalent von Mises plastic strain (PEEQ). The

importance of triaxiality is due to the fact that it strongly

affects the fracture behavior of ductile materials.

Therefore it is important to know how Tx influences the

obtainable fracture strain in a wide triaxiality regime

(from 0 up to 1.2. This range includes many of the

mechanical processes of industrial interest).

This question is the subject of numerous papers. Bao and

Wierzbicki [1] performed test series on aluminum alloy

sheets and found the fracture ductility is strongly

dependent on the average value of Tx. In particular they

observed that the value of PEEQ at fracture for

triaxiality between 0 and 0.4 is less then that found for

values greater than 0.4 (there is a cuspid for Tx equals

0.4). This result is in contrast with the prediction made

by Continuum Damage Mechanics (CDM) models

(Lemaitre and Chaboche [2], Bonora [3]) largely used,

even in commercial FEM code, to predict ductile failure.

The dependency of the fracture locus on the stress

triaxiality ratio has to be experimentally investigated in

order to evaluate the reliability of these damage models

____________________

* Corresponding author: postal address, phone, fax, email address

was done by comparing the experimental results of

austenitic steels and high purity copper specimens with a

strong variation in their stress triaxiality ratio.

The second concern is about the effect of damage on the

elastic properties of ductile materials. It is well known

(Lemaitre [4]) that the damage has a direct influence on

the Youngs modulus of metals. In fact the measurement

of the degradation of the mechanical elastic response is

one of the most used methodologies to experimentally

quantify the evolution of damage during a deformation

step. Recently Voyiadjis and Kattan [5] studied the

possible influence of damage on Poissons ratio. This

item has a particular importance on the experimental

investigation of damage performed with torsion tests,

because the damage is calculated from the Youngs

modulus which depends on both the elastic tangential

modulus (G) and the Poissons coefficient.

The third concern of this paper is about the experimental

measurement of the equivalent plastic strain threshold

for the onset of damage. Recently Celentano and

Chaboche [6] proposed a mixed numerical and

experimental method based upon traction tests. But in a

traction test the damage assumes a significant relevance

after the necking has been started. We propose a

different experimental methodology based on torsion

tests performed on thin hollow specimens.

2 EXPERIMENTAL DATA

2.1 MATERIALS

Experiments were carried out with three ductile

materials:

Ferritic high alloy steel ASTM A335 P91 grade

(9% of Chromium 1% Molybdenum), which is

used in the energy industry as a line pipe

material. The 0.2% offset yield strength is 620

MPa. The austenitic grain size varies between

20 and 50 m. The specimens were prepared

from a rolled rod with a diameter of 120 mm

Carbon

Manganese

steel

Vanadium

microalloyed, grade X65 API 5L PSL1/PSL2.

The 0.2% offset yield strength is 550 MPa. The

austenitic mean grain size is about 15 m. The

specimens were prepared from hot rolled tube.

As received high purity 99.9% copper. The

0.2% yield strength is 107 MPa. The specimens

were prepared from rod with diameter of 18

mm.

2.2 TORSION AND TRACTION TESTS

The torsion tests were performed using the plastometer

STD810 from Baehr Company. It is equipped with a

hydraulic drive that is able to serve a maximum torque of

100 Nm. The torsion tests were done in quasi-static

condition with a strain rate of 0.001 s-1 and at 0.0005 s-1

for the hollow specimen torsions The machine has a

continuous laser measurement of gauge length diameter

to enable precise calculation of transversal deformation.

It can perform axial deformation both in tension and

compression up to 20 kN. The traction tests were done

with a standard MTS 810 servo-hydraulic universal

testing machine in strain control using an extensometer

with a gauge of 20 mm at strain rate of 0.00001 s-1. All

the experiments were carried out at room temperature.

2.3 SPECIMEN GEOMETRY

Axisymmetric specimens were used for both torsion and

traction tests. Figure 1 shows the geometry of the hollow

torsion specimen with a thickness (in the gauge length)

of 0.5 mm. This thin wall is needed to ensure an almost

uniform penetration of the plasticized zone avoiding the

axial elastic core of the traditional cylindrical geometry.

This configuration is particularly well suited for studying

the threshold of damage, but is not able to resist up to

material rupture mainly due to the buckling instability.

To reduce this undesired phenomenon a graphite rod was

introduced in the hollow during torsion to get a better

geometrical stability. The graphite was chosen because is

a dry lubrificant.

In order to expand the range of triaxiality a round

notched geometry was studied. This configuration

permits to experimentally realize an almost proportional

loading path with a triaxiality ratio of about 1.2.

Experiments were planned for a wide range of triaxiality.

To find the parameters critical for fracture, finite element

simulations of traction tests with smooth and round

notched specimen and of torsion test with hollow

specimen were performed in ABAQUS/Standard. The

necessary Youngs modulus and flow stress curve were

taken from the experimental torsion data torque vs. twist

angle using a methodology described in Wu e Xu [7].

The lack of geometric instability (necking) in torsion test

has enabled to use the measured true strain-true stress

curve up to high plastic strain without the need to

extrapolate or numerically manipulate the curve obtained

by the standard torsion test (up to necking).

An isotropic hardening material model and an eight node

biquadratic elements with reduced integration were used

for all simulations. Specifically traction tests were

simulated with the axisymmetric CAX8R element while

torsion tests used the axisymmetric CGAX8R element

with twist. The modelled specimens were deformed in

displacement control as in the experiments.

4 DISCUSSION

4.1 FORMABILITY DIAGRAM

The three ductile materials have been selected for their

very different alloy compositions (from pure copper to

9% chromium alloy). As far as the damage is concern,

copper is considered the reference material.

As illustrated in the figure 2, the triaxiality in traction

tests (in smooth and notched specimens) can not be

considered a constant through the loading path. So the

mean value of triaxiality as calculated by the FEM

simulations at the centre of the specimen was used to

plot the formability diagram. The strain at failure too

was extracted by the FEM at the specimens centre. The

failure condition was determined by comparing the

shape of the actual broken specimen with the shape of

the corresponding simulation.

Figure 2: Triaxiality in traction test (notched specimen)

polished in order to reduce the initial roughness.

However, the deformation of the torsion specimens lead

to an increased surface roughness and consequently to a

localization of the deformation. Due to this phenomenon,

small cracks were initiated and lead to further localized

deformation. The measured global shear strain can be

lower then the local one, which is responsible for the

fracture. Thus the reported values of the strain at failure

for the torsion test could be an underestimation of the

true values.

aforementioned discontinuity observed by Bao and

Wierzbiki [1] in an aluminium alloy could not be

confirmed for these three materials. It is worth

mentioning that the same result has been found by

Tratting [8]. In the diagrams it has been sketched the

fitting obtained using the expected locus as predicted by

a CDM damage model proposed by Bonora [3]. A

qualitative agreement between the models predictions

and experimental results is confirmed.

4.2 DAMAGE VS POISSONS RATIO

The hereafter investigations were carried out on P91

steel.

In order to detect an influence of damage on Poissons

coefficient it was planned a torsion test broken up into

loading-unloading cycles alternating with compression

steps within the elastic range. Every torsion step can be

used with two purposes: the elastic response as a

measure of the damage, while the plastic deformation as

the damaging agent.

After every torsion step (i.e. after the complete

unloading) the specimen was subjected to an elastic

compression during which were recorded both the axial

and diametric strains. The Poissons ratio is then given,

in absolute value, as the ratio between the transversal

and axial strains.

The Youngs modulus was calculated using the

measured values of the tangential modulus and Poissons

ratio as: E = 2(1 + )G . Given step by step the values of

E and the damage is calculated as D = 1 E / E0 where

The results obtained are summed up in figure 6: while

the damage is increasing as the material accumulates

plastic strain, the Poissons ratio seems to be unaffected.

The values were spread out around the mean value of

0.28 without showing any clear trend.

value of 0.07) has been chosen as the half value (in

strain) between the two sets.

The aforementioned CDM models are very sensitive to

the damage threshold (plastic strain at which damage

starts). It can be measured with loading-unloading

tensile cycles. [2] The drawback of this method lies in

the geometrical instability (necking) suffered by the

material pulled up to fracture. As shown in [6] the

necking induces a fictitious increasing of the Youngs

modulus, thus causing a great experimental difficulty in

the threshold measurement.

The method proposed in this paper is based on loadingunloading cycles of torsion of a hollow specimen. FEM

simulation was carried out to get the plastic strain

accumulated in a single torsion step. A snapshot is

shown in figure 7 where the maximum equivalent plastic

strain is plotted. It is worth noting that the actual rupture

of the specimen runs exactly along the red line

calculated by the FEM as the zone of maximum plastic

strain.

5 CONCLUSIONS

An extensive experimental campaign using three ductile

metals with different ductility was carried out in order to

get the materials formability diagrams (equivalent

plastic strain to failure vs. triaxiality) and to validate the

prediction of a CDM model. A good agreement between

measurements and model was found. Moreover it was

verified that (within the experimental accuracy) the

Poissons ratio was not affected by the materials

damage. Finally it was proposed a new method to

measure the damage strain threshold based upon torsion

test on thin walled hollow specimen.

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

This paper is published under authorization of

Tenaris Dalmine R&D, directed by M.A. Rossi

REFERENCES

strain was 0.016. Using the result reported in the

previous paragraph, the damage was calculated

measuring only the degradation of the tangential elastic

modulus and considering constant (0.28) the Poissons

coefficient. The diagram of damage vs. PEEQ is reported

in figure 8. The damage measurements are clearly

divided in two groups: the first one has a nearly

vanishing mean value, while the second shows an

equivalent strain and stress triaxiality space. Int. Journal

of Mech. Sci. 46:81-98, 2004

[2] Lemaitre J., Chaboche J.M.. Mechanics of Solids

Materials. Cambridge Academic Press, 1985.

[3] Bonora N., A Non Linear CDM Model for Ductile

Failure. Eng. Fracture Mech., 58:11-28, 1997.

[4] Lemaitre J., A Course on Damage Mechanics, Springer

Verlag , Berlin, 1992

[5] Voyiadjis G., Kattan I., A Comparative Study of Damage

Variables in Continuum Damage Mechanics Int. Journal

of Damage Mechanics, online edition, Nov. 2008.

[6] Celentano D. Chaboche J.M., Experimental and

Numerical Characterization of Damage Evolution in

Steels, Int. Journal of Plasticity, 23:1739-1762, 2007.

[7] Wu H., Xu Z., The Shear Stress-Strain Curve

Determination from Torsion Test in the Large Strain

Range, Journal of Testing and Evaluation, JTEVA

20:396-402, 1992

[8] Trattnig G., Antretter T., Pippan R., Fracture of

Austenitic Steel Subject to a Wide Range of Stress

Triaxiality Ratios and Crack Deformation Modes, Eng.

Fracture Mech. 75:223-235, 2008.

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