Lia Vas
This integral can be considered to be a special case of the situation when we integrate a scalar
(realvalued) function f (x, y, z) over the curve C. In the general case, we consider the line integral
of C with respect to arc length as
Z b
Z
Z
p
0
f (x(t), y(t), z(t)) (x0 (t))2 + (y 0 (t))2 + (z 0 (t))2 dt
f (r(t)) r (t) dt =
f (x, y, z) ds =
C
In Calculus 3, you may have seen the application of the this type of line integrals: finding the
mass m and the center of mass (x, y, z) of a wire C with density (x, y, z). In particular, the mass
can be calculated as
Z
m=
(x, y, z)ds.
C
Using this example, you can think of the line integral as the total mass of the line density
function over the curve C.
R
Example 2. Evaluate the integral C x y 3 ds where C is the circular helix x = 4 sin t, y = 4 cos t,
z = 3t, for 0 t /2.
This type of integrals measures the total effect of a given field along a given curve. In
particular, many basic (noncontinuous, one dimensional) formulas in physics such as s = vt can
be represented
in terms of line integrals in continuous and multidimensional cases, for example,
R
s = vdt.
Another example includes the formula for calculating the work done by the force F (possibly an
electric or gravitational field) in moving the particle along the curve C
Z
W =
F dr
C
The length element ds and the vector differential of the length element dr are related by
dr = r0 (t)dt and ds = r0 (t)dt.
R
Example 3. Evaluate the integral C z 2 dx + y dy + 2y dz where C consists of two parts C1 and
C2 . C1 is the intersection of the cylinder x2 + y 2 = 16 and the plane z = 3 from (0, 4, 3) to (4, 0, 3).
C2 is a line segment from (4, 0, 3) to (0, 1, 5).
Solutions. C1 is on x2 + y 2 = 16 thus x = 4 cos t and y = 4 sin t. C1 is also on z = 3 so
x = 4 cos t,
y = 4 sin t,
z=3
The line segment C2 is passing (4,0,3) in the direction of the vector P Q = (0, 1, 5) (4, 0, 3) =
(4, 1, 2). So C2 has equations x = 4 + R4t, y = t and z = 3 + 2tR for 0 t 1. So, on this
1
segment dx = 4dt, dy = dt and dz = 2dt. C z 2 dx + y dy + 2y dz = 0 (3 + 2t)2 4dt + tdt + 2t2dt =
R1
+ 16
= 407
= 67.83.
(36 + 53t + 16t2 )dt = 36R+ 53
2
3
6
0
So, the final answer is C = 67.83 44 = 23.83.
The following table summarizes the two types of line integrals.
3
f ds =
C
f dr =
C
R
C
R
C
After reviewing some basic facts about surfaces, we shall present analogous situation for surface
integrals.
Review of Surfaces
Adding one more independent variable to a vector function describing a curve x = x(t) y =
y(t) z = z(t), we arrive to equations that describe a surface. Thus, a surface in space is a vector
function of two variables:
r(u, v) = (x(u, v), y(u, v), z(u, v)).
These equations are called parametric equations of the surface and the surface given via parametric
equations is called a parametric surface.
If x and y are used as parameters, the equations x = x, y = y, z = z(x, y) are frequently shortened
to just z = z(x, y) and r(x, y) = (x, y, z(x, y)) is also written shortly as z = z(x, y).
In some cases, a surface can be given by an implicit function F (x, y, z) = 0. In this case it
is often needed to find parametric equations r(u, v) = (x(u, v), y(u, v), z(u, v)). For example, a unit
sphere can be described by x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1 can be parametrized as r = (cos sin , sin sin , cos ).
We recall the cylindrical and spherical coordinates which are frequently used to obtain parametric equations of some common surfaces.
Cylindrical coordinates.
x = r cos
y = r sin
z=z
Here x and y are converted using polar coordinates and the only change in z may come just
from changes in x and y. The Jacobian determinant can be computed to be J = r. Thus,
dxdydz = rdrddz.
Spherical coordinates. If P = (x, y, z) is a point in space and O denotes the origin, let
r denote the length of the vector OP = hx, y, zi, i.e. the distance of the point P = (x, y, z)
from the origin O. Thus,
x2 + y 2 + z 2 = r 2 ;
Cone
Paraboloid
Sphere
Cylinder x2 + y 2 = 4
Cylinder y 2 + z 2 = 4
The Tangent Plane. For parametric surface r = (x(u, v), y(u, v), z(u, v)), the derivatives
ru and rv are vectors in the tangent plane. Thus,
their cross product
r r
= (xu , yu , zu ) (xv , yv , zv )
u v
is perpendicular to the tangent plane and, thus,
to the surface as well.
If a surface is given by implicit function
F (x, y, z) = 0, then this cross product also corresponds to the gradient F of F.
Example 5. Find the equation of the tangent plane to a given surface at the specified point.
(a) x2 + 2y 2 + 3z 2 = 21, (4, 1, 1)
Solutions. (a) The gradient is (2x, 4y, 6z) and at the point (4, 1, 1), the gradient is (8, 4, 6).
Thus the equation of the plain is 8(x 4) 4(y + 1) + 6(z 1) = 0 8x 4y + 6z = 42.
(b) The cylinder can be parametrized as x = 2 cos t, y = y, z = 2 sin t. We find (xt , yt , zt ) =
(2 sin t, 0, 2 cos t) and (xy , yy , zy ) = (0, 1, 0). The cross product is (2 cos t, 0, 2 sin t). The tvalue
that corresponds to (0, 3, 2) can be obtained from x = 2 cos t = 0 and z = 2 sin t = 2. Thus t = 2
and plugging this value in the equation of the vector we obtained gives us (0, 0, 2). So an equation
of the plane can be obtained as 0(x 0) + 0(y 3) + 2(z 2) = 0 z = 2.
Surface Integrals of scalar functions
Similarly as for line integrals, we can integrate a scalar or a vector function over a surface.
Thus, we distinguish two types of surface integrals. The surface integrals of scalar functions are
twodimensional analogue of the line integrals of scalar functions.
Line integral of a scalar function
Surface integral of a scalar function
Length
Area
The surface area of the surface r(u, v) over the region S in uvplane can be obtained by integrating
surface area elements dS over subrectangles of region S. The area of each element dS can be
approximated with the area of the parallelogram in the tangent plane. The area of a parallelogram
formed by two vectors is the length of their cross product.
6
Thus,
dS = ru rv dudv
and so
Surface area =
RR
S
dS =
RR
S
ru rv  dudv
f (x, y, z) dS =
RR
S
In case when S is a region in xyplane, and function f is a surface z = g(x, y), this integral
represents the volume between z = g(x, y) and its projection on S in xyplane. This is because
r = (x, y, 0) in this case so rx = (1, 0, 0), ry = (0, 1, 0) rx ry  = 1.
The applications of the this type of line integrals include finding the mass m of a thin sheet S
with the density function (x, y, z). The mass m is given by
Z Z
(x, y, z) dS
m=
S
Using this example, you can think of the surface integral as the total mass of the surface
density function over the surface S.
special case where the surface is given via parameters x and y as z = z(x, y), dS =
p In the
2
1 + zx + zy2 dxdy so the surface integral of f over region S is
Z Z
Z Z
q
f (x, y, z) dS =
f (x, y, z(x, y)) 1 + zx2 + zy2 dxdy
S
Practice Problems.
1. Find the area of the following surfaces by using their parametric equations.
(a) Part of z = y 2 + x2 between the cylinders x2 + y 2 = 1 and x2 + y 2 = 4.
p
(b) Part of the cone z = x2 + y 2 between the cylinders x2 + y 2 = 4 and x2 + y 2 = 9.
2. Evaluate the surface integral where S is the given surface.
RR
x2 yz dS, S is the part of the plane z = 1 + 2x + 3y that lies above the rectangle
0 x 3 and 0 y 2.
RR
(b)
yz dS, S is the part of the plane x + y + z = 1 that lies in the first octant.
R RS
(c)
yz dS, S is the part of the plane z = y + 3 that lies inside the cylinder x2 + y 2 = 1.
R RS
(d)
z dS, S is the hemisphere x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 4, z 0.
S
(a)
R3R2
p
2. (a) dS = 1 + zx2 + zy2 dxdy = 1 + 4 + 9dxdy = 14dxdy. The integral is 0 0 x2 y (1 + 2x +
R3
R1
RR
R 1 R 1x
3
2
0 y 1 x.
yz dS = 0 0 y(1 x y) 3dxdy = 3 0 ((1 x) y2 y3 )1x
0 dx =
S
R 1 (1x)3
3
3 0 6 dx = 24 .
RR
R 2 R 1
2
and
0
1.
Then
r
r

=
r
2 and
r
t
2 1
the formula 0 0 r sin t(r sin t + 3)r 2 drdt gives you the same answer.
(d) Recall that the sphere of radius 2 parametrizes by x = 2 cos sin , y = 2 sin sin and z =
RR
R 2 R /2
2 cos . Calculate r r  to be 4 sin . The integral is
zdS = 0 0 2 cos 4 sin dd =
S
2 8 12 = 8.
3. Use the parametrization of the previous problem so dS = 4 sin d again. The mass can be
RR
R 2 R /2
computed as m =
adS
=
a
4 sin dd = 8a.
S
0
0
Mobius strip
Another interesting property is that if you cut a Mobius strip along the center line, you will get
one long strip with two full twists in it, not two separate strips. The resulting strip will have two sides
and two boundaries. So, cutting created a second boundary. Continuing this construction you can
deduce that a strip with an oddnumber of halftwists will have only one surface and one boundary
while a strip with an evennumber of halftwists will have two surfaces and two boundaries.
There are many applications of Mobius strip in science, technology and everyday life. For example,
Mobius strips have been used as conveyor belts (that last longer because the entire surface area of the
belt gets the same amount of wear), fabric computer printer and typewriter ribbons. Medals often
have a neck ribbon configured as a Mobius strip that allows the ribbon to fit comfortably around
the neck while the medal lies flat on the chest. Examples of Mobius strip can be encountered: in
physics as compact resonators and as superconductors with high transition temperature; in chemistry
as molecular knots with special characteristics (e.g. chirality); in music theory as dyads and other
areas.
For more curious properties and alternative construction of Mobius strip, see Wikipedia.
If a surface is two sided, n corresponds to one side and n to the other. For a closed surface
(i.e. compact without boundary), the convention is that the positive orientation is the one that
corresponds to the normal vectors pointing outward and the negative orientation corresponds to
the normal vectors pointing inward.
9
If the surface is not closed, the positive orientation can be defined by the right hand rule.
Consider any closed, simple (i.e. does not cross itself nor it has missing points), smooth curve C
on the surface and consider the positive (counterclockwise) orientation on C. The surface has the
positive orientation if the normal vector n is always on the left of any vector parallel with it which
is transversing the curve. That is: if you imagine yourself walking along C with your head pointing
in the direction of n, then the region S will always be on your left. Alternatively: if your index and
middle fingers follow the direction of the curve, your thumb is pointing in the same direction as the
vector n.
If a surface is given by implicit equation F (x, y, z) = 0, the unit normal vector n can also be
found as
F
.
n=
F 
Example 6. Find the unit normal vector of the sphere x2 + y 2 + z 2 = a2 .
2
Solutions.
Consider F = xp
+ y 2 + z 2 a2 so that the gradient vector is F = (2x, 2y, 2z) and
p
F  = 4x2 + 4y 2 + 4z 2 = 2 x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 2a. Thus, n = (2x,2y,2z)
= a1 (x, y, z).
2a
Flux integral. If r(u, v) is an orientable surface with a tangent plane at every point, the vector
differential of the surface area element dS can be considered to be the product of n and dS up to
the sign. Thus,
ru rv
ru rv  dudv = (ru rv ) dudv.
dS = n dS =
ru rv 
So, if f is a vector field f (x, y, z) = (P (x, y, z), Q(x, y, z), R(x, y, z)), the surface integral of f over
region S on r(u, v) is given by
RR
f dS =
S
RR
f n dS =
S
RR
S
f (ru rv ) dudv
as F~ = KT and the rate of heat flow across the surface S is given by the surface integral of F~
over S.
The following table summarizes the relation of the two type of surface integrals.
RR
RR
f (r) dS =
S
RR
f (r) dS =
S
RR
S
Practice Problems.
1. Find the flux integral of the vector field f = (y, x, z) over the part of the paraboloid z =
1 x2 y 2 above the plane z = 0.
2. Find the flux integral of the vector field f = (y, x, z) over the boundary of the region enclosed
by the paraboloid z = 1 x2 y 2 and the plane z = 0.
3. Find the flux integral of the vector field f = (xzey , xzey , z) over the part of the plane x+y+z =
1 in the first octant with the upward orientation.
4. Find the flux integral of the vector field f = (x, 2y, 3z) over the cube with vertices (1, 1, 1).
RR
RR
Solutions. (1) The flux integral is
(y, x, 1x2 y 2 )(2x, 2y, 1)dxdy =
(2xy+2xy+1x2
S
S
R
R
R
2 1
2
y 2 )dxdy. In polar coordinates, we have 0 0 (4r2 sin t cos t+1r2 )rdrdt = 0 (sin t cos t+ 41 )dt = 2 .
(2) The flux integral is the sum of the integral of f over the paraboloid and the integral of
11
Stokes Theorem
Stokes Theorem is a threedimensional version of Greens Theorem. Recall that Greens theorem
relates the line integral of a twodimensional vector function f = (P, Q) over a positive oriented,
closed curve C and the double integral over the interior S of C.
Z Z
I
Q P
P dx + Qdy =
dxdy.
x
y
C
S
In threedimensional analogue, we relate the line integral of a threedimensional vector function
f = (P, Q, R) over a closed curve C and the surface integral of curlf over the interior of C. Recall
that the curl of f is defined as the vector product of and f~.
~i ~j ~k
R
Q
P
R
Q
P
~k
~i +
~j +
curl f~ = f~ = x y z =
y
z
z
x
x
y
P Q R
Let S be a region on an oriented piecewisesmooth surface r(u, v) that is bounded by a simple, closed, piecewise smooth curve C. Recall that
the orientation of r induces the positive orientation of C if the normal vector n of r will always
be on the left of any vector parallel with it that is
transversing the curve (i.e. if you imagine yourself walking along C with your head pointing in
the direction of n, then the region S will always
be on your left). In this case, if f is a vector field, Stokes Theorem states that
H
C
f dr =
RR
S
curlf dS =
RR
S
curlf n dS
P
,
This relates to Greens Theorem since if the curve C is in xyplane, n = (0, 0, 1), curlf n = Q
x
y
H
R R Q P
curlf dS =
f dr =
curlf dS
S
12
Practice Problems.
R
1. Evaluate C f dr for f = (x + y 2 , y + z 2 , z + x2 ) and the curve C is the intersection of the plane
x + y + z = 1 and the coordinate planes.
(a) Without using Stokes Theorem;
(b) Using Stokes Theorem.
R
2. Evaluate C f dr for f = (y 2 , x, z 2 ) and the curve C is the intersection of the plane y + z = 2
and the cylinder x2 + y 2 = 1 oriented upwards.
(a) Without using Stokes Theorem;
(b) Using Stokes Theorem.
3. Show that the total work done by the force field f = (yz, xz, xy) moving the particle along the
2
2
2
2
2
Rintersection of the cylinder x + y = 1 and the sphere x + y + z = 4 above the xyplane is
f dr = 0. When using Stokes Theorem, this problem becomes much shorter then without
C
using it.
4. Find the work done by the force field f = (x + z 2 , y + x2 , z + y 2 ) when a particle moves under
its influence around the edge of the part of the sphere x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 4 that lies in the first
octant oriented upwards.
Solutions. (1) (a) Without using Stokes Theorem: The curve C consists of three parts C1 , C2
and C3 which are in the intersection of the plane and (1) the plane z = 6, (2) xzplane, and (3)
yzplane, respectively. Positive orientation of C implies that C1 is traversed from (1, 0, 0) to (0, 1, 0),
C2 from (0, 1, 0) to (0, 0, 1) and C3 from (0, 0, 1) to (1, 0, 0).
On C1 :Rx = x, y =
z = 0 dx = dx, dy = dx Rand dz = 0 and the bounds are from
R 1 x and
0
2
1 to 0. So, C1 f dr = C1 (x + y )dx + (y + z 2 )dy + (z + x2 )dz = 1 (x + (1 x)2 )dx + (1 x)(1)dx =
R0
R0
.
(x + 1 2x + x2 1 + x)dx = 1 x2 dx = 1
3
1
On RC2 : x = 0,
= dy. The bounds are from 1 to
R y = y, z = 1 y dx = 0, dy = dy andRdz
0
0. So, C2 f dr = C2 (x + y 2 )dx + (y + z 2 )dy + (z + x2 )dz = 1 (y + (1 y)2 )dy + (1 y)(1)dy =
R0
R0
(y + 1 2y + y 2 1 + y) = 1 y 2 dy = 1
.
3
1
On C3 : Rx = x, y =
R 0, z = 1 x dx = dx, dy = 0 and dzR 1= dx. The bounds are from
0 to 1. So, C3 f dr = C3 (x + y 2 )dx + (y + z 2 )dy + (z + x2 )dz = 0 xdx + (1 x + x2 )(1)dx =
R1
(2x 1R x2R)dx =R1 1R 31 = 1
.
3
0
1
13 = 1.
Thus C = C1 + C2 + C3 = 1
3
3
(b) With using Stokes theorem. Calculate that curlf = (2z, 2x, 2y). On the
R R plane z =
1xy, thus r = (x, y, 1xy) dS = (1, 0, 1)(0, 1, 1)dxdy = (1, 1, 1)dxdy. Thus
curlf dS =
S
R 1 R 1x
R 1 R 1x
R1
(2z 2x 2y) dxdy = 0 0 (2 + 2x + 2y 2x 2y) dxdy = 0 2(1 x)dxR = 1.
0 0
(2) (a) C has parametrization x = cos t, y = sin t, z = 2 y = 2 sin t, 0 t 2. C f dr =
R
R 2 3
2
2
y
dx
+
xdy
+
z
dz
=
sin tdt + cos2 tdt + (2 sin t)2 cosRtdt
C
0
R = .
RR
(b) With Stokes: curlf = (0, 0, 1 + 2y). dS = (0, 1, 1)dxdy.
curlf dS =
(1 + 2y)dxdy =
S
S
R 2 R 1
R 2 1 2
(1 + 2r sin t)rdrdt = R0 R( 2 + 3 sin t)dt
0
0
R = .
(3) curlf = 0. Thus 0 =
curlf dS = C f dr.
S
(4) It is easier to evaluate the integral using Stokes theorem (otherwise there would be three line
integrals). Calculate curlf to be (2y, 2z, 2x). The surface r can be parametrized by xR=R 2 cos sin
y = 2 sin sin z = 2 cos . Thus, dS = (4 sin2 cos , 4 sin2 sin , 4 sin cos )dd.
curlf dS =
S
R /2 R /2
R /2 1 3
3
2
2
16 0
(sin cos sin +sin sin cos +sin cos cos )dd = 16 0 ( 2 sin + 2 sin2 cos )
0
d d = 16.
13
Divergence Theorem
Recall that the divergence of f is defined as the scalar product of and f~.
P
Q
R
div f~ = f~ =
+
+
x
y
z
The Divergence
Theorem can
H
H also be regarded
R R as a threedimensional version of Greens Theorem
in the form C P dy Qdx = C f N ds =
divf dxdy. Here N is the normal vector to C at
S
point (x, y) and the product N ds can be calculated to be dy~i dx~j. This version of Greens theorem
relates the line integral of a twodimensional vector function f over a closed curve C with the double
integral of divf over the interior of C. Adding one dimension to this formula, we relate the surface
integral of a vector function f with the triple integral of divf .
Let S be a region on a positive oriented surface that is the boundary of a simple solid region
V . If f is a vector field, the Divergence Theorem
states that
RR
S
f dS =
RRR
V
divf dx dy dz
To summarize:
Greens Theorem for f = (P, Q, 0)
Stokes Theorem for f = (P, Q, R)
H
RR
~
f
dr
=
HC
R RS curlf k dxdy
f dr =
curlf n dS
C
S
H
RR
Greens Theorem for f = (P, Q, 0)
RCRf N ds = R RSR divf dxdy
Divergence Theorem for f = (P, Q, R)
f dS =
divf dx dy dz
S
V
Practice Problems.
1. Use the Divergence Theorem to find the flux of the vector field f = (x, 2y, 3z) over the cube
with vertices (1, 1, 1). (Note: the flux is found to be 48 without the use of the Divergence
Theorem earlier.)
2. Find the flux of the vector field f = (z, y, x) over the unit sphere.
3. Use the Divergence Theorem to find the flux of the vector field f = (y, x, z) over the boundary
of the region enclosed by the paraboloid z = 1 x2 y 2 and the plane z = 0. (Note: the flux
is found to be 2 without the use of the Divergence Theorem earlier.)
4. Find the flux of the vector field f = (xy, yz, xz) over the boundary of the region enclosed by
the cylinder x2 + y 2 = 1, z = 0 and z = 1.
5. Find the flux of the vector field f = (yez , y 2 , xey ) over the boundary of the region enclosed by
the cylinder x2 + y 2 = 9, z = 0 and z = y 3.
14
6. Use the Divergence Theorem to find the flux of the vector field f = (x, 2y, 3z) over the cube
with vertices (1, 1, 1) without the top.
Solutions. (1) It is much easier to evaluate the integral using the Divergence theorem
R R recall
that otherwise you have to do six flux integrals. divf = 1 + 2 + 3 = 6 and so
f dS =
S
RRR
R1 R1 R1
3
6dxdydz = 1 1 1 6dxdydz = 6(2) = 48.
V
(2) RItR is easier to
the integral
R 1 2 the Divergence theorem 1that4directly. divf = 1.
R Revaluate
R
R 2 R using
Thus,
f dS =
1dxdydz = 0 0 0 r sin drdd = 2(1 + 1) 3 = 3 .
S
R VR
RRR
R 2 R 1
R 2 R 1 R 1r2
(3) divf = 1. Thus,
(1 r2 )rdrd =
f
dS
=
rdzdrd
=
1dxdydz
=
0
S
0 0
0
V
0
1
1
2( 2 4 ) = 2 .
(4)RItRis easier toRevaluate
the integral usingRtheRDivergence
theorem than directly. divf
R 2 R=1 y+z+x.
RR
2 1 R 1
Thus,
f dS =
(x + y + z)dxdydz = 0 0 0 (r cos t + r sin t + z)rdrddz = 0 0 (r cos t +
S
R 2 V1
1
r sin t + 2 )rdrd = 0 ( 3 cos t + 13 sin t + 41 )d = 2 .
(5) RItR is easier toR Revaluate
the integral using the Divergence theorem than directly. divf = 2y.
R
Thus,
f
dS
=
2ydxdydz.
The z bounds are determined
from the twoR planes.
Note that
S
V
R
RR
0
2y(y + 3)dxdy
z = 0 is upper and z = y 3 is lower so the integral becomes
2yzy3 dxdy =
where the integrals
3. Using the polar coordinates, the integral
R 2 R 3 are taken over the disk of Rradius
2
sin2 t + 54 sin t)dt = 81
reduces to 0 0 (2r3 sin2 t + 6r2 sin t)drdt = 0 ( 81
2
2
(6) Recall that divf = 1 + 2 + 3 = 6 by problem
1.
In
order
to
use
the
Divergence
RR
R 1 R 1Theorem, the
top has to be considered. The flux over the top is
top (x, 2y, 3)(0, 0, 1)dxdy = 1 1 3dxdy = 12.
Since
Z Z
Z Z
Z Z Z
f dS +
f dS =
6dxdydz
no top
top
V
we have that
Z Z
Z Z Z
Z Z
f dS =
f dS
top
RR
RRR
The triple integral was computed in problem (1) to be 48. Thus
f dS =
6dxdydz
no
top
V
RR
top f dS = 48 12 = 36.
no top
6dxdydz
15